Artikels

Waarom is daar so min paleo-Indiese geraamtes gevind?

Waarom is daar so min paleo-Indiese geraamtes gevind?



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Ek het onlangs die van Charles C. Mann gelees 1491: Nuwe onthullings van die Amerikas voor Columbus, Tweede uitgawe, en was geïntrigeerd deur die voetnoot op bladsy 174:

[Aleš] Hrdlička se klagte oor die gebrek aan skeletbewyse [by Clovis] was om 'n ander rede onregverdig: paleo-Indiese geraamtes is uiters skaars. In Europa het argeoloë tientalle geraamtes van tien duisend jaar oud of meer ontdek. Daarteenoor is minder as 'n dosyn redelik volledige geraamtes van dieselfde ouderdom gevind in Noord -Amerika ('n paar meer bestaan ​​in Suid -Amerika, hoewel die oorsprong daarvan, soos met die Lagoa Santa -geraamtes, dikwels onduidelik is). 'Dit is 'n groot raaisel waarom ons nie die begrafnisse vind nie,' het die argeoloog James Petersen aan die Universiteit van Vermont gesê. 'Sommige Indiërs sal jou vertel dat hul dooies almal na 'n geestelike vlak verhuis het, en dit is omtrent net so goed soos enige antwoord wat ons het.'

Ek het gegoogle vir meer inligting hieroor (soektogte soos skaarsheid van paleo-Indiese geraamtes), maar wat ek gevind het, het my net met meer vrae gelaat. Byvoorbeeld:

"Paleo -Amerikaanse geraamtes is skaars om verskeie redes," het [James] Chatters gesê. "Die mense self was min; hulle was hoogs nomadies en het blykbaar die dooies begrawe of veras waar hulle geval het, wat die ligging van grafte onvoorspelbaar maak; ook het geologiese prosesse hulle grafte vernietig of diep begrawe." [skakel]

Hierdie stellings blyk moontlik te wees, maar dit lyk of dit in stryd is met Mann se voetnoot (en met sy proefskrif meer algemeen).

Ek verwag uiteraard nie dat iemand hier gesaghebbend hierop kan antwoord nie, want daar lyk ten minste 'n mate van meningsverskil en twyfel; maar ek wonder wat die status van die vraag is: wat is die belangrikste teorieë, wat is die bewyse daarvoor, hoe groot is die verskillende "kampe"?


Ou en moderne Europeërs het 'n verrassende genetiese verbinding

Daar is 'n verrassende genetiese eenheid tussen die vroegste bekende Europeërs en hedendaagse Europeërs, onthul antieke DNA. Hierdie bevinding dui daarop dat 'n komplekse netwerk van seksuele uitruil oor die afgelope 50 000 jaar in Europa bestaan ​​het, en dit kan ook help om vas te stel wanneer moderne mense met Neanderthalers, die naaste uitgestorwe familielede van moderne mense, gekruis het, het die navorsers gesê.

Daar word steeds gedebatteer oor die oorsprong van hedendaagse Europeërs. Die moderne menslike voorouers van hedendaagse Eurasiërs het Afrika ongeveer 50 000 tot 60 000 jaar gelede verlaat, maar hoe hierdie vroegste Eurasiërs tot die moderne Europese genepoel bygedra het, is onduidelik.

Om lig te werp op die oorsprong van moderne Europeërs, het wetenskaplikes DNA ontleed van die linkerbeen van 'n skelet, bekend as K14, wat in 1954 opgegrawe is. K14 is een van die oudste fossiele van 'n Europese moderne mens en 'n man wat tussen 36 200 geleef het en 38 700 jaar gelede in die gebied wat nou Kostenki is, in die weste van Rusland. Die streek is bekend vir sy reusagtige strukture, "sirkels gemaak van mammoetbene wat die basis van tente, hutte, vuurherde, litiese en beenvoorwerpe, sowel as persoonlike ornamente en beeldjies sou wees," het mede-outeur van die studie, Marta Miraz & oacuten Lahr, gesê. , 'n paleoantropoloog aan die Universiteit van Cambridge in Engeland. [Die 10 grootste raaisels van die eerste mense]

Die navorsers het die volledige genoom van K14 gelys, wat dit die tweede oudste moderne menslike genoom ooit gemaak het. Die oudste nog was van die 45 000 jaar oue bobeen van 'n man wat in Wes-Siberië gevind is.

Die navorsers het verbasend bevind dat hedendaagse Europeërs genetiese kontinuïteit met ou Europeërs deel.

'Feitlik al die belangrikste genetiese komponente wat u by hedendaagse Europeërs aantref, is onder die vroegste Europeërs,' het hoofstudie -skrywer Eske Willerslev, 'n evolusionêre bioloog aan die Universiteit van Kopenhagen in Denemarke, gesê. 'Ek dink nie baie sou dit voorspel het nie.'

Die wetenskaplikes het ontdek dat Europa duisende jare lank die tuiste was van 'n sogenaamde 'metapopulasie' van moderne mense en dat 'n groep aparte bevolkings wat gereeld gemeng, gegroei en gefragmenteer is, die tuiste was. Die genetiese bydraes van die vroegste Eurasiërs tot die moderne Europese bevolkings het moontlik nie gekom deur 'n paar duidelike migrasies van Asië na Europa nie, maar eerder deur geenvloei in verskillende rigtings.

"Ons moet ons begrip van hoe die genetiese diversiteit by hedendaagse Europeërs ontstaan ​​het, hersien," het Willerslev aan Live Science gesê. "Vroeë Europeërs was deel van 'n metapopulasie wat tot in Sentraal -Asië strek, en deur 'n komplekse netwerk van seksuele uitruil is hedendaagse Europese bevolkings geskep."

In totaal het die Europeërs die genetiese kontinuïteit gehandhaaf vanaf hul vroegste vestiging uit Afrika totdat Midde -Oosterse boere in die afgelope 8 000 jaar aangekom het, wat landbou en 'n ligter velkleur meebring, het die navorsers gesê.

"Terwyl mense in en uit Asië en Europa verhuis het, ook in die onlangse verlede, onthul die genoom van Kostenki vir die eerste keer die buitengewone kontinuïteit van Europeërs," het Miraz & oacuten Lahr gesê. [Foto's: Ons naaste menslike voorouer]

Die belangrikste komponente van die moderne Europese genoom dateer moontlik nog meer terug as wat wetenskaplikes gedink het, tot in die Bo -Paleolitiese Era, tussen 50 000 en 10 000 jaar gelede, het die navorsers gesê. Die feit dat daar gedurende hierdie tydperk genetiese kontinuïteit was, is merkwaardig omdat 'hierdie periode ooreenstem met die mees ekstreme klimaat wat moderne menslike bevolkings ooit beleef het, veral in Europa,' het Miraz & oacuten Lahr aan Live Science gesê. 'Vir 30 000 jaar het yskappe gekom en gegaan, wat op 'n stadium twee derdes van Europa beslaan,' het sy gesê.

Die nuwe studie het ook bevind dat K14 se DNA soortgelyk is aan dié van 'n 24 000-jarige seuntjie wat in Sentraal-Siberië gevind is, sowel as dié van hedendaagse Wes-Siberiërs en baie Europeërs, maar nie die DNA van Oos-Asiërs nie. Hierdie bevinding toon aan dat Wes -Eurasiese en Oos -Asiatiese geslagte reeds ongeveer 37 000 jaar gelede van mekaar geskei het.

Daar was baie debat onder wetenskaplikes oor wanneer die westelike Eurasiese en Oos -Asiatiese geslagte afwyk, "wat wissel van baie onlangse breektye tot baie oud," het Willerslev gesê. 'Ons sluit die moontlikheid van 'n baie onlangse skeiding uit.'

K14 het ook ongeveer 1 persent meer Neanderthaler -DNA as moderne mense. Na verwagting sou K14 meer Neanderthaler -DNA besit as wat vandag by mense voorkom, aangesien enige Neanderthalse afkoms wat moderne mense moontlik sou gehad het, mettertyd moes verdun het, sodra die Neanderthalers uitgesterf het.

Genetiese gegewens van K14 dui daarop dat moderne mense en Neanderthalers ongeveer 54 000 jaar gelede gekruis het, voordat die moderne menslike bevolking in Eurasië begin skei het. Dit is die rede waarom 1,5 tot 2,1 persent van die DNA van enigiemand vandag met Eurasiese afkoms en van Europa na Asië na die Amerikas en mdash van Neanderthaler oorsprong is.

Alhoewel moderne mense Europa nog 10 000 jaar lank met Neanderthalers gedeel het, het daar baie min, indien enige, bykomende kruisteling plaasgevind.

"Het die Neanderdal-bevolkings baie vinnig afgeneem? Het die moderne mense dit nog teëgekom? Ons was oorspronklik verbaas om te ontdek dat daar kruisteling was," het mede-outeur van die studie, Robert Foley, ook van die Universiteit van Cambridge, gesê in 'n verklaring. "Nou is die vraag, hoekom so min? Dit is 'n buitengewone bevinding wat ons nog nie verstaan ​​nie."

Die wetenskaplikes het hul bevindings vandag (6 November) aanlyn in die tydskrif Science uiteengesit.


Argeoloë in Texas het gedink dat hulle 'n belangrike ontdekking in die negentigerjare gemaak het, toe hulle 'n klomp klipgereedskap opgegrawe het wat 13 000 jaar terug dateer, wat spore van die oudste wydverspreide kultuur op die vasteland onthul het.

Maar dan, jare later, het hulle 'n nog kragtiger vonds op dieselfde plek gemaak - nog 'n laag artefakte wat nog ouer was.

Ongeveer 'n halfuur noord van Austin en 'n meter diep in souterige klei, het navorsers bewyse gevind van menslike besetting wat tot 16 700 jaar terugdateer, insluitend fragmente van menslike tande en meer as 90 klipwerktuie.

Behalwe dat dit ook een van die oudste is wat nog in die Amerikaanse Weste gevind is, is die artefakte seldsame spore van 'n kultuur wat voor die kultuur bekend gestaan ​​het as Clovis, waarvan die kenmerkend gevormde klipgereedskap wat in Noord -Amerika voorkom, konsekwent ongeveer 13 000 jaar gelede gedateer is. Die voor-Clovis-artefakte bevat meer as 90 klipgereedskap, soos tweesnydings en lemme, en meer as 160 000 vlokkies wat oorgebly het van die puntmaakproses. (Foto met vergunning van Gault School of Archaeological Research)

'N Hele generasie antropoloë het inderdaad geleer dat Clovis die eerste inwoners van die vasteland verteenwoordig.

Maar, saam met 'n handjievol ander voor-Clovis-vondste, voeg die Texas-gereedskap by tot die toenemende bewyse dat mense langer gelede op die vasteland aangekom het as wat ooit gedink is, sê dr. D. Clark Wernecke, direkteur van die Gault School of Archaeological Research. .

"Die belangrikste wegneemete is dat mense baie vroeër in die Nuwe Wêreld was as wat ons vroeër geglo het," het Wernecke gesê.

'Ons is almal 13 500 jaar gelede geleer [Noord -Amerika is die eerste keer bevolk], en dit blyk dat mense 15 000 tot 20 000 jaar gelede aangekom het. [Kyk wat die oudste artefak in die Weste kan wees: “Stone Tool opgegrawe in Oregon 'Wenke' by die oudste menslike beroep in Wes -VS ”

Die plek in Texas waar die nuwe vondste gemaak is, bekend as die Gault-terrein, is die eerste keer in die twintigerjare geïdentifiseer, maar eers in die negentigerjare het argeoloë die eerste gereedskap, soos tapse-ovaal spieskoppe, ontdek wat duidelike tekens was van die antieke Clovis -kultuur.

Dit was die bevindings wat Wernecke en sy kollegas verder gaan ondersoek het toe hulle in 2002 op die Gault -werf begin werk het.

'Destyds was ons geïnteresseerd in Clovis, en ons het geen idee gehad van iets vroeër daar nie,' het hy gesê.

Na 'n paar jaar om proefgate te grawe en toevallige ontdekkings te vind, het die span uiteindelik gefokus op twee van die opvallendste dele van die webwerf.

Die eerste deel, bekend as Area 12, onthul 'n ongewone 'sypaadjie' wat gebou is uit kasse wat diep onder die oppervlak begrawe is.

"[Dit is] 'n ongeveer twee-tot-drie-meter reghoekige gruisblokkie van ongeveer 10 sentimeter dik afgeronde riviergrawe in 'n noue omvang, met artefakte van ten minste Clovis op en om dit," het Wernecke gesê.

'Die aanduidings van die omliggende data is dat dit 'n struktuur bevat.'

Die teenwoordigheid van klipgereedskap uit die Clovis-era dui daarop dat die geplaveide vloer ongeveer 13 000 jaar gelede dateer. Op Area 15 (foto) het navorsers klipgereedskap gevind wat in die handtekening Clovis -styl gevorm is. Maar 'n paar sentimeter daaronder verskyn 'n oorvloed nuwe materiaal - insluitend menslike tande. (Foto met vergunning van The Gault School of Archaeological Research)

Die span het bly grawe, en ongeveer 1 meter onder die sypaadjie en die Clovis -gereedskap het hulle nog nege vlokkies gevormde klippe gevind, tesame met 'n verstrooiing van dierbene.

Die veronderstelling was dat die materiaal wat onder die Clovis -sypaadjie gevind is, ouer as Clovis moet wees. Maar daar was nie veel om aan te gaan nie.

'In gebied 12 het u die sypaadjie, litika en been, en nie veel anders nie,' het Wernecke gesê.

Die span het egter ook sy aandag gevestig op 'n ander gebied in die omgewing, waar dit aansienlik meer en groter artefakte ontdek het wat ook ouer was as Clovis.

Hier, op 'n plek met die naam Area 15, het die navorsers eers nog 'n paar klipgereedskap gevind wat in die handtekening Clovis -styl gevorm is. Maar 'n paar sentimeter daaronder verskyn 'n oorvloed nuwe materiaal - insluitend menslike tande.

Tussen 'n hopie kalkstene het die span die emaljepette van vier aangrensende tande van 'n jong volwasse wyfie ontdek.

Geen menslike bene is gevind nie, en emalje kan nie met koolstof gedateer word nie, het Wernecke opgemerk, so besonderhede oor die vrou - soos hoe en wanneer sy gelewe en gesterf het - bly vir eers 'n raaisel.

In dieselfde, diep, ouer as Clovis-laag sediment het die navorsers egter nog 'n oortuigende vonds opgegrawe-meer as 90 klipgereedskap, gevorm in 'n styl wat duidelik nie Clovis was nie.

Clovis-projektielpunte kan geïdentifiseer word aan hul lang ewewydige vorm-'n vorm bekend as lansetvormig-sowel as aan hul dun voetstukke, en inkepings waar 'n as op die klip vasgemaak kan word. [Sien 'n helder-kristal Clovis-punt wat onlangs in Mexiko gevind is: “ Antieke Clovis-olifantjagkamp ontdek in Mexiko “]

Maar baie van die nuutgevonde, dieper artefakte pas nie by die beskrywing nie.

'Die morfologie is heeltemal anders,' het Wernecke gesê. 'Dit is nie lansetvormige punte met basale dunner nie.

'Drie daarvan is baie klein stingelpunte, en die vierde is 'n effens dik lansetvormige punt.

Benewens die 90 gereedskap, bevat die artefakte meer as 160 000 klipvlokkies wat oorgebly het van die vervaardigingsproses. En hulle verskil ook van die vlokkies wat met Clovis -gereedskap gevind word, het Wernecke gesê.

'Die afskilferingspatrone is ook heeltemal anders,' het hy gesê.

'Dit is nie gemaak met behulp van Clovis -tegnologie nie.'

Maar die feit dat hierdie artefakte anders was as en dieper was as die Clovis -punte, bewys nie noodwendig dat hulle ouer was nie.

Om hul ouderdom vas te stel, het Wernecke en sy kollegas 18 van die artefakte by 'n laboratorium ingedien vir opties gestimuleerde luminescentiedatering - 'n proses wat klein korrels in die grond ontleed om aan te dui wanneer hulle laas aan sonlig blootgestel is, en sodoende 'n idee te gee van hoe lank hulle is begrawe.

Die resultate het getoon dat die artefakte tussen 13 200 en 16 700 jaar oud was.

Op hul oudste is dit ongeveer 3000 jaar ouer as die vroegste tekens van die Clovis -kultuur oral in Noord -Amerika.

"Ons het hierdie [datums] vergelyk met relatiewe datering van artefakte en radiokoolstofdatums waar moontlik," het Wernecke bygevoeg. 'Dit lyk asof almal goed saamstem.'

Die ontdekking van al hierdie artefakte wat ouer is as Clovis, laat prikkelende vrae ontstaan ​​oor hoe die vroeëre kultuur was en hoe dit vergelyk het met die Clovis-kultuur.

Volgens Wernecke dui die voor-Clovis-gereedskap daarop dat hul vervaardigers waarskynlik direkte voorgangers van die Clovis was.

Hy het gesê dat baie aspekte van hul tegnologie - soos hoe hulle tweesnydende lemme gemaak het - dieselfde was, maar nie identies nie. 'N Vergelyking van 'n Clovis -punt op die Gault -terrein (links) met die basisse van ouer punte onder die Clovis -laag. (Foto met vergunning van Gault School of Archaeological Research)

'Dit lyk asof die lemtegnologie nie veel verander het nie - 'n bietjie tegnies, maar beide kulture het soortgelyke lemme gemaak,' het hy gesê.

'Net so is baie van die gereedskap dieselfde basiese gereedskap - maklik herkenbaar aan die tegnologiese kultuur, maar op 'n ander manier gemaak. 'N Ander stel tegnologiese gereedskap en instruksies is gebruik om by soortgelyke werktuigtipes uit te kom.

Hierdie kontinuïteit in tegnologie kan dui op 'n soortgelyke kontinuïteit van kultuur, voeg Wernecke by, 'n geleidelike oorgang van die een kultuur na die volgende.

'Logies sou u 'n ooreenkoms verwag,' het hy gesê. 'As mense 'n nuwe tegnologie gebruik, sal sommige van die oue bly hang.

'As [die gereedskap] heeltemal anders was, sou u verwag om 'n ander kultuur tussen [die Clovis- en die ouer as Clovis-lae] te vind, of 'n bewys vir 'n totale vervanging van die bevolking.

Baie meer werk moet nog op die Gault -werf gedoen word, het Wernecke gesê.

Maar die ontdekkings wat tot dusver daar gemaak is, het enorme gevolge vir ons begrip van die geskiedenis van menslike migrasie en die bevolking van Amerika, het Wernecke gesê. [Leer waarom kundige ontlasting wat in Oregon voorkom, kundiges aanvoer: “ Antieke ontlasting uit die Oregon -grot is nie menslik nie, sê die studie, wat bydra tot debat oor eerste Amerikaners en#8220]

'In 1590 het [Spaanse sendeling en natuurkundige] Jose de Acosta geskryf dat die mense in die Nuwe Wêreld primitiewe mense was wat seker hier moes geloop het, en ons het sedertdien op die uitgangspunt voortgebou,' het hy gesê.

'Maar dit was eers baie later moontlik om hier te loop, met gletsers van 3 myl in die pad.

'As mense 15 000 tot 20 000 jaar gelede hier aangekom het, moes hulle met die boot langs die kus gekom het. [Kyk wat DNA aan die lig gebring het oor die Clovis -kultuur: “ Genome of America's Only Clovis Skeleton onthul die oorsprong van inheemse Amerikaners “]

Boonop toon die diversiteit van artefakte wat op die Gault -terrein aan die lig gekom het, ook dat die vroegste mense op die vasteland nie 'n statiese of monolitiese groep was nie.

"Ons begin verstaan ​​dat die eerste mense in die nuwe wêreld net soos ons was," het Wernecke gesê, "intelligent, vindingryk, kreatief - en hulle het maniere gevind om aan te pas by 'n vinnig veranderende wêreld."

Wernecke en sy kollegas het hul bevindings tydens die 2015 -vergadering van die Plains Anthropological Conference aangebied.


Wat het Homo Luzonensis Lyk soos?

Die Callao -man (Homo luzonensis) -spesie is nou die tweede bekende dwergmens op rekord. Volgens LiveScience, terwyl die spesie hulle grootliks soortgelyk aan hul soorte voorstel floresiensis eweknieë is nie heeltemal mislei nie, die 13 ontdekte fossielbene kan ons 'n duideliker beeld gee.

Die bene en tande, wat aan minstens twee volwassenes en 'n kind behoort het, bevat twee handbene, drie voetbene, 'n bobeen en sewe tande. Ons kan beweer dat hulle eienskappe van 'n verskeidenheid ander vroeë mense gedeel het, goeie klimmers was, en korter as vier voet was - maar tans weinig anders.

Callao Cave Archaeology Project 'n Voetfalanks van die Callao Man -spesie, met die kromme duidelik sigbaar.

Dit is moeilik om dit fisies konkreet te beskryf "omdat dit baie moeilik is om te bepaal uit die elemente wat ons het," het Détroit gesê. Terwyl hul voete dui op sterk klimvermoëns, is die Homo 2 miljoen jaar gelede tweeledig geword het, so Détroit en sy span gee dit beslis nie voor nie H. Luzonensis was 'terug na die bome'. ”

'Maar dit is dan 'n baie interessante vraag om aan te spreek,' het hy gesê. 'As hulle soos alle lede van die genus streng tweevoetig was Homo, het sulke primitiewe kenmerke hul tweevoetige gang beïnvloed (of) verander of nie? Maar dit is nog te vroeg om te antwoord, ons moet daaraan werk. ”


Versterk mense soos ander wesens?

Verstopping is 'n seldsame gebeurtenis, veral van mense wat baie beweeglik is. Aangesien die reën van Noag se vloed weke geneem het om die aarde te bedek, kon baie mense na bote gekom het, na drywende puin gryp, ensovoorts. Sommige het moontlik die hoër vlak bereik. Alhoewel hulle nie so lank sou duur en uiteindelik sou vergaan nie, sou hulle moontlik nie fossiel nie.

In die meeste gevalle ontbind dooie dinge of word hulle geëet. Hulle verdwyn net en niks bly oor nie. Die tsoenami van 2004 in Suidoos -Asië was 'n skokkende herinnering aan die spoed waarmee water en ander kragte alle spore van liggame kan uitskakel, selfs al weet ons waar ons moet kyk. Volgens die Verenigde Nasies se kantoor van die spesiale gesant vir die herstel van tsoenami is byna 43 000 tsoenami -slagoffers nooit gevind nie.

Selfs al is dit skaars, is dit steeds moontlik om 'n menslike liggaam te fossiel. Trouens, ons vind wel fossiele van mense, soos Neanderthalers, in die sediment na die vloed. Waarom vind ons mense nie in sedimente voor die vloed nie?

Een voorstel was dat die menslike bevolking relatief klein was. Kom ons kyk hoe die moontlikheid werk.


Die FBI het toegeslaan op 'n 91-jarige sendeling se huis en duisende gesteelde inheemse Amerikaanse bene gevind

Die amateurmuseum wat Donald C. Miller uit sy huis in die mielielande van Sentraal -Indiana gehardloop het, was in alle opsigte nie 'n geheim nie. Koerantverslaggewers, Boy Scout -troepe en inwoners van die plattelandse boeregemeenskap van Waldron, Ind., Is almal uitgenooi om in te gaan kyk in sy kelder, waar glaskaste die meeste mure bedek. Tienduisende skaars kulturele artefakte is uitgestal-waaronder pre-Columbiaanse aardewerk, jade uit die Ming-dinastie, 'n Egiptiese sarkofaag en 'n kano wat deur die Amazone-rivier geloop het. En die eksentrieke nie -agtige versamelaar was deel van die aantrekkingskrag.

'Ek bedoel hierdie man, hy is 'n wonderlike stuk geskiedenis', het Amy Mohr, 'n vriend van Miller uit die kerk, aan die Indianapolis Star gesê in 2014. 'Hy is self 'n artefak.'

Maar toe die FBI se speurders van kunsmisdaad opdaag en in April 2014 deur die uitgebreide versameling van Miller begin blaai, vermoed hulle dat baie van die oorblyfsels wat sorgvuldig in die kaste neergelê is, in stryd met die oudheidswette verkry is, het hulle iets teëgekom wat hulle verskrik het: omtrent Daar word vermoed dat 2 000 menslike bene van antieke inheemse Amerikaanse begraafplase geneem is.

"Sover ons weet, verteenwoordig hierdie 2 000 bene ongeveer 500 mense," het Tim Carpenter, hoof van die FBI se kunsdiefstal -eenheid, aan CBS News gesê in 'n onderhoud wat Dinsdag uitgesaai is. "Dit is baie verbysterend."

Miller, 'n Christen sendeling en hamradio -operateur wat beweer dat hy aan die Manhattan -projek gewerk het, is in 2015 op 91 -jarige ouderdom oorlede, byna 'n jaar nadat die FBI op sy huis toegeslaan het en beslag gelê het op ongeveer 42,000 items waarvan die kulturele waarde onmeetbaar was. Tot hierdie week het amptenare min inligting oor die saak verskaf en wou hulle nie in detail ingaan oor presies wat die speurders van kunsmisdade in die produktiewe versamelaarshuis gevind het nie.

Carpenter het Dinsdag met 'CBS This Morning' gepraat en gesê dat Miller voor sy dood erken het dat hy baie van die voorwerpe onwettig verby is en dat hy deur die hele land en oor die hele wêreld sonder argeologiese opgrawings gegaan het. Hy het ook ingestem dat die artefakte na hul regte huise terugbesorg moet word. Maar omdat hy gesterf het terwyl die ondersoek nog aan die gang was, is baie aspekte van sy lewe - en die troepe wat hy agtergelaat het - 'n raaisel.

Anna Werner van CBS het byvoorbeeld gevra: waarom sou iemand soveel menslike bene hê?

'Ek weet nie,' antwoord Carpenter en skud sy kop. “Ek weet regtig nie.”

Die afskuwelike misdaad om grawe met lang dormante op te grawe, was 'n deurlopende bron van frustrasie vir die inheemse Amerikaanse gemeenskappe. Teen die einde van die 19de eeu het amateur- sowel as professionele argeoloë begin om die stamgrawe te grawe en die geraamtes van inheemse mense wat honderde jare tevore gesterf het, op te grawe. Sommige beenfragmente is in museums vertoon, terwyl ander noukeurig ontleed is deur antropoloë wat teorieë van raswetenskap probeer ontleed het, soos die oortuiging dat intelligensie direk gekorreleer is met die grootte van 'n mens se skedel. Dit het byna 100 jaar geneem voordat die Wet op die beskerming en terugkeer van inheemse Amerikaanse grafte in 1990 onderteken is, wat dit onwettig maak om inheemse Amerikaanse oorskot te koop of te verkoop.

"Ons word al te gereeld hier as nuuskieriges behandel as 'n volk," het Pete Coffey, 'n stamamptenaar van die Noord -Dakota Mandan, Hidatsa en Arikara Nation, aan CBS gesê. 'Dit kan baie goed my eie oupagrootjie, oupagrootjie of ouma wees. . . . Ek beskryf dit as uit die aarde geruk. ”

Coffey is een van die stamleiers wat saam met die FBI werk om die misbruikte oorskot na hul oorspronklike rusplekke terug te bring, berig CBS. Kenners meen dat die meeste bene wat in Miller se huis gevind is, van die begraafplase in Noord -Dakota verwyder is en dat baie van die Arikara -stam behoort. Dit is onduidelik of Miller die oorskot getoon het aan mense wat sy huis besoek het, en of hy dit self opgegrawe het of dit by iemand anders gekoop het.

Tot Dinsdag was die FBI versigtig oor die klopjag van 2014, wat nie gelei het tot Miller se arrestasie of aanklagte nie. Destyds het amptenare gesê dat hulle wenke oor sy skatkis ontvang het en ondersoek om te sien of enige van die items onwettig is vir private burgers. Benewens groot inheemse Amerikaanse artefakte, het Miller na bewering onskatbare oorblyfsels versamel uit lande, waaronder Australië, China, Haïti, Peru en Rusland, en dit in buitegeboue gestoor rondom sy afgeleë Waldron -samestelling sowel as in sy gemaklike kelder.

Robert A. Jones, die spesiale agent van die FBI wat die saak in beheer was, het destyds aan verslaggewers gesê dat Miller se metodes vir die verkryging van sommige van die voorwerpe verskeie wette en verdrae oortree het, maar het ook hierdie bewering ondermyn deur te erken dat die relevante statute moontlik nie nog in plek was. Miller het immers agt dekades tevore sy versameling begin, toe hy as kind die eerste keer pyle op die plaas van sy gesin gevind het.

Voorstanders vir hervorming van strafreg en vryheidsgroepe soos die Cato -instituut kritiseer vinnig wat hulle as 'n te aggressiewe benadering van die FBI beskou het, en voer aan dat die regering geen bewys gelewer het dat Miller iets onwettigs gedoen het nie. "Die FBI -plan is blykbaar om die inhoud van 'n bejaarde man se lewenslange stokperdjie in beslag te neem en hom dan te dwing om te bewys dat hy elke item in sy versameling wettig bekom het," het Radley Balko in The Washington Post geskryf.

Byna vyf jaar later duur die ondersoek steeds voort, en kenners verwag dat dit dekades kan neem om die duisende voorwerpe wat die FBI beslag gelê het, te bestudeer, aangesien die bepaling van hul wettigheid beteken dat u eers moet uitvind waar en wanneer elkeen gekoop is. Sommige van die artefakte is reeds gerepatrieer-Bogota's City Paper berig in Oktober dat 40 stukke voor-Columbiaanse aardewerk, sommige dateer uit 1500 vC, seremonieel deur die staatsdepartement terugbesorg is nadat die FBI vasgestel het dat Miller hulle uit die land. Ander artefakte is teruggestuur na lande soos Kanada, Ecuador, Nieu -Seeland en Spanje, het die FBI se kantoor in Indianapolis Dinsdag in 'n tweet gesê. 'N Bykomende 361 items uit Miller se versameling word hierdie week na China terugbesorg.

Voordat spoggerige opskrifte in die nasionale media hom 'n werklike Indiana Jones noem, was Miller bekend by Waldron en die omliggende Rush County, Ind., As 'n groter persoon as die lewe wat 'n voorliefde gehad het om onverifieerbare verhale te vertel en 'n 1927 Wurlitzer te speel orrel om sy gaste te vermaak. Hy het in 1998 met die Star gepraat en gesê dat hy tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in New Mexico gestasioneer was en toegewys is aan die geheimsinnige Manhattan-projek, waar hy beweer dat hy die ontploffing van die eerste atoombom gesien het. Toe die oorlog geëindig het, het hy 30 jaar lank as elektriese ingenieur by die Naval Avionics Center in Indianapolis gewerk, terwyl hy terselfdertyd reise gemaak het om kerke in Haïti en Colombia te bou. Nadat hy op 60 -jarige ouderdom afgetree het, het hy en sy vrou, Sue, 'n voormalige hoërskoolonderwyseres, gereeld na arm lande gereis om sendingwerk te doen.


Lady Fu Hao en haar uitbundige graf van die Shang -dinastie

Lady Fu Hao is 'n uiters buitengewone karakter uit die Chinese geskiedenis wat meer as drie millennia gelede geleef het. In 'n samelewing wat sterk gedomineer is deur manlike figure, het Fu Hao rolle aangeneem wat ander vroue van haar tyd nooit sou kon droom om aan te neem nie. Behalwe dat hy 'n vrou en 'n moeder was, was Fu Hao ook 'n militêre leier, 'n sjamaan / priesteres en 'n invloedryke politikus. Die ontdekking van haar uitbundige graf in die sewentigerjare weerspieël haar belangrike posisie in die lewe.

Herdenkingsbeeld van Fu Hao by Yinxu ( Wikimedia)

Lady Fu Hao het geleef tydens die bewind van keiser Wu Ding van die Shang -dinastie (ongeveer 1250 - 1192 v.C.). Volgens Chinese historiese verslae het Wu Ding die alliansie van naburige stamme verkry deur met 'n vrou uit elk van die stamme te trou. As gevolg hiervan het hy talle vroue gehad, 60 volgens historiese bronne, en Fu Hao was een van hulle. Alhoewel dit onduidelik is oor die manier waarop Fu Hao deur die geledere gestyg het, gee die orakelbene van die Shang -dinastie ons inligting oor haar bydraes tot die Shang -dinastie.

Die orakelbene wat by Yinxi ontdek is, gee ons 'n verleidelike blik op die lewe van Fu Hao. Volgens die inskripsies op die bene het sy verskeie suksesvolle militêre veldtogte gelei teen die vyande van die Shang, waaronder die Tu-Fang, 'n stam wat geslagte lank met die Shang geveg het. Fu Hao het hulle in 'n beslissende stryd heeltemal verslaan. Sy het ook veldtogte teen die Yi, Qiang en Ba stamme gelei.

Orakelbeen met 'n waarsêery opskrif uit die Shang -dinastie, wat dateer uit die bewind van koning Wu Ding (Wikpedia)

Lady Fu Hao se rol was nie beperk tot militêre aangeleenthede nie, want sy was ook betrokke by belangrike seremoniële aangeleenthede. Terwyl die Shang -konings absolute beheer oor hierdie aspek van die Shang -samelewing gehad het, onthul die orakelbene dat keiser Wu Ding by verskeie geleenthede aan Lady Fu Hao opdrag gegee het om spesiale rituele uit te voer en offers te bring. Dit toon die enorme hoeveelheid krag wat Fu Hao uitoefen, en die hoë agting waarin Wu Ding haar ingehou het.

Alhoewel dit moontlik is dat hierdie groot werke uitgevoer is nadat sy tot die top van die hiërargie gekom het, is dit net so aanneemlik dat dit die dade was wat Fu Hao gehelp het om haar hoë posisie in die Shang -samelewing te verseker. Die graf van LFu Hao is 'n perfekte weerspieëling van die status wat sy in die lewe gehad het.

Toe Fu Hao voor Wu Ding sterf, is 'n graf vir haar naby Anyang gebou. Die graf van Lady Fu Hao, wat in 1976 ontdek is, is een van die best bewaarde uit die Shang -dinastie. Die graf is 'n enkele groot put van 5,6 x 4 m by die mond. Binne hierdie put is 'n houtkamer van 5 meter (16,4 voet) lank, 3,5 meter (11,5 voet) breed en 1,3 meter (4,3 voet) hoog. Die kamer het 'n gelakte kis gehad wat sedertdien verrot het. Argeoloë kon die identiteit van die eienaar van die graf as Lady Fu Hao vasstel weens die opskrif van haar naam op die rituele brons van die graf.

Die graf van Lady Fu Hao. Skelette kan rondom die omtrek gesien word ( Wikimedia).

Die grafgoed wat in die graf van Lady Fu Hao gevind is, was buitengewoon, want dit was een van die min grafte in China wat ontplof is. In totaal is meer as 400 brons -oorblyfsels in die graf gevind, waaronder wapens, klokke, spieëls en rituele voorwerpe. Verder is 'n groot hoeveelheid jade (755 items), been (564 items), ivoor, klip en keramiekvoorwerpe, sowel as duisende cowrie -skulpe (Shang -geldeenheid) in die graf gevind. Afgesien van hierdie offergawes, is daar ook menslike offers gebring, sodat Fu Hao dienaars sou hê om haar in die hiernamaals te dien. Dit is duidelik in die geraamtes van 16 mense wat om die omtrek van haar graf begrawe is.

Dit is miskien baie gelukkig dat die graf van Lady Fu Hao ongeskonde deur argeoloë ontdek is. Sonder die orakelbene of die grafgoed uit die graf, is dit baie waarskynlik dat Fu Hao vir ewig in die geskiedenis verlore sou gegaan het. Dit is slegs deur hierdie artefakte dat ons die lewe van so 'n merkwaardige figuur ken.


FBI-aanval onthul tienduisende skaars kulturele artefakte in die 91-jarige sendeling se huis in Indiana

For the first time, the FBI is speaking out about seizing artifacts from a vast collection gathered by an Indiana man, Don Miller, in 2014.

By all accounts, the amateur museum that Donald C. Miller ran out of his home in the cornfields of central Indiana wasn't exactly a secret. Newspaper reporters, Boy Scout troops and residents of the rural farming community of Waldron were all invited to drop in and look around in his basement, where glass cases covered most of the walls.

Tens of thousands of rare cultural artifacts were on display including pre-Columbian pottery, Ming Dynasty jade, an Egyptian sarcophagus and a dugout canoe that had traveled down the Amazon River. And the eccentric nonagenarian collector was part of the attraction.

"This man, he's an amazing piece of history," Amy Mohr, a friend of Miller's from church, told the Indianapolis Star in 2014. "He's an artifact himself."

But when the FBI's art crime detectives showed up and began sifting through Miller's extensive collection in April 2014, suspecting that many of the relics carefully laid out in the cabinets had been obtained illegally in violation of antiquities laws, they came across something that horrified them: roughly 2,000 human bones, nearly all of which are believed to have been taken from ancient Native American burial sites.

"To the best of our knowledge right now, those 2,000 bones represent about 500 human beings," Tim Carpenter, who heads the FBI's art theft unit, told CBS News in an interview that aired Tuesday. "It's very staggering."

Miller, a Christian missionary and ham radio operator who claimed to have worked on the Manhattan Project, died at 91 in 2015, nearly a year after the FBI raided his home and seized roughly 42,000 items whose cultural value was said to be immeasurable. Up until this week, officials had provided little information about the case and declined to go into detail about exactly what the art crimes detectives had found.

Talking Tuesday to "CBS This Morning," Carpenter said that, before his death, Miller admitted that he had come by many of the items illegally, and that he had gone on unsanctioned archaeological digs all over the country and the world. He also came to agree that the artifacts should be returned to their proper homes. But since he didn't live long enough to see the investigation run its course, many aspects of his life - and the trove he left behind - are a mystery.

For instance, CBS's Anna Werner asked, why would anyone have so many human bones?

"I don't know," Carpenter replied, shaking his head. "I truly don't know."

The ghoulish crime of digging up long-dormant graves has been an ongoing source of frustration for Native-American communities. Toward the end of the 19th century, amateur and professional archaeologists alike began running roughshod over tribal burial grounds, excavating the skeletons of indigenous people who had died hundreds of years before. Some bone fragments were displayed in museums while others were closely analyzed by anthropologists looking to test since-debunked theories of race science, such as the belief that intelligence was directly correlated with skull size. It took nearly 100 years before the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act was signed into law in 1990, making it illegal to buy or sell Native American remains.

"All too often here we have been treated as curiosities rather than a people," Pete Coffey, a tribal official with North Dakota's Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, told CBS. "They could very well be my own great-great-great-great grandfather, or grandmother. . . . I characterize it as being ripped out of the earth."

Coffey is one of the tribal leaders now working with the FBI to return the misappropriated remains to their original resting places, CBS reported. Experts say they believe most of the bones that were found in Miller's home were removed from burial sites in North Dakota, and that many belonged to the Arikara tribe. It's unclear whether Miller had shown off the remains to people who visited his home, or whether he had dug them up himself or purchased them from someone else who did.

Until Tuesday, the FBI had remained circumspect about the 2014 raid, which did not result in Miller's arrest or any charges being brought against him. At the time, officials said that they had received tips about his cache of treasures and were investigating to see whether any of the items were illegal for private citizens to possess. In addition to copious Native American artifacts, Miller had reportedly collected priceless relics from countries including China, Russia, Peru, Haiti and Australia, and stored them in outbuildings scattered around his remote Waldron compound as well as in his commodious basement.

Robert A. Jones, the FBI special agent in charge of the case, told reporters at the time that Miller's methods for procuring some of those objects had violated multiple laws and treaties, but also undercut that claim by acknowledging that the relevant statutes might not have been in place yet. Miller had started his collection eight decades before, when he first found arrowheads on his family's farm as a child.

Advocates for criminal justice reform and libertarian groups such as the Cato Institute were quick to criticize what they saw as an overly aggressive approach from the FBI, arguing that the government had offered no evidence that Miller had done anything illegal. "The FBI plan is apparently to seize the contents of an elderly man's lifelong hobby, then force him to prove he obtained each item in his collection legally," Radley Balko wrote in The Washington Post.

Nearly five years later, the investigation is ongoing, and experts anticipate it could take decades to sort through the thousands of objects that the FBI seized, since determining their legality means first figuring out where and when each was purchased. Some artifacts have already been repatriated. Bogota's City Paper reported last October that 40 pieces of pre-Columbian pottery, some dating to 1,500 B.C., had been ceremonially returned by the U.S. State Department after the FBI determined that Miller had smuggled them out of the country. Other artifacts have been sent back to countries such as Canada, Ecuador, New Zealand and Spain, the FBI's Indianapolis bureau said in a tweet Tuesday. An additional 361 items from Miller's collection will be returned to China this week.

Before splashy headlines in the national media labeled him a real-life Indiana Jones, Miller was known to Waldron and surrounding Rush County as a larger-than-life figure who had a penchant for telling unverifiable stories and playing a 1927 Wurlitzer organ to entertain his guests. Speaking to the Star in 1998, he said that he had been stationed in New Mexico during World War II and assigned to the top-secret Manhattan Project, where he claimed to have witnessed the detonation of the first atomic bomb. When the war ended, he went on to spend 30 years working as an electrical engineer for the Naval Avionics Center in Indianapolis, while simultaneously making trips to build churches in Haiti and Colombia. After retiring at 60, he said he and wife Sue, a former high school teacher, regularly traveled to impoverished countries to do missionary work.

All the while, he filled up their home with historical curios, including a World War II-era Nazi helmet and a shrunken head whose provenance he did not fully explain.

A former co-worker told the Star in 2014 that Miller had used his ample vacation time at Naval Avionics to conduct amateur archaeological expeditions in far-flung parts of the world, and that he often came back with wild tales about his misadventures, from winding up in a Mexican jail to being interrogated by Libyan soldiers who thought he had been sent by the CIA. While those stories proved impossible to confirm, Mohr, his friend from church, recalled that Miller had tried to leave Haiti with a few cannonballs, and ended up getting stopped at the airport at the end of their mission trip.

In the months before his death, Miller had retreated from public life, residents told the Star. When a news crew from CBS showed up at the sprawling two-story house before Tuesday's broadcast, his wife said that she was unable to comment on the FBI's discoveries. A Chinese terra-cotta warrior statue was still standing outside the door.


The Atlantean Conspiracy

When children go to a dinosaur museum, are the displays they see displays of science or displays of art and science fiction? Are we being deceived and brainwashed at an early age into believing a dinosaur myth? Deep probing questions need to be asked of the entire dinosaur business. There may have been an ongoing effort since the earliest dinosaur ‘discoveries’ to plant, mix and match bones of various animals, such as crocodiles, alligators, iguanas, giraffes, elephants, cattle, kangaroos, ostriches, emus, dolphins, whales, rhinoceroses, etc. to construct and create a new man-made concept prehistoric animal called the dinosaur. Where bones from existing animals are not satisfactory for deception purposes, plaster substitutes may be manufactured and used. Some material similar or superior to plasticine clay or plaster of Paris would be suitable. Molds may also be employed. What would be the motivation for such a deceptive endeavor? Obvious motivations include trying to prove evolution, trying to disprove or cast doubt on the Christian Bible and the existence of the Christian God, and trying to disprove the ‘young-earth theory.’ The dinosaur concept implies that if God exists, He tinkered with His idea of dinosaurs for awhile, then probably discarded or became tired of this creation and then went on to create man. The presented dinosaur historical timeline suggests an imperfect God who came up with the idea of man as an afterthought, thus demoting the biblical idea that God created man in His own image.” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”

Another problem with dinosaurs is their unnatural structural dynamics. Many dinosaur skeletons and reconstructions feature bipedal monsters like the T-Rex with a forward-leaning torso and head far larger and heavier than its counter-balancing tail. Many museum displays cannot even stand up under their own weight it is highly unlikely that beasts this large and disproportionate could exist at all. The loads acting on their skeletons are so great that calculations indicate the bones of the largest dinosaurs would buckle and crack under their own immense weight! Experts have also pointed out that dinosaurs would have to have moved much slower than portrayed in movies to prevent sudden shocks to their skeletons.

During the nineteenth century a new world view of evolution was being pursued by then influential people such as Darwin and Marx. During this era of thought the first dinosaur discoveries were made. Were these discoveries ‘made’ to try to make up for inadequacies in the fossil record for the theory of evolution? The following issues raise red flags as to the integrity of the dinosaur industry and cast doubts as to whether dinosaurs ever existed: (1) dinosaur discoveries having occurred only within the last two centuries and in huge unusual concentrated quantities going against the laws of nature and probability (2) dinosaur discoverers typically and generally not being disinterested parties without a vested interest (3) the nature of public display preparation, calling into question the integrity and source of fossils, and allowing for the possibility of tampering and bone substitution, and the possibility of fraudulent activities on a systemic basis (4) existing artistic drawings and public exhibits showing off-balance and awkward postures that basic physics would rule out as being possible (5) very low odds of all these dinosaur bones being fossilized but relatively few bones of other animals (6) implications of dinosaur discoveries to the theory of evolution and the belief that man was created in God's image, suggesting possible hidden and subtle political or religious agendas served on a naive and unsuspecting public and, (7) a lack of funding for organizations and people questioning or being skeptical of each and every discovery and public display. The possibility exists that living dinosaurs never existed. The dinosaur industry should be investigated and questions need to be asked. I am unaware of any evidence or reason for absolutely believing dinosaurs ever were alive on earth. The possibility exists that the concept of prehistoric living dinosaurs has been a fabrication of nineteenth and twentieth century people possibly pursuing an evolutionary and anti-Bible, anti-Christian agenda. Questioning what is being told instead is a better choice rather than blindly believing the dinosaur story. ‘O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called.’ (1 Timothy 6:20). The choice between believing the word of man, the evolutionists, or the word of God, the Bible, is a matter of faith.” -David Wozney, “Dinosaurs: Science or Science Fiction”

53 comments:

Dude. my brain can't handle another lid being blown off of the lie machine. First I find they messed with the shape of the earth, set up an military industrial complex like space agency, and now all of the dinosaur bones shoved in my face since I was a child is a hoax too? My heart is broken. I have been lied to on so many levels my whole life? WHY? The only thing that makes the most sense is their fear of God and His power to make or break creation. If anything , it proves more and more we have been warned in the bible that the enemy is the FATHER OF LIES. What's next? Radical Islam is the pure religion? And the sheeple will run to it. so sad.

Bravo(!) yet again, Eric. I would add that the very thought of these absolutely enormous creatures, some larger than very large trees, roaming around the Earth strains credibility to say the least. And this coming from a guy who as a kid grew up loving "Dinosaurs" and especially "Triceratops."

And hey, if I might make a suggestion… Have you considered putting Social Sharing buttons -- using a plugin or something -- at the end of each of your blog posts? I don't know if the Blogger.com platform has such a thing, but it's something to consider. Best Regards…

did you happen by chance to run across my work on this subject. Yes indeed Dinosaurs are in fact HOAXES fully and completely.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cp-kP-UgM6U

Great article. Highly suspicious how "dinosaur denial" now puts you in the same camp as religious fundamentalists by the knee-jerk manipulators. absolute ball-bags that they are! :D

Please join us and help put a stop to the dinosaur mythology once and for all! http://www.christiansagainstdinosaurs.com

Great article! Now I have some more reading to do. This is getting crazy.

One paradigm-shattering truth after another! I am seriously at the point where I am starting to see that the entire system as a lie. It's crumbling down around me and I am jumping for joy! Now I know why as a child I was so reluctant to believe many of the popularized myths like Dinosaurs and Space Travel. They just never rang true for me! And now they're laughable. Thank god I didn't invest too many neural pathways into BS things like this.

And thank God for people like Eric Dubay, balling hard for the truth movement!

Interessante artikel. Don't you have a link to the full conversation between you and the other guys about this topic?

WOW. buddy you are a mind blower. Congratz.

I had books on dinos, the universe, earth, early man as far back as I can remember early 70's.
And I has seen the Zetetic map stuff about 10 years ago. couldn't buy it then, even though I remember saying this is the UN flag.

You're drawing alot of heat so you must be getting close if not rigth on target.

hi - got banned from IFERS - dunno why?? -

Science has become almost a complete joke and a fairy tale, religion is more entertaining lol. We are told in school about dinosaurs, I was always curious about dinosaurs. In my opinion everything was created and never evolved. Evolution is a complete lie especially saying humans evolved from apes. Darwin and many of the Eurocentric who supported evolution during the Renaissance age were also racist. In my research, I found out Darwin was a Mason and was funded to spread the lie about evolution to decieve us. The ancient indigenous people all over the world never believed in dinosaurs or evolution just like the round earth myth. They to me were more advanced than what we are today and knew what the universe truly was. Science like religion today is manipulated, dinosaurs is a complete myth like big foot and aliens. If the scholors,historians and scientist can lie about flat earth. why are we surprised at this, we have been dumb down severely. Keep spreading the truth no matter what because the majority of the world is still asleep to the matrix.

Thanks Eric, that's another childhood sacred cow you've just slaughtered. I have no innocence left, man!

Adrienne Mayor would like a word with you.

I am new to the flat earth concept. (As of just a couple of weeks ago to be perfectly honest)It rocked me to the core to come to the understanding after observing your work and doing some research on my own that "MY WORLD IS NOT SPINNING AS I ONCE THOUGHT IT WAS!" 'EGYPT KNEW NO PHARAOHS NOR ISRAELITES" by Dr. Ashraf Ezzat. Yup, you read that right.No slaves.No israelites.Egyptians did not refer to their kings and queens as Pharaohs.Pyramids are not mentioned in the Bible of the Hebrews. You know the ones that they as slaves supposedly built.Egyptologists have known for a long time. Archaeologists have known about this in academia but they "Whisper like chickens" among themselves according to Dr. E. This is revolutionary information that when related to the flat earth concept, can change the world.Why?Because it turns CHRISTIANITY, JUDAISM, AND ISLAM on their heads.even if their religions correctly supported a flat earth as their "bibles" state, their "bibles" were developed from mistranslations of the Septuagint bible. and it was on PURPOSE.Say Whaaaaaat? Holy Mary Mother of God. E is currently in production of a video to spread "The Good News".or the not so good news depending on how you look at it.Here is the trailer for his book.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EE9Lbu9_bVA
The good Dr. pulls no punches. He has no problem calling out those who threw Egypt under the bus. painted them as brutal slave drivers. that the pyramids were built by slaves. The Exodus wasn't in Egypt.The holy land is not so holy.Moses did not say "Let my people go" in Egypt. (Think Yemen)There were no slaves.There is no wall to wail at.it turns out it is a fort of all things.All of the suffering and strife in Gaza and the middle east,all of the violence committed by these religious groups inflicted throughout history upon each other and humanity is a result of MISTAKEN GEOGRAPHY. a friend sent me mark s's flat earth clues documentary.I sent a message similar to this comment in an email to M. Sargent of FEC offering to "gift" a copy of Dr. E's book. This was a couple of weeks agoI have not heard backHopefully he is a real person and not on the dark side's team.People knew the earth was flat.Then "somehow" some Jesuit guy starts the global thingy and everyone and his mother's brother is on board for the last 500 years.Control of humanity and huge amounts of suffering result,that continue to our present day.This all put us in the dark.Separated us from the wisdom of the ancestors and put us in the hands of the deceivers(the mistranslators of the Septuagint bible)while they demonized the Egyptians and their culture. Now the word GLOBALIST. makes perfect sense.In an Email Dr. E told me he is in the fight of his life exposing the deception. I told him I fear for his safety. He has picked a fight with the 3 biggest bullies on this flat earth of ours.If this Egypt Knew no Pharaohs nor Israelites combined with your Flat Earth Atlantean Conspiracy gain an appropriate amount of traction in the minds of humanity. what will happen?I was raised a ChristianBut I am a universalist at heart. All of this is scary as hell. I agree with you who the bad guys are and that there are no lizzard people. But I have overlearned and now I am on the slippery slope on a big black inner tube,careening toward the edge of the earth I think you will find Dr. E's book aligns with you on the deception and corruption. I would be more than happy to gift you a copy through amazon as it is under 5 bucks.It is a short read..I got through it in a morning.I have an email out to him referencing your work and asking him if he knows the earth is flat.He is Egyptian after all.

Personally, I think dinosaurs existed, just not so long ago as claimed by conventional science. If you search "dinosaurs in ancient art", you'll find many examples of dinosaurs in the artwork, carvings, painting, drawing and even cave drawings of our ancestors, meaning they are aware of these giant lizards and recorded it in their art and cultures.

Other websites also claim the same, with more evidence than I can show in this comment. I'll just leave some links, and you can study them yourself.


Archaeopteryx - the missing link between dinosaurs and birds?

Archaeopteryx is an iconic fossil, often thought of as the 'missing-link' between dinosaurs and birds. It was first described in 1861 by the German palaeontologist Hermann von Meyer (1801-1869). Since then Archaeopteryx has been the focus of controversy surrounding the origin of birds and their links with dinosaurs.

Only eleven specimens and an isolated feather have so far been found, all coming from a few quarries near the Bavarian town of Solnhofen in southern Germany.

Almost all of the specimens are from the Solnhofen Limestone, fine muddy limestones deposited in tropical lagoons about 150 million years ago near the end of the Jurassic Period. One was found in the overlying Mörnsheim Formation and is younger by perhaps half a million years.

Ontdekking

In 1861 Hermann von Meyer published a description of a single fossil feather found in the Solnhofen Limestone and named it Archaeopteryx lithographica.

Archaeopteryxmeans 'ancient wing'. Von Meyer also mentioned that "an almost complete skeleton of an animal covered in feathers" had been found. After competition from other museums this skeleton was eventually bought by the British Museum along with other Solnhofen fossils for £700, then a huge sum of money.

In 1863 Richard Owen, Superintendent of the natural history collections at the British Museum described and illustrated the specimen declaring it be a bird with "rare peculiarities indicative of a distinct order". The discovery of this remarkable fossil came just two years after the publication of Charles Darwin's book, Oor die oorsprong van spesies, which changed people's perception of the natural world.

Archaeopteryx seemed to fit well with Darwin's theory as it showed features of both birds and reptiles.

What did Archaeopteryx look like?

Archaeopteryx was a primitive bird with feathers, but its fossilised skeleton looks more like that of a small dinosaur. It was about the size of a magpie.

Unlike modern birds it had a full set of teeth, a long bony tail and three claws on its wing which may have been used for grasping branches. It lacked the fully reversed toes which enable many modern birds to perch. Maar, Archaeopteryx did have a wishbone, wings and asymmetrical 'flight' feathers, like a bird. It is likely that Archaeopteryx could fly, although perhaps not strongly.

Reconstruction of Archaeopteryx © J. Sibbick

The world of Archaeopteryx

Archaeopteryx lived on land near a series of stagnant and salty lagoons within a shallow tropical sea. Life in the lagoons was concentrated in the surface waters, as most of the lower levels were extremely toxic. It is possible that the only animals living in the lagoons were small floating crinoids (sea-lilies) and some fish.

Ammonites, shrimps, lobsters and starfish lived in the open sea nearby and were occasionally washed into the lagoons during storms. They did not survive for long in the lagoon waters. Horseshoe crabs have been found preserved at the end of a short trail of their own footprints. Very occasionally marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs and crocodiles, were also washed in.

Flying over the sea were pterosaurs and large insects such as dragonflies. These were blown into the lagoonal waters during these storms. A juvenile specimen of a small theropod dinosaur called Compsognathus has also been discovered in the same deposit, which must have been washed in from the land.

How did Archaeopteryx die and become preserved?

Alhoewel Archaeopteryx lived on land, occasionally some would have been caught up in storms as they flew or glided over the water. Waterlogged and unable to take off again, they would have drowned and sunk to the floor of the lagoon.

All of the known specimens display various characteristics of immaturity, indicating that none of the specimens was fully adult. This may have been the reason for their inability to survive storm events.

The carcasses were quickly buried by fine lime muds deposited on the lagoon floors. It is thought that one metre of rock today represents 5,000 years of deposition. The fossils of Solnhofen are exceptionally preserved, due to the lack of disturbance from both predators and water movement. Within the fine grained limestones, delicate features such as dragonfly wings or the feathers of Archaeopteryx can be found.

Further reading:

Wellnhofer, P. 2009. Archaeopteryx the icon of evolution. Pfeil Verlag, Munich, 208 pp

Article by: Cindy Howells, Collections Manager (Palaeontology) & Caroline Buttler, Head of Palaeontology


Kyk die video: GARY gave up everything (Augustus 2022).