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Mehrauli yster pilaar

Mehrauli yster pilaar



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Die geskiedenis en raaisel van die ysterkolom

Dit kan betwis word dat Indiese wetenskaplikes en tegnoloë reeds in 400 nC korrosiebestande yster en staal vervaardig het. Daar is aansienlike bewyse van die vindingrykheid van antieke Indië se metallurgiste in die vorm van permanente installasies, museumuitstallings en pilare wat in aanbiddingsplekke regoor die land geïnstalleer is. Die bekendste hiervan wat studente en professore in metallurgie in Indië en in die buiteland getwis en verwar het, is die 32 voet hoë pilaar van roesvrye yster langs die 239 voet hoë rooi sandsteen in Qutb Minar   (gebou deur Qutb-ud-Din Aibak in 1199 AD om die oorwinning van Mohammud Ghori oor die Rajputs in 1192 te herdenk). En die wonder van hierdie metallurgiese wonder is dat dit nie meer as 1600 jaar lank geroes is of toegegee het aan atmosferiese korrosie nie. Gedurende die afgelope twee eeue sedert die bestaan ​​van hierdie wonderpilaar deur die Britse argeoloog James Prinsep in 1817 onder die publiek se aandag gebring is, is meer as 250 boeke oor hierdie onderwerp geskryf. Die eerste sistematiese navorsing is in 1912 deur die Britse metallurg Sir Robert Hodfield gedoen, en sedertdien het verskeie wetenskaplikes van regoor die wêreld navorsing gedoen, artikels en boeke oor die pilaar geskryf.  

Die ysterpilaar in Delhi fassineer wetenskaplikes oor die hele wêreld vanweë die uitstekende weerstand teen atmosferiese korrosie. Dit is 'n poging om die verhaal agter die pilaar op 'n baie eenvoudige manier te verduidelik, sodat 'n leekleser die geskiedenis, wetenskap en tegnologie van die ysterpilaar kan waardeer. Boonop word die artistieke verdienste van die pilaar beklemtoon …Daar word opreg gehoop dat die verbeelding, veral van die jong lesers, afgedank sal word deur die feite en idees in hierdie boek, ” skryf Balasubramaniam.  

The Story of the Delhi Iron Pillar volg die geskiedenis van hierdie metallurgiese wonder en vertel dat dit in Udayagiri ontwerp is. Die skrywer onthul dat die ysterpilaar oorspronklik op 'n heuwel naby Udayagiri in die binneland van Madhya Pradesh geïnstalleer is tydens die bewind van Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (374-413 nC) van die Gupta-dinastie. Die oorspronklike plek van die pilaar was die presiese plek waar die denkbeeldige lyn wat die trope van kanker is, Indië oorsteek, waarvandaan 'n mens die son in die ooste kan sien opkom en in die weste ondergaan op die equinox dae. In 1234 het koning Iltutmish (1210-36 nC) egter die derde sultan van die slawe-dinastie in Delhi Udaygiri gevange geneem en die pilaar na Delhi vervoer as deel van sy oorwinnings buit.  

Dat die ysterpilaar van Delhi inderdaad 'n ingenieurswonder is, is toegegee deur die president van die Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Londen. Die huidige professor in materiaal en metallurgiese ingenieurswese aan IIT-Kanpur, Balasubramaniam, ontrafel ook die raaisel van die ongelooflike duursaamheid van die ysterpilaar van Delhi. Volgens hom het naamlose ingenieurs van daardie era die filmvormende kwaliteit van fosforsuur gebruik om 'n dun beskermende laag van ‘misawite ’, 'n verbinding van yster, suurstof en waterstof, te voorkom om roes en korrosie te voorkom. Hierdie beskermende film omhul die pilaar binne drie jaar na die oprigting en het sedertdien onmerkbaar gegroei. Vandag 1 600 jaar later het die film 'n dikte van een twintigste van 'n millimeter.  

Bron:  Prof. R. Balasubramaniam ’s Verhaal van die ysterpilaar van Delhi  


Ou geskiedenis van Delhi

Nie baie mense weet dat die besige en bruisende hoofstad Delhi en sy omgewing 'n lang verlede het nie, al duisende jare terug. Prehistoriese klipgereedskap het hier opgeduik en baie ou oorblyfsels is gevind, soms per ongeluk deur boere wat hul lande bewerk, en ander kere deur argeoloë wat sistematiese opgrawings uitgevoer het. 'N Hoop wat jy elke dag verbygaan, of 'n smal strook stroom vertel 'n verhaal uit die ou tyd. Eeue se geskiedenis bestaan ​​saam met metrostasies en sagte motors.

Die lesings in hierdie boek gee ons 'n blik op die lewens van mense wat deur die eeue in die Delhi -gebied geleef het, en hoe hierdie gegewens deur historici saamgevoeg is. Dit bring die belangrikheid van die historikus se metode en die inligtingsbronne in antieke tekste, argeologie en selfs legendes en folklore in die fokus, soms aan die draad van 'n skraal historiese feit.

Die redakteur van die bundel wys op die dringendheid van verdere ondersoek en dokumentasie om die nog te geringe besonderhede van die ou geskiedenis van Delhi in te vul. Sy eindig egter met omsigtigheid, grens aan alarm, toe sy daarop wys dat waardevolle bewyse van die stad se verlede op groot skaal vernietig word weens steengroef en die aanleg van nuwe paaie en geboue. Sulke aktiwiteite is 'n integrale deel van die modernisering van 'n lewende stad, maar die balans tussen modernisering en die behoud van ou oorblyfsels is inderdaad baie broos en moet vanuit 'n ingeligte en realistiese perspektief gehandhaaf word.

Upinder Singh gee antieke Indiese geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Delhi. Sy is die skrywer van Kings, Brahmanas and Temples in Orissa: An Epigraphic Study (AD 300-1147) (Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1994), The Discovery of Ancient India: Early archaeologists and the begin of archeology (Delhi, Permanent Black, 2004) en Ancient Delhi (Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, 2' -uitgawe met 'n nuwe voorwoord en inleiding, 2006).

Hierdie versameling opstelle is deur 'n onderwyser saamgestel vir studente in die geskiedenis, maar dit sal ook van groot waarde wees vir 'n groot aantal ander belangstellende lesers.

Ander boeke in die reeks:

Cultural History of Modern India Onder redaksie van Dilip M. Menon

Kultuurgeskiedenis van die Middeleeuse Indië

Geredigeer deur Meenakshi Khanna

Ons erken dankbaar vir alle outeurs en pubusse wat vrygewig was om ons in hierdie leesboek te kan uittreksel. Ons moes 'n paar redaksionele veranderinge aanbring en die belang van ons lesers verminder. In 'n paar hoofstukke is daar 'n mate van oorvleueling in die inhoud. Dit was onvermydelik, aangesien die opstelle uit verskillende bronne ontleen is.

Die geskiedenis van Delhi is in klip gegraveer oor sy landskap. manjifieke forte, moskees en grafte van die Sultanaat- en Mughal -tydperke roep die aura van die Middeleeuse wêreld op, terwyl die statige uitleg en argitektuur van Lutyens in Delhi die indrukwekkende afdruk van die Britse keiserlike heerskappy dra. Afgesien van die bekende monumente wat die mag simboliseer van diegene wat hier geheers het (bv. Die Qutb Minar, Rooi Fort, Humayun se graf, die onderkoning se woning, die sekretariaat en die raadshuis), kan u ook 'n blik op die gebeurtenisvolle geskiedenis van die stad sien ontelbare ander plekke. Dit sluit in die smal galis en havelis van Chandni Chowk, die dargah van SheikhNizamuddin Auliya in Nizamuddin, die Flagstaff op die rif naby die hoofhek van die Universiteit van Delhi, St. James 'Church in Kashmiri Gate, Delhi College naby Ajmeri Gate en die Coronation Park naby Kingsway Camp. 'Die strukture en ruimtes wat onafhanklike Indië aankondig, bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik uit gedenktekens vir oorlede nasionale leiers. Verskeie koloniale monumente is omskep in simbole van nasionale identiteit deur marginale wysiging, die blote feit van hul nuwe funksie en besetting, of deur middel van aankondiging.2 Maar waar is die ou oorblyfsels van Delhi?

Die gebied in Delhi het 'n ongelooflike lang en bedrywige antieke verlede, wat duisende jare gelede in die steentydperk begin het en aan die ander kant saamsmelt in die Middeleeue toe die Rajputs plek gemaak het vir Delhi -sultans in die twaalfde eeu. mense wat bewus is van hierdie geskiedenis. Dit is geïnspireer deur die idee dat die geskiedenis nie noodwendig iets ver en afgeleë hoef te wees waaroor 'n mens in boeke lees nie; dit kan iets opwindends wees waarvan jy die relikwieë dikwels in die onmiddellike omgewing kan sien, iets wat jy jou kan voorstel, verken en geniet. Die antieke geskiedenis van die Delhi-gebied maak ook baie ander kwessies oop, soos die verskillende tipes bronne wat historici gebruik, hoe hulle die bewyse uit hierdie bronne interpreteer, die onderskeid tussen gevestigde feite en die grys gebiede van voortdurende twyfel en debat. Aangesien Delhi 'n ruimte inneem wat in baie mifiennia gewoon is, gee dit baie fassinerende voorbeelde van die koppelvlak tussen die antieke, middeleeuse en moderne, wat dit moontlik maak om na te dink oor die verbindings, kontinuiteite en breuke deur die eeue.

Die geskrifte wat in hierdie boek versamel is, handel oor verskillende fases en fasette van die ou en vroeë Middeleeuse verlede van Delhi. Dit gee ons 'n blik op die lewens van mense wat deur die eeue heen in die baie nedersettings gewoon het - sommige landelik, sommige stedelik. Aangesien die grense van state en stede waarmee ons vertroud was, nie in die ou tyd bestaan ​​het nie, is dit regverdig om die bewyse van die National Capital Region, wat die National Capital Territory of Delhi sowel as die naburige gebiede soos Faridabad en Gurgaon insluit, te ondersoek. in Haryana en Ghaziabad, NOIDA en Groter NOIDA in Uttar Pradesh.

Sommige van die lesings is redelik tegnies en gedetailleerd en kan 'n ietwat bondige en droë lees moontlik maak. Dit is omdat dit vir professionele historici en argeoloë geskryf is. Om die lesings te verstaan ​​en waardeer, is dit noodsaaklik om die geleerde taal en tegniese woordeskat te ontsyfer en die basiese gegewens en argumente te identifiseer. Dit is ook nodig om verder as die teks te gaan deur te lees en uit te brei op die groter konteks en implikasies van spesifieke besonderhede. Dit is moontlik om die plekke wat in die uittreksels genoem word, te besoek, om die voorwerpe wat hulle beskryf, te sien en om hul besonderhede deur verbeelding te animeer.

Die bronne van die ou geskiedenis van Delhi

Verwysings na die geskiedenis van Delhi In antieke literatuur neem dit dikwels die vorm aan van legendes wat noukeurig en krities ondersoek moet word. Mites kan nie as historiese feite behandel word nie, maar hulle kodeer soms historiese elemente op 'n indirekte manier. Dieselfde geld vir plaaslike tradisies, dit wil sê oortuigings wat op 'n plek oor die plek aktueel is. In sommige gevalle is hierdie tradisies opgeteken en neergeskryf, maar dit oorleef meer dikwels in die geheue van mense en in die vorm van mondelinge verhale. Die legendes oor hoe Delhi sy naam gekry het, is goeie voorbeelde van mites en plaaslike tradisies wat interessante aansprake en verbande weerspieël, alhoewel dit duidelik nie historiese feite is nie. Een so 'n legende, wat in Middeleeuse tekste opgeteken is, verbind Delhi met die epiese koning Dilipa. Om historiese persone en plekke legitimiteit en aansien te gee deur hulle aan die epies-puraanse tradisie te veranker, was 'n gebruik wat ook in ander kontekste voorkom, byvoorbeeld in koninklike genealogieë in antieke en vroeë Middeleeuse inskripsies. Nog 'n meer kleurvolle legende, wat in die bardiese literatuur van Rajasthani opgeteken is, verbind die stigting van Dilli met die Mehrauli -ysterpilaar, die Rajput -koning Anangapala Tomara en 'n slangedemoon Vasuki.3 Ook dit is natuurlik 'n mite. Dit is egter 'n mite wat verweef is rondom 'n enkele, skraal historiese feit - die oprigting van 'n politieke sentrum in Delhi deur Anangapala.

Afgesien van die paar verwysings in inheemse en buitelandse literêre bronne, lê meer direkte leidrade tot die ou verlede van Delhi in argeologie, die dissipline wat handel oor die menslike verlede soos dit deur middel van materiële oorblyfsels onthul word. rgeOlOgiese data sluit artefakte (voorwerpe wat deur mense gemaak is) en ander tasbare oorblyfsels soos strukture, begrafnisse, plante en bene in. Sulke gegewens saam kan ons baie insig gee in die daaglikse lewens van ou mense. Aardewerk is 'n besondere belangrike artefak, nie net omdat dit 'n belangrike deel van die daaglikse lewe was nie, maar ook omdat argeoloë verskillende soorte aardewerk kan identifiseer met kulturele rye en spesifieke tydperke. 4 chaeOlOgiSt5 gebruik die term 'kultuur' in tegniese sin vir herhalende samestellings van materiële eienskappe. Een van die kwessies wat ondersoek moet word, is hoe hierdie tegniese gevoel van 'kultuur' gekoppel kan word aan die wyer betekenis van die woord, wat alle gedragspatrone wat 'n individu uit die groter sosiale groep leer en absorbeer, daarin bevat.

Die oorblyfsels van antieke terreine in die Delhi -gebied is soms sigbaar in die vorm van inondes. Die oorblyfsels wat diep in ou plekke ingebed is, word dikwels versteur as gevolg van menslike aktiwiteite soos boerdery of konstruksie en vind hul weg na die oppervlak. As gevolg hiervan is dit moontlik om leidrade te kry oor die antieke geskiedenis van 'n webwerf deur 'n noukeurige ondersoek na wat op die oppervlak daarvan lê. Hierdie 50 argeologiese verkennings benodig nie luukse toerusting of groot bedrae geld nie. dit verg beplanningsenergie, 'n herkenning en ondervinding van ou oorblyfsels en die vermoë om dit akkuraat te dokumenteer en te beskryf.

Die geskiedenis van Delhi — Of op enige ander plek — kan in elk geval afsonderlik behandel word. Dit moet binne groter verwysingsraamwerke verstaan ​​word. Om dit te kan doen, moet u hierdie geskiedenis kontekstualiseer binne die groter patrone van die politieke sosio -ekonomiese en kulturele geskiedenis van Noord -Indië of die subkontinent as geheel. Maar dit is ewe indien nie belangriker om noukeurig na die verhouding tussen nedersettings in die Delhi -gebied en hul onmiddellike fisiese omgewing en met nedersettings elders te kyk nie. Dit gee ons 'n ander soort geskiedenis, een waarvan die tekstuur en ritmes verskil van dié van die groter, konvensionele, makro-storiese vertellings waaraan ons gewoond is, maar wat miskien 'n meer betekenisvolle manier is om die lewenswyse van antieke mense te verstaan.

Die antieke omgewing

Die geskiedenis van mense en hul nedersettings hou nou verband met die kenmerke van hul fisiese omgewing. Die basiese fisika van die Delhi -streek met behulp van plaaslike terminologie bestaan ​​uit die kohi of pahari, die khadar, die hangar en die dabar. Die kohi of pahari is die heuwels, wat ons ken as die verskillende dele van die Delhi -rif. Die khadarOr die 'nuwe alluvium' bestaan ​​uit die meer onlangse afsettings van die Yamuna -rivier. In die weste lê die bangar, die hoër 'ou alluvium' wat ontstaan ​​het deur die afsettings wat die rivier in sy ouer loopbane neergesit het, lank, lank gelede. Die dabar is 'n laagliggende, vloedgevoelige gebied in die suidweste van Delhi. Dit lê wes van die heuwels en bestaan ​​uit die opvangsgebied van die strome wat daarvandaan weswaarts vloei.

Die kontoere van die fisiese landskap van Delhi, soos ons dit vandag sien, insluitend die flora en fauna, verskil op baie maniere van wat dit duisende jare gelede was. Neem die geval van die verskillende dele van die rant, wat uit vier dele bestaan-die suidelike, suid-sentrale, sentrale/nuwe Delhi- en noordelike ou Delhi-afdelings. Saam vorm dit die uitroei, noordelikste uitbreidings van die Aravallis, die oudste berge in Indië, wat honderde miljoene jare gelede gevorm is. Die Aravallis strek oor van Gujarat tot in Rajasthan en Haryana en kom Delhi van Gurgaon in die suidweste binne. Die heuwels loop in ongeveer noordoostelike rigting deur die stad en eindig in Wazirabad in die noorde van Delhi aan die regteroewer van die Yamuna. Vandag strek die hoogte van die rotsagtige uitlopers van die Delhi -rif tussen 2,5 m en 90 m bo die vloedvlakte in onderskeidelik Noord- en Suid -Delhi. In die ou tyd moes dit baie hoër gewees het.

Diegene wat die 'natuurlike' (hoewel ietwat versorgde) natuurskoon van die noordelike rif geniet tydens hul oggendwandelinge, is moontlik nie bewus van die feit dat die woud hier grootliks 'n kunsmatige skepping is nie. Die eerste stappe in die 'plantaardige opknapping' van gedeeltes van die noordelike en sentrale rif het plaasgevind gedurende die jare na die opstand in 1857 en die groot bebossing van die sentrale rif het plaasgevind nadat die Britte hul hoofstad in 1912 na Delhi verskuif het. Die oorspronklike plantegroei van die rant kan afgelei word uit die Rajasthan Aravallis of, nader aan die huis, uit die klein Mangarbani -woud wat suid van Delhi lê, op die grens met Faridabad.5 Daar is geen twyfel dat die flora en fauna van die rif in die ou tyd was radikaal anders as wat dit vandag is.

Die Yamuna is nog 'n belangrike kenmerk van die fisiese landskap van Delhi. Met sy uitgeputte en besoedelde waters sny die rivier 'n taamlik jammerlike figuur, en trek dit slegs aandag gedurende die moessonperiode wanneer dit dikwels swel bo die gevaarvlakke. Maar die Yamuna het 'n lang en ingewikkelde geskiedenis en het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die geskiedenis van nedersettings in die Delhi -gebied. Geoloë stel voor dat die rivier eens in die Ghaggar-Hakra geloop het en 'n baie meer westelike loop gehad het. Oortyd het dit meer en meer ooswaarts beweeg totdat dit uiteindelik by die Ganga aangesluit het. Die jhils (mere) by Najafgarh, Surajkund en Barkhal verteenwoordig oorblyfsels van die ou kursusse van die Yamuna. Alhoewel die Yamuna die belangrikste meerjarige rivier is wat deur Delhi vloei, is die kleiner strome ook belangrik. Dit het dikwels die vorm aanneem van nalas wat deur die stedelike bevolking van Delhi opgemerk word meer vanweë hul vuil, stinkende water as vir hul ekologiese of historiese belangrikheid. Sommige van die ou strome het heeltemal opgedroog, ander dra baie minder water as wat hulle vroeër gedoen het. Verskeie strome, waarvan die belangrikste die Bhuriya nala is, kom op en vloei ooswaarts uit die heuwelagtige stukke Ballabgarh, suid van Delhi. Antieke nedersettings het dikwels neergestort in die opvanggebiede van sulke waterbronne.

Daar is tot dusver baie min gedetailleerde werk oor die palaeoeflvir0nmt (die ou of antieke omgewing) van die Delhi -streek. Grover en Bakliwal se kort artikel illustreer hoe moderne wetenskaplike tegnologie van satellietbeelde beduidende inligting kan gee oor antieke landskappe, en bly dus belangrikY Die ses gevolgtrekkings in die migrasie van die Yamufla, Grover en BakliWal se belangrikste gevolgtrekking is dat die migrasie van die rivier ongeveer 100 km in die noordelike en westelike dele van Delhi tot 40 km in die suide. Ongeveer 4000 jaar gelede het die rivier skynbaar deur die heuwels van Badarpur gevloei, dit geleidelik ooswaarts in die vlaktes beweeg totdat dit nader kom, en dan langs die huidige loop.

Prehistoriese StoneTools

Die deel van die menslike verlede wat gedek is, volgens die geskrewe rekords, is baie klein. Prehistoriese_geskiedenis Voordat jy skryf - is die langste deel van die menslike verlede, en klipgereedskap is die algemeenste van prehistoriese oorblyfsels, wat 'n begrip van die woordeskat en terme wat deur prehistorici gebruik word, vereis. ThiS bevat die indeling van die steentydperk in drie breë pháseS_.pa1aeolit ​​mesolitiese en neolitiese - Op grond van geologiese ouderdom, tipiese klipgereedskap en bestaansgrondslag (dit wil sê hoe mense hul voedsel verkry het). Dit vereis ook 'n kennis van die basiese tipes gereedskapstipes en die tegnologie wat daarby betrokke is.

Sedert 1956, toe Surajit Sinha vier laer paleolitiese gereedskap naby die hoofhek van die Universiteit van Delhi gevind het, is daar baie meer ontdekkings gerapporteer en is dit duidelik dat mense uit die steentydperk die habitat van Delhi gevind het wat geskik was vir hul doeleindes. Die steentydperk -terreine was geneig om gekonsentreer te wees op die rotsagtige gebiede van die rant waar voedsel en plant, water, skuiling en grondstowwe vir die vervaardiging van gereedskap in voldoende hoeveelhede beskikbaar was. Die klipgereedskap wat tot dusver gedokumenteer is, wissel van laer paleolitiese artefakte tot klein klipgereedskap wat bekend staan ​​as mikroliete. Spesifieke datums is nie beskikbaar nie, maar 'n rowwe raaiskoot is dat menslike aktiwiteite in hierdie gebied tot ongeveer 100,000 jaar kan terugkeer.

AnangpUr in die BadarpUr -heuwels is die enigste gegrawe steentydperk in die Delhi -gebied.9 Die duisende paleolitiese gereedskap wat tydens die opgrawings gevind is, dui aan dat dit 'n buitengewoon groot prehistoriese hbitatiOfl -terrein was en ook 'n fabrieksterrein ('n plek waar klip gereedskap gemaak is). A.1C. Sharma en sy span verbind die klipgereedskap wat by AnangPUr gevind is, met die oorblyfsels van palaeochaflnel5 (ou kanale) van die Yarnufla, geïdentifiseer via Landsat -beelde.

Soos vroeër genoem, kan argeologiese verkenning in die vorm van 'n noukeurige opname van artefakte en ander kenmerke wat op die oppervlak van die grond voorkom, waardevolle resultate lewer. Chakrabarti en Lahiri se opname van 1985—6 van steentydperke in die Aravalli-streke van Suid-Delhi en aangrensende gebiede van Haryana het gelei tot die ontdekking van drie-en-veertig plekke wat wissel van die laer paleolitiese tot die mikrolitiese. '° Baie meer steentydperke is geen twyfel wag om ontdek te word en daar is 'n groot behoefte om die soektog na prehistoriese klipgereedskap uit te brei na ander dele van Delhi. Meer navorsing is ook nodig oor die besonderhede van die prehistoriese omgewing. Dit alles sal aansienlik bydra tot die inligting oor die voorgeskiedenis van die Delhi -gebied, sodat dit meer word as net 'n katalogus met webwerwe en gereedskap.

Protohistoriese oorblyfsels

'Protohistorie' en 'protohistories' is woorde wat deur geleerdes in verskillende sin gebruik word. Hulle kan verwys na nie-geletterde kulture wat in die geskrewe rekords van hedendaagse geletterde kulture genoem word, of hulle kan gebruik word vir geletterde kulture (soos die Harappaanse beskawing) waarvan die draaiboek nog nie ontsyfer is nie. Hulle kan ook verwys na tydperke waarvoor ons literatuur het, maar geen bewyse van skryf nie. Argeoloë gebruik die term protohistorie dikwels om kulture te dek wat strek vanaf die begin van voedselproduksie tot die koms van ystertegnologie.

Die belangrikste protohistoriese oorblyfsels in die Delhi -gebied is die laat Harappan -oorblyfsels op die terreine van Bhorgarh naby Narela en Mandoli naby Nand Nagari. Die laat Harappan-kultuur verteenwoordig die post-stedelike fase van die Harappan- of Indus-beskawing. Die bewyse van laat Harappan -webwerwe dui duidelik aan dat die beskawing nie skielik tot 'n einde gekom het nie, maar dat dit eerder 'n progressiewe 'plattelanding' ondergaan het? Die redes vir hierdie verskynsel bly die aangeleentheid van 'n fassinerende, aanhoudende debat. " B.S.R. Babu, wat die opgrawings van Bhorgarb en Mandoli gelei het, het die belangrikste vondste opgesom.’2 Van die mees skouspelagtige ontdekkings was twee grafte (een met grafgoed) by Bhorgarh. Die ligging van hierdie twee laat Harappan -terreine in die Delhi -omgewing is nie verbasend nie, aangesien baie plekke van hierdie fase in Flaryana en westelike Uttar Pradesh gevind is. B.R. Mani het twyfel laat ontstaan ​​oor die beskrywing van die vroegste vlakke in Bhorgarh en Mandoli as laat Harappan.’3 Dit kan gebruik word om die deurslaggewende rol van interpretasie in argeologie te bespreek op vlakke wat wissel van die klassifikasie van artefakte tot die maak van historiese afleidings.

By die dokumentasie van antieke terreine moet die spesifiekheid van terrein, grond en klimaat in ag geneem word wat so deurslaggewend is vir die kwaliteit van menslike lewe. 'N Voorlopige opname deur R.C. Thakran gee 'n blik op moontlike protohistoriese en historiese oorblyfsels in die noordweste van Delhi en probeer dit in verband bring met hul fisiografiese omgewing, spesifiek die khadar en bangar. ' van die Delhi -omgewing. Terwyl die belangrikheid van die ontdekkings wat op die vroegste vlakke in Bhorgarh en Mandoli gemaak is, erken word, is dit net so belangrik om daarop te let dat dit deel uitmaak van 'n veel langer kulturele volgorde. Mandoli was beset vanaf ongeveer die tweede millennium v ​​tot die sesde eeu n, terwyl die besetting van Bhorgarh strek van ongeveer die tweede millennium Bc tot die sestiende- en sewentiende eeu P, D. So bied die derde werwe 'n soort argeologiese momentopname van verskillende stadiums in die geskiedenis van ou setlemeflts in die Delhi -omgewing. By Bborgarb is oorblyfsels van middeleeuse strukture van Iakhori -stene (skraal stene wat in die Middeleeue gebruik is) opgemerk, maar die middeleeuse vlakke was te versteurd om baie gedetailleerde bewyse te lewer. 'N Ondersoek na argeologiese gegewens uit die middeleeuse nedersettings sal waarskynlik waardevolle insigte gee oor die daaglikse lewe in daardie tye, insigte wat nie so duidelik uit die Persiese hofkronieke of wonderlike koninklike monumente sou blyk nie.

Antieke Indraprastha en die Pürana Qua

Daar is baie verskillende sienings oor die historisiteit van die groot Sanskrit -epos, die Mahal, hafata. Is die verhaal 'n mite, of het dit 'n historiese kern? Het die Mahabharata -oorlog ooit plaasgevind? Indien wel, wanneer? Was die ou Indraprastha in die Purana Qila (Ou Fort) in Nieu -Delhi geleë? Wetenskaplike opinie word oor sulke vrae ingedeel .’5 In plaas van bloot die verskillende sienings te katalogiseer, is dit nuttig om te kyk na die soort bewyse en argumente wat tydens hierdie interessante debat opgeduik is.

As u die Purana Qila besoek, sal u die opwaartse helling sien as u van die pad na die ingangshek stap. Dit is omdat die fort op 'n heuwel rus wat 'n ou nedersetting aandui. Die terrein is vanaf die vyftigerjare oor baie jare opgegrawe. Kort inligting oor die doelwitte en die resultate van hierdie opgrawings verskyn van tyd tot tyd in Indian Archaeology— A Review, '6, maar ongelukkig is die volledige verslag nog nie gepubliseer nie. Die opgrawings onthul 'n opeenvolging van die Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) fase (die datums van hierdie fase wissel tussen die sewende eeu tot die tweede eerste eeu v.C.) tot die Middeleeue. Stukke Painted Grey Ware (PGW) is op die 5 -oppervlak gevind, wat daarop dui dat 'n nog ouer nedersetting, moontlik terug na c. 1000 v.C., is moontlik naby geleë. '

Daar is 'n sterk oortuiging - die vroegste verslae hiervan is in tekste uit die veertiende eeu - dat die Purana Qua die plek is van antieke indraprastha, die hoofstad van die Pandava -helde van die Mahabha ra a. TheM, hamta beskryf die massiewe mure van die stad 05jg pragtige geboue, mere en tuine en huisves mense uit verskillende lewensterreine. Die beskrywing van die groot vergadering hael van lndraprastha in die Sabha'Parva, vertaal uit die Sanskrit in Engels deur van Buitenen, bied 'n ingangspunt in die groot drama van die epos. '8 Die agtergrond is 'n episode wat aan die einde van die Adi Parva, die eerste boek van die epiese Muna en Krishna, help die god Agni om die Khandava Ibrest af te val. Slegs drie oorlewendes kom ongedeerd uit hierdie verskriklike vuur-'n slang met die naam Ashvasena, vier voëls en 'n demoon-argitek met die naam Maya. Maya wil sy dank uitspreek teenoor Arjuna, en Krishna stel voor dat hy dit kan doen deur sy talent te gebruik om 'n groot vergaderingshael in die hoofstad van Pandava te bou. As ons die Mahabharata -beskrywings van Indraprastha en die groot byeenkomssaal saamstel met die kort besonderhede van die resultate van die Purana Qua -opgrawings, staan ​​ons voor die volgende onmiskenbare feit: Daar is geen vergelyking tussen die kleurvolle beskrywing van die stad in die epos en die flou, verdwaalde. stukke aardewerk wat die vroegste nedersetting by of naby die Purana Qua voorstel. Dit is nie verbasend nie. Die Mahabharata is 'n verbeeldingswerk (al was dit moontlik om 'n historiese kern van gebeure geweef) wat oor baie eeue heen tussen c. 400 ac en 400 nC. Aan die ander kant openbaar argeologiese bewyse uit die aard van die saak die tasbare voorwerpe van die alledaagse lewe en is dit nie baie nuttig as dit kom by die gee van inligting oor spesifieke persone of gebeure nie.

B.D. Chattopadhaya se bespreking van die korrelasies tussen argeologie en die Sanskrit -epos'9 laat 'n aantal belangrike vrae ontstaan: watter soort geskiedenis kan uit die epos gehaal word? Is die epiese karakters en plekke werklik of denkbeeldig, of 'n mengsel van albei? Wat is die implikasies van die problematiese term 'epiese eeu'? Sommige argeoloë en historici het aangevoer dat die Mahabharata -legende geweef was rondom sekere karakters en gebeure wat in c. AD 1000, is dit onwaarskynlik dat die argeologiese gegewens van die Purana Qua of enige ander terrein bewys kan lewer vir of daarteen. Uiteindelik is daar geen manier om finaal te bewys of te weerlê of die Pandavas of Kauravas ooit geleef het of dat hulle 'n bittere oorlog teen mekaar gevoer het nie. Die perke van die getuienis moet erken word en A. Ghosh se woord van versigtigheid in hierdie opsig is belangrik. , argeologiese bewyse bewys wel dat dit die plek was van een van die baie ou nedersettings in die Delhi -gebied. '

Oorblyfsels van die historiese tydperk

Vanaf die vroeë historiese tydperk, wat in Noord -Indië begin het in ongeveer. 600 vC het die Delhi -gebied 'n strategiese kommersiële belang gekry. Vanweë sy ligging in die waterskeiding tussen die Indus- en Ganga-rivierstelsels, by die poort na die Ganga-vlaktes, was dit goed geleë op die Uttarapatha-die belangrikste transregionale reis-, handel- en kommunikasie-roete van Noord-Indië. Hierdie roete het gestrek vanaf die noordwestelike deel van die subkontinent, oor die IndoGangetic-vlaktes tot by die hawe Tamralipti aan die Baai van Bengale. Die noordelike deel van die roete loop deur Lahore, Jullundar en Saharanpur, langs die Ganga -vlaktes tot by Bijnor, en dan deur Gorakhpur, na Bihar en Bengal in die ooste. Die suidelike sektor verbind Lahore, Raiwind, Bhatinda, Delhi, Hastinapur, Kanpur, Lucknow, Varanasi en Ailahabad en beweeg dan verder na Pataliputra en Rajagriha. Baie voedingsroetes kruis met die hoofare van die Uttarapatha.22 Hierdie verbonde nedersettings in die Delhi -gebied met ander soos Mathura, Taxila, Varanasi, Shravasti en Kaushambi. Hulle het ook verbind met roetes wat na Rajasthan, Sentraal- en Suid -Indië en verder lei.

Nedersettings uit die vroeë historiese tydperk in die Delhi -gebied kan geïdentifiseer word deur die teenwoordigheid van Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) aardewerk en argeologiese vlakke wat tot die vroeë eeue nC behoort? 3 Alhoewel hierdie vlakke dikwels 'Maurian' of 'Shunga' genoem word -Kushana 'in argeologiese geskrifte, politieke geskiedenis en argeologiese kulture val nie netjies in mekaar nie. Die chronologieë van die politieke geskiedenis is gebaseer op die opkoms en ondergang van koninkryke, terwyl die van argeologiese kulture gebaseer is op die veranderinge in die materiële oorblyfsels van die daaglikse lewe van gewone mense. Die kulturele lewenskragtigheid van die tydperk c. 200 Bc - 'n 200 blyk uit die muntstukke, seëls, terracottas en ander artefakte wat by die Purana Qila gevind is.

'N Meer sigbare, maar nie veral bekende getuie van hierdie eeue nie, is die rots met 'n opskrif van die Maurya-keiser Ashoka (269—32 ac) net langs Raja lJhir Singh Margin Srinivaspuri/BahaPur, naby Nehru Place.24 Die opskrif is 'n version of Ashoka's Minor Rock Edict I and this is the only Ashokan inscription in Delhi that is in situ (in its original place). The account of how it was discovered and identified, just before the rock was on the verge of being blasted awa shows the accidental manner in which major historical finds are often made, and the vulnerability of ancient remains in the face of the aggressive agencies and agendas of urban, expansion.

The Srinivaspuri edict suggests that the Delhi region was part of the Maurya Empire. The inscription can be used as an introduction to a discussion of early Indian scripts and languages, the classification and distribution of Ashokan inscriptions their contents, and the. nature of Ashoka’s dhamma. The two versions of the text and translation of the Srinivaspuri edict can be compared.25 D.C. Sircar was one of. the most, skilled of Indian epigraphists..HOWever his assertion that the Srinivaspuri edict proves indirectly that Indraprastha was one of the flourishing cities of the Mauryan age is questionable. While some place of importance must certainly have been located in the vicinity of the rock edict, exactly which one it was and what it was known as, is uncertain.

Remains of the period c. 300—600 AD have been found at sites such as the Purana Qua and Mandoli. But the most striking and best known is the iron pillar in the Jami Masjid in the Qutb complex in Mehrauli. Many think that this is an Ashokan pillar, no doubt because of the large number of pillars that this Maurya emperor erected. But Ashoka’s pillars were made of sandstone, while this one is of metal. The iron pillar raises a number of interesting questions such as its exact metallic composition and original location?6 Scientific analysis has shorn the pillar of some of its mystery and has demonstrated that although it is an impressive example of ancient metallurgy, it is not entirely rust-free.

Just as enigmatic as the pillar is the major inscription on its surface. This evokes the memory of a great king in elegant and evocative Sanskrit.27 The question is: Who was the king eulogized in the inscription? The strongest contender is the Gupta king Chandragupta II (in 375—413/14), but there are others as well.28 The inscription provides an entry point into discussing other issues such as the evolution of the Brahmi script, the increasing use of Sanskrit in royal inscriptions, and the way in ancient Indian political history is constructed.

The Early Medieval Period

Today, one of the most important aspects of Delhi’s personality is its role as a capital city, the premier centre of political power and activity in India. In ancient times (leaving aside the debatable issue of Indraprastha), the first time the city clearly assumed such a role was in the early medieval period during the time of the Tomara Rajputs. The relics of Tomara rule can be seen in the ruins of a fort and stone masonry dam at Anangpur village and in the citadel of Lal Kot.29 The Tomara connection is also marked on the Mehrauli iron pillar, which has a short inscription referring to a king named Anangapala. Tomara rule made way for that of the Chauhans (also known as the Chahamanas) and the Lal Kot fortifications were enlarged to form Qila Rai Pithora. Remains of what is often referred to as the ‘Rajput Period’ have also been found at the Purana Qila, but these are not associated with the name of any specific king. Apart from these tangible remains, the Tomara connection with Delhi also surfaces in legends that link the naming of the city with a king of this dynasty.3°

It is evident that settlements in the Delhi area go back to stone age times, and that many different settlements, urban and rural, emerged and flourished at different points in the historical period. However,—again with the possible exception of Indraprastha—we do not know what these settlements were known as. The earliest reference to a place name close to the name ‘Diii’ (Delhi is its anglicized form) belongs to the early medieval period_AnangaPa1a Tomara’s inscription on the Mehrauli iron pillar seems to refer to Dhihi or Dihali.3’

A similar name occurs in three thirteenth and fourteenth century inscriptions, which, among other things, confirm the sequence of rulers over the area and also mention the name Hariyana or Hariyanaka.32 A thirteenth century inscription found in a baoli (step well) in Palam village, not far from the airport, records the building of a step well by Uddhara, a householder of Dhilli. it states that the land of Hariyanaka was first enjoyed by the Tomaras, then by the Chauhans and then by the ‘Shakas Shaka, in this case, is used for the early Delhi Sultans, as the inscription lists kings from Muhammad Ghor to Balban.33 It also gives Yoginipura as another name for Dhilhi. The thirteenth century Delhi Museum Stone inscription found at Sonepat near Delhi records the construCtiOn of a well in SuvarnapraStha village and tells us that Dhillika in the Hariyana country was ruled successively by the Tomaras, Chahamanas and Shakas.A fourteenth century inscription discovered in Sarban village near Raisina road records the building of a well by two merchants named Khetala and Paitala in Saravala village in the administrative division known as sequence of rulers is given, except that’Shaka is replaced by ‘Turushka A fourteenth century inscription found at Naraina records the construction of a well by a person named Shridhara. it mentions Dhilli as situated in the great province of Hariyafla, and locates Nadayafla (i.e. Naraina) village to the west of indraprastha. Apart from throwing light on the participation of wealthy people such as merchants in the construction of public works such as wells, these inscriptions contain some of the earliest references to names similar to Dilli and Haryana.

The Interface between the Ancient, Medieval and Modern

The Ashokan pillar that stands today in Firoz Shah Kotla was brought here from Topra in Haryana in the fourteenth century at the direction of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq. The one that stands opposite Bara Hindu Rao hospital on the northern ridge, not far from Delhi University, was brought here from Meerut at the orders of the same king. How and why these pillars were transported to Delhi make us reflect on an important fact—that ancient artefacts were often re-used and reinterpreted in radically different ways in later times.M The story of the Mehxauli iron pillar,which came tobe and a legend about the naming of Delhi, is another reminder of the interesting medieval and modern histories of ancient remains.

The case study of the 1abgarhtehSilbYYanj0t Lahiri and myself moves beyond what scholars think about the historical landscape towards how this landscape is experienced and understood by the villagers who live inits midst.35 ft demonstrates how the hills and plains are geographical segments which are intimately connected with each other politically, socially, economically and culturally. We are used to viewing and admiring ancient artefacts as exhibits in museums, but they can occur in other settings as well, as part of the lived environment of communities. Villagers in the Ballabgarh area routinely assemble sculptural fragments found from time to time in their fields, in village shrines. Some of these fragments can be identified as being very old on stylistic grounds. This practice is known in other areas as well and goes back at least to the nineteenth century. It is yet another striking example of the re-use and reinterpretation of ancient artefacts in modern times.

The ancient history of the Delhi area is still very imperfectly understood and there is a great need for further exploration and study. Since Delhi is a living, growing city ancient sites are being systematically destroyed by the combined impact of modernization, ignorance, indifference and neglect. Stone age sites in the Badarpur hills are fast disappearing due to quarrying while those on the southern ridge may soon be destroyed by the building of apartment complexes and shopping malls. Ancient mounds are being levelled to make houses, factories and roads or converted into agricultural fields. Some sort of compromise needs to be worked out between the pressing demands of modern lives and livelihoods and the need to preserve fast-vanishing relics of ancient times. An understanding of the early history of the Delhi area will hopefully make people aware of just how fragile and vulnerable its ancient remains are and also stimulate a concern for their documentation and conservation.


The Mysterious Iron Pillar of Dhar

The Iron Pillar of Delhi is a metallurgical wonder and a historical marvel situated in the Qutb Minar complex in Mehrauli, 28 km from the city of Delhi. But did you know that this famous pillar has an equally fascinating, even if a far less glamorous, cousin in the town of Dhar in Madhya Pradesh? The Iron Pillar of Dhar, originally almost twice as tall as its counterpart in Delhi, is preserved in the compound of the Lat Masjid (‘lat’ means ‘pillar’).

The Dhar pillar is in three pieces, placed horizontally on a platform in the mosque compound. When standing vertically, the pillar would have soared 43 feet, 4 inches high. It would have tapered from top to bottom, changing shape at different points. While the bottom fragment has a square cross-section, the middle fragment has square and octagonal cross-sections, and the top fragment has an octagonal cross-section with a small circular portion at the top. It is believed that this circular part was the base of a fourth, missing piece, which was probably a trishul (trident) or a garuda (a mythical bird) that crowned the pillar. Today the 3 existing fragments of the pillar are approximately 24, 11 and 7 ft in length respectively.

It doesn’t seem like much today but the Iron Pillar of Dhar must have been an arresting sight in medieval times. Adding to its aura is its fascinating tale and an air of mystery that has left vital portions of its story unanswered.

Dhar is a small town near Indore in Madhya Pradesh and was the capital of the Malwa region, which comprised what is west-central Madhya Pradesh and south-eastern Rajasthan today. The city is believed to have been founded by Raja Bhoja, the most prominent ruler of the Paramara Dynasty who lorded over the Malwa region in the first half of the 11th century CE.

Dhar later fell to the Delhi Sultans, starting with Alaudin Khilji, around 1300 CE. In 1390 CE, Dilawar Khan was appointed Governor of Dhar during the last years of the Tuglaq dynasty but with the decline of the Delhi Sultanate, he declared himself independent and founded the Malwa Sultanate in 1401 CE. Dilawar Khan was succeeded by his son, Hoshang Shah (r. 1405- 1435), who shifted the capital of the Malwa Sultanate from Dhar to Mandu. But Dhar remained strategically important and was visited by Mughal Emperor Akbar (r. 1556-1605) himself during his campaigns.

Very little is known about the Iron Pillar of Dhar, including who built it. The pillar has no inscription or other markings to suggest its purpose or who its donor was. According to local lore, it was a victory pillar erected to commemorate a conquest by Raja Bhoja (r. 1010-55 CE). Vincent Smith, an Irish Indologist and art historian of the late 19th and early 20th century, disagrees. He believes the pillar dates to the Gupta period (mid-3rd to 6th CE), like the Iron Pillar of Delhi.

On the other hand, Henry Cousens, an archaeologist with the Archaeological Survey of India in the early 20th century and who studied the pillar in 1902-03, says the pillar was erected in 1210 CE by Paramara ruler Raja Arjunavarma Deva (r. 1210-18), with the molten implements of war left by his enemies during his attack on Gujarat. Even as experts differ on who built it, no one really knows where the pillar originally stood.

Although in three pieces today, most scholars believe the Iron Pillar of Dhar initially broke into two, during attacks by the Islamic Sultanates of the north. The smaller of the two pieces around 7 ft in length was erected in front of Dilawar Khan’s mosque in Mandu, just like the Iron Pillar of Delhi stands in the courtyard of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in the Qutb Complex in Delhi. The longer piece stayed where it was and ended up in front of the Lat Masjid built by Dilawar Khan in Dhar, when it allegedly replaced a temple at the site.

The Dhar segment of the pillar broke for the second time in 1531 CE, when Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate decided to carry it with him to Gujarat after defeating Mahmud Shah II, the last ruler of the Malwa Sultanate, and capturing the fort of Mandu. Bahadur Shah had intended to take the pillar back with him to Gujarat but it broke while it was being uprooted. So he abandoned his plan.

Later, in his autobiography, Mughal Emperor Jahangir (r. 1605-27 CE) says he had ordered that the larger pillar be taken to Agra, to be erected in his father Emperor Akbar’s tomb complex, as a lamppost. However, this too never happened.

Stand next to the pillar, even in its present state, and you are struck by how sturdy it was. Its surface is uneven as it has been marked by people who have visited it over the centuries. Although there are no inscriptions that shed light on the pillar’s donor or purpose, Cousens mentions a number of letters and names in Devanagari on it. He believes they must have been made by visitors to the town. A large number of these belong to individuals from the goldsmith class, with names like ‘Soni’ and ‘Sonar’. Given the height and direction of the inscriptions, Cousens believes they were made before the pillar fell for the first time.

In 1598 CE, Emperor Akbar himself left an inscription on the pillar. He was camped in Dhar while directing his Deccan campaign, and left an inscription on the pillar, in which he records his presence in Dhar for 7 days. The position of the inscription suggests that the pillar was no longer upright at this time.

Cousens also notes that the pillar has small, irregular holes at intervals on all sides. These holes range from 1.75 inches to 3 inches in depth, and 1.25 inches in diameter, and Cousens feels they may have been created by welders to help them manipulate and manoeuvre it.

Astonishingly, the Iron Pillar of Dhar, just like the one in Delhi, is rust-resistant, which means the craftsmen had used advanced metallurgical techniques. Dr R. Balasubramaniam, Professor of Metallurgy Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur who studied the composition of the pillar in great detail in 2002, believes it was made by ‘forge welding’, a technique in which pieces of metal are joined by heating them to very high temperatures and hammering them together. If this was indeed true, the Iron Pillar of Dhar would have been the largest ancient forge-welded pillar in the world.

He also states that the Pillar shows superior resistance to corrosion due to its chemical composition.

While the largest piece stayed in the premises of the Lat Masjid the two smaller pieces were kept in different places over the centuries. The second largest piece was in the Ananda High School in Dhar when Cousens visited the town in 1902 and moved to the Lat Masjid between the 1920s and 1940s. The third piece was in Mandu and was shifted back to Dhar in the second half of the 19th century. In Dhar it moved from the Dhar Maharajas’ Guest House to the Lal Bagh gardens to the Ananda Public School before being finally placed in the Lat Masjid by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Thus the three fragments of the iron pillar were in different places for centuries before the ASI brought the third piece to the mosque complex in 1980, and then placed all three of them alongside each other, as they are today. Before the ASI reunited all three fragments and repositioned them, the longest piece had been resting diagonally against the Lat Masjid and was being used as a slide by local children. Dr Balasubramaniam notes that the surface of the pillar at the top is rather polished because of this.

Lack of records or any other kind of evidence leaves us with precious little information about this marvellous monument, which deserves much more attention than it gets from the public and even from scientists and archaeometallurgists. In the words of historian Vincent Smith, “While we marvel at the skill shown by the ancient artificers in forging a great mass of the Delhi pillar, we must give a still greater measure of admiration to the forgotten craftsmen who dealt so successfully in producing the still more ponderous iron mass of the Dhar pillar monument with its total length of 42 feet.’’


ఢిల్లీ ఐరన్‌పిల్లర్‌. తుప్పుపట్టని చరిత్ర

దేశ రాజధానిలో ఇనుప స్తంభం. ఎక్కడ ఉంది? ఢిల్లీ నగరంలో మెహ్రౌలీలో ఉంది. అర్థమయ్యేలా చెప్పాలంటే కుతుబ్‌మినార్‌ ఆవరణలో ఉంది. ఎవరు నిలబెట్టారిక్కడ? తోమార్‌ రాజు అనంగ పాలుడు కావచ్చు, బానిస పాలకుడు ఇల్టుట్‌మిష్‌ కావచ్చు. ఈ కావచ్చుల వెనుక ఇంకా మరెన్నో కావచ్చులున్నాయి. దీనిని ఎవరు నిర్మించారనే ప్రశ్నకు సమాధానం ఈ స్తంభం మీదున్న శాసనాలే. సంస్కృత భాషలో బ్రాహ్మి లిపిలో ఉన్న ఈ శాసనాలను చదవడానికి అక్బర్‌ చేయని ప్రయత్నం లేదు. అయితే ఈ ప్రయత్నంలో సఫలమైంది బ్రిటిష్‌ పాలకులే.

లండన్‌ ఆర్కియాలజిస్టుల మేధోతవ్వకం తర్వాత బయటపడిన వాస్తవం ఏమిటంటే. ఇది పదహారు వందల ఏళ్ల నాటి స్తంభం. గుప్తుల కాలం నాటిది. రెండవ చంద్రగుప్తుడు క్రీ.శ నాలుగవ శతాబ్దంలో మధ్యప్రదేశ్‌లోని విష్ణుపాద కొండల మీద స్థాపించాడని వెల్లడైంది. ఈ పిల్లర్‌ మీద పరిశోధనలు చేసిన శాస్త్రవేత్తలు భారతదేశంలో గుప్తుల కాలం నాటికే లోహశాస్త్రం అత్యున్నత దశకు చేరి ఉండేదని సూత్రబద్ధంగా నిర్ధారించారు. అంత పెద్ద పుస్తకాలు చదివి అంత గొప్ప సైన్స్‌ను అర్థం చేసుకోవడం అంత సులభం కాదు. అయినా ఏం ఫర్వాలేదు. ఈ పిల్లర్‌ని చూసి ఆ మేధోఘనులకు ఒక సెల్యూట్‌ చేసి, పిల్లర్‌ ముందు నిలండి ఫొటో తీసుకుంటే ఎప్పటికీ తుప్పు పట్టని ఓ మంచి జ్ఞాపకం మన ఆల్బమ్‌లో నిక్షిప్తమై ఉంటుంది.

నిజమో! కాదో!! కానీ.
ఈ పిల్లర్‌ చూడడానికి సన్నగా ఉన్నట్లే అనిపిస్తుంది. కానీ పిల్లర్‌ మన వీపుకి తగిలేటట్లు నిలబడి రెండు చేతుల్ని వెనక్కి చాచి పిల్లర్‌ని చుట్టడానికి ప్రయత్నిస్తే చేతులు అందవు. ఈ ప్రయత్నంలో రెండు అరచేతుల్ని పట్టుకోగలిగిన వాళ్లు గొప్ప వ్యక్తులవుతారని అక్కడ ఒక సరదా నమ్మకం ఉండేది. భారత మాజీ ప్రధాని ఇందిరాగాంధీకి చేతులు అందాయని కూడా చెప్పేవారు. పర్యాటకులందరూ ప్రయత్నించి విఫలమయ్యేవాళ్లు. ఇప్పుడు ఆ ప్రయత్నం చేయడానికి కూడా వీల్లేదు. పిల్లర్‌ చుట్టూ కంచె కట్టేశారు. దూరంగా నిలబడి చూసి ఆనందించాల్సిందే.

మధ్యప్రదేశ్‌లోనే ఎందుకు?
కర్కాటక రేఖ మన దేశంలో గుజరాత్, రాజస్థాన్, మధ్యప్రదేశ్, చత్తీస్‌గఢ్, జార్ఖండ్, వెస్ట్‌ బెంగాల్, త్రిపుర, మిజోరామ్‌.. మొత్తం ఎనిమిది రాష్ట్రాల గుండా ప్రయాణిస్తుంది. ఎక్యునాక్స్‌డే (పగలు– రాత్రి సమంగా ఉండేరోజు) సూర్యుడి గమనం సాగే రేఖామార్గంలో మధ్యప్రదేశ్‌లో ఉన్న విష్ణుపాద కొండల మీద ఈ ఇనుపస్తంభాన్ని స్థాపించారు. ఇది ఈ ఇనుపస్తంభ స్థాపన వెనుక ఉన్న ఖగోళ విజ్ఞానం. అంతకు మించిన లోహశాస్త్ర విజ్ఞానం కూడా ఈ పిల్లర్‌లో నిక్షిప్తమై ఉంది.

బ్రిటిష్‌ కాలంలో ఆర్కియాలజిస్ట్‌ జేమ్స్‌ ప్రిన్సెప్‌ 1817లో ఈ పిల్లర్‌ మీద అధ్యయనం చేసి ప్రపంచానికి తెలియచేశాడు. మెటలర్జరిస్ట్‌ సర్‌ రాబర్ట్‌ హోడ్‌ఫీల్డ్‌ 1912లో రీసెర్చ్‌ మొదలు పెట్టాడు. అనేకమంది శాస్త్రవేత్తలు ఇందులోని శాస్త్రీయత మీద పరిశోధనలు చేసి రెండు వందల యాభైకి పైగా పేపర్‌లు, పుస్తకాలు వెలువరించారు.

ఇది ఒక మెటలర్జికల్‌ వండర్‌ అని తేల్చేశారంతా. ఈ ఐరన్‌ పిల్లర్‌ని తుప్పపట్టనివ్వని లోహపు పూత మందం మిల్లీమీటరులో ఇరవయ్యో వంతు. ఈ టెక్నాలజీ మీద ఇంకా పరిశోధనలు జరుగుతూనే ఉన్నాయి.


Mehrauli Iron Pillar - History

An engraving by E. Therond, from a French magazine, 'Le Tour du Monde', 1874 *a very large scan of this engraving*


An engraving by E. Therond, from 'The Graphic', 1875 click on the image for a very large scan

Source: Bought on ebay and scanned by FWP, Feb. 2009

An albumen print attributed to Taurines, 1880's


Admirers surround the pillar, a photo from c. the 1880's


Visitors clowning around, 1909

The Iron Pillar in relation to the screen and the mosque courtyard

Source: Courtesy of Prof. Frederick Asher, Univ. of Minnesota, October 1999


Iron pillar of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–414 CE) (Delhi)

The iron pillar is one of the world’s foremost metallurgical curiosities. The pillar, almost seven metres high and weighing more than six tonnes, was erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–414 CE), (interpretation based on careful analysis of archer type Gupta gold coins) of the Gupta dynasty that ruled northern India 320–540.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=P-Eam5ls6-g
The pillar, with an idol of Garuda at the top, was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri (meaning “Vishnu-footprint-hill”), identified as modern Udayagiri, situated in the close vicinity of Besnagar, Vidisha and Sanchi, towns located about 50 kilometres east of Bhopal, in central India. Vishnupadagiri is located on the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, was a centre of astronomical studies during the Gupta period. The Iron Pillar served an important astronomical function, in its original site its early morning shadow fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayain Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only in the time around summer solstice (June 21). The creation and development of the Udayagiri site appears to have been clearly guided by a highly developed astronomical knowledge. Therefore, the Udayagiri site, in general, and the Iron Pillar location in particular, provide firm evidence for the astronomical knowledge in India around 400 CE.

It is the only piece of the Jain temple remaining, which stood there before being destroyed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak to build the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. Qutub built around it when he constructed the mosque.

The pillar bears an inscription which states that it was erected as a flagstaff in honour of the Hindu god, Vishnu, and in the memory of the Gupta King Chandragupta II (375–413). Made up of 98% wrought iron of pure quality, it is 23 feet 8 inches (7.21 m) high and has a diameter of 16 inches (0.41 m). Also, it was confirmed that the temperatures required to form such kind of pillars cannot be achieved by combustion of coal. The pillar is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron.

It has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists as it has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years, despite harsh weather. Its unusually good corrosion resistance appears to be due to a high phosphorus content, which together with favorable local weather conditions promotes the formation of a solid protective passivation layer of iron oxides and phosphates, rather than the non-protective, cracked rust layer that develops on most ironwork.

A fence was erected around the pillar due to the popularity of a tradition that considered it good luck if you could stand with your back to the pillar and make your hands meet behind it.


Inhoud

The height of the pillar, from the top of its capital to the bottom of its base, is 23 ftو in (7.21 m), 3 ftو in (1.12 m) of which is below ground. Its bell pattern capital is 3 ftن in (1.07 m) in height, and its bulb-shaped base is 2 ftل in (0.71 m) high. The base rests on a grid of iron bars soldered with lead into the upper layer of the dressed stone pavement. The pillar's lower diameter is 16.4 in (420 mm), and its upper diameter 12.05 in (306 mm). The bell pattern capital is 3 ftن in (1.07 m) high. It is estimated to weigh more than six tons. [6]

The pillar was erected by Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375 CE–414 CE), (interpretation based on analysis of archer-type Gupta gold coins) of the Gupta dynasty that ruled northern India 320–540. [ 7 ] The pillar, with the statue of Chakra at the top, was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri (meaning "hill with footprint of Lord Vishnu"). [ 8 ] This has been identified as modern Udayagiri, situated in the vicinity of Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh. There are several aspects to the original site of the pillar at Udayagiri. Vishnupadagiri is located on the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, was a centre of astronomical studies during the Gupta period. The iron pillar served as a sundial when it was originally at Vishnupadagiri. The early-morning shadow of the iron pillar fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayin Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only around the summer solstice (June 21). The Udayagiri site in general, and the iron pillar location in particular, are evidence for the astronomical knowledge that existed in Gupta India.

The pillar bears a Sanskrit inscription in Brahmi script, [ 9 ] which states that it was erected as a standard in honour of Lord Vishnu. It also praises the valor and qualities of a king referred to simply as Chandra, who has been identified with the Gupta King Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375-413). The inscription reads (in the translation given in the tablets erected by Pandit Banke Rai in 1903):

He, on whose arm fame was inscribed by the sword, when, in battle in the Vanga countries (Bengal), he kneaded (and turned) back with (his) breast the enemies who, uniting together, came against (him)-he, by whom, having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu, the Vahlikas were conquered-he, by the breezes of whose prowess the southern ocean is even still perfumed-

(Line 3.)-He, the remnant of the great zeal of whose energy, which utterly destroyed (his) enemies, like (the remnant of the great glowing heat) of a burned-out fire in a great forest, even now leaves not the earth though he, the king, as if wearied, has quit this earth, and has gone to the other world, moving in (bodily) from to the land (of paradise) won by (the merit of his) actions, (but) remaining on (this) earth by (the memory of his) fame-

(L. 5.)-By him, the king,-who attained sole supreme sovereignty in the world, acquired by his own arm and (enjoyed) for a very long time (and) who, having the name of Chandra, carried a beauty of countenance like (the beauty of) the full-moon,-having in faith fixed his mind upon (the god) Vishnu, this lofty standard of the divine Vishnu was set up on the hill (called) Vishnupada.

It is believed by some that the pillar was installed in its current location by Vigraha Raja, the ruling Tomar king. [ 10 ] One of the inscriptions on the iron pillar from A.D.� mentions Tomara king Anangpal II. [ 11 ]

A fence was erected around the pillar in 1997 in response to damage caused by visitors. There is a popular tradition that it was considered good luck if one could stand with one's back to the pillar and make one's hands meet behind it.


Mehrauli Iron Pillar - History

My post from 2002 (it includes a post by one "singh",
and my post from 1993) follows:

[ Subject: Re: MYSTERY OF IRON PILLAR SOLVED
[ From: ***@mantra.com (Dr. Jai Maharaj)
[ Date: 19 Jul 2002 15:02:55 GMT
[
[ In article <***@nntp.acecape.com>,
[ "singh" <***@acedsl.com> posted:
[>
[> Mystery of Delhi's Iron Pillar unraveled
[>
[> Press Trust of India
[>
[> New Delhi, July 18: Experts at the Indian Instituteof
[> Technology have resolved the mystery behind the 1,600-year-
[> old iron pillar in Delhi, which has never corroded despite
[> the capital's harsh weather.
[>
[> Metallurgists at Kanpur IIT have discovered that a thin
[> layer of "misawite", a compound of iron, oxygen and
[> hydrogen, has protected the cast iron pillar from rust.
[>
[> The protective film took form within three years after
[> erection of the pillar and has been growing ever so slowly
[> since then. After 1,600 years, the film has grown just one-
[> twentieth of a millimeter thick, according to R.
[> Balasubramaniam of the IIT.
[>
[> In a report published in the journal Current Science
[> Balasubramanian says, the protective film was formed
[> catalytically by the presence of high amounts of
[> phosphorous in the iron-as much as one per cent against
[> less than 0.05 per cent in today's iron.
[>
[> The high phosphorous content is a result of the unique
[> iron-making process practiced by ancient Indians, who
[> reduced iron ore into steel in one step by mixing it with
[> charcoal.
[>
[> Modern blast furnaces, on the other hand, use limestone in
[> place of charcoal yielding molten slag and pig iron that is
[> later converted into steel. In the modern process most
[> phosphorous is carried away by the slag.
[>
[> The pillar-over seven metres high and weighing more than
[> six tonnes-was erected by Kumara Gupta of Gupta dynasty
[> that ruled northern India in AD 320-540.
[>
[> Stating that the pillar is "a living testimony to the skill
[> of metallurgists of ancient India", Balasubramaniam said
[> the "kinetic scheme" that his group developed for
[> predicting growth of the protective film may be useful for
[> modeling long-term corrosion behaviour of containers for
[> nuclear storage applications.
[
[Ek het die volgende in 1993 geplaas:
[
[Onderwerp: Oorsprong van metallurgie in Indië
[Uit: Jai Maharaj
[Nuusgroepe: sci.materials
[Datum: 26 Mei 1993
[
[Opsomming van Bron
[
[NASIONALE GEOGRAFIESE TYDSKRIF
[Deel 167, nommer 4, April 1985
[bladsy 527
[Die erfenis van Indië om probleme op te los, is dikwels
[oorskadu deur eeue kolonialisme en verowering.
[Buite Delhi het ek een van die oudste monumente besoek
[daardie geskiedenis. . . ysterlegeringspilaar, gesmelt deur
[Indiese metallurgiste met so 'n vaardigheid dat dit gebly het
[1500 jaar lank roesloos. (Foto op bladsy 533.)
[Hierdie uitstekende tegnici was broers van
[Indiese denkers wat die begrippe nul en
[oneindig en bedink die onakkurate naam Arabies
[syfersisteem, wat die wetenskap van wiskunde gee aan a
[wêreld deurdrenk van bygelowige onkunde.
[ - Bryan Hodgson
[
[Jai Maharaj
[Om Shanti

Jai Maharaj, Jyotishi
Om Shanti
http://groups.google.com/group/alt.fan.jai-maharaj

Delhi wonder - The Iron Pillar - YouTube

Die ysterpilaar se totale hoogte van die pilaar is presies 23
voete 8 duim, waarvan, voor die huidige chabutra van
platform is gebou, ongeveer 22 voet was bo en
ongeveer veertien duim onder die grond. Die basis is 'n
onreëlmatige knop in vorm, wat op 'n paar klein stukkies rus
soos stukkies yster, in die klip daaronder ingelaat, en
met lood vasgemaak. "Video:


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Die ysterkolom van Delhi is byna 24 voet lank en geleë in die Quwwat-ul-moskee by Mehrauli in Delhi, Indië. Dit weeg meer as 6 ton en is gemaak van 98% yster. Daar word vermoed dat die pilaar met smeersweiswerk vervaardig is. Die pilaar is sierlik, maar skaars ontsagwekkend, tensy 'n mens weet hoe lank en geheimsinnig die geskiedenis daarvan is.

HISTORICMYSTERIES.COM

Geheimsinnige ysterkolom van Delhi | Historiese raaisels

Hierdie moskee is gemaak deur die vernietiging van 27 Hindoe- en Jain -tempels deur die Islamitiese indringers.

Die ysterpilaar is gemaak in 375 nC (deur die Hindoe -dinastie) honderde jare voordat hierdie gewelddadige kultus in Arabië ontstaan ​​het.

Ou oorsprong

Duisende jare gelede is 'n reeks megalitiese grafte in die asemrowende landskap van Malaga in Spanje gebou. Die prag van die konstruksies lok jaarliks ​​duisende toeriste. Die klipgrafte verberg nog baie geheime, insluitend die oorsprong van die provinsie Antequera. Hierdie prehistoriese megalitiese konstruksies stel moderne mense in staat om 'n unieke atmosfeer van antieke misterie en intrige wat 5 000 jaar oud is, te betree.


Kyk die video: МАВАШИ group - Гвозди. Фан-видео с концерта. (Augustus 2022).