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JAMES JAY ARCHER, CSA - Geskiedenis

JAMES JAY ARCHER, CSA - Geskiedenis



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ALGEMEEN JAMES JAY ARCHER, CSA
VITALE STATISTIEK
GEBORE: 1817 in Bel Air, MD.
STERF: 1864 in Richmond, VA.
Veldtogte: Skiereiland, Eltham's Landing, Seven Pines, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Shepardstown, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville en Gettysburg.
HOOGSTE PUNT BEHALTE: Brigadier Generaal.
BIOGRAFIE
James Jay Archer is gebore in Bel Air, Maryland, op 19 Desember 1817. Voor die burgeroorlog het hy as prokureur gewerk, as vrywilliger in die Mexikaanse oorlog geveg, vir galantery in Chaoultepec aangehaal en na sy regspraktyk teruggekeer. , het toe by die Gewone Weermag aangesluit as kaptein van die 9de Infanterie in 1855. Toe die oorlog begin, bedank Archer en sluit hom aan by die Konfederale Weermag as kolonel van die 5de Texas. Verskeie eenhede, waaronder die 5de, 2 ander uit Texas en 2 uit Georgia, is saamgevoeg in een brigade onder die voormalige senator van Texas, Louis T. Wigfall. Nadat brig. Genl John Bell Hood het die bevel oorgeneem, die brigade het in die skiereilandveldtog geveg. Archer het goed onder Hood geveg by Eltham's Landing en Seven Pines, en is op 3 Junie 1862 bevorder tot brigadier -generaal. Robert Hatton, het Archer bevel gegee oor drie Tennessee -regimente. Later in Junie 1862 het Archer's brigade by vyf ander aangesluit om die Ligte Afdeling te vorm onder majoor Ambrose P. Hill. Archer het sy brigade van vyf regimente gelei in die Seven Days 'Campaign, by Cedar Mountain, en by Second Bull Run, waar sy perd onder hom doodgemaak is. Op 17 September 1862 het die Ligte Afdeling by Antietam aangekom om genl Robert E. Lee se leër te help. Alhoewel Archer te siek was om te ry, het hy die brigade uit 'n ambulans gerig. Sy troepe het daarin geslaag om die Unie -flank te verslaan en 'n Konfederale battery terug te kry. By die Slag van Shepherdstown, drie dae later, het Archer en brig. William D. Pender het 'n strewe van die Unie verslaan en die Antietam -veldtog beëindig. Ondanks sy swak gesondheid het Archer se leierskap bygedra tot oorwinnings op Fredericksburg en Chancellorsville. Op Gettysburg is hy en die meeste van sy troepe wat in majoor Henry Heth se nuwe afdeling veg, verslaan en gevange geneem, en Archer het die eerste algemene offisier geword wat geneem is sedert genl Lee die bevel oor die Konfederale magte geneem het. As 'n gevangene op Johnson's Island in Ohio vir een jaar, het Archer gevind dat sy gesondheid vinnig agteruitgaan. Hy is laat in die somer van 1864 uitgeruil en beveel twee brigades kort voor sy dood in Richmond, Virginia, op 24 Oktober 1864.

James Jay Archer

Op 16 Maart 1861 het hy as kaptein by die Konfederale Weermag aangesluit en gou tot kolonel in die 5de Texas Regiment bevorder. Na die Slag van Seven Pines op 31 Mei en 1 Junie 1862 word Archer tot brigadier -generaal bevorder en kry hy bevel oor 'n brigade in die Afdeling Generaal Ambrose Powell Hill. Met sy brigade het hy op 26 Junie 1862 geveg by die Slag van Mechanicsville, op 9 Augustus 1862 by die Slag van Cedar Mountain, op 26 Augustus 1862 by Manassas Junction. Van 12 tot 15 September 1862 neem hy ook deel aan die Slag van Harpers Ferry en van 11-15. Desember 1862 in die Slag van Fredericksburg. Tussendeur ondersteun hy generaal Robert Edward Lee op 17 September tydens die Slag van Antietam.

Aan die begin van die Slag van Gettysburg is Archer op 1 Julie 1863 gevange geneem en in Ohio opgesluit. In die somer van 1864 vrygelaat, keer hy onmiddellik terug na bevel van 'n brigade van die Army of Northern Virginia, wat hy beveel het tot sy dood op 24 Oktober 1864.


Indsats i borgerkrigen [redigér | redigér wikikode]

Die borgerkrigen het in 1861 plaasgevind by die vestiging van Fort Walla Walla in Washington Territoriet. Hy kan die 14. maj en tog tot Sydstaterne gebruik, waar hy ook die konfederasiehare kan gebruik om die provisoriske hær te verower. Hy het kort na die uitnodiging vir 5. Texas infanteriregiment i brigaden der var organized by den tidligere senator from Texas Louis T. Wigfall. Efter by brigadegeneral het John Bell Hood 'n oorkoepelende kommando gekry om hom in Peninsula kampagnen in Virginia te bekamp. Die boogskieter kan in Eltham's Landing en deur Seven Pines gesels word, maar daar word nooit 'n populasie onder texanerne nie, maar dit kan ook 'n tyran wees.

Hy word vir 3. Junie 1862 vir die brigadegeneraal begin en het begin om 'n kommissie te begin oor die regimenter van Tennessee, wat later deur Seven Pines geleer kan word. Senere i juni sluttede Archers brigade sig to fem and dannede the "Lette Division" under generalmajor A.P. Hill. Daar word ook nog meer inligting aangemeld vir die Archers -brigade, wat in Syvdagesslaget, die Slag by Cedar Mountain en Andet slag by Bull Run kan bestry, waarna hy hom onder die Hans -mans -kampeerboot "Den lille kamphane" op die grond van sy spinkle gebou en indædte holdning i kamp.

Onder Marylandkampagnen in September 1862 was Archer siekte, wat vir my 'n lid van die brigade van 'n ambulans kan wees, en hy kan vir 'n siekte ry. Hansmanne het deur Harpers Ferry en vooruitskrywings in Sharpsburg op linkerflanke van Unionens 11. Korps. Ek kan 'n groot aantal archeërs terug en generobrede en konfødereret artilleribatteri. Tre dae later i Slaget ved Shepherdstown anførte Archer and brigadegeneral William Dorsey Pender and angreb som drev and forfølgelsesstyrke fra Unionen back over Potomac-floden, which gav Lees hær option for at slippe bort ind in Virginia. Trods hans forsat dårlige helbred bidrog Archers lederskab til sejrene i slagene ved Fredericksburg og Chancellorsville.

Under Gettysburg kampagnen i 1863 forsatte Archers helbred with at blive dårligere as follow of long marcher in sommervarme and fugtighed. Hans brigade was nu en del of generalmajor Henry Heths division. Da de ankom til Gettysburg den 1. juli kom Archers tropper i kamp med Unionskavaleri under John Buford. Ons kan hierdie tyd vir 'n tydperk van die komende vakbonde, waaronder die beroemde Iron Brigade, uitstuur. Archers men was formentlig dem as dræbte unionsgeneralen John F. Reynolds (the specificise årsag to Reynolds 'death is omstridt), men were snart presset back over vandløbet Willoughby Run, how the udmattede Archer searchte dækning and en tykning. En unionssoldat, menig Patrick Maloney from 2. Wisconsin, tog Archer tilfange og eskorterede ham back bag fjendens lines, hvor han kort mødte en gammel kollega, generalmajor Abner Doubleday. Archer het die eerste generaal geword, en daar is 'n samestelling geneem van die Army of Northern Virginia efter by General Lee het 'n kommando gekry. Birkett D. Fry het 'n boodskap oor die Archers Brigade en voorte onder Pickett's Charge, Robert Archer (1820–1878), Archer en hans yngre bror, gestuur na Fort Delaware as krigsfange.

Archer het saam met baie ander amptenare saamgegaan, en dit is geneem om na Gange in Gettysburg gestuur te word na Johnson's Island wat deur die Erie -meer uitgebrei is. Sy word vinnig vinniger vererger, en hy het 'n uitgawe vir die bars in Ohio. Hy het geskryf en kort hoe dit vir 'n konfederasie van die ministerie gaan, waarna hy vir 'n kompliment kon gaan, maar dat konspiratore 'n brug vir hulp van regerings sou wou hê dat ek kon kom.

Na 'n lang en lang tydperk het ons saam met 600 amptenare van verskillende tye gestuur na Fort Delaware, wat ek met plan kon verander om Morris Island in South Carolina te vervang. Archer og de andre sou gidsler wees vir verdere voorwaardes. Hierdie plan is nooit ført ud i livet.

Archer het uiteindelik 'n uitgawe in die einde van die jaar 1864 en teruggekeer na die tydperk. Op 9 Augustus kan hy die leër van Tennessee onder Hood in Atlanta kry, maar dit word 10 dae later teruggebring. ΐ ] Hy het na Petersburg in Virginia teruggekeer vir at lede sin gamle brigade en deltog kort onder Belejringen af ​​Petersburg inden hans helbred endeligt brød sammen efter Slaget ved Peebles 'Farm. Hy is dood in Richmond, Virginia, en is begrawe op die Hollywood Cemetery.


Inhoud

Johnston Pettigrew is gebore op sy gesin se landgoed "Bonarva" in Tyrrell County, Noord -Carolina, op 4 Julie 1828. [1] Sy pa was afkomstig van 'n welgestelde familie met 'n Franse Hugenote -agtergrond. [2] Een van Pettigrew se neefs, John Gibbon, sou later 'n generaal -majoor vir die Unie word tydens die Burgeroorlog. [3] Pettigrew het op 15 -jarige ouderdom by die Universiteit van Noord -Carolina in Chapel Hill ingeskryf. [4] Na berig word, het Pettigrew goed gevaar in sy studies, sowel as boks en omheining. [4] Hy verdien lof vir sy prestasies van president James K. Polk, wat hom as assistent -professor by die United States Naval Observatory aangestel het. [5] Pettigrew studeer regte, reis na Europa en verhuis uiteindelik na Charleston, Suid -Carolina, waar hy saam met sy oom, James Louis Petigru, op die regsgebied werk. [6] Hy was ook 'n skrywer en het 'n boek geskryf oor die kultuur van Spanje met die titel Aantekeninge oor Spanje en die Spanjaarde in die somer van 1859, met 'n blik op Sardinië. [7]

Terug na die Verenigde State, is Pettigrew in 1856 verkies tot die Huis van Verteenwoordigers van South Carolina. [7] [1] Ondanks sy opvoeding en regservaring het Pettigrew na die weermag geleun as 'n manier om sy land en sy staat te dien. In Desember 1860 dien hy as assistent van die goewerneur van Suid -Carolina en neem die volgende April deel aan die onderhandelinge tussen die goewerneurskantoor, die militêre owerhede van Suid -Carolina en die unie -bevelvoerder van Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbour. [4]

Toe die oorlog begin, het Pettigrew hom as privaat aangesluit by die Hampton Legion, 'n mag wat deur Wade Hampton in Suid -Carolina opgerig is, hoewel hy vinnig 'n kommissie as kolonel van die 1ste South Carolina Rifle Militia Regiment aanvaar het. Pettigrew is later aangestel om die 12de (later hernoem na die 22ste) Noord -Carolina Infanterie te beveel. [4] Konfederale president Jefferson Davis het hom aangespoor om hoër bevel te aanvaar, maar hy het geweier vanweë sy gebrek aan militêre ervaring. [7] Ondanks hierdie onervarenheid, is Pettigrew bevorder tot brigadier-generaal deur Jefferson Davis tydens die aanloop tot die Skiereiland-veldtog. [8]

Skiereilandveldtog Redigeer

Tydens die Skiereiland -veldtog in die somer van 1862 is Pettigrew ernstig gewond tydens die Slag van Seven Pines. [5] Hy is getref deur 'n Minié -bal wat sy keel, lugpyp en skouer beskadig het. Pettigrew het amper doodgebloei, en terwyl hy gewond gelê het, het hy nog 'n koeëlwond in die arm gekry en in die regterbeen gebalonteer. Pettigrew is op die veld vir dood agtergelaat, omdat sy wonde vermoedelik dodelik was. [4] Hy het egter sy bewussyn herwin as 'n krygsgevangene van die Unie. [9] Twee maande later het die generaal van sy wonde herstel, die herfs deurgebring as bevelvoerder oor 'n brigade in genl. Generaal Daniel Harvey Hill se afdeling rondom Richmond, en in die winter bevel gegee oor 'n brigade in Noord -Carolina en Suid -Virginia. [5] Hy het betyds na sy brigade in Noord -Carolina teruggekeer om die Gettysburg -veldtog in Junie 1863 te begin. [10]

Gettysburg -veldtog Redigeer

Die Konfederale Oorlogsdepartement het Pettigrew se brigade aan generaal Robert E. Lee se leër van Noord -Virginia toegewys, en Pettigrew het noordwaarts gereis om by Lee se leër aan te sluit. Pettigrew se brigade, tesame met die brigades van James Jay Archer, John M. Brockenbrough en Joseph R. Davis, is ingedeel by generaal -majoor Henry Heth se afdeling van luitenant -generaal A. P. Hill se Derde Korps. Sowel die afdeling van Heth as die korps van Hill was nuwe organisasies, wat gestig is as deel van Lee se herorganisasie na die dood van Stonewall Jackson. [11] Pettigrew's Brigade was die sterkste in Heth se afdeling. [12] Sy regimente, vars uniform en gewapen met gewere uit staatsdepartemente, het tydens die optog deur Maryland en Pennsylvania 'n goeie militêre voorkoms gelewer. Sommige van sy regimentbeamptes was ook lede van die 'aristokrasie' van die planter in North Carolina, waaronder kolonel Collett Leventhorpe wat die 11de infanterie in Noord-Carolina gelei het en die een-en-twintigjarige Harry Burgwyn aan die hoof van die 26ste North Carolina Regiment, die grootste Konfederale regiment te Gettysburg. Omdat hy byna 'n jaar lank nie in 'n ernstige geveg was nie, het sy brigade meer as 2500 offisiere en mans bymekaargemaak. [13]

Pettigrew's Brigade het op 1 Julie 1863 op die plase McPherson en Herbst wes van Gettysburg met die ysterbrigade verstrengel geraak, waar al vier sy regimente verwoestende verliese gely het - meer as 40 persent - maar daarin geslaag om die Unie -magte van McPherson af te jaag. Ridge. [13] Die middag het generaal Heth 'n kopwond opgedoen wat hom buite aksie gehou het, en Pettigrew het die bevel oor die gehawende afdeling oorgeneem. [14]

Op 3 Julie 1863 het genl Lee die afdeling van Pettigrew gekies om links van generaal-majoor George Pickett te marsjeer in die beroemde infanterie-aanval wat algemeen bekend staan ​​as Pickett's Charge (soms die "Pickett-Pettigrew-Trimble Assault" genoem, as Pickett se afdeling) was nie die enigste een wat aan die heffing deelgeneem het nie). [4] Pettigrew se ou brigade, nou onder bevel van James K. Marshall, is op die eerste dag van die geveg rofweg hanteer en was nie in 'n goeie toestand vir die aanklag nie. [15]

Die afdeling van Pettigrew het 'n hewige brand onder die leiding van die generaal van die Unie, Alexander Hays, gekry wat op Cemetery Ridge geplaas is. Birkett Fry, nou bevelvoerder oor James Archer se brigade, is gewond, Marshall is dood. Die afdeling van Pettigrew het groot slagoffers gely en kon Hays se lyn nie breek nie. Die afdeling is verdryf, en Pettigrew laat sy perd onder hom uitskiet, wat vereis dat hy sy afdeling te voet moet lei. Pettigrew het ook 'n pynlike armwond opgedoen. [16]

Tydens die Konfederale terugtog uit Gettysburg, het Pettigrew in bevel gebly totdat Heth herstel het. Pettigrew se brigade (tydelik gekombineer met die voormalige brigade van Archer) is gestop by die oorstroomde Potomac -rivier by Falling Waters, Wes -Virginia, as 'n agterhoede -eenheid. Unie -kavallerie het die suidelike verdediging deur die nag ondersoek terwyl Lee se leër die pontbrue na Wes -Virginia oorgesteek het. Die oggend van 14 Julie 1863 was Pettigrew se brigade een van die laaste Konfederale eenhede wat nog noord van die Potomacrivier was toe die Unie sy posisie aanval. [17] Te voet en in die voorste linie het Pettigrew sy soldate gerig toe hy deur 'n Unie -kavalleris van die Michigan Brigade van naby geskiet is, terwyl die koeël hom in die buik getref het. [17] Hy is onmiddellik agter en oor die Potomac gedra, omdat hy geweier het om in federale hande oorgelaat te word. [17] Hy sterf drie dae later by Edgewood Manor -plantasie naby Bunker Hill, Wes -Virginia. [18] Sy brigade, wat na raming 56% slagoffers verloor het, is as 'n effektiewe gevegsorganisasie verwoes. [19]

'N Amptelike dag van rou is vir hom in Noord -Carolina gehou. [20] Sy dood het ook Lee geraak, wat opgemerk het: "Die weermag het 'n dapper soldaat verloor en die Konfederasie 'n bekwame offisier." [21] Die liggaam van generaal Pettigrew is na Noord -Carolina terugbesorg en op sy familie -landgoed, "Bonarva", wat nou deel uitmaak van Pettigrew State Park in Washington en Tyrrell Counties, begrawe. [22]

Generaal James Johnston Pettigrew Camp #1401 van die Sons of Confederate Veterans in Lenoir, Noord -Carolina, is vernoem na die gevalle offisier. [23]

In die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Amerikaanse vryheidsskip SS James J. Pettigrew is ter ere van hom genoem. [24]

In 1912 is 'n gebou op die kampus van die Universiteit van Noord -Carolina vernoem na Pettigrew. [25]


Gettysburg van die geklopte pad af: die vang van James Archer

Brigadier -generaal James J. Archer was 'n dapper en taai bevelvoerder, met die gepaste bynaam "The Little Gamecock". Archer was 'n gegradueerde van die Princeton-universiteit, wat tydens die Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse oorlog 'n kommissie ontvang het tot die rang van kaptein. Hy verlaat die weermag vir 'n kort rukkie, maar keer terug in 1855. By die uitbreek van die oorlog gooi hy sy hoed in die ring van die Konfederasie. Alhoewel hy 'n boorling van Baltimore, Maryland, was, was hy bevelvoerder oor 'n gemengde brigade van Tennessee- en Alabama -magte in generaal -majoor Henry Heth se afdeling in Gettysburg. Die manne van Archer het goed gevaar in Second Manassas, Antietam en Chancellorsville. Alhoewel hy 'n swak en sieklike man was (Archer was gewoonlik siek voor elke geveg wat hy betree het), het hy nooit in sy siekbed gebly toe die geveg op hande was nie.

Die oggend van 1 Julie was Archer se brigade die voorhoede -eenheid wat Lee se leër na Gettysburg gelei het. Die manne van Archer het stadig met die kavallerie, wat na willekeur op en af ​​geklim het, gedwing om die voetsoldate te dwing om telkens weer aan te gaan en los te kom. Byna 10:30, met sy hele brigade wat nou in die geveg was, verhuis hy van Springs Hotel Woods op Herr's Ridge en word sterk betwis deur kolonel William Gamble se federale troepe.

'Ons het voortgegaan om te vorder, maar tydens 'n wandeling,' het Pvt geskryf. William H. Moon van die 13de Tennessee. 'Laai en skiet terwyl ons gaan, totdat ons 'n strook laag land langs die Run bereik het. Daar is ons beskerm teen die vuur van die vyand deur 'n skielike styging oor die Run in ons voorkant. Ons het gestop om te hervorm, te herlaai, asem te haal en 'n bietjie af te koel. ”

Archer se manne druk na die oostelike oewer van Willoughby's Run, 'n klein stroompie aan die westelike basis van McPherson Ridge en gebruik die stroombed vir bedekking. Na 'n paar minute het die brigade van die oewer van die aanloop af opgestoot, maar slegs ongeveer 75 meter gehaal toe hulle deur die infanterie van die Unie ontmoet is.

In 'n oogwink verander die taktiese situasie op die grond by Gettysburg. Brigader -generaal Lysander Cutler se brigade het aangekom en twee van sy regimente, die 95ste New York en 14de Brooklyn, het die linkerkant van Archer se lyn gestuit. Die vertraagde Boogskutter was egter nie genoeg nie, en dit is al wat Cutler se manne kon doen. John Reynolds wend hom dan tot sy laaste beskikbare brigade wat nou deur die veld van die Lutherse Teologiese Kweekskool stroom. Die beroemde "Iron Brigade, ”, bestaande uit vyf regimente uit Wisconsin, Michigan en Indiana.

Die Westerlinge het in die omgewing van die Lutherse Teologiese Kweekskool aangekom toe hulle weswaarts deur die velde na die Edward McPherson Farm en Herbst Woods gelei is.

Vordering en echelon (een regiment op 'n slag verbyster), het vier van die brigades, vyf regimente, gevorder na die boslot en die vyand. Die meeste van die federale eenhede het nie verwag om so lukraak in die stryd gewerp te word nie. Slegs een regiment, die 19de Indiana, het eintlik gewere gelaai, aangesien hulle van die vorige aand af op diens was. Mans laai na willekeur terwyl hulle na die geveg marsjeer. Die 24ste Michigan het probeer stop en laai, toe hulle beveel is om 'onmiddellik vorentoe te gaan sonder om te laai', deur 'n personeelbeampte, wat die dringendheid van die situasie bespeur het. Die 19de Indiana se kleurdraer, wat oor die velde beweeg, trek die "shuck" uit die vlag en bind dit om sy middel. Oomblikke later is die vlag deur 'n dosyn koeëls getref en teen die einde van 1 Julie het die regiment 8 kleurdraers verloor.

Archer se manne het hardnekkig verset. Hulle het beide die kolonel en luitenant -kolonel van die tweede Wisconsin laat val en John Reynolds vermoor, maar die uitputting om kavallerie te jaag en nou die oorweldigende getalle van die ysterbrigade was te veel. Die 24ste Michigan vind Archer se linkerflank en begin dit verswelg. Die Suidlanders vlug na Willoughby Run en Herr's Ridge. Aan die regterkant van Archer het die situasie van erger na erger gegaan.

Archer, wat te voet was, is vasgevang naby 'n klipgroef aan die linkerkant van sy lyn. Die generaal is deur privaat Patrick Maloney van die 2de Wisconsin in hegtenis geneem. Maloney was blykbaar 'n gek toe hy die generaal vasgevang het, want toe Archer aan luitenant Dennis Dailey voorgelê is, het Archer Dailey gevra om hom teen die privaat te beskerm.

Dailey het die generaal se swaard gevat, en hy en Maloney het die middag geveg teen Pettigrew se North Carolina Brigade. Dailey is in die geveg gewond en na die huis van Mary McAllister geneem, aan wie hy die swaard toevertrou het. Nadat die geveg geëindig het, het Dailey agtergekom dat kolonel Henry Morrow van die 24ste Michigan die swaard as 'n prys van die McAllister huis toe geneem het, het hy dit later aan Dailey teruggegee, wat dit nie self bewaar het nie, maar dit aan sy brigade -bevelvoerder Brigadier gegee het Generaal Solomon Meredith as geskenk. By Meredith se dood in 1881 is die swaard terugbesorg aan die luitenant.

Nadat sy gevange geneem is, is Archer na die eerste korpsbevelvoerder, generaal -majoor Abner Doubleday, gebring. Doubleday glimlag en sê: "Ek is bly om jou te sien!" Die woedende klein haan antwoord: 'Wel, ek is nie bly om jou by 'n verdomde gesig te sien nie.' Archer was die eerste algemene offisier wat gevange geneem is sedert Lee die leër van Noord -Virginia op 1 Junie 1862 oorgeneem het.

Om by die steengroef uit Gettysburg te kom, ry wes op roete 30 en draai links na Stone Avenue. Hierdie pad draai in Meredithlaan. Parkeer u motor voordat u die Herbst Woods binnegaan. Aan u regterkant sien u 'n heining, volg hierdie heining (waar dit die bos ontmoet) 75 meter na Willoughby Run, net voor die aanloop sien u die groot put aan u regterkant. (As 'n byskrif, waar u u motor geparkeer het, is die algemene gebied waarin Henry Heth die middag van 1 Julie in die kop gewond is.)


Brigadier -generaal James Archer [CSA]

Die Konfederale generaal James J. Archer word gewoonlik slegs onthou as die generaal wat op 1 Julie 1863 in Gettysburg gevange geneem is, 'n voorval wat die indruk wek dat Archer óf nuut in bevel was, óf moontlik 'n onbevoegde offisier. Hy was ook nie. Trouens, Archer was 'n dapper en geliefde offisier wat gevange geneem is omdat hy sonder behoorlike ondersteuning deur sy hoër offisier generaal Henry Heth in Gettysburg beveel is. Heth het vas geglo dat die enigste federale troepe langs die Chambersburg -snoek 'n klein groepie kavallerie- of milisie -eenhede was.

James Jay Archer is gebore in BelAir, Harford County, Maryland, in 1817. Nadat hy in 1835 aan die Princeton College gestudeer het, het hy aan die Universiteit van Maryland gegaan om regte te studeer. Archer is tot die balie toegelaat en het tot 1846 regsgeleerdheid toe hy as kaptein van die gewone infanterie aangesluit het vir die oorlog met Mexiko. In die slag van Chapultapec het Archer 'n strooi vir dapperheid ontvang. Na die oorlog keer hy terug na sy regspraktyk. Dit lyk egter of sy diens in die Mexikaanse oorlog hom baie geraak het en hy het hom weer aangestel as kaptein in die 9de Amerikaanse infanterie in 1855. Hy was gestasioneer in Fort Walla-Walla in Washington-gebied tot 4 Maart 1861 toe hy bedank om aan te bied sy dienste aan die nuutgestigte Konfederasie.

Nadat hy oor die kontinent na Richmond, Virginia, gereis het, is Archer aangestel as kolonel in 'n Virginia -regiment, maar die pos is aan iemand anders gegee, so Archer moes wag vir 'n afspraak. In Oktober word hy kolonel van die vyfde Texas -regiment, wat in Richmond, Virginia, georganiseer is deur die konsolidasie van verskeie onafhanklike kompagnies wat uit die Lone Star -staat kom veg het. Die 5de was saam met ander Texane onder die leiding van kolonel John Bell Hood. Archer het die Texas gelei tydens die skiereiland -veldtog in aksies by Eltham's Landing en Seven Pines. Toe brigadier -generaal Robert Hatton by Seven Pines vermoor is, is Archer gekies om die bevel te neem oor die 5de Alabama, 19de Georgia, 1ste Tennessee, 7de Tennessee en die 14de Tennessee. Die promosie van Archer tot Brigadier -generaal dateer uit Junie 1862.

Aanvanklik was Archer nie baie geliefd onder die mans van Texas of Tennessee nie, wat hom as 'n tiran beskou het vir sy aandrang op oefening en streng gehoorsaamheid aan bevele. Een Tennessean het geskryf: ". sy humeur was onaantasbaar, en so koud was sy manier dat ons hom aanvanklik as 'n Martinet gedink het. Baie nie-kommunikatief. ". Maar dit het verander toe hy hulle in die geveg gelei het. Dieselfde skrywer het later gesê: ". Terwyl hy in die geveg was, het hy die einste God van oorlog gelyk. Hy het die harte van sy manne gewen deur sy wonderlike oordeel en optrede op die veld, en hulle het die mees implisiete vertroue in hom. Hy word die Little Game Cock genoem. '. " Archer se regiment het bekend gestaan ​​as "Archer 's Tennesseans ".

In sy verslag na die geveg het Brigadier-generaal John B. Hood Archer se optrede tydens die veldtog geprys. Hood het gedeeltelik geskryf:

HOOFKwartiere TEXAS BRIGADE, naby Barhamsville, Va., 7 Mei 1862.

SIR: Ek het die eer om aan te meld dat kolonel JJ Archer om 7 uur vanoggend, volgens u instruksies, met sy regiment, Fifth Texas, van hierdie brigade die blinde pad na Eltham 's Landing aangegaan het, op die Pamunkey -rivier, om te herken en die skermutselinge van die vyand in te ry. Hy ontmoet hulle gou en ry hulle bestendig voor hom uit. …

Ek is, meneer, baie eerbiedig, u gehoorsame dienskneg,

Brigadier-generaal, bevelvoerende Texas Brigade.

Einde Junie is Archer saam met vyf ander brigades gekombineer om 'n nuwe afdeling te vorm onder bevel van generaal-majoor AP Hill, wat Hill die "Light Division " genoem het. Archer het die res van sy loopbaan onder Hill gebly.

Op 27 Julie 1862 is Hill tydelik aangestel om Jackson se bevel te versterk. Pous was nuut aangestel as bevelvoerder van die Army of the Potomac en het gespog dat hy Jackson sou "sak" en Lee sou verslaan. Lee het Jackson toe beveel om Pous so gou as moontlik te onderdruk. Toe Pous sy leër na Manassas begin skuif, stuur hy generaal -majoor Nathan P. Banks van die II Korps na Culpepper. In die besef dat Pous sy leër versprei het, het Jackson beplan om Banks aan te val, maar sy bewegings was nie kenmerkend stadig nie en Banks het op 8 Augustus eerste aangeval. Die stryd het goed gegaan vir Banks vir die eerste twee uur, en toe herwin Jackson die inisiatief en dwing die Federale om die veld te laat vaar. In hierdie verlowing verloor Banks 2400 en Jackson 1400. Banks het op 11 Augustus by Siegel's Corps en Rickett se afdeling aangesluit, sodat die Konfederate die res van hul dooies begrawe het en teruggetrek het oor die Rapidan.

In die Slag van 2de Manassas was Hill se manne die linkerkant van Lee se leër en was hulle gestasioneer by die onvoltooide spoorlyn. Die posisie was nie die beste nie; dit was kwesbaar [te steil op sommige plekke en te diep in ander] en Jackson was bekommerd oor sy flanke. Archer was direk agter Gregg op Stony Ridge geplaas. Daar was 'n gaping van 125 meter tussen Thomas en Gregg, maar Hill lyk nie bekommerd nie, en dit is waarheen die Federals onder Grover reguit gery het. Aanvanklik het hulle 'n mate van sukses behaal, maar die New Englanders het vertraag toe die Konfederate van Branch en Gregg teenaanval gekry het.

Teen 17:00 was al Jackson se mans by die geveg betrokke, Hill se manne het die ergste gely. Die manne van Archer en Branch was in reserwe, en Hill het Archer beveel om Pender te verlig. Toe Archer sy manne in posisie skuif, sien hy hoe Federals na hom toe beweeg, maar laat die mans dit nie weet nie. Die verrassingsaanval kom van die 63ste PA onder Kearny en die Konfederate het dit afgeweer en 'n tweede aanval. Toe val die 100ste PA onder kolonel Daniel Leasure 'n deel van die manne van Archer uit hul posisie en stoot dit uit, maar trek terug sodra 'n teenaanval begin vorm. Met die aanval van Early en die terugtrekking van die Federale na hul hooflyn, eindig die eerste dag van die geveg. Archer het groot ongevalle opgedoen en was amper sonder ammunisie.

Pous het die aanval nie onmiddellik die volgende oggend hervat nie, sodat Hill Archer toegelaat het om agteruit te gaan om weer te voorsien. Maar Pous was besig om 'n aanval te beplan, maar dit het misluk en die Federale het weer begin terugtrek. Archer se manne het 'n swak aanval maklik afgeweer, maar het die terugtog nie te sterk gevolg nie. Archer het die Groveton Woods bereik nadat Pender daar aangekom het en albei mans het besef dat die Federals ontsnap het, sodat hulle teruggekeer het na die RR -snit. Byna donker was Archer een van die leidende eenhede onder die vertraagde aanval van Jackson op die terugtog van Pous, en vier kanonne vasgevang en 'n kort skermutseling raak met 'n brigade van die Rickett -afdeling naby Pittsylvania nadat die duisternis geval het.

Toe Lee noord begin met die eerste groot inval, het Archer gehelp met die vang van Harper's Ferry. Die oggend nadat die Harper 's Ferry gevang is, het 'n baie siek Boogskutter die bevel van die brigade aan kolonel Turney van die 1ste Tennessee oorgegee terwyl hy in 'n ambulans gevolg het. Archer hervat die bevel net toe die brigade in die uiterste linkerkant in lyn kom. Voor hul posisie was 'n smal mielieland, 'n geploegde veld, dan 'n klipheining wat die Federale beskerm. Archer se manne het onder muskietvuur vorentoe beweeg, in slegs 250 meter het byna 'n derde van hul mans verloor. Tog jaag die manne alleen vorentoe en jaag die Burnside's Federals uit die posisie. Archer het die ambulans verlaat waarin hy gery het en sy troepe gelei toe hulle McIntosh se gewere gevang het. Hierdie aksie was die grootste poging van Archer en het gehelp om Lee te red om afgesny en verslaan te word.

Die volgende oggend nog steeds siek, het Archer die bevel weer aan kolonel Turney oorgedra. Archer se brigade het in dieselfde posisie gebly totdat hulle op die oggend van 19 September saam met Gregg's en Branchades die agterhoede van die weermag gevorm het. Archer se verlies in hierdie aksie was 15 dood en 90 gewond.

Terwyl die weermag van Noord -Virginia by Shepardstown oorgesteek het, val die federale weermag aan en Archer hervat die bevel. Ek het die aand van 19 September die bevel oor my brigade hervat. Die oggend van die 20ste het die afdeling beweeg om die vyand wat die Potomac oorsteek by die Shepherdstown -veerboot af te weer. Die strydlyn is gevorm in 'n mielieland ongeveer drie-kwart myl terug van die veerboot. Toe generaal Pender ongeveer die helfte van die veerboot bereik het, beveel General Hill Archer om die bevel oor die drie oorblywende brigades [Field 's, onder bevel van kolonel Brockenbrough, aan die regterkant Lane 's in die sentrum, en sy eie, onder kolonel te neem. Turney aan die linkerkant] en gaan voort om Pender te ondersteun.

Archer skryf in sy na-geveg verslag: 'Ek het reguit vorentoe beweeg tot binne 'n paar honderd meter van General Pender se brigade,. Die bevordering van my bevel is gemaak onder die swaarste artillerievuur wat ek nog ooit gesien het. Die verlies van die brigade was 6 dood en 49 gewond. ”

Fredericksburg was die volgende stryd van Archer en hy het ook 'n belangrike rol gespeel. Weer siek, het Archer Saterdagoggend net betyds aangemeld om beheer oor 'n gevaarlike situasie vir die Konfederate te neem. Toe Hill sy afdeling langs die Bowling Green Turnpike plaas, as die Konfederale regterflank, het hy 'n gaping van 500-600 meter gelaat in die lyn tussen Archer se linkerflank en Lane 's regs. Die gaping was 'n moerasagtige bos wat Hill in die vooruitsig gestel het dat die Federals nie sou kon of sou deurkom om aan te val nie. Generaal Meade het Hill verkeerd bewys deur soveel van sy troepe as moontlik in die gaping te beveel. Die Pennsylvanian's het die bos binnegedring en om Archer het hulle die 19de Georgia en die 14de Tennesee in hul flank en agter aangeval. Beide eenhede het teruggetrek en 160 gevange mans verloor. Archer het vir M C Gregg gestuur om vorentoe te beweeg en die gat te prop. He also ordered the 5th Alabama, his right flank, to the left to attack the Federals. At the same time, he ordered his men to attack in their front and to drive the Federals back to the railroad, which they managed to do.

“. I feel it incumbent on me to state that to Brigadier-General Archer, of General A. P. Hill's division, is due the credit of having held the enemy in check with a small portion of his men, after his flank and rear had been gained, until reenforcements arrived, . But for the gallant stand made by General Archer the enemy would have gained an advantage which it would have required a greater sacrifice of life to wrest from him than was made."

The Battle of Chancellorsville is remembered most for Robert E Lee dividing his army for a third time. Major General T. Jackson’s remarkable flanking movement that collapsed the Federal right and won the battle of Lee is the most remembered event of that battle. However, during the battle of Chancellorsville, Archer's brigade was at the far right of Jackson's flanking movement and captured the best ground for the Confederate artillery, Hazel Grove, almost accidentally.

Hazel Grove was basically the only high open ground along the Orange Plank Road and was the focal point where the two wings would reunite. During Jackson’s movement, Hazel Grove was occupied by Major General Sickles III Corps, but he’s been ordered to abandon the position by Burnside. Though the movement was to have been done in secret, the men of Huntington’s Battery B, 1st Ohio Light Artillery noticed the Confederates and opened fire. Berdan’s Sharpshooters also joined in the attack? Archer, without waiting for orders to do so from his commanding officers, AP Hill or Jackson, turned his brigade and that of Thomas’ around to repulse the attack. The Federals had already been repulsed and so Archer rejoined the flanking movement, but he missed the opening charges of Jackson’s attack.

Archer, positioned as Jackson’s right flank, was pointed at Hazel Grove and moved out the next morning. H. T. Childs of the 1st Tennessee reported that after his men went about 50 yards, they stopped to dress their lines. “… Then General Archer’s shrill, clear voice was heard along the lines. … ordering the men to fix bayonets.” As the men clambered over the undefended Federal barricade, Archer found himself capturing the “key position” to the battlefield almost without opposition. Sickles largely had abandoned the grove so the Confederates fell upon the remaining Federal units, Huntingtons’ Battery and their supporting troops, Graham’s Brigade. To follow up his easy success, Archer turned his troops to the left to follow the fleeing Federals and ran into the 20th Connecticut and the 14th New York firmly entrenched behind another line of breastworks. Though this was their first combat, the two Federal units held off two assaults by Archer’s men. Archer then fell back to the barricades at Hazel Grove and prepared for a Federal counter-attack while awaiting reinforcements. By about 06:45 AM, the Confederates had massed their guns at Hazel Grove and opened on the Federals. Archer remained in his position without either being attacked or receiving reinforcements until 10:00 am when General Lee arrived. Lee knew the Federals were being driven from south of the plank road and the possession of Hazel Grove signaled the reuniting of his army, so he ordered Archer to attack Fairview, which he now considered the critical site on the battlefield. Archer obeyed and succeeded, which hastened Hooker’s retreat.

Emboldened by the successes at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Lee moved north in June of 1863. Lee had just learned from Longstreet’s spy, Harrison, that the Federal army was moving north across the Potomac River and began concentrating his forces at Gettysburg. Major General A. P. Hill was ill early that morning of July 1, 1863 and General Henry Heth was in charge. Neither Hill nor Heth believed that any Federal units of consequence were opposing them, so early in the morning, Heth ordered Archer forward to brush aside the Federal Cavalry outpost and move into Gettysburg. Archer went forward without skirmishers and made little progress against stubborn resistance from General Buford’s dismounted cavalry. After gaining Herr Ridge at about 09:30am, Heth deployed General Davis north of the Chambersburg Pike and Archer to the south and sent them both forward. Archer protested that he had too few men and would be going too far forward without proper support, but Heth still believed that only a cavalry outpost and some militia unit opposed them and sent them forward.

The day was already getting very warm and water was scarce as Archer and his men moved across the shallow, wooded valley. Archer had been pushing forward without skirmishers until reaching marsh Creek, and then he deployed his troops to the right of the pike and sent out his skirmishers. The men left the cover of the Springs Hotel woods under bombardment from 2, 3-inch rifles form Cutler’s guns, but kept moving. The nature of the terrain disrupted the line of battle as the left flank, the 7th TN, crossed Willoughby Run, now taking heavy fire from Cutler’s Battery at the McPhearson Barn, before the right flank even reached the run. The 14th TN, the next unit in line, instead of supporting the 7th TN, became heavily involved with the 2nd WI and the 7th WI. Then as the 13th AL attempted to capture Calef’s guns [which they failed to do], Reynolds’ men moved to relieve Buford’s weary troopers. Paygals guns were withdrawn, leaving open the flank of the 7th WI, so the 13th AL turned to take advantage. However, the 13th opened its own flank open to attack from the 19th IN, which had just arrived on the field. Also, the Iron Brigade was on the field, driving toward Willoughby Run. Archer’s right flank collapsed, the three regiments retreated down the western slope of McPhearson Ridge and across Willoughby Run.

Archer’s earlier fear of being out beyond proper support had become real. He was forced to surrender, becoming the first general officer captured since Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia. James Archer spent a year in Johnson Island, Ohio, his health deteriorating during this time. He was exchanged in August of 1864 and briefly took command of two brigades. However, he only served two months, dying in Richmond, Virginia, on October 24, 1864, from the effects, it’s suspected, of his imprisonment. Archer was only 46 years old.

The documents written by Archer and those who served with and under him make it rather clear that he was not a “brilliant” leader, in the Lee and Jackson manner, but his men deeply respected and trusted him. On that fateful day in 1863, there had been little he hadn’t encountered and overcome during combat. Archer had even clearly seen the probability of his capture – or worse – in his protest to Heth about attacking without proper support as he went forward. But his capture should not blot out his accomplishments at Seven Days, Second Manassas, Antietam, Shepardstown, the repulse of the Federal breakthrough at Fredericksburg, and the capture of Hazel Grove at Chancelorsville.

published in Battlefield Journal, August, 2006
***
Verwysings

Confederate Military History

The Southern Historical Society Papers

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

Freeman, Douglas S., Lee's Lieutenant’s

Hennessy, John J., Return to Bull Run The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas, 1993, Simon and Shuster


JAMES JAY ARCHER, CSA - History

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Heth's Division Main Page

The following officers from Heth's Division are known to have died on Johnston's Island and are buried here. Some of these officers are believed to have belonged to regiments in the Third Corps a few I am not sure whether the units given actually match. If there is no thumbnail picture, I do not have a decent photograph of that officer's headstone yet (the stones are hard to shoot because they are in some places close together, in others dark, and on others the writing is faded). If you find any mistakes or additions, please let me know by using the web site's contact form. Please feel free to click on the thumbnail to view a larger image.

The highest ranking of all of Hill's officers to be held at Johnston's Island was Brig. General James Jay Archer, of the old Light Division, but then assigned to Heth. Archer's health was broken by his time in prison and he died not long after his exchange in the autumn of 1864.

(I'd love some biographical information on these men. If you have any, please email me and let me know so I can make the record more complete. I will of course credit you as the source of the information.)


James J. Archer

Archer syntyi Bel Airissa Marylandissa John ja Ann Stump Archerille rikkaaseen sotilasperheeseen. Hän valmistui Princetonista vuonna 1835 ja jatkoi opintojaan Bacone Collegessa Georgetownissa Kentuckyssa. Princetonissa Acher sai siron ulkomuotonsa seurauksena lempinimen ”Sally”.

Archer opiskeli lakia Marylandin yliopistossa, läpäisi loppukokeen ja aloitti työt asianajajana. Meksikon–Yhdysvaltain sodan sytyttyä hän liittyi armeijaan vapaaehtoisena kapteenina, osallistui lukuisiin taisteluihin, mainittiin urheudestaan Chapultepecissa ja ylennettiin väliaikaiseksi majuriksi.

Archer muutti Texasiin vuonna 1848 ja haavoittui siellä kaksintaistelussa Andrew Porteron kanssa. Hän kävi myös toisen kaksintaistelun Thomas J. Jacksonin kanssa. Palattuaan Marylandiin Archer jatkoi työtä asianajajana, mutta päätti vuonna 1855 liittyä kapteenina 9. USA:n jalkaväkeen. Hänen palvelupaikkansa oli Yhdysvaltojen lounaisella Tyynenmeren rannikolla.

Sisällissodan alkaessa Archer oli sijoitettuna Fort Walla Wallaan silloisen Washingtonin territorion alueella. Hän erosi palveluksesta 14. toukokuuta 1861, matkusti etelään ja liittyi Konfederaation armeijaan vakinaisen väen kapteenina. Hänet nimitettiin pian everstiksi 5. Texasin jalkaväkeen, jossa hän palveli entisen Texasin senaattorin Louis T. Wigfallin organisoimassa prikaatissa. Prikaatinkenraali John Bell Hood otti joukko-osaston komennon ja Texasin prikaati taisteli Virginian niemimaalla käydyissä taisteluissa. Archer osallistui taisteluihin Eltham's Landingissa ja Seven Pinesissa, mutta hänestä ei koskaan tullut pidettyä texasilaisten keskuudessa. Häntä pidettiin autoritäärisenä ja tyrannimaisena johtajana.

Archer ylennettiin prikaatinkenraaliksi 3. kesäkuuta 1862. Hän sai komentoonsa kolme Tennesseen rykmenttiä. Osastojen aiempi päällikkö Robert H. Hatton oli kaatunut Seven Pinesin taistelussa. Myöhemmin kesäkuussa Archerin prikaati liittyi viiden muun prikaatin muodostamaan kenraalimajuri A. P. Hillin "Kevyeen divisioonaan". Archerin prikaatiin liitettiin kaksi uutta rykmenttiä. Archer taisteli Seven Daysin taisteluissa, Cedar Mountainin taistelussa ja toisessa Bull Runin taistelussa. Bull Runissa hänen altaan kuoli hevonen. Archerin miehet nimittivät häntä "pikku tappelukukoksi" hänen kevyen ruumiinrakenteensa ja hurjan asenteensa vuoksi.

Marylandin kampanjan aikana syyskuussa 1862 Archer oli liian sairas ratsastaakseen ja johti prikaatiaan ambulanssista käsin. Hänen miehensä tekivät pikamarssin Harpers Ferrystä ja saapuivat Sharpsburgiin Unionin armeijan IX-armeijakunnan vasemmasta sivustasta. Hurjassa hyökkäyksessä Archer ajoi vihollisen takaisin ja valtasi uudestaan konfederaation tykistöpatterin. Kolme päivää myöhemmin Shepherdstownin taistelussa Archer ja prikaatinkenraali William Dorsey Pender johtivat hyökkäystä, joka ajoi vihollisen takaisin Potomac-joen toiselle puolelle ja antoi Leen armeijalle tilaisuuden livahtaa takaisin Virginiaan. Vaikka Archer sairasteli jatkuvasti hän johti prikaatinsa voittoihin Fredericksburgin ja Chancellorsvillen taisteluissa.

Vuoden 1863 Gettysburgin offensiivin aikana Archerin terveydentila heikkeni edelleen, kun prikaati marssi kesän kuumuudessa ja kosteudessa. Archerin joukko-osasto oli nyt osa kenraalimajuri Henry Hethin divisioonaa. 1. heinäkuuta 1863 saavuttuaan Gettysburgiin Archerin joukot kahakoivat John Bufordin johtaman liittovaltion ratsuväkiosaston kanssa yli kaksi tuntia. Unionin jalkaväki teki vastahyökkäyksen, johon osallistui myös Unionin kuuluisa rautaprikaati. Unionin komentaja kenraalimajuri John F. Reynolds sai todennäköisesti surmansa Archerin joukko-osaston käsissä.

Archerin miehet ajettiin Willoughby Runin-joen toiselle puolelle, missä uupunut Archer piiloutui pusikkoon. Unionin sotamies Patrick Maloney 2. Wisconsin-osastosta otti Archerin kiinni ja vei tämän Unionin armeijan linjojen taakse, missä Archer tapasi lyhyesti vanhan kollegansa Unionin kenraalimajuri Abner Doubledayn. Archerista tuli ensimmäinen sotavangiksi joutunut Pohjois-Virginian armeijan kenraali sen jälkeen, kun Lee oli ottanut Konfederaation armeijan komennon. Vangitsemisen jälkeen Birkett D. Fry otti Archerin prikaatin komennon ja johti sitä Pickettin hyökkäyksessä.

Archer ja hänen nuorempi veljensä ja kenttäadjutanttinsa Robert Harris Archer (1820–1878) lähetettiin Fort Delawareen, josta hänet siirrettiin monien muiden Gettysburgissa vangittujen upseerien tavoin Johnson's Islandin vankileiriin Eriejärven rannalle. Archerin terveys romahti Ohion ilmastossa. Archer kirjoitti Konfederaation sotahallinnolle kirjeen, jossa hän ehdotti hyökkäystä vankileirin vartijoiden kukistamiseksi. Salaliittolaiset olisivat kuitenkin tarvinneet Konfederaation hallituksen apua päästäkseen takaisin kotiin.

Lähes vuoden vankeuden jälkeen Archer siirrettiin 600 upseerin joukossa Fort Delawareen. Suunnitelmana oli siirtää upseerit Morris Islandiin Etelä-Carolinaan. Paikka oli Konfederaation jatkuvan tykkitulen kohteena ja upseereista olisi tullut unionin panttivankeja ja ihmiskilpiä. Suunnitelma ei kuitenkaan toteutunut.

Archer vaihdettiin vankienvaihdossa myöhäiskesällä 1864 ja hän liittyi uudestaan Konfederaation armeijaan. 9. elokuuta hän sai käskyn ilmoittautua Hoodin alaiseen Tennesseen armeijaan Atlantassa. Kaksi päivää myöhemmin käsky kuitenkin peruttiin ilmeisesti Archerin huonon terveyden vuoksi. Hän matkusti Petersburgiin Virginiaan, komensi vanhaa prikaatiaan ja palveli lyhyen aikaa Petersburgin piirityksessä ennen kuin hänen terveytensä romahti kokonaan Peeblesin farmin taistelun jälkeen. Archer kuoli Richmondissa Virginiassa, missä ja hänet haudattiin Hollywoodin hautausmaalle. Hän ei ollut koskaan naimisissa.


5th Texas Infantry

The Texas regiments of the Army of Northern Virginia are honored by monuments on the Manassas battlefield, Antietam battlefield, on the Gettysburg battlefield, and on the Wilderness battlefield.

Battle of Seven Pines
Skirmish at Freeman’s Ford
Second Battle of Manassas
South Mountain
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment, under the command of Captain Ike Turner, fought north of the Dunker Church in Miller’s Cornfield in some of the most intense fighting of the war. The regiment lost 5 men killed, 3 mortally wounded, and 78 wounded, 18 of whom had to be left behind on the battlefield or in the field hospital to be captured when Lee’s army retreated.

Lieutenants Henry W. Boyd, James P. Drake, B. Pugh Fuller and Mack Strickland were mortally wounded. Captains Thomas A. Baber and James D. Roberdeau and Lieutenants Edward Collier, Joseph New, Walter S. Norwood, John Smith and S.S. Stanley were wounded. Lieutenant J.M. Alexander was wounded and captured.

On the approach of the First Army Corps on the evening of the 16th, Wofford’s Brigade advanced and formed line in the south edge of the Cornfield, its left on the Hagerstown Pike. The 4th Texas, deployed as skirmishers, encountered the advance of Seymour’s Brigade and was forced back but, reinforced by the 5th Texas on its right, held the East Woods until darkness put an end to the engagement. At 10 P. M. the Brigade was relieved by Lawton’s Brigade and withdrew to the woods west of Dunkard Church.

At 7 A.M., Wofford’s Brigade, advancing from the woods in rear of the Dunkard Church, crossed the Hagerstown Pike near the church and, moving north, its left (Hampton Legion) resting on the Pike, relieved Lawton’s and Hays’ Brigades of Ewell’s Division, about 145 to 160 yards south of this and engaged the Union line in the cornfield about 75 yards north of this road. The 5th Texas was sent to the assistance of Law’s Brigade on the right. The four remaining Regiments maintained a contest rarely equalled in warfare. They penetrated the cornfield, the 1st Texas advancing to its northern edge, but their advance was checked. After losing more than one half its numbers, the Brigade fell back to the fields southwest of the Dunkard Church, and was not again engaged. The Brigade went into action numbering 854 its loss in killed, wounded and missing was 560. The 1st Texas carried into action 226 officers and men, of whom 186 were killed or wounded.

Battle of Fredericksburg
Suffolk Campaign
Battle of Gettysburg

The 5th Texas brought 409 men to Gettysburg. It lost 54 killed, 112 wounded, and 45 missing or captured. Colonel Powell was wounded on July 2nd at the summit of Little Round Top and later captured. Lieutenant Colonel Bryan was wounded almost immediately after, leaving Major Jefferson C. Rogers in command. Lieutenant Harper was wounded, and Lieutenant James E. Cobb was wounded and captured.

From the monument to Robertson’s Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 2. Arrived after a march of several miles and formed line 50 yards west of this at 4 P. M. Advanced against the Union positions. The 4th and 5th Texas joined in the attack on Little Round Top which continued until dark. The 1st and 3d Arkansas attacked and assisted in taking Devil’s Den and Rocky Ridge with a number of prisoners and 3 guns of the 4th New York Battery.

July 3. At 2 A. M. the 1st Texas and 3d Arkansas were moved to the right and joined the 4th and 5th Texas on the northwest spur of Big Round Top. Three regiments occupied the breastworks there all day skirmishing hotly with Union sharpshooters. Early in the day the 1st Texas was sent to confront the Union Cavalry threatening the right flank. After night the Brigade took position near here.

July 5. About 5 A. M. began the march to Hagerstown Md.

Present about 1100 Losses about 540

From near this spot the Texas Brigade at about 4:30 p.m. on July 2 crossed Emmitsburg Road and advanced with Hood’s Division across Plum Run toward Little Round Top. The Texas Brigade after severe fighting on the slopes of Little Round Top retired to a position on the south side of Devil’s Den. The Brigade held this position the night of July 2 and during the day on July 3 then fell back to a position near this memorial on the evening of July 3. On the field at Gettysburg the Texas Brigade suffered 597 casualties.

Battle of Chickamauga
Battle of the Wilderness

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bryan. It took part in the “Lee to the Rear” incident before charging with the Texas Brigade to plug a gap in the Confederate line. Lt. Colonel Bryan was wounded in both arms and was disabled from future command.

Of approximately 800 troops involved the Texas Brigade counted over 500 casualties.

From the reverse of the monument:

“Who are you my boys?” Lee cried as he saw them gathering.

“Texas boys,” they yelled, their number multiplying every second.

The Texans – Hood’s Texans, of Longstreet’s Corps, just at the right place and at the right moment! After the strain of the dawn, the sight of these grenadier guards of the South was too much for Lee. For once the dignity of the Commanding General was shattered for once his poise was shaken.

“Hurrah for Texas,” he shouted, waving his hat, “Hurrah for Texas.”

The willing veterans sprang into position…He would lead them in the countercharge…He spurred… Traveler
…on the heels of the infantry men.

“Go back, General Lee. Go back!” They cried …”we won’t go on unless you go back!”


“No Man Can Take Those Colors and Live”

"Iron Brigade" - painting by Don Troiani showing the 24th Michigan in the Herbst Woods on July 1, 1863 Don Troiani - Historical Art Prints

The Civil War Trust, in conjunction with the Conservation Fund, in 2011 saved the 95-acre Gettysburg "Country Club Tract." This section of the Gettysburg battlefield includes the location where the 24th Michigan ended their morning assault on July 1, 1863 and where the 26th North Carolina began their bloody attack upon the Iron Brigade.

“Forward men, forward, for God’s sake, and drive those fellows out of those woods.”

Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds Library of Congress

By 10:00 on the morning of July 1, 1863, the situation near McPherson’s Ridge, outside the town of Gettysburg, was becoming increasingly desperate for the Army of the Potomac. Tennessee and Alabama soldiers from James Archer’s Brigade had already crossed over the open field in front of Herr Ridge, splashed across the tangled stream bottom at Willoughby’s Run, and were now pressing up through the Herbst (or McPherson’s) Woods. The Union cavalry screen that had been gallantly holding the ground west of Gettysburg was simply no match for the huge Confederate force converging upon the strategic town.

Fortunately for the Army of the Potomac, the veteran Iron Brigade, among the toughest units in the army, was just arriving on the western outskirts of the town of Gettysburg, near the prominent Lutheran Seminary. The first regiment to arrive, the 2nd Wisconsin, was hustled down to the edge of Herbst Woods by Left Wing commander Maj. General John Reynolds himself. Shortly after entering the woods, Reynolds, who was still conspicuously mounted on his horse, was struck by a bullet, reeled from his saddle, and fell to the ground, dead. The popular Reynolds was the highest ranking general killed at Gettysburg and his death had a profound impact upon the rapidly developing Union defenses on July 1st.

The 24th Michigan followed closely on the heels of the 2nd Wisconsin and advanced so fast that the men lacked time to load their rifles before entering the smoke filled woods to the left of the 2nd Wisconsin. Joined by the 19th Indiana and 7th Wisconsin, the Iron Brigade now had roughly 1,450 men positioned to take on the 1,200 soldiers in Archer’s Brigade.

Reaching the southern edge of Herbst Woods, the Michigan men were quickly greeted by Confederate bullets. Color Sergeant Abel Peck of the 24th was killed straight off and the regiment’s colors were quickly grabbed by Corporal Charles Bellore before it hit the ground. Despite the growing enemy fire, the 24th pressed forward.

“He who fights and runs away may live to fight another day”

Brig. Gen. James Archer Wikimedia

Legend has it that the Confederate soldiers of Archer’s Brigade, who thought at first that they were facing inexperienced local forces, saw the soft-brimmed Hardee hats worn by the Iron Brigade and exclaimed, “there are those damned black-hatted fellows again. ‘Taint no militia. It’s the Army of the Potomac.” As more of the tough westerners from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Michigan filed into the woods, Archer’s men began to slowly fall back towards Willoughby’s Run. Little did they know, time was already rapidly running out for Archer’s Brigade.

Pressing further into Archer's right flank, the 24th Michigan and the 19th Indiana struck and overlapped the 13th Alabama, forcing them to rapidly retire towards Herr’s Ridge. Col. Henry Morrow of the 24th then directed the Michigan troops across Willoughby’s Run and into the rear of the Tennessee regiments who were busy holding off the rest of the Iron Brigade. Pressed in front, flank, and rear, many of Archer’s men barely escaped the Union vise. Upwards of 200 Confederates who failed to run early, including General Archer himself, quickly surrendered to the Iron Brigade.

Despite taking heavy casualties during the morning counterattack, the Iron Brigade had performed brilliantly once again. With Archer’s Brigade now driven back or captured, the Union troops pressed forward across Willoughby’s Run and into the open fields beyond. A quiet lull took hold around noon on the 1st.

Heth’s Second Assault on McPherson Ridge

Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith - commanding officer of the Iron Brigade Library of Congress

Maj. Gen. Henry Heth knew that he had failed to do his best in deploying his division during the morning’s fight. Feeding his regiments into the fight west of Gettysburg, he had expected that his veteran infantry would have little trouble driving off whatever mixture of cavalrymen and militia lay to his front. But with the arrival of strong Union infantry units, all of Heth’s forces south of the Chambersburg Pike had been driven back. Looking over the land in front of him, Heth was determined that his afternoon attack would deliver the victory that he knew was expected of him.

Sensing that the day’s fighting was far from over, Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith, commander of the Iron Brigade, brought his forces back across Willoughby’s Run and placed his regiments into a compact line inside Herbst Woods. The 24th Michigan was moved to the center of this line, with the 19th Indiana on its left and the 7th Michigan on its right. The 2nd Wisconsin, having suffered the heaviest casualties during the morning fight, was initially placed in a second line to the rear.

With the afternoon heat reaching its peak, the North Carolinians and Virginians of Pettigrew's and Brockenbrough’s Brigades stepped off from their positions on Herr’s Ridge to resume the attack upon the Union forces defending McPherson’s Ridge, south of the Chambersburg Pike.

Enter the 26th North Carolina

Portrait of Colonel Henry K. Burgwyn of the 26th North Carolina Wikimedia

With 843 soldiers, the 26th North Carolina was the largest regiment not only in Pettigrew’s brigade of roughly 2,500, but the largest in either army at Gettysburg. Commanded by the “boy general”, 21-year old Colonel Henry King Burgwyn, the officers of the 26th were anxious to enter the fight before the day was done. Finally, at 2:30pm, the 26th and the rest of Pettigrew’s Brigade was ordered forward.

With Col. Burgwyn taking his place at the center of the regiment, J.B. Mansfield, the regimental color bearer stepped out in front of the line with the regiment’s square battle flag. Eight other members of the 26th's color guard joined Mansfield at the front. “Forward! March!” came the order.

The 26th North Carolina maintained perfectly dressed lines as they descended into the wheatfield in front of Willougby’s Run. Fortunately for the Tarheels, the Yankees opposing them fired high. The 26th paused to return fire and then made a dash for the tangled banks of Willoughby’s Run.

While most of the regiment made it safely to the banks of Willoughby’s Run, the 26th’s color guard, always a tempting target, suffered much heavier losses. Four members of the 26th’s color guard were killed or wounded before they even reached the stream. Private John Stamper grabbed the regiment’s colors as they entered into the brush near the stream but fell before he made it across. Private George Washington Kelly next took up the battle flag. Leaping across the water, Kelly fell to the ground, hit by shrapnel in the leg. Kelly’s friend, L.A. Thomas, picked the flag up and began to move up the hillside. Thomas, like so many before him, was hit shortly afterwards and handed the flag to John Vinson. Vinson, in turn, was promptly wounded and the flag was passed to John Marley who was quickly dispatched by a hissing bullet. A tenth, unnamed man, took his turn holding the colors. In just ten minutes the 26th North Carolina had used ten different color bearers.

The men of the 26th North Carolina soon “came on with rapid strides, yelling like demons.” Up the steep bank they came. Waiting in the thick woods were the trained rifles of the 24th Michigan.

With Burgwyn’s men crowding into the stream bottom, Col. Henry Morrow of the 24th ordered his men to hold their fire until the terrain allowed for a clear shot. The men of the 26th swarmed up the far bank and on towards the forested positions of the 24th Michigan. Now seeing the distinctive Hardee hats on the heads of the Michigan men, some of Burgwyn’s men exclaimed, “here are those damned black hat fellows again.” With barely 40 yards separating the two lines, the 24th Michigan unleashed a devastating volley upon the Tarheels.

The superior numbers of the North Carolinians, however, began to overwhelm the 24th Michigan. Quickly stepping back to their second prepared line, the 24th looked to stem the onslaught as best they could. Corporal Charles Bellore, who had carried the 24th’s colors since Sergeant Peck’s death during the morning assault, was killed near the second line.

“No Man Can Take Those Colors and Live”

Battle Flag of the 26th North Carolina The Museum of the Confederacy

The battle between the 26th North Carolina and the 24th Michigan rapidly reached its climax. Standing toe to toe in the deep woods, the two proud regiments poured deadly fire into each other. Col. Burgwyn, yelling words of encouragement and praise, took up the 26th’s colors and stepped forward. With the 26th’s men reforming on their colonel and colors, Private Frank Honeycutt moved forward to take the flag from his colonel. As Burgwyn turned to hand the flag to Honeycutt the boy colonel was struck by a bullet to the chest. As Burgwyn fell to the forested floor he was momentarily held aloft within the folds of the battle flag that he so proudly held. Honeycutt would share his colonel's fate with a bullet to the head.

Lieutenant Colonel J.R. Lane, after checking on the mortally wounded Burgwyn, quickly assumed command of the regiment. “Close your men quickly to the left. I am going to give them the bayonet” he yelled. As the 26th North Carolina’s men prepared for yet another charge, their flag lay on the ground in front. Lieutenant Blair of the 26th, seeing the prostrate flag and knowing its recent history, exclaimed, “no man can take those colors and live.” Lane concurred, but picked up the flag nonetheless and yelled, “twenty-sixth, follow me.”

The tenacity of the 26th’s assault forced the 24th Michigan back to a third line in the woods. As the 24th took up station on their new line, Private August Earnest, holding the regiment’s colors, was killed. Colonel Morrow himself took the colors from 1st Sergeant Everard Welton. The Michiganers continued to fall all around Morrow.

"Iron Brigade" - painting by Don Troiani showing the 24th Michigan in the Herbst Woods on July 1, 1863 Don Troiani - Historical Art Prints

Unbeknownst to Col. Morrow and the 24th, the 19th Indiana, the regiment on their left had begun to give way under the heavy assault. With their left flank now threatened, the 24th was forced to begin its retreat back towards the safety of Seminary Ridge.

Colonel Henry A. Morrow of the 24th Michigan Library of Congress

Following quickly behind the retreating 24th was the remains of the 26th North Carolina. Lieutenant Colonel J.R. Lane, still carrying the regiment’s flag, continued to urge his men forward. But like all the preceding color bearers from the 26th this day, Lane too would be struck down. Lane would suffer a terrible bullet wound to the back of the neck. For the fourteenth and final time on July 1st, the colors of the 26th went down.

Lane’s counterpart, Colonel Henry A. Morrow of the 24th also become a casualty during the fight. Carrying his regiment’s flag up the slopes of Seminary Ridge, Col. Morrow received a non-lethal wound to the head. The injured Morrow struggled back to the town of Gettysburg before being captured by Confederates who later occupied the town.

"Ranks went down like grass before the scythe"

The shattered remains of the Iron Brigade filed quickly behind a barricade of rails erected on Seminary Ridge and awaited the next assault from the Confederates. Captain Albert Edwards, now in command of the 24th Michigan, began to quickly look for the regiment's missing flag. After a few desperate moments, Edwards would find the tattered flag held in the arms of a dying soldier lying inside the barricade.

Despite suffering heavy losses of their own, the North Carolinians reformed and charged the Union positions on Seminary Ridge. As the Tarheels began their climb up the hill, the Federal soldiers and artillery held their fire. Waiting for the optimal chance to strike their enemy, the Union line unleashed a devastating fire that drove back the Confederate attackers. The hard-pressed Union soldiers would hold off one more attack, but it was becoming increasingly clear that this position too would need to be abandoned.

The tattered remains of the 24th Michigan's National colors Peter Glendinning, Photographer - Michigan Capitol Committee

With both flanks heavily pressed, the survivors of the 24th Michigan would join the rest of their Iron Brigade brothers in a fighting retreat back through town and onto the relative safety of Cemetery Hill.

The fight between the 24th Michigan and the 26th North Carolina proved to be the bloodiest regimental engagement of the bloodiest Civil War battle. The 24th Michigan and the 26th North Carolina each suffered the greatest number of regimental casualties in their respective armies at Gettysburg. The 26th North Carolina entered the battle with 843 soldiers and incurred 687 casualties, including its colonel and lieutenant colonel. The 24th Michigan would lose 363 of their 496 soldiers at Gettysburg - a staggering 73% casualty rate. These two units suffered more casualties than any other regiments in their respective armies

Despite suffering enormous casualties on July 1st, both the 24th Michigan and 26th North Carolina would see even more combat later in the three day battle. The 24th Michigan was moved to Culp's Hill - the Union's vulnerable right flank - to help shore up that critical position. The 26th North Carolina, as part of Pettigrew's Brigade, participated in the fateful Pickett-Pettigrew-Trimble charge against Cemetery Ridge on July 3, 1863.