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Verdrag van Aargau - Geskiedenis

Verdrag van Aargau - Geskiedenis



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Die Protestantse oorwinning oor Katolieke magte in die slag van Villmergien het gelei tot die vredesverdrag van Aargau. Hierdie verdrag het Protestantse oorheersing in Switserland gevestig, terwyl die regte van die Katolieke beskerm is.

Paleolitiese redigering

'N Handbyl wat deur Homo erectus gevorm is, is gevind in Pratteln, wat op 300 000 jaar gelede gedateer is. [1] Die teenwoordigheid van die Neanderthaler is bekend uit die Grotte de Cotencher in Neuchatel, dateer uit 70 000 jaar gelede [2] en uit die grotte van Wildkirchli in die Appenzell -Alpe, dateer uit ongeveer 40 000 jaar gelede. [3] Anatomies moderne mense het 30 000 jaar gelede Sentraal -Europa bereik, [4] maar die meeste van wat nou Switserland is, was tydens die Last Glacial Maximum (Würm -gletsing) deur gletsers bedek. Die ysvrye dele, noordelike Switserland langs die Hoë Ryn en 'n deel van die Aar-kom, is blootgestel aan permafrost. Menslike bewoning op die Switserse plato kan getoon word vir die begin van die Mesolitiese tydperk, in Wetzikon-Robenhausen wat ongeveer 10 000 jaar gelede begin het.

Neolitiese tot Bronstydperk Redigeer

Die Neolitiese bereik die Switserse plato voor 7000 jaar gelede (laat 6de millennium v.C.), gedomineer deur die Lineêre Aardewerk -kultuur. Die gebied was relatief dig bevolk, soos die baie argeologiese bevindings uit daardie tydperk bewys. Oorblyfsels van stapelhuise is gevind in die vlak gebiede van baie mere. Artefakte uit die 5de millennium vC is in 2003 tot 2005 by die Schnidejoch ontdek. [5]

In die 3de millennium vC het Switserland aan die suidwestelike buitewyke van die Corded Ware-horison gelê en die vroeë Bronstydperk (bekerkultuur) betree, in pas met Sentraal-Europa, in die laat eeue van die 3de millennium.

Die eerste Indo-Europese nedersetting dateer waarskynlik uit die 2de millennium, op die laaste in die vorm van die Urnfield-kultuur van ca. 1300 v.C. Die pre-Indo-Europese bevolking van die Alpengebied word gekenmerk deur Ötzi die Iceman, 'n individu van die laat 4de millennium vC wat in die Oostenrykse Alpe (ongeveer 25 km oos van die Switserse grens) gevind is.

Ystertydperk Redigeer

Die Switserse plato lê in die westelike deel van die vroeë Ystertydperk Halstatt -kultuur, [6] en het deelgeneem aan die vroeë La Tène -kultuur (vernoem na die tipe terrein by die Neuchatelmeer) wat uit die Hallstatt -agtergrond uit die 5de eeu vC ontstaan ​​het . [7]

Teen die laaste eeue vC is die Switserse plato en Ticino gevestig deur kontinentale Kelties -sprekende mense (Galliërs): die Helvetii en Vindelici het onderskeidelik die westelike en oostelike deel van die Switserse plato bewoon, en die Lugano -gebied by die Lepontii. Die binneste Alpe-valleie van die ooste van Switserland (Grisons) is bewoon deur die nie-Keltiese Raetiane.

Die verspreiding van La Tène -kultuurbegrawe in Switserland dui aan dat die Switserse plato tussen Lausanne en Winterthur relatief dig bevolk was. Nedersettingsentrums bestaan ​​in die Aare -vallei tussen Thun en Bern, en tussen die Zürichmeer en die Reuss. Die Wallis en die streke rondom Bellinzona en Lugano blyk ook goed bevolk te wees, maar dit lê buite die Helvetiese grense.

Byna al die Kelties oppida is gebou in die omgewing van die groter riviere van die Switserse plato. Ongeveer 'n dosyn oppida is in Switserland bekend (ongeveer twintig insluitende onseker kandidaat -webwerwe), wat nie almal gedurende dieselfde tyd beset is nie. Vir die meeste van hulle het geen hedendaagse naam bestaan ​​nie, in gevalle waar 'n voor-Romeinse naam aangeteken is, word dit tussen hakies gegee. [8] Die grootste was die een in Berne-Engehalbinsel (vermoedelik Brenodurum, die naam aangeteken op die Bern-sink tablet [9]), op die Aare, en die een in Altenburg-Rheinau aan die Ryn. Van gemiddelde grootte was dié van Bois de Châtel, Avenches (verlate met die fondament van Aventicum as die hoofstad van die Romeinse provinsie), Jensberg (naby vicus Petinesca, Mont Vully, almal binne 'n dag se optog van die in Berne, die Oppidum Zürich-Lindenhof by die Zürichsee-Limmat-Sihl driehoopige Lindenhof-heuwel, en die Oppidum Uetliberg, met uitsig op die oewer van die Sihl en die Zürichseee. Kleiner oppida was by Genève (Genava), Lausanne (Lousonna) aan die oewer van die Genève -meer, by Sermuz aan die boonste punt van die Neuchatel -meer, by Eppenberg en Windisch (Vindonissa) langs die onderste Aar, en by Mont Chaibeuf en Mont Terri in die Jura -berge, die gebied van die Rauraci.

'N Wyfie wat in ongeveer 200 v.C. dood is, is begrawe in 'n gesnede boomstam tydens 'n konstruksieprojek by die Kern -skoolkompleks in Maart 2017 in Aussersihl. Argeoloë het onthul dat sy ongeveer 40 jaar oud was toe sy gesterf het en waarskynlik min fisieke arbeid verrig het toe sy gelewe het. 'N Skaapveljas, 'n gordelketting, 'n fyn wolrok, ​​'n serp en 'n hangertjie van glas en amberkrale is ook saam met die vrou ontdek. [10] [11] [12]

In 58 vC het die Helvetii probeer om migrasiedruk van Germaanse stamme te ontduik deur in Gallië in te gaan, maar is by Bibracte (naby die hedendaagse Autun) gestop en verslaan deur Julius Caesar se leërs en daarna teruggestuur. In 15 vC verower Tiberius en Drusus die Alpe, en die gebied word geïntegreer in die Romeinse Ryk: [13] het die nedersettingsgebied Helvetii eers deel geword van Gallia Belgica en later van die provinsie Germania Superior, terwyl die oostelike deel geïntegreer is in die Romeinse provinsie Raetia.

Die daaropvolgende 300 jaar het 'n uitgebreide Romeinse nedersetting plaasgevind, waaronder die bou van 'n padnetwerk en die stigting van baie nedersettings en stede. Die middelpunt van die Romeinse besetting was by Aventicum (Avenches), is ander stede gestig in Boom Felix (Arbon), Augusta Raurica (Kaiseraugst naby Basel), Basilea (Basel), Curia (Chur), Genava (Genève), Lousanna (Lausanne), Octodurum (Martigny, wat die pas van die Groot St. Bernard beheer), Salodurum (Solothurn), Turicum (Zürich) en ander plekke. Militêre garnisone bestaan ​​op Tenedo (Zurzach) en Vindonissa (Windisch). [13]

Die Romeine het ook die Groot St. Bernard -pas begin vanaf die jaar 47, en in 69 het 'n deel van die legioene van Vitellius dit gebruik om die Alpe te deurkruis. Die passe is uitgebrei van grondpaadjies tot smal geplaveide paaie. [13] Tussen 101 en 260 verhuis die legioene uit die streek, waardeur handel kon uitbrei. In Raetia het die Romeinse kultuur en taal oorheersend geword. [13] Byna 2 000 jaar later praat sommige van die bevolking van Graubünden nog steeds Roemeens wat afkomstig is van vulgêr Latyn.

In 259 het Alamanni -stamme die Kalk oorval en wydverspreide verwoesting van Romeinse stede en nedersettings veroorsaak. Die Romeinse ryk het daarin geslaag om die Ryn weer as die grens te vestig, en die stede op die Switserse grondgebied is herbou. Dit was egter nou 'n grensprovinsie, en gevolglik was die nuwe Romeinse stede kleiner en baie meer versterk.

In die laat -Romeinse tydperk in die 3de en 4de eeu het die kerstening van die streek begin. Die legendes van Christelike martelare soos Felix en Regula in Zürich is waarskynlik gebaseer op gebeurtenisse wat plaasgevind het tydens die vervolging van Christene onder Diocletianus rondom 298. Die verhaal van die Thebaanse legioen, wat naby Saint Maurice-en-Valais in Valais gemartel is, vind plaas in die geskiedenis van baie dorpe in Switserland. [13]

Die eerste bisdom is gestig in die 4de en 5de eeu in Basel (gedokumenteer in 346), Martigny (dok. 381, verhuis na Sion in 585), Genève (dok. 441) en Chur (dok. 451). Daar is bewyse uit die 6de eeu vir 'n bisdom in Lausanne, wat moontlik van Avenches verwyder is.

Met die val van die Wes-Romeinse Ryk het Germaanse stamme ingetrek. Boergondiërs vestig hulle in die Jura, die Rhône-vallei en die Alpe suid van die meer van Genève, terwyl in die noorde Alamanniese setlaars die Ryn in 406 oorsteek en stadig die Gallo-Romeinse bevolking geassimileer het. , of dit in die berge laat terugtrek het. Bourgondië het twee jaar later in 534 deel geword van die Frankiese koninkryk, die hertogdom Alemannia het gevolg.

Die Bourgondiese konings bevorder die kerstening deur middel van nuut gestigte kloosters, bv. in Romainmôtier of St. Maurice in die Wallis in 515. In die Alaman -gedeelte het slegs geïsoleerde Christelike gemeenskappe bestaan, die Germaanse geloof, insluitend die aanbidding van Wuodan, was algemeen. Die Ierse monnike Columbanus en Gallus het die Christelike geloof in die vroeë 7de eeu weer ingebring. Die Bisdom Konstanz is ook destyds gestig.

Vroeë Middeleeue Redigeer

Onder die Karolingiese konings het die feodale stelsel toegeneem, en kloosters en bisdom was belangrike basisse om die heerskappy te handhaaf. Die Verdun van Verdun van 843 het die westelike deel van die moderne Switserland (Bo -Bourgondië) aan Lotharingia, onder leiding van Lotarius I, en die oostelike deel (Alemannia) aan die oostelike koninkryk van Louis die Duitser opgedra wat die Heilige Romeinse Ryk sou word. Die grens tussen Alamania, regeer deur Louis, en die westelike Bourgondië, beheer deur Lothar, loop langs die onderste Aare, draai na die suide by die Ryn, wes van Lusern en oor die Alpe langs die boonste Rhône tot by Saint Gotthardpas.

Louis die Duitser het in 853 sy grond in die Reuss -vallei toegestaan ​​aan die klooster St Felix en Regula in Zürich (hedendaagse Fraumünster) waarvan sy dogter Hildegard die eerste abdis was. [14] Volgens die legende het dit plaasgevind nadat 'n hert met 'n verligte kruisbeeld tussen sy geweere aan hom verskyn het in die moerasveld buite die stad, aan die oewer van die Zürichmeer. Daar is egter bewyse dat die klooster reeds bestaan ​​het voor 853. Die Fraumünster is oorkant die rivier van die Grossmünster, wat volgens die legende deur Karel die Grote self gestig is, terwyl sy perd op sy knieë geval het op die plek waar die martelare Felix en Regula is begrawe.

Toe die grond aan die klooster toegestaan ​​is, was dit vrygestel van alle feodale here behalwe die koning en later die Heilige Romeinse keiser ('n toestand wat in Duits bekend was as imperiale onmiddellikheid Reichsfreiheit of Reichsunmittelbarkeit). Die bevoorregte posisie van die abdy (verlaagde belasting en groter outonomie) het die ander manne van die vallei aangemoedig om hulself onder die gesag van die abdij te plaas. Daardeur het hulle die voordele van die keiserlike onmiddellikheid verkry en gewoond geraak aan die relatiewe vryheid en outonomie. [14] Die enigste bron van koninklike of keiserlike gesag was die advokatus of Vogt van die abdij wat deur die keiser aan die een na die ander gesin gegee is as teken van vertroue.

In die 10de eeu het die heerskappy van die Karolingers afgeneem: Magiërs vernietig Basel in 917 en St. Gallen in 926, en Saracenes verwoes die Valais na 920 en ontslaan die klooster van St. Maurice in 939. Die Conradines (von Wetterau) begin 'n gedurende hierdie tyd heers oor Swabië. Eers na die oorwinning van koning Otto I oor die Magjars in 955 in die Slag van Lechfeld, is die Switserse gebiede weer in die ryk geïntegreer.

Hoë Middeleeue Redigeer

Koning Rudolph III van die Arelat -koninkryk (r. 993–1032) het die Valais in 999 aan die biskop van Sion gegee, en toe Bourgondië en dus ook die Valais in 1032 deel van die Heilige Romeinse ryk geword het, was die biskop ook aangestel as graaf van die Valais. Die Arelat het meestal gedurende die 11de tot 14de eeu op papier bestaan, en die oorblyfsels daarvan het in 1378 na Frankryk gegaan, maar sonder dat die Switserse gedeeltes Bern en Aargau reeds teen die 12de eeu onder die bewind van Zähringer en Habsburg gekom het, en die graafskap Savoy was losgemaak uit die Arelat net voor die ontbinding daarvan, in 1361.

Die hertogte van Zähringen het baie stede gestig, waarvan die belangrikste Freiburg in 1120, Fribourg in 1157 en Bern in 1191 was. Die Zähringer -dinastie het geëindig met die dood van Berchtold V in 1218, en hul stede het daarna geword onafhanklik, terwyl die hertogte van Kyburg meeding met die huis van Habsburg oor die beheer van die landelike streke van die voormalige Zähringer -gebied. Toe die huis van Zähringen in 1218 uitsterf, is die kantoor van Vogt oor die abdij van St Felix en Regula in Zürich aan die Habsburgers toegestaan, maar dit is vinnig herroep. [14]

Die opkoms van die Habsburgse dinastie het momentum gekry toe hul belangrikste plaaslike mededinger, die Kyburg -dinastie, uitsterf en hulle dus 'n groot deel van die gebied suid van die Ryn onder hul beheer kon bring. Daarna het hulle binne enkele generasies daarin geslaag om hul invloed deur Swabië in die suidooste van Duitsland tot Oostenryk uit te brei.

Onder die Hohenstaufen -bewind het die alpiene passe in Raetia en die St. Gotthardpas belang geword. Veral laasgenoemde het 'n belangrike direkte roete deur die berge geword. Die bou van die "Duiwelsbrug" (Teufelsbrücke) oor die Schöllenenschlucht in 1198 gelei tot 'n merkbare toename in verkeer op die muilbaan oor die pas. Frederik II verleen die Reichsfreiheit aan Schwyz in 1240 [14] in die Freibrief von Faenza in 'n poging om die belangrike pas onder sy direkte beheer te plaas, en sy seun en 'n geruime tyd het mede-regent Henry VII reeds in 1231 dieselfde voorregte aan die vallei van Uri gegee (die Freibrief von Hagenau). Unterwalden was de facto reichsfrei, aangesien die grootste deel van sy gebied aan kloosters behoort het, wat selfs vroeër in 1173 onafhanklik geword het onder Frederik I "Barbarossa" en in 1213 onder Frederik II. Die stad Zürich het geword reichsfrei in 1218.

Terwyl sommige van die "Bosgemeenskappe" (WaldstättenUri, Schwyz en Unterwalden) was reichsfrei die Habsburgers het steeds aanspraak gemaak op sommige dorpe en 'n groot deel van die omliggende grond. Terwyl Schwyz was reichsfrei in 1240 is die kasteel van Neu Habsburg in 1244 gebou om die Luzermeer te beheer en die naburige Bosgemeenskappe te beperk. [14] In 1245 is Frederik II deur pous Innocentius IV by die Raad van Lyon geëkskommunikeer. Toe die Habsburgers die pous se kant neem, het sommige van die Bosgemeenskappe Frederick se kant gekies. In hierdie tyd is die kasteel van Neu Habsburg aangeval en beskadig. [14] Toe Frederick teen die pous misluk, word diegene wat sy kant geneem het, bedreig met ekskommunikasie en kry die Habsburgers bykomende mag. In 1273 word die regte op die Bosgemeenskappe deur 'n kadettak van die Habsburgers verkoop aan die hoof van die gesin, Rudolf I. 'n Paar maande later word hy koning van die Romeine, 'n titel wat die Heilige Romeinse keiser sou word. Rudolph was dus die heerser van al die reichsfrei gemeenskappe sowel as die lande wat hy as Habsburg regeer het.

Hy het 'n streng reël in sy tuislande ingestel en die belasting geweldig verhoog om oorloë en verdere territoriale verkrygings te finansier. As koning het hy uiteindelik ook die direkte heer van die Bosgemeenskappe geword, wat hul vorige onafhanklikheid dus ingekort het. Op 16 April 1291 het Rudolph alle regte oor die stad Lusern en die abdij -landgoedere in Unterwalden van Murbach Abbey in die Elsas gekoop. Die Bosgemeenskappe het gesien hoe hul handelsroete oor die Luzernmeer afgesny is en was bang dat hulle hul onafhanklikheid sou verloor. Toe Rudolph op 15 Julie 1291 sterf, het die gemeenskappe voorberei om hulself te verdedig. Op 1 Augustus 1291 word 'n ewige bond tussen die Bosgemeenskappe aangegaan vir wedersydse verdediging teen 'n gemeenskaplike vyand. [14]

In die Valais het toenemende spanning tussen die biskoppe van Sion en die grawe van Savoye gelei tot 'n oorlog wat in 1260 begin het. Die oorlog eindig na die Slag by die Scheuchzermatte naby Leuk in 1296, waar die Savoye -magte verpletter is deur die biskop se leër, ondersteun deur magte van Bern. Na die vrede van 1301 het Savoye slegs die onderste deel van die Valais behou, terwyl die biskop die boonste Valais beheer het.

Die 14de eeu Edit

Met die opening van die Gotthardpas in die 13de eeu, het die gebied van Sentraal -Switserland, hoofsaaklik die vallei van Uri, baie strategiese belang gekry en is dit toegestaan Reichsfreiheit deur die Hohenstaufen keisers. Dit het die kern geword van die Switserse konfederasie, wat gedurende die 1330's tot 1350's gegroei het tot die kern van 'agt kantons' (Acht Orte)

Die 14de eeu op die gebied van die moderne Switserland was 'n tyd van oorgang van die ou feodale orde wat deur plaaslike gesinne van laer adel bestuur word (soos die huise Bubenberg, Eschenbach, Falkenstein, Freiburg, Frohburg, Grünenberg, Greifenstein, Homberg, Kyburg, Landenberg, Rapperswil, Toggenburg, Zähringen, ens.) En die ontwikkeling van die groot moondhede van die laat Middeleeue, hoofsaaklik die eerste fase van die meteoriese opkoms van die Huis van Habsburg, wat gekonfronteer is met mededingers in Bourgondië en Savoie. Die vrye keiserstede, prinsbiskoppe en kloosters was genoodsaak om bondgenote in hierdie onstabiele klimaat te soek en het 'n reeks pakte aangegaan. Dus het die veelpolêre orde van die feodalisme van die hoë Middeleeue, terwyl dit steeds sigbaar was in dokumente van die eerste helfte van die 14de eeu, soos die Codex Manesse of die Zürich-wapenrusting, geleidelik plek gemaak vir die politiek van die laat Middeleeue, met die Switserse Konfederasie ingeklem tussen Habsburg Oostenryk, die Bourgondië, Frankryk, Savoye en Milaan. Berne het 'n ongelukkige standpunt ingeneem teen Habsburg in die slag van Schosshalde in 1289, maar het genoeg herstel om Friborg (Gümmenenkrieg) te konfronteer en daarna 'n beslissende nederlaag op 'n koalisiemag van Habsburg, Savoye en Basel in die slag van Laupen in 1339. Terselfdertyd het Habsburg probeer om invloed te verkry op die stede Luzern en Zürich, met onluste of pogings tot staatsgrepe wat vir die jare 1343 en 1350 onderskeidelik aangemeld is. Hierdie situasie het daartoe gelei dat die stede Lusern, Zürich en Bern hulle onderskeidelik in 1332, 1351 en 1353 by die Switserse Konfederasie verbind het.

Net soos elders in Europa, het Switserland in die middel van die eeu 'n krisis beleef, veroorsaak deur die Swart Dood gevolg deur sosiale omwenteling en morele paniek, dikwels teen die Jode gerig soos in die Basel -bloedbad van 1349. Hierby is die katastrofale Basel van 1356 gevoeg aardbewing wat 'n wye gebied verwoes het, en die stad Basel is byna heeltemal vernietig tydens die daaropvolgende brand.

Die magsbalans het gedurende die 1350's tot 1380's onseker gebly, terwyl Habsburg probeer het om die verlore invloed terug te kry Albrecht II het Zürich sonder sukses beleër, maar 'n ongunstige vrede op die stad opgelê in die verdrag van Regensburg. In 1375 het Habsburg probeer om weer beheer oor die Aargau te verkry met behulp van Gugler huursoldate. Na 'n aantal klein botsings (Sörenberg, Näfels), was dit met die beslissende Switserse oorwinning tydens die slag van Sempach 1386 dat hierdie situasie opgelos is. Habsburg het sy fokus ooswaarts verskuif, en terwyl dit steeds in invloed groei (uiteindelik tot die magtigste dinastie van die vroeë moderne Europa), verloor dit alle besittings in sy voorvaderlike gebied met die Switserse anneksasie van die Aargau in 1416, vanwaar die Switserse Konfederasie het vir die eerste keer gestaan ​​as 'n politieke entiteit wat 'n aangrensende gebied beheer.

Intussen is die burger in Basel ook verdeel in 'n pro-Habsburgse en 'n anti-Habsburgse faksie, bekend as Sterner en Psitticher, onderskeidelik. Die burgers van groter Basel het die grootste deel van die voorregte in 1392 van die biskop gekoop, alhoewel Basel nominaal die domein van die prinsbiskoppe gebly het tot by die Hervorming, word dit de facto deur die stadsraad beheer, sedert 1382 gedomineer deur die stad se gildes, vanaf hierdie keer. Net so verleen die biskop van Genève in 1387 aansienlike politieke regte aan die burger. Ander dele van Wes -Switserland het gedurende die 14de eeu onder die beheer van Bourgondië en Savoie gebly. konteks van die Switserse Reformasie, in 1536.

In die Valais was die biskop van Sion, verbonde aan Amadeus VI, graaf van Savoye, in die konflik tussen die boonste Valais in die Walser gedurende die 1340's. Amadeus het die streek in 1352 tot stilstand gebring, maar daar was hernude onrus in 1353. In 1355 het die dorpe in die boonste Wallis 'n verdedigingspakt gesluit en in 1361 'n kompromisvredesverdrag beding, maar daar was 'n heropstand met die toetreding van Amadeus VII in 1383. , Graaf van Savoye. Amadeus val die Valais in 1387 binne, maar na sy dood in 'n jagongeluk het sy ma, Bonne de Bourbon, vrede gemaak met die sewe tiendes van die boonste Wallis, wat die status quo ante van 1301 herstel het. Vanaf hierdie tyd was die boonste Wallis meestal onafhanklik de facto en berei die Republikeinse struktuur voor wat in die vroeë moderne tydperk sou ontstaan. In die Grisons het terselfdertyd soortgelyke strukture van plaaslike selfbestuur ontstaan, met die League of God's House wat in 1367 gestig is, gevolg deur die Gray League in 1395, beide in reaksie op die uitbreiding van die House of Habsburg.


Verdrag van Baden

Die Verdrag van Baden was die verdrag wat die formele vyandelikhede tussen Frankryk en die Heilige Romeinse Ryk beëindig het, wat sedert die begin van die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog in oorlog was. Dit is op 7 September 1714 in Baden, Switserland, onderteken en het die verdrae van Utrecht en Rastatt aangevul, waardeur keiser Karel VI die Verdrag van Utrecht namens die Habsburgse monargie aanvaar het. In die Baden -verdrag is die vredesvoorwaardes tussen Frankryk en die Heilige Romeinse Ryk - formeel onvolledig - ooreengekom, en daardeur is die laaste van die vele konflikte in die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog beëindig. ΐ ]

Die verdrag was die eerste internasionale ooreenkoms wat op Switserse grondgebied onderteken is. Α ] In die kantlyn van die konferensie het die ondertekenaars ook in die geheim ooreengekom met 'n Katolieke vakbond om in te gryp ten gunste van die Katolieke kantons wat twee jaar tevore in die nabygeleë Villmergen verslaan is, waardeur die Vrede van Aarau die Katolieke hegemonie beëindig het binne die Konfederasie. Α ]


In Junie 1812 verklaar die Verenigde State oorlog teen Groot -Brittanje in reaksie op drie kwessies: die Britse ekonomiese blokkade van Frankryk, die indruk van duisende neutrale Amerikaanse seemanne teen die wil van die Britse koninklike vloot en die Britse steun van vyandige Indiese stamme langs die grens van die Groot Mere. 'N Faksie van die Amerikaanse kongres, wat meestal uit Westerse en Suidelike kongreslede bestaan, bepleit al verskeie jare die oorlogsverklaring. Hierdie War Hawks, soos hulle bekend was, het gehoop dat oorlog met Brittanje, wat besig was met sy stryd teen Napoleontiese Frankryk, sou lei tot Amerikaanse territoriale winste in Kanada en deur die Britse beskermde Florida.

Het jy geweet? Nadat die Britte die Withuis tydens die oorlog van 1812 verbrand het, kon president James Madison en sy vrou nie daar woon nie. Die opvolger van Madison, James Monroe, verhuis in 1817 terug na die Withuis, terwyl dit nog herbou word.


Inhoud

Die ou stad Rheinfelden lê op die linkeroewer van die Ryn, waar die rivier in twee arms verdeel word deur die "Inseli", 'n eiland van ongeveer 150 meter (490 voet). Stroomaf van die Inseli en die Rheinbrückedie bodem van die rivier val tot ongeveer 30 m diep, wat 'n groot en dodelike draaikolk veroorsaak, bekend as die St-Anna-Loch. [3] Byna 400 m (1300 voet) oos is die Magdenerbach.

Die beboste, saggies stygende voetheuwels van die Tafeljura lê suid van die stad. Dit is die Steppberg (395 m bo seespieël) en die "Berg" (427 m [1.401 voet)), albei in die suidooste. [4] Tussen hierdie twee heuwels lê die diep gesnyde valleie van die Magdenerbach.

Rheinfelden het 'n oppervlakte (vanaf die 2004/09 -opname) van 16,02 km2 (6,19 vierkante myl). [5] Van hierdie gebied word ongeveer 20,7% vir landboudoeleindes gebruik, terwyl 50,0% bebos is. Van die res van die grond word 22,6% gevestig (geboue of paaie) en 6,7% is onproduktiewe grond. In die 2013/18 -opname was 'n totaal van 213 ha (530 hektaar) of ongeveer 13,3% van die totale oppervlakte bedek met geboue, 'n toename van 57 ha (140 hektaar) in vergelyking met die bedrag van 1982. In dieselfde tydperk het die hoeveelheid ontspanningsruimte in die munisipaliteit met 25 ha (62 hektaar) toegeneem en is dit nou ongeveer 3,43% van die totale oppervlakte. Van die landbougrond word 4 ha (9,9 hektaar) vir boorde en wingerde gebruik, 297 ha (730 hektaar) is velde en grasvelde. Sedert 1982 het die hoeveelheid landbougrond met 104 ha (260 hektaar) afgeneem. In dieselfde tydperk het die hoeveelheid beboste grond met 6 ha (15 hektaar) toegeneem. Riviere en mere beslaan 108 ha (270 hektaar) in die munisipaliteit. [6] [7]

Die hoogste punt (427 m (1,401 voet)) is geleë op "Berg", die laagste punt (270 m (890 voet)) is aan die Ryn. Die naburige stede is Kaiseraugst in die weste, Olsberg in die suidweste, Magden in die suide en Möhlin in die ooste (almal in die Aargau) oor die rivier in Duitsland, Rheinfelden, Baden-Württemberg.

Die gebied rondom Rheinfelden was reeds in die middelste steentydperk gevestig, ongeveer 10 000 jaar voor die huidige tyd. In daardie tyd het mense in die "Hermitage" gewoon, 'n klein natuurlike grot langs die huidige snelweg. In die jaar 45 vC, 'n paar kilometer verder wes, is die nedersetting Augusta Raurica gestig, die eerste Romeinse stad in Switserland, naby die moderne Kaiseraugst. In die vlaktes by Rheinfelden was toe 'n groot landgoed. Teen die einde van die 4de eeu is 'n grensfort by die westelike nedersetting gebou.

Rheinfelden word die eerste keer omstreeks 851 genoem as Rifelt en in die eerste helfte van die 12de eeu is dit genoem Rinfelden. [8] In die tweede helfte van die 10de eeu het die hele Fricktal-gebied-die Frick-vallei, 'n vinger van die land in die noordweste van Switserland, oos van die huidige Basel, tussen die Juragebergte in die suide en die grens van die Hoë Ryn met die huidige -dag Duitsland in die noorde -was binne die Koninkryk van Bourgondië. Destyds is Rheinfelden toegestaan ​​aan die familie von Wetterau. Hulle het later die titel van graaf van Rheinfelden aangeneem. Die Rheinfeldens het 'n vesting, "Stein", gebou op die strategies geleë eiland, 'n rivieroewer nedersetting by die "Altenburg". Die laaste van hierdie gesamentlike reël was Rudolf van Rheinfelden, hertog van Swabia (1057–79) en Duitse antiking (1077–80) tydens die Investiture Controversy.

Toe Rudolf op 15 Oktober 1080 in Merseburg sterf, is sy gebiede geërf deur Berthold II van Zähringen. Maar die stad gaan na sy seun Otto en sy familie, die von Wetter's. Berhold se tweede seun, Conrad, verleen markregte aan die stad, wat dit die oudste Zähringerstadt in Switserland en die oudste stad in die Aargau in 1150 maak, en hy laat ook die eerste brug bou tussen die Ryn, tussen Konstanz en Straatsburg. In 1218 sterf Berthold V sonder probleme. In 1225 wen Rheinfelden Reichsfreiheit 'n keiserlike stad te word.

'N Bietjie meer as 'n eeu later, in 1330, het die stad hom toegesê aan die Habsburgers en 'n deel van Verdere Oostenryk geword. In 1445, toe die Habsburgers die Ou Zürich -oorlog beveg het, vernietig opstandelinge die kasteel op die "Inseli" weens die getrouheid van die stad met Basel. Na 'n beleg van etlike maande, is Rheinfelden teruggekeer na Oostenrykse onderwerping in 1449. Na die Waldshut -oorlog vanaf 1468 het die hele Fricktal -Bourgondië aan die Habsburgers toegesê. Nadat die Boergondiërs in die Boergondiese oorloë deur die Ou Switserse konfederasie geslaan is, is die land Rheinfelden, nie Titel nie, in 1477 na Oostenryk herstel.

Gedurende die 17de eeu was daar baie min tyd waarin die stad vrede geniet. Tydens die Rappenkrieg, 'n boereopstand wat van 1612 tot 1614 geduur het, is die stad sonder sukses beleër, maar verwoes. Tussen 1633 en 1638 bereik die dertigjarige oorlog Fricktal, waar Rheinfelden 'n belangrike rol gespeel het. Op 15 Julie 1633 verwoes Sweedse en Franse troepe die stad. Op 5 Februarie 1638 word die stad beleër deur protestantse troepe onder bevel van Bernhard van Sakse-Weimar. Op 28 Februarie begin die Slag van Rheinfelden, aangesien die stad aangeval is deur numeries-superieure keiserlike en Beierse troepe onder bevel van Johann von Werth en Federico Savelli. Die Protestante het hierdie ontmoeting verloor en hulle teruggetrek. Bernhard het vir hulle wapens gebring, maar in die tweede aksie, op 3 Maart, was hulle oorwinnaars, aangesien hy en sy manne onverwags weer op die slagveld verskyn het, beide Savelli en Werth is gevange geneem.

Teen die einde van die Dertigjarige Oorlog het die Oostenrykers 'n vesting op die eiland gebou om die suidwestelike grens van die Breisgau te beveilig. In 1678 het Franse troepe onder bevel van François de Créquy op die stad geskiet. In 1745, tydens die oorlog van die Oostenrykse opvolging, het die Franse 'n vesting op dieselfde grond gemaak en ook 'n gedeelte van die stadsmuur geblaas. Op 17 Julie 1796 word Rheinfelden weer deur die Franse beset en geplunder.

As gevolg van die Verdrag van Campo Formio in 1797 word die Fricktal 'n Franse protektoraat en vorm die frontlyn tussen die Franse Revolusionêr en die Oostenrykse troepe in die oorlog van die tweede koalisie. Op 20 Februarie 1802 word Rheinfelden 'n distrikshoofstad van die nuutgestigte kanton Fricktal (Prinsdom Frickgau), wat in Augustus by die Helvetiese Republiek aangesluit het, waarna die stad beslissend Switsers geword het. Na die verwydering van die goewerneur Sebastian Fahrländer aan die einde van September 1802, is die setel van die kantonale regering hier uit Laufenburg verplaas. Met die begin van die Reichsdeputasieshauptschluss (die Duitse mediatisering), ontbind Napoleon Bonaparte die kanton Fricktal. Sedert 19 Maart 1803 is Rheinfelden die hoofstad van 'n gelyknamige distrik, in die kanton Aargau. Met die Reichsdeputasieshauptschluss, het die oorblywende (Duitse) dele van die stad hul onafhanklikheid aan die Groothertogdom Baden verloor en word Rheinfelden, Duitsland.

  • 1945: Eugen Walz
  • 1945–1946: Franz Fischer
  • 1946–1948: Alois Maier
  • 1948–1988: Herbert King
  • 1988–2012: Eberhard Niethammer
  • sedert 2012: Klaus Eberhardt (gebore 1956)

Die blazon van die munisipale wapen is Barry of Six Or en Gules met drie Mullets van die eerste. [9]

Rheinfelden het 'n bevolking (vanaf Desember 2019 [update]) van 13 503 [10] Vanaf Junie 2009 [update] is 27,6% van die bevolking buitelandse onderdane. [11] Gedurende die afgelope 10 jaar (1997–2007) het die bevolking met 6,1%verander. Die grootste deel van die bevolking (vanaf 2000) praat Duits (82,9%), met Italiaans die tweede algemeenste (3,8%) en Serbo-Kroaties derde (2,0%). [12]

Die ouderdomsverdeling, vanaf 2008 [update], in Rheinfelden is 1 031 kinders of 9,1% van die bevolking is tussen 0 en 9 jaar oud en 1 173 tieners of 10,4% is tussen 10 en 19. Van die volwasse bevolking is 1,418 mense of 12,6 % van die bevolking is tussen 20 en 29 jaar oud. 1,652 mense of 14,6% is tussen 30 en 39, 1,904 mense of 16,9% is tussen 40 en 49, en 1,544 mense of 13,7% is tussen 50 en 59. Die senior bevolkingsverdeling is 1260 mense of 11,2% van die bevolking is tussen 60 en 69 jaar oud, 790 mense of 7,0% is tussen 70 en 79, daar is 441 mense of 3,9% wat tussen 80 en 89 is, en daar is 77 mense of 0,7% wat 90 en ouer is. [11]

Vanaf 2000 [update] was daar 682 huise met 1 of 2 persone in die huishouding, 2,876 huise met 3 of 4 persone in die huishouding en 1,250 huise met 5 of meer persone in die huishouding. [11] Vanaf 2000 [opdatering] was daar 4,953 privaat huishoudings (huise en woonstelle) in die munisipaliteit, en gemiddeld 2,1 persone per huishouding. [13] In 2008 [update] was daar 958 enkelgesinshuise (of 15,7% van die totaal) uit 'n totaal van 6,087 huise en woonstelle. [11] Daar was 'n totaal van 86 leë woonstelle vir 'n leegstandsyfer van 1,4%. [11] Vanaf 2007 [update] was die konstruksietempo van nuwe wooneenhede 2,8 nuwe eenhede per 1000 inwoners. [13]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP which received 27.64% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP (26.15%), the FDP (16.05%) and the CVP (11.13%). In the federal election, a total of 2,934 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 42.9%. [14]

The historical population is given in the following table: [8]

Historical population
JaarPop. ±%
1788 1,226
1850 1,910+55.8%
1900 3,349+75.3%
1950 4,550+35.9%
1970 6,866+50.9%
2000 10,637+54.9%

The entire old town of Rheinfelden is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. [15] There are seven sites in Rheinfelden that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. [16] Two religious buildings are on the list, the Christian Catholic collegiate church of St. Martin and the Johanniter Chapel at Johannitergasse 70. Three fortifications are on the list the Heimenholz en die Pferrichgraben which were both part of the old Roman era Rhine fortications and the entire medieval city wall. The last two buildings on the list are the Feldschlösschen brewery at Feldschlösschenstrasse 34 and the former Gasthof (combination hotel and restaurant) zum goldenen Adler at Obertorplatz 4.


How the Treaty of Versailles and German Guilt Led to World War II

When Germany signed the armistice ending hostilities in the First World War on November 11, 1918, its leaders believed they were accepting a “peace without victory,” as outlined by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in his famous Fourteen Points. But from the moment the leaders of the victorious Allied nations arrived in France for the peace conference in early 1919, the post-war reality began to diverge sharply from Wilson’s idealistic vision.

Five long months later, on June 28𠅎xactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo—the leaders of the Allied and associated powers, as well as representatives from Germany, gathered in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles to sign the final treaty. By placing the burden of war guilt entirely on Germany, imposing harsh reparations payments and creating an increasingly unstable collection of smaller nations in Europe, the treaty would ultimately fail to resolve the underlying issues that caused war to break out in 1914, and help pave the way for another massive global conflict 20 years later.

The Paris Peace Conference: None of the defeated nations weighed in, and even the smaller Allied powers had little say.
Formal peace negotiations opened in Paris on January 18, 1919, the anniversary of the coronation of German Emperor Wilhelm I at the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. World War I had brought up painful memories of that conflict—which ended in German unification and its seizure of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from France𠅊nd now France intended to make Germany pay.

The 𠇋ig Four” leaders of the victorious Allied nations (Woodrow Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France and, to a lesser extent, Vittorio Orlando of Italy) dominated the peace negotiations. None of the defeated nations were invited to weigh in, and even the smaller Allied powers had little say. Though the Versailles Treaty, signed with Germany in June 1919, was the most famous outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, the Allies also had separate treaties with Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary and Turkey, and the formal peacemaking process wasn’t concluded until the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923.

Government Officials Drafting the Terms of the Treaty of Versailles. (Credit: Bettmann/Getty Images)

The treaty was lengthy, and ultimately did not satisfy any nation.
The Versailles Treaty forced Germany to give up territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Poland, return Alsace and Lorraine to France and cede all of its overseas colonies in China, Pacific and Africa to the Allied nations. In addition, it had to drastically reduce its armed forces and accept the demilitarization and Allied occupation of the region around the Rhine River. Most importantly, Article 231 of the treaty placed all blame for inciting the war squarely on Germany, and forced it to pay several billion in reparations to the Allied nations.

Faced with the seemingly impossible task of balancing many competing priorities, the treaty ended up as a lengthy and confusing document that satisfied no one. “It literally is an attempt to remake Europe,” says Michael Neiberg, professor of history at U.S. Army War College and author of The Treaty of Versailles: A Concise History (2017). “I’m not one of those people who believes the treaty made the Second World War inevitable, but I think you could argue that it made Europe a less stable place.”

In Wilson’s vision of the post-war world, all nations (not just the losers) would reduce their armed forces, preserve the freedom of the seas and join an international peacekeeping organization called the League of Nations. But his fellow Allied leaders rejected much of his plan as naive and too idealistic. The French, in particular, wanted Germany to pay a heavy price for the war, including loss of territory, disarmament and payment of reparations, while the British saw Wilson’s plan as a threat to their supremacy in Europe.

VIDEO: Stock Market Crash of 1929

Black Thursday brings the roaring twenties to a screaming halt, ushering in a world-wide an economic depression.

Aside from affecting Germany, the Treaty of Versailles might have caused the Great Depression.
Many people, even at the time, agreed with the British economist John Maynard Keynes that Germany could not possibly pay so much in reparations without severe risks to the entire European economy. In his later memoir, U.S. President Herbert Hoover went so far as to blame reparations for causing the Great Depression.

But though most Germans were furious about the Treaty of Versailles, calling it a Diktat (dictated peace) and condemning the German representatives who signed it as “November criminals” who had stabbed them in the back, in hindsight it seems clear that the treaty turned out to be far more lenient than its authors might have intended. “Germany ended up not paying anywhere near what the treaty said Germany should pay,” Neiberg says, adding that hardly anyone had expected Germany to be able to pay the entire amount.

And despite the loss of German territory, “there were plenty of people who understood as early as 1919 that the map actually gave Germany some advantages,” Neiberg points out. “It put small states on Germany’s borders, in eastern and central Europe. It eliminated Russia as a direct enemy of Germany, at least in the 1920s, and it removed Russia as an ally of France. So while the treaty looked really harsh to some people, it actually opened up opportunities for others.”

The war guilt clause was more problematic. “You have to go back to 1914, when most Germans believed they had entered the war because Russia had mobilized its army,” explains Neiberg. “To most Germans in 1919, and not just those on the right, blaming Germany specifically for the war made no sense. Especially when they did not put a war guilt clause on Austria-Hungary, which you could reasonably argue were the people that actually started this.”

The first informal meeting of the League of Nations in Geneva. (Credit: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images)

New European borders, the League of Nations and Germany reparations.
Taken as a whole, the treaties concluded after World War I redrew the borders of Europe, carving up the former Austro-Hungarian Empire into states like Yugoslavia, Poland and Czechoslovakia. As Neiberg puts it: “Whereas in 1914, you had a small number of great powers, after 1919 you have a larger number of smaller powers. That meant that the balance of power was less stable.”

The Versailles Treaty had also included a covenant for the League of Nations, the international organization that Woodrow Wilson had envisioned would preserve peace among the nations of Europe and the world. But the U.S. Senate ultimately refused to ratify the Versailles Treaty due to its opposition to the League, which left the organization seriously weakened without U.S. participation or military backing.

Meanwhile, Germany’s economic woes, exacerbated by the burden of reparations and general European inflation, destabilized the Weimar Republic, the government established at the end of the war. Due to lasting resentment of the Versailles Treaty, the National Socialist (Nazi) Party and other radical right-wing parties were able to gain support in the 1920s and early �s by promising to overturn its harsh provisions and make Germany into a major European power once again.

The Versailles Treaty made World War II possible, not inevitable.
In 1945, when the leaders of the United States, Great Britain and Soviet Union met at Potsdam, they blamed the failures of the Versailles Treaty for making another great conflict necessary, and vowed to right the wrongs of their peacekeeping predecessors. But Neiberg, like many historians, takes a more nuanced view, pointing to events other than the treaty—including the United States not joining the League of Nations and the rise of the Stalinist regime in the Soviet Union𠅊s necessary elements in understanding the path to the Second World War.

“In my own personal view as a historian, you need to be really careful directly connecting events that happened 20 years apart,” he says. 𠇊 different treaty produces a different outcome, yes. But you shouldn’t draw inevitability. It’s part of the recipe, but it’s not the only ingredient.”


Events in History on May 5

Voyage of Ontdekking

1494 On 2nd voyage to New World Christopher Columbus sights Jamaica, landing at Discovery Bay

Oorwinning in Slag

1646 King Charles I surrenders in Scotland

    Nicolaas Witsen visits patriarch Nikon in Moscow Russia & Prussia sign Treaty of Saint Petersburg ending the Seven Years' War Smolny Institute forms in St Petersburg for noble girls

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1778 George Washington appoints Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Inspector General of the Continental Army

Meeting van belang

1789 French Estates-General meets for the first time since 1614 at Versailles, summoned King Louis XVI

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1792 Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre commissioned to measure the meridian between Dunkerque to Rodez to calculate accurate length of the metre

    Citizenship is denied to Jews of Aargau Canton, Switzerland Mary Kies is 1st woman issued a US patent for weaving straw British attack Fort Ontario, Oswego, New York American Bible Society organized in New York

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1840 Thomas Carlyle begins his famous lecture series "The Hero as Divinity", later collected in his book "On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History"

    City-wide fire burns for over 100 hours in Hamburg, Germany American Medical Association organized (Philadelphia) British Commodore James Plumridge attacks Finnish settlements in Gulf of Bothnia, killing civilans and destroying British-owned goods. New York City regains Castle Clinton, to be used for immigration Alexandria, Virginia - Confederate troops abandon the city French army intervenes in Puebla, Mexico: Cinco de Mayo Peninsular Campaign-Battle of Williamsburg, Virginia Atlanta Campaign: 5 days fighting begins at Rocky Face Ridge Battle between Confederate & Union ships at mouth of Roanoke Battle of Wilderness, Virginia (Germanna Ford, Wilderness Tavern) Campaign in Northern Georgia - Chattanooga to Atlanta 1st US train robbery (North Bend, Ohio) The British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind adopts Braille as best format for blind people Dutch 2nd Chamber passes child labor law

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1877 Indian Wars: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles

    Anti-Jewish rioting in Kiev, Ukraine The Bay View Tragedy occurs, as militia fires upon a crowd of protesters in Milwaukee, Wisconsin killing seven.

Panic of 1893

1893 Panic of 1893 causes a large crash on the NY Stock Exchange

Great White Fleet

1908 Great White Fleet arrives in San Francisco

    Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda begins publishing (4/22 OS) German U-20 captures and sinks Britsih schooner Earl of Lathom US Marines invade Dominican Republic, stay until 1924 Eugene Bullard gains his pilot's license from Aéro-Club de France and becomes the 1st African-American military pilot (French Air Service) German-Latvian peace treaty signed Polish troops occupy Kiev

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1920 US President Woodrow Wilson makes Communist Labor Party illegal

    Italian migrant anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti charged with murder of a paymaster at a US shoe factory in Massachusetts, both are later executed 1st ranger for Cleveland Metroparks hired Miniature newspaper published (Brighton Gazette 10 x 13 cm)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1921 Perfume Chanel No. 5 released by fashion designer Coco Chanel


Inhoud

Early history

The area of Aargau and the surrounding areas were controlled by the Helvetians, a member of the Celts, as far back as 200 BC, [4] eventually being occupied by the Romans and then by the 6th century, the Franks. [5] The Romans built a major settlement called Vindonissa, near the present location of Brugg. [4]

Medieval Aargau

In early medieval times, the Aargau was a disputed border region between the duchies of Alamannia and Burgundy. A line of the von Wetterau (Conradines) intermittently held the countship of Aargau from 750 until about 1030, when they lost it (having in the meantime taken the name von Tegerfelden). From the extinction in 1254 of the Hohenstaufen dynasty until 1415, the area was ruled by the Habsburgs, [nb 1] and many castles from that time still stand (examples include Habsburg, Lenzburg, Tegerfelden, Bobikon, Stin and Wildegg). [7] The Habsburgs founded a number of monasteries (with some structures enduring, e.g., in Wettingen and Muri), the closing of which by the government in 1841 was a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Swiss civil war – the "Sonderbund War" – in 1847.

Under the Swiss Confederation

When Frederick IV of Habsburg sided with Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, Emperor Sigismund placed him under the Imperial ban. [nb 2] In July 1414, the Pope visited Bern and received assurances from them, that they would move against the Habsburgs. [8] A few months later the Swiss Confederation denounced the Treaty of 1412. Shortly thereafter in 1415, Bern and the rest of the Swiss Confederation used the ban as a pretext to invade the Aargau. The Confederation was able to quickly conquer the towns of Aarau, Lenzburg, Brugg and Zofingen along with most of the Habsburg castles. Bern kept the southwest portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), northward to the confluence of the Aare and Reuss. [8] The important city of Baden was taken by a united Swiss army and governed by all 8 members of the Confederation. [8] Some districts, named the Freie Ämter (free bailiwicks) – Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten, with the countship of Baden – were governed as "subject lands" by all or some of the Confederates. Shortly after the conquest of the Aargau by the Swiss, Frederick humbled himself to the Pope. The Pope reconciled with him and ordered all of the taken lands to be returned. The Swiss refused and years later after no serious attempts at re-acquisition, the Duke officially relinquished rights to the Swiss. [9]

Unteraargau or Berner Aargau

Bern's portion of the Aargau came to be known as the Unteraargau, though can also be called the Berner or Bernese Aargau. In 1514 Bern expanded north into the Jura and so came into possession of several strategically important mountain passes into the Austrian Fricktal. This land was added to the Unteraargau and was directly ruled from Bern. It was divided into seven rural bailiwicks and four administrative cities, Aarau, Zofingen, Lenzburg and Brugg. While the Habsburgs were driven out, many of their minor nobles were allowed to keep their lands and offices, though over time they lost power to the Bernese government. The bailiwick administration was based on a very small staff of officials, mostly made up of Bernese citizens, but with a few locals. [10]

When Bern converted during the Protestant Reformation in 1528, the Unteraargau also converted. At the beginning of the 16th century a number of anabaptists migrated into the upper Wynen and Rueder valleys from Zürich. Despite pressure from the Bernese authorities in the 16th and 17th centuries anabaptism never entirely disappeared from the Unteraargau. [10]

Bern used the Aargau bailiwicks mostly as a source of grain for the rest of the city-state. The administrative cities remained economically only of regional importance. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries Bern encouraged industrial development in Unteraargau and by the late 18th century it was the most industrialized region in the city-state. The high industrialization led to high population growth in the 18tf century, for example between 1764 and 1798, the population grew by 35%, far more than in other parts of the canton. In 1870 the proportion of farmers in Aarau, Lenzburg, Kulm, and Zofingen districts was 34–40%, while in the other districts it was 46–57%. [10]

Freie Ämter

The rest of the Freie Ämter were collectively administered as subject territories by the rest of the Confederation. Muri Amt was assigned to Zürich, Lucerne, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug and Glarus, while the Ämter of Meienberg, Richensee and Villmergen were first given to Lucerne alone. The final boundary was set in 1425 by an arbitration tribunal and Lucerne had to give the three Ämter to be collectively ruled. [11] The four Ämter were then consolidated under a single Confederation bailiff into what was known in the 15th century as the Waggental Bailiwick (German: Vogtei im Waggental ). In the 16th century, it came to be known as the Vogtei der Freien Ämter. While the Freien Ämter often had independent lower courts, they were forced to accept the Confederation's sovereignty. Finally, in 1532, the canton of Uri became part of the collective administration of the Freien Ämter. [12]

At the time of Reformation, the majority of the Ämter converted to the new faith. In 1529, a wave of iconoclasm swept through the area and wiped away much of the old religion. After the defeat of Zürich in the second Battle of Kappel in 1531, the victorious five Catholic cantons marched their troops into the Freie Ämter and reconverted them to Catholicism. [11]

In the First War of Villmergen, in 1656, and the Toggenburg War (or Second War of Villmergen), in 1712, the Freie Ämter became the staging ground for the warring Reformed and Catholic armies. While the peace after the 1656 war did not change the status quo, the fourth Peace of Aarau in 1712 brought about a reorganization of power relations. The victory gave Zürich the opportunity to force the Catholic cantons out of the government in the county of Baden and the adjacent area of the Freie Ämter. The Freie Ämter were then divided in two by a line drawn from the gallows in Fahrwangen to the Oberlunkhofen church steeple. The northern part, the so-called Unteren Freie Ämter (lower Freie Ämter), which included the districts of Boswil (in part) and Hermetschwil and the Niederamt, were ruled by Zürich, Bern and Glarus. The southern part, the Oberen Freie Ämter (upper Freie Ämter), were ruled by the previous seven cantons but Bern was added to make an eighth. [11]

During the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803), the county of Baden, the Freie Ämter and the area known as the Kelleramt were combined into the Canton of Baden.

County of Baden

The County of Baden was a shared condominium of the entire Old Swiss Confederacy. After the Confederacy conquest in 1415, they retained much of the Habsburg legal structure, which caused a number of problems. The local nobility had the right to hold the low court in only about one fifth of the territory. There were over 30 different nobles who had the right to hold courts scattered around the surrounding lands. All these overlapping jurisdictions caused numerous conflicts, but gradually the Confederation was able to acquire these rights in the County. The cities of Baden, Bremgarten and Mellingen became the administrative centers and held the high courts. Together with the courts, the three administrative centers had considerable local autonomy, but were ruled by a governor who was appointed by the Acht Orte every two years. After the Protestant victory at the Second Battle of Villmergen, the administration of the County changed slightly. Instead of the Acht Orte appointing a bailiff together, Zürich and Bern each appointed the governor for 7 out of 16 years while Glarus appointed him for the remaining 2 years. [13]

The chaotic legal structure and fragmented land ownership combined with a tradition of dividing the land among all the heirs in an inheritance prevented any large scale reforms. The governor tried in the 18th century to reform and standardize laws and ownership across the County, but with limited success. With an ever changing administration, the County lacked a coherent long-term economic policy or support for reforms. By the end of the 18th century there were no factories or mills and only a few small cottage industries along the border with Zürich. Road construction first became a priority after 1750, when Zürich and Bern began appointing a governor for seven years. [13]

During the Protestant Reformation, some of the municipalities converted to the new faith. However, starting in 1531, some of the old parishes were converted back to the old faith. The governors were appointed from both Catholic and Protestant cantons and since they changed every two years, neither faith gained a majority in the County. [13]

The County was the only federal condominium in the 17th century where Jews were tolerated. In 1774, they were restricted to just two towns, Endingen and Lengnau. While the rural upper class tried several times to finally expel the Jews, the financial interests of the authorities prevented this. The Jews were directly subordinate to the governor starting in 1696 when they were forced to buy a protecting and shielding letter every 16 years from the governor. [13]

After the French invasion, on 19 March 1798, the governments of Zürich and Bern agreed to the creation of the short lived Canton of Baden in the Helvetic Republic. With the Act of Mediation in 1803, the Canton of Baden was dissolved. Portions of the lands of the former County of Baden now became the District of Baden in the newly created Canton of Aargau. After World War II, this formerly agrarian region saw striking growth and became the district with the largest and densest population in the Canton (110,000 in 1990, 715 persons per km 2 ). [13]


Religion [ edit | wysig bron]

Catholic City Church in Baden, Aargau

From the 2000 census, 219,800 or 40.1% were Roman Catholic, while 189,606 or 34.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 11,523 members of an Orthodox church (or about 2.10% of the population), there were 3,418 individuals (or about 0.62% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 29,580 individuals (or about 5.40% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 342 individuals (or about 0.06% of the population) who were Jewish, and 30,072 (or about 5.49% of the population) who were Islamic. There were 1,463 individuals who were Buddhist, 2,089 individuals who were Hindu and 495 individuals who belonged to another church. 57,573 (or about 10.52% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 15,875 individuals (or about 2.90% of the population) did not answer the question. ⎠]


Austria and the rise of the Habsburgs in Germany

Albert IV’s son Rudolf IV of Habsburg was elected German king as Rudolf I in 1273. It was he who, in 1282, bestowed Austria and Styria on his two sons Albert (the future German king Albert I) and Rudolf (reckoned as Rudolf II of Austria). From that date the agelong identification of the Habsburgs with Austria begins (kyk Austria: Accession of the Habsburg). The family’s custom, however, was to vest the government of its hereditary domains not in individuals but in all male members of the family in common, and, though Rudolf II renounced his share in 1283, difficulties arose again when King Albert I died (1308). After a system of condominium had been tried, Rudolf IV of Austria in 1364 made a compact with his younger brothers that acknowledged the principle of equal rights but secured de facto supremacy for the head of the house. Even so, after his death the brothers Albert III and Leopold III of Austria agreed on a partition (Treaty of Neuberg, 1379): Albert took Austria, Leopold took Styria, Carinthia, and Tirol.

King Albert I’s son Rudolf III of Austria had been king of Bohemia from 1306 to 1307, and his brother Frederick I had been German king as Frederick III (in rivalry or conjointly with Louis IV the Bavarian) from 1314 to 1330. Albert V of Austria was in 1438 elected king of Hungary, German king (as Albert II), and king of Bohemia his only surviving son, Ladislas Posthumus, was also king of Hungary from 1446 (assuming power in 1452) and of Bohemia from 1453. With Ladislas the male descendants of Albert III of Austria died out in 1457. Meanwhile the Styrian line descended from Leopold III had been subdivided into Inner Austrian and Tirolean branches.

Frederick V, senior representative of the Inner Austrian line, was elected German king in 1440 and crowned Holy Roman emperor, as Frederick III, in 1452—the last such emperor to be crowned in Rome. A Habsburg having thus attained the Western world’s most exalted secular dignity, a word may be said about the dynasty’s major titles. The imperial title at that time was, for practical purposes, hardly more than a glorification of the title of German king, and the German kingship was, like the Bohemian and the Hungarian, elective. If Habsburg was to succeed Habsburg as emperor continuously from Frederick’s death in 1493 to Charles VI’s accession in 1711, the principal reason was that the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs formed an aggregate large enough and rich enough to enable the dynasty to impose its candidate on the other German electors (the Habsburgs themselves had an electoral vote only in so far as they were kings of Bohemia).

For the greater part of Frederick’s reign it was scarcely foreseeable that his descendants would monopolize the imperial succession so long as they did. The Bohemian and Hungarian kingdoms were lost to the Habsburgs for nearly 70 years from the death of Ladislas Posthumus in 1457 the Swiss territories, lost in reality from 1315 onward (kyk Switzerland: Expansion and Position of Power), were finally renounced in 1474 and Frederick’s control over the Austrian inheritance itself was long precarious, not only because of aggression from Hungary but also because of dissension between him and his Habsburg kinsmen. Yet Frederick, one of whose earliest acts in his capacity as emperor had been to ratify, in 1453, the Habsburgs’ use of the unique title of “archduke of Austria” (first arrogated for them by Rudolf IV in 1358–59), may have had some prescient aspiration toward worldwide empire for the House of Austria: the motto A.E.I.O.U., which he occasionally used, is generally interpreted as meaning Austriae est imperare orbi universo (“Austria is destined to rule the world”), or Alles Erdreich ist Österreich untertan (“The whole world is subject to Austria”). He lived long enough to see his son Maximilian make the most momentous marriage in European history and three years before his death he also saw the Austrian hereditary lands reunited when Sigismund of Tirol abdicated in Maximilian’s favour (1490).

Before explaining what the Habsburgs owed dynastically to Maximilian, mention can be made of a physical peculiarity characteristic of the House of Habsburg from the emperor Frederick III onward: his jaw and his lower lip were prominent, a feature supposed to have been inherited by him from his mother, the Mazovian princess Cymbarka. Later intermarriage reproduced the “Habsburg lip” more and more markedly, especially among the last Habsburg kings of Spain.


Kyk die video: Vogelperspektive 360 Grad über Zeihen im Fricktal, Kanton Aargau (Augustus 2022).