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Slag van Yorktown - Geskiedenis

Slag van Yorktown - Geskiedenis



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Generaal Cornwalis het in Mei 1781 in Petersburg aangekom, waarna hy na Yorktown gegaan het en 'n vlootbasis daar begin voorberei het. Generaal Washington beweeg suidwaarts en omring saam met die Franse grond- en vlootmagte die Britse leër en dwing sy oorgawe. Hierdie oorwinning deur Washington en Franse magte het die oorlog beëindig.

Die somer tot in die herfs van 1781 sou die deurslaggewende oomblik in die Revolusionêre Oorlog word. Die Britse suidelike veldtogplan was aan skerwe na die opeenvolgende oorwinnings, en byna oorwinnings deur Amerikaanse magte in die suide. Die Britte was nou beperk tot kusdorpe. Intussen het die Franse versterkings wat die Amerikaners belowe is, uiteindelik in Rhode Island aangekom. Die aanvanklike plan was dat die Franse met die Amerikaanse magte saamgesmelt het, en saam sou hulle New York herower. Die Amerikaners en hul bondgenote het ook 'n unieke voordeel geniet. Vir die eerste keer in die oorlog was die Franse vlootmagte in die Wes -Atlantiese Oseaan beter as die Britse troepe. Frankryk het 'n dekade lange poging aangewend om sy vloot te laat groei. Hulle pogings het in 1781 tot stand gekom, terwyl die Britse Vloot, wat nog altyd so formidabel gebly het, oor die hele wêreld gestrek is in 'n wêreldwye stryd om meerderwaardigheid.

Op 8 Julie 1781 het die Franse leër 'n 18 dae lange opmars vanaf Rhode Island voltooi en naby White Plains, New York, aangekom om daar by die Amerikaanse weermag aan te sluit. Die twee gesamentlike leërs is toe suidwaarts in die rigting van New York. Die Franse en Amerikaners het die verdediging van New York geweldig gevind. Intussen het hulle verneem dat Cornwallis met sy leër terugtrek na die Chesapeakebaai en Yorktown. Generaal Washington het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die gebruik van sy magte om die suidelike leër van Cornwallis te omring, die mees beslissende gebruik van sy magte sou wees. Washington en die Franse bevelvoerder, generaal Rochambeau, is tot aksie aangespoor toe hulle verneem dat die Franse admiraal De Grasse met 29 skepe van die lyn uit Haiti gevaar het; 4 fregatte en nog 3 000 man. Hierdie vloot, gekombineer met die kleiner eskader van Barras in Rhode Island, sou die Franse 'n beslissende voordeel bo die Britse vloot gee. DeGrasse en sy magte was op pad na Virginia. Hulle sou 'n afspraak maak met die kontinentale magte onder leiding van generaal Greene en Marquis Lafayette, wat suid gekom het. Saam het hul magte die leër van Cornwalis gekeer om verwoesting in Virginia te veroorsaak en sy magte na die kus te dwing.

Met die wete dat die Franse vloot op pad was na Virginia, het Washington sy magte suidwaarts aangespoor in wat hy gehoop het dat dit 'n beslissende oorwinning kon word. Op 19 Augustus het Washington se leërs op pad gegaan. Hulle het eers na die noorde gegaan om die Hudson oor te steek, asook om die Britte te verwar oor hul bestemming. Dit het die leërs van Washington tot 2 September geneem om Philadelphia, die Amerikaanse hoofstad, te bereik. Die Amerikaanse weermag, gevolg deur die Franse leër, paradeer deur die hoofstad, vergesel van die gepaste pomp en seremonie.

Terwyl die Amerikaanse weermag suidwaarts marsjeer het, het die mees beslissende seestryd van die oorlog (en moontlik van die eeu) langs die Virginia Capes plaasgevind. 'N Britse eskader, onder bevel van Admiral Hood, neem die groter Franse vloot aan, onder De Grasse, wat uitgekom het om die Britse mag te ontmoet. Die geveg was 'n klassieke vlootgeveg, waarin die groter Franse vloot stadig sy tol geëis het op die kleiner Britse vloot. Die Britte en die Franse het 'n gelyke aantal mans verloor en 'n gelyke aantal skepe is beskadig. Met verloop van ure het die Britse vloot egter vinnig afgeneem, en De Grasse se troepe is versterk met die aankoms van ekstra Franse skepe onder bevel van Barras. Uiteindelik is die Britte gedwing om hulle terug te trek nadat hulle meer as 300 vlootgevalle opgedoen het. Hulle onttrekking sou Cornwallis, wat in Yorktown gebly het, verdoem, ondanks die dreigende aankoms van die groot Amerikaanse en Franse leërs.

Op 14 September het Washington in Williamsburg, NY, aangekom. Op 20 September begin die beleg van Yorktown. Vir die eerste keer in die oorlog het die Amerikaners in alle opsigte oorweldigende meerderwaardigheid gehad. Saam het die Amerikaners en die Franse 'n leër van 19 000 soldate opgestel, almal behalwe 3 000 gereeld. Die Britte het slegs 9 000 gehad. Die geallieerde magte het die Britte verbygesteek en was goed voorsien. Uiteindelik het die Geallieerde magte die see beheer.

Washington en Rochambeau het besluit dat die manier om Yorktown te verower deur 'n klassieke beleg was. Cornwallis het hul pogings 'n bietjie makliker gemaak deur sy lyne te konsolideer. Op 5 Oktober het die Amerikaners onder Franse leiding begin met die bou van hul eerste beleidsgraaf. Teen 9 Oktober het die sloot ver genoeg gevorder dat kanonne geplaas kon word. Toe begin Amerikaanse en Franse magte met hul bombardement van die Britte in Yorktown. Daar is elke dag 3 500 rondtes in die stad afgevuur. Om die lyne te verleng, moes die Amerikaners en die Britte twee Britse buiteposte neem, bekend as buitepos #9 en #10.

Op die aand van 14 Oktober het 'n Amerikaanse mag onder leiding van Alexander Hamilton buitepos 10 ingeneem en Franse magte buitepos #9. Hierdie gevangenes het die bondgenote toegelaat om hul lyne uit te brei. Die volgende aand het die Britte 'n nuttelose poging tot teenaanval probeer doen. Toe, lank nadat die net toegemaak het, het Cornwallis probeer om sy manne uit Yorktown te kry. Daardie poging het misluk.

Die volgende dag, 17 Oktober, begin met 'n massiewe bombardement deur Amerikaanse en Britse magte. Om 10:00 het 'n wit vlag oor die Britse lyne gestyg. Die geallieerde gewere het stil geword. 'N Britse offisier, vergesel van 'n tromspeler, kom uit die Britse linies. Hy is begelei na die hoofkwartier van Washington, waar hy 'n brief aan Washington gegee het waarin hy 'n skietstilstand voorstel en onderhandelinge oorgee.

Washington eis om te weet watter terme Cornwallis voorstel. Die Britse offisier keer terug na sy pos, maar reageer vinnig met terme wat volgens die Amerikaners en die Franse die basis van onderhandelinge kan wees. Die volgende dag het onderhandelaars vir die Britte en Amerikaners die hele dag vergader om onderhandelinge te onderhandel. Die bepalings is die volgende aand bereik. Die Britse leër sou oorgee; een uit elke 50 beamptes moet losgelaat word, en een skip kan met woestyne na New York vaar, of na wie Cornwallis wil stuur.

Die volgende dag, op 19 Oktober, om 2 uur die middag, het die oorgawe begin. Die Britse soldate marsjeer tussen twee lang rye geallieerde soldate om oor te gee. Die Amerikaners het 8 000 soldate, 214 stukke veldartillerie en duisende muskiete gevange geneem. Washington het 'n kort brief aan die kongres geskryf: "'n Vermindering van die Britse leër onder bevel van lord Cornwallis vind die lekkerste plaas. Die oorlog was eintlik verby. Die Amerikaners het gewen !!


Belegging van Yorktown begin

Vakbondmagte onder generaal George McClellan arriveer in Yorktown, Virginia, en vestig beleëringslyne in plaas daarvan om die Konfederale verdedigers direk aan te val.

Dit was die opening van die McClellan ’s Peninsular -veldtog. Hy vaar met sy massiewe Army of the Potomac in Chesapeakebaai af en land op die James -skiereiland suidoos van die Konfederale hoofstad Richmond, Virginia. Hy het geredeneer dat dit hom nader aan Richmond sou bring, en dat die Konfederate dit moeilik sou vind om hul verstrooide magte na die skiereiland te versamel. Die eerste verset het gekom by Yorktown, die plek waar George Washington se beslissende oorwinning oor Lord Cornwallis was om die Amerikaanse rewolusie 91 jaar vroeër te beëindig.

McClellan was moedeloos deur wat hy gedink het 'n aansienlike mag was wat in sterk en goed bewapende versterkings rus. Die Konfederate wat hy gesien het, was eintlik 11 000 troepe onder generaal John B. Magruder. Alhoewel hy baie in getal was, het Magruder 'n uitgebreide manier gehad om McClellan te mislei. Hy bestel houtblokke wat swart geverf is, met die naam “Quaker Guns, en#x201D in afskermings geplaas om die voorkoms van talle artilleriestukke te laat lyk. Magruder het sy manne heen en weer opgeruk om die illusie te versterk. Die vertoning het gewerk, aangesien McClellan oortuig was dat hy nie 'n frontale aanval kon doen nie.

Hy het verkies om eerder te beleër. Eers op 4 Mei het Magruder se troepe Yorktown uiteindelik verlaat, wat die Konfederate waardevolle tyd gegee het om hul troepe naby Richmond bymekaar te maak. Die veldtog het einde Junie 'n hoogtepunt bereik toe McClellan in die Seven Days ’ gevegte uit die poorte van Richmond verdryf is.


Belangrike feite en inligting

GELEENTHEDE wat tot die stryd lei

  • In 1780 het 5.500 Franse soldate onder leiding van Comte de Rochambeau in Newport, Rhode Island, geland om hul Amerikaanse bondgenote te help om die Britse troepe wat New York beset het, te beveg.
  • Die Britse weermag is op twee fronte gelei: generaal Henry Clinton in New York en generaal Charles Cornwallis in Suid -Carolina.
  • Die Amerikaanse kontinentale weermag is gelei deur generaal George Washington en Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette.
  • Meningsverskille het ontstaan ​​tussen Washington en Rochambeau nadat die Franse troepe aangekom het, meestal oor die moontlikheid van ondersteuning van die Franse Wes -Indiese vloot van die Comte de Grasse.
  • Met die aankoms van meer Franse troepe, het Washington en Rochambeau aanvanklik die kontinentale leër in New York geplaas en 'n aanval op generaal Clinton se leër beplan.
  • Comte de Grasse het Washington gemotiveer om suid te trek sodat hulle 'n gesamentlike aanval kon begin.
  • Washington het 'n nuwe plan opgestel en begin om die Frans-Amerikaanse leër voor te berei om na Virginia te gaan.
  • Op 19 Augustus 1781 begin die optog met 4 000 Franse en 3 000 Amerikaanse soldate uit Newport, Rhode Island.
  • 'N Deel van die plan was om hul bestemming geheim te hou om hul teenstander te verblind.
  • Valse nuus het Clinton bereik en onthul dat die Frans-Amerikaanse weermag 'n gesamentlike operasie in New York gaan begin.
  • Omdat hy nie besef het hoe groot die Franse leër was nie, het admiraal sir Thomas Graves 'n Britse vloot uit New York gelei om hulle aan te val.
  • Op 5 September is die Britse vloot deur die Franse verslaan in die berugte Slag van die Chesapeake.
  • Generaal Cornwallis en sy manne het 'n verdediging gebou van 10 klein forte genaamd redoubts met artillerie en verbindingsgrawe in Yorktown.
  • Cornwallis het hulp aangevra van Clinton, wat beloof het om 'n vloot van 5 000 Britse soldate te stuur om by te voeg tot Cornwallis se 8 000 Britse mans.
  • Intussen het generaal Washington Marquis de Lafayette beveel om Cornwallis se moontlike ontsnapping uit Yorktown per land te blokkeer.
  • Intussen het Washington se 2 500 Amerikaanse mans in New York saam met 4 000 Franse soldate onder die Comte de Rochambeau.
  • Die gesamentlike Frans-Amerikaanse magte het hul eie loopgrawe 800 meter van die Britse vloot begin grawe en 'n artillerie-aanval op die Britte beplan.
  • Terwyl Cornwallis tevergeefs op Britse versterkings gewag het, het Comte de Grasse se vloot Washington se troepe na Williamsburg, Virginia, vervoer. Daar het hulle kragte saamgesnoer in die beleg van Yorktown.

DIE SLAG VAN YORKTOWN

  • Op 28 September 1781 het generaal Washington gelei dat die Frans-Amerikaanse leër, bestaande uit 17.000 man uit Williamsburg, Yorktown omring en die beleg begin wat nou bekend staan ​​as die Slag van Yorktown.
  • Die Franse was op die linkerflank geplaas, terwyl die Amerikaners op die regterflank was.
  • Op 9 Oktober het Washington die eerste geweer afgevuur en met sy bombardement begin.
  • Vir ongeveer 'n week het die geallieerde troepe die hele dag en nag afgevuur, wat die Britse vloot verhinder het om hul verdediging te herstel.
  • Op 11 Oktober beveel Washington die Amerikaanse vloot om 'n tweede parallel 400 meter nader aan die Britse lyne te grawe.
  • Om die nuwe parallel tot by die rivier te bereik, moes die Britse Redoubts nommer 9 en 10 wat in die pad was, met geweld geneem word.
  • Generaal Cornwallis was nie bewus daarvan dat 'n nuwe parallel gegrawe word nie.
  • Teen die oggend van die 12de was die Frans-Amerikaanse troepe in posisie op die nuwe lyn.
  • Die aand van 14 Oktober het die geallieerde troepe hul aanval geloods.
  • Die aanval op Redoubt #10 is deur 400 infanteriste onder bevel van Alexander Hamilton uitgevoer.
  • By die storm die redoubts, Washington beveel die gebruik van bajonette.
  • Die Britte is deur die Amerikaners met wrede hand-aan-hand-gevegte ontmoet en is oorweldig.
  • Die Amerikaanse vloot het slegs 34 slagoffers gely wat tot 'n epiese oorwinning gelei het.
  • Aan die ander kant het die Franse Redoubt #9 met sukses beslag gelê.
  • Omring aan drie kante deur die artillerie van die opponent, het die posisie van die Britse weermag toenemend onverdedigbaar geword.

BRITSE OORGAWE

  • Die troepe van Cornwallis was nie net omring nie, hulle het ook min kos en voorrade gehad.
  • Op 15 Oktober 1781 het Cornwallis 'n teenaanval van die laaste kans geloods, wat baie misluk het.
  • Twee dae later begin Cornwallis met onderhandelinge om sy leër, bestaande uit ongeveer 8 000 soldate, oor te gee.
  • Op 19 Oktober het die hele Britse vloot oorgegee.
  • Cornwallis het nie die formele oorgawe -seremonie bygewoon nie en beweer dat hy siek was, hoewel sommige berigte sê dat hy verneder is.
  • Generaal Charles O'Hara, die tweede in bevel, het namens die Britse leër oorgegee.

Slag van Yorktown -werkkaarte

Dit is 'n fantastiese bundel wat alles bevat wat u moet weet oor die Slag van Yorktown op 24 diepgaande bladsye. Hierdie is gereed-vir-gebruik Battle of Yorktown-werkkaarte wat perfek is om studente te leer oor die Slag van Yorktown, ook bekend as die beleg van Yorktown, wat 'n gesamentlike veld- en see-veldtog was deur die Franse en die Amerikaanse troepe wat gelei het tot die oorgawe van 'n groot Britse leër onder leiding van generaal Charles Cornwallis. Die geveg duur van 28 September tot 19 Oktober 1781. Die geveg was die laaste groot veldslag van die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog in Noord -Amerika.

Volledige lys met ingesluit werkkaarte

  • Slag van Yorktown Feite
  • Vraag & amp Antwoord
  • Belangrike gebeurtenisse
  • Oor Yorktown
  • Waar of onwaar
  • Dekodering van name
  • Kontinentale leiers
  • Span hulle saam
  • Belangrike datums
  • Alternatiewe einde
  • Beplanning van 'n geveg

Skakel/noem hierdie bladsy

As u na die inhoud op hierdie bladsy op u eie webwerf verwys, gebruik die onderstaande kode om hierdie bladsy as die oorspronklike bron te noem.

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Waarom was die Slag van Yorktown belangrik?

Die Slag van Yorktown was belangrik omdat dit die punt van finale oorgawe vir Britse magte veroorsaak het. Die stryd was die laaste groot konflik tydens die Amerikaanse Revolusie, en die uitkoms daarvan ten gunste van die Amerikaners het die Britse verlies effektief verseël. Britse slagoffers in hierdie geveg was byna twee keer dié van die Amerikaners.

Britse magte het na die Slag van Yorktown op plekke bly veg, maar terug in Brittanje het die publiek teen die oorlog begin draai. Die volgende jaar word 'n parlement verkies wat pro-Amerikaans was, en vredesonderhandelinge het spoedig gevolg, wat gelei het tot die Verdrag van Parys.

Die Slag van Yorktown was 'n beduidende oorwinning vir die Amerikaners omdat dit 'n aansienlike mag van 7.500 man onder leiding van luitenant -generaal Lord Charles Cornwallis uitgeskakel het. Generaal Washington het verkies om hierdie mag aan te val omdat dit danksy die Franse vlootblokkade van versterkings geïsoleer was. Die gesamentlike Franse en Amerikaanse leër het op 28 September 1781 op Yorktown opgeruk. Op 17 Oktober van dieselfde jaar het Cornwallis sy magte oorgegee. By 'n ontmoeting met Washington nadat hy oorgegee het, het Cornwallis gepoog om gunstige voorwaardes te verkry, maar hy is geweier omdat Washington in plaas daarvan die strengere voorwaardes eis wat die Britse magte die vorige jaar teen 'n Amerikaanse generaal opgelê het.


Die Slag van Yorktown, Virginia

Die Slag van Yorktown, ook die beleg van Yorktown genoem, was die laaste stryd van die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog, alhoewel die Verdrag van Parys, wat die oorlog beëindig het, nie nog twee jaar onderteken sou word nie.

Yorktown, Virginia, is in 1691 gestig deur Thomas Ballard saam met Joseph Ring. Die stad is ontwerp om 'n skeepshaven vir tabak uit Europa te wees.

Voor die Revolusionêre Oorlog was die stad eenvoudig bekend as York. Daarna is dit herdoop na Yorktown.

Die Slag van Yorktown was onvergeetlik: 'n merkwaardige oorwinning vir die patriotte en 'n groot verlies vir die Britte.

Die onrus begin

In die somer van 1781, nadat die Britse generaal en graaf Charles Cornwallis weens patriotweerstand nie by die Carolinas kon vashou nie, is hy na Yorktown gestuur om 'n fort naby die rivier in besit te neem. Generaal Henry Clinton wou 'n hawe hê waaruit hy die Britse stamgaste in Virginia kon voorsien en versterk. Lord Cornwallis het hiermee ingestem nadat hy versterkings uit New York beloof is.

Duitse gravure van Lord Cornwallis ’ oorgawe tydens die Slag van Yorktown.
Die woorde lees:
Die Americaner machen den Lord Cornwallis met seiner Armee zu Gefangnen, bey Yorktown den 19 ten October 1781.In Engels: ”Die Amerikaners vang die Lord Cornwallis met sy leër op 19 Oktober 1781 in Yorktown. ”

Intussen het Franse skepe onlangs die leër van George Washington te hulp gekom. Washington, saam met die Franse generaal de Rochambeau, het probeer om 'n manier te vind om New York in te neem toe 'n boodskapperseun met die nuus van die Britse kamp in Yorktown aankom. Washington het besluit om af te gaan en die fort waarin die Britte vasgevang was terug te neem.

Toe Corwallis die nuus ontvang, het hy die keuse gehad om na New York te vlug, waar hy die risiko loop om die Franse te vlug na Noord -Carolina, waar die veiligheid ook nie seker is nie, of staan ​​en veg teen die weermag van Washington. Hy het gekies om te bly, sy enigste hoop lê in die soldate wat hy deur Clinton belowe het.

Die Slag van Yorktown begin

By die aankoms van die Amerikaanse soldate het Cornwallis slegs een voordeel: die fort waarin hulle was. Toe hy sien hoeveel meer Amerikaanse soldate daar is as Britte, probeer hy vlug oor die York -rivier na die fort wat hy die ander kant aangeneem het. kant. Sodra hy sy huidige fort verlaat het, het die Amerikaners dit ingeneem. Sy poging om die rivier oor te steek het misluk as gevolg van 'n storm wat die waters erg geslinger het, wat dit onmoontlik gemaak het om oor te steek.

Die Franse skepe het die volgende dag aangekom en alle hoop op versterkings van generaal Clinton afgesny. Teen hierdie tyd het die Amerikaners op die Britse weermag begin afvuur en dit lyk sleg met Lord Cornwallis.

Die oorgawe

Al die Britse voorrade was vir die Amerikaners verlore toe Cornwallis uit die fort gevlug het. Sy enigste opsie was nou om oor te gee of te sterf. Op 19 Oktober kom die tweede in bevel van die Britse leër in die plek van Lord Cornwallis - wat siek geword het omdat hy nie die skande kon verdra nie - om die graaf se swaard voor te lê, wat die Slag van Yorktown in 'n volledige Britse oorgawe beëindig het.

Toe hy na Engeland terugkeer, is sy naam deur die modder gesleep. In latere jare sou hy bekend staan ​​as die man wat Amerika verloor het.

Onvoltooide Verdrag van Parys skildery deur B. West

Die Slag van Yorktown was die laaste groot gevegte voor die ondertekening van die Verdrag van Parys in September 1783. Tydens die ondertekening is die Britte gevra om vir 'n skildery vir die geskiedenisboeke te poseer, maar hulle wou nie vorentoe kyk nie. Die skildery is nog onvolledig.


Slag van Yorktown

Ons is aan die einde van ons band, en nou of nooit moet ons bevryding kom nie, het 'n moedelose George Washington in April 1781 geskryf. Die opstand was in sy sewende lang jaar. Die verskriklike spannings van die konflik het die landbou-ekonomie en 'n bevolking wat deur 'n nagmerriepokkie-epidemie geteister is, steeds verpletter. Kontinentale geldeenheid het steeds hiper-opgeblaas en uiteindelik in Mei 1781 in duie gestort. Die Raad in Philadelphia het die maandelikse wisselkoerse aan spesies begin publiseer, en vermoeide verbruikers vermenigvuldig dan die amptelike koers met drie. Ten tyde van sy afsterwe in die lente voor Yorktown, was die verhouding tussen geldeenhede en spesies amptelik 175 tot een, of 525 op een, volgens die informele berekeninge van die publiek. 'N Optog is in Philadelphia gehou om die ineenstorting daarvan met geesdrif te beklemtoon, terwyl mense met dollars in hul hoede as papierpluime marsjeer. 'N Ongelukkige hond loop langs, teer en plak met die waardelose papier.

Terwyl hy vir die Yorktown -veldtog beplan het, was Washington desperaat vir harde spesies om die troepe te betaal. Hy het aan Robert Morris geskryf, en ek moet u, indien moontlik, versoek om 'n maandelikse betaling vir die losstaande eenheid onder my bevel te bekom. 'N Deel van die troepe is lankal niks betaal nie en het by verskeie geleenthede tekens van groot ontevredenheid getoon, en 'n onderskat verwysing na die muiterye en algemene onrus wat onder die troepe plaasgevind het.

U kan afhang van hierdie bedrag ” Die mees beslissende seestryd van die Amerikaanse Revolusie is onder Franse bevelvoerders met Franse skepe en Franse matrose en mariniers gevoer. Op 22 Maart 1781 vaar kontreadmiraal Francois Josef Paul, comte de Grasse, met 'n armada van meer as twintig skepe van die lyn na die Karibiese Eilande, wat 'n konvooi Franse handelsvaartuie met 150 getalle lei. Hy het ook infanterie versterkings na Rochambeau gebring. Sy bevelskip was die Ville de Paris, na berig word, die grootste oorlogskip op die seë van die agtiende eeu. 'N Geskenk van die mense van Parys aan die Amerikaners, die Ville de Paris was 'n imposante vaartuig van 110 gewere op drie geweerdekke. Die missie van Admiral de Grasse was om die Franse besittings in Wes -Indië te versterk en dan sy optrede na die Noord -Amerikaanse teater te draai. Sy vloot het op 28 April land in Martinique gesien, 'n merkwaardige vinnige transatlantiese kruising vir 'n vloot van hierdie grootte. Hy het sy bevele van die Franse hof in 'n bemoedigende boodskap aan die bekommerde Rochambeau gesê, en sy majesteit het my die opdrag gegee van die vlootmag wat vir Noord -Amerika bestem was. Die mag wat ek beveel is voldoende om die aanvallende planne … van die Geallieerde moondhede te vervul om 'n eerbare vrede te verseker. ” Op hierdie punt in die somer van 1781 was die Franse oorlogskis in Noord -Amerika ook in 'n dramatiese toestand. 'N Sending goud sou iewers in die vroeë herfs in Boston aankom, maar met die gevare en onvoorspelbaarheid van vervoer oor land, het Rochambeau geweet dat hy nie van hierdie fondse vir die Virginia -veldtog staatmaak nie. Hy het op 6 Junie 1781 aan de Grasse geskryf en gesê dat sy fondse onvoldoende was om sy leër langer as 20 Augustus in stand te hou, en hy was van mening dat dit onmoontlik was om die nodige goud- of silwer spesie teen elke prys te bekom. Rochambeau stem ook ooreen met die toestand van die kontinentale leër, en ek moet nie vir u verberg nie, M. l ’Amiral, dat hierdie mense aan die einde van die hulpbronne is, of dat Washington nie die helfte van die aantal troepe waarop hy gereken het. Terwyl hy geheimsinnig is oor hierdie onderwerp, glo ek dat hy tans nie meer as 6 000 mans vertel het nie. De Grasse wend hom tot die Spaanse om hulp, wat die Franse gehelp het met kontantfinansiering in hul gevegte teen die Britte in Wes -Indië. Francisco de Saavedra de Sangronis was 'n sentrale figuur wat de Grasse gehelp het om geld in te samel deur 'n dramatiese versameling silwer en goud van privaat burgers in Havana, Kuba, op die laaste oomblik. Nadat hy die geld ontvang het, het de Grasse sy vloot na die noorde versnel. Spioenasie -skepe het die waters van die Wes -Indiese Eilande deurdring en de Grasse was bang dat die Britte 'n bietjie kennis van sy missie het. In die besef dat hy krities gedruk was vir tyd om Yorktown te bereik, het die admiraal die besluit geneem om die vloot met sy kosbare vrag deur die ou Bahamese kanaal te neem, die beroemde gevreesde kanaal, waar nog nooit 'n Franse vloot was nie. ” 'N Bekommerde generaal Washington en sy personeel wag op nuus van de Grasse. Die weermag was van plan om op 2 September na Philadelphia in te marsjeer. Washington, vasbeslote dat die vermoeide manne so aantreklik as moontlik moet lyk, het beveel dat meel uit kosbare rantsoene uitgedeel word, sodat die mans met pruike dit kon poeier. Terwyl Washington angstig aan die gang was, het de Grasse in die Chesapeakebaai aangekom en op 30 Augustus aan Rochambeau geskryf aan boord van die Ville de Paris. De Grasse merk op sy groot plesier om by die Chesapeakebaai aan te kom en dat hy op 3 Augustus van Santo Domingo vertrek het. Hy het geskryf dat dit nodig was om in Havana te stop vir die 1,2 miljoen lewens. Hy het ook opgemerk dat hy die 3200 versterkings wat Rochambeau ook aangevra het, vaar. Die reaksie van die gewoonlik gereserveerde Washington op die aankoms van De Grasses beklemtoon die belangrikheid waarmee die opperbevelhebber die vlootversterkings beskou het. Washington is opgemerk deur 'n verwarde Rochambeau terwyl hy met sy hoed na my gewaai het met demonstratiewe gebare van die grootste vreugde. Toe ek na hom toe ry, verduidelik hy dat hy pas 'n versending ontvang het en hom meegedeel het dat de Grasse opgedaag het. ” Die aankoms van de Grasse, met sy tydsberekening wat beslis beïnvloed word deur die spoed van die versameling spesies uit Havana, was ontsettend naby vir agtiende-eeuse militêre maneuvers. Op 1 September vaar die Britse admiraal Thomas Graves met 'n vloot van negentien skepe uit New York na die Chesapeake, en in die dagbreek van 5 September sien Graves die Chesapeake -kappies. Die De Grasses -manne was ook in die vroeë oggend op die uitkyk, maar na die Franse skepe van de Barras wat veronderstel was om suidwaarts te gaan, om by hulle aan te sluit. Die Franse in de Grasses -vloot het gou besef dat die aankomende skepe wat oor die see ploeg, Britse was, en besprinkel die dekke met sand om die bloed wat in die oggendstryd gespat sou word, te week. De Grasse sou hierdie geveg betree met sy hele vloot, soos aangedring deur Saavedra, en het ten minste nog vyf skepe van die lyn as Graves. Die geveg het dwarsdeur die dag en in die nag gewoed. Hout stukkend, seile seil geruk, kanonkogels skree, en die gehuil van gewondes en sterwendes rol oor die blou en wit golwe van smeulende see. Uiteindelik het beide kante gestop om hul slagoffers te tel en kortliks oor hul dooies te treur. Die geveg het op 6 September hul skepe herstel, en die volgende dag hervat, en teen hierdie tyd het die tweestrydvlote suidwaarts van die Chesapeake na die omgewing van Cape Hatteras, Noord -Carolina, gedryf. Teen die negende keer het de Grasse teruggedraai na die Chesapeake, uit vrees dat die Britte dieselfde sou doen, soos kommodoor Louis Antonione de Bougainville geskryf het, en ek is baie bang dat die Britte sou probeer om by die Chesapeake uit te kom. voor ons. ” Hulle vrese was egter ongegrond, en daar was die versterkings van de Barras om hulle te groet in die rustige waters van die Baai. De Grasse het nou vyf-en-dertig skepe van die lyn en sou die Chesapeakebaai en groot riviere kon vashou vir die beleg en landslag van Yorktown. 'N Oorlogsraad is deur die Britse vloot gehou, en Admirals Graves en Hood het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat, gegewe die posisie van die vyand, die huidige toestand van die Britse vloot en die onuitvoerbaarheid daarvan om 'n effektiewe steun aan generaal Earl Cornwallis te gee. is opgelos, moet die Britse eskader voortgaan met alle versendings na New York. Die nuus oor die nederlaag van sy vloot by die Chesapeake Capes het 'n geskokte King George in Londen bereik, en hy vertrou die graaf van Sandwich op 'n beslis ander toon as sy uitsprake van September 1780, en ek dink amper dat die ryk verwoes het ... hierdie wrede gebeurtenis is te onlangs vir my om nog meer te kan sê. ” Vir 'n afskrif van hierdie artikel met voetnote (onthou u dit?), Klik hier Battle of Yorktown Citations.

Oorsake van die Amerikaanse revolusie

Die Amerikaanse rewolusie staan ​​ook bekend as die Amerikaanse rewolusionêre oorlog en die Amerikaanse onafhanklikheidsoorlog. Toe daar konflik ontstaan ​​tussen die 13 Amerikaanse kolonies en Groot -Brittanje. In 1775 het spanning ontstaan ​​tussen koloniste en die Britse owerhede. Die Britte het probeer om die belasting op kolonies te verhoog, sodat hulle meer inkomste kon genereer, veral die seëlwet van 1765, die Townshend Tariffs van 1767 en die Tea Act van 1773 (History Staff). Dit het die mense van die kolonies tot woede en


Inhoud

Yorktown is op 21 Mei 1934 in Newport News, Virginia, neergelê deur die Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co. wat op 4 April 1936 gelanseer is, geborg deur Eleanor Roosevelt en in gebruik geneem by die Naval Station Norfolk (NS Norfolk), Norfolk, Virginia, op 30 September 1937, kaptein Ernest D. McWhorter in bevel.

Na die inpassing het die vliegdekskip in Januarie 1938 in Hampton Roads, Virginia en op die suidelike boorgrond van die Virginia -kaap, opgelei, waarna sy die kwalifikasies van die vliegdekskip vir haar pas aangepaste luggroep behaal het.

Yorktown het op 8 Januarie 1938 na die Karibiese Eilande gevaar en op 13 Januarie in Culebra, Puerto Rico, aangekom. Gedurende die daaropvolgende maand het die vervoerder haar afgeskud en aangeraak na Charlotte Amalie, St Thomas, Amerikaanse Maagde -eilande Gonaïves, Haïti Guantanamo -baai, Kuba en Cristóbal, Panama Canal Zone. Vertrek op 1 Maart op Colon Bay, Cristobal, Yorktown het na Hampton Roads geseil, op 6 Maart aangekom en die volgende dag in die Norfolk Navy Yard ingebring vir beskikbaarheid na afskud.

Nadat hy gedurende die vroeë herfs van 1938 herstelwerk ondergaan het, Yorktown het op 17 Oktober 1938 die stasie van die vlootwerf na NS Norfolk verskuif en gou na die Southern Drill Grounds gegaan vir opleiding.

Yorktown vanaf die oostelike kusgebied, wat wissel van Chesapeake Bay tot Guantanamo Bay, tot in 1939. Onderneming in Februarie 1939. In die scenario vir die oefening is een vloot gevra om die seestroke in die Karibiese Eilande te beheer teen die invalle van 'n buitelandse Europese mag, terwyl genoegsame vlootkrag behoue ​​bly om belangrike Amerikaanse belange in die Stille Oseaan te beskerm. Die maneuvers is deels gesien deur president Franklin Delano Roosevelt, wat in die swaar kruiser begin het. Houston.

Die kritiek op die operasie het aan die lig gebring dat die vervoerbedrywighede - 'n deel van die scenario's vir die jaarlikse oefeninge sedert die aanvang van Langley tot die oorlogspele in 1925 - het 'n nuwe doeltreffendheid bereik. Ten spyte van die onervaring van Yorktown en Onderneming—Vergelykende nuwelinge in die Vloot — albei draers het aansienlike bydraes gelewer tot die sukses van die probleem. Die beplanners het die indiensneming van vragmotors en hul aangepaste luggroepe bestudeer in verband met konvooi -begeleiding, antisubmarine -verdediging en verskillende aanvalmaatreëls teen oppervlakteskepe en strandinstallasies. Kortom, hulle het gewerk aan die ontwikkeling van die taktiek wat gebruik sou word wanneer oorlog werklik kom. [4]

Na vlootprobleem XX, Yorktown keer kortliks terug na Hampton Roads voordat hy op 20 April 1939 na die Stille Oseaan vaar. 'n Week later is ons deur die Panamakanaal, Yorktown het binnekort 'n gereelde operasie by die Stille Oseaan -vloot begin. Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het op 1 September 1939 begin, maar die VSA was nog nie betrokke nie. Die vervoerder het vanaf 1940 in San Diego begin deelneem aan die vlootprobleem XXI in April. Yorktown was one of six ships to receive the new RCA CXAM radar in 1940. [1] At the same time her signal bridge atop the tripod foremast was enclosed, and several 50 caliber machine guns were fitted in galleries along the edges of the flight deck.

Fleet Problem XXI—a two-part exercise—included some of the operations that would characterize future warfare in the Pacific. The first part of the exercise was devoted to training in making plans and estimates in screening and scouting in coordination of combatant units and in employing fleet and standard dispositions. The second phase included training in convoy protection, the seizure of advanced bases, and, ultimately, the decisive engagement between the opposing fleets. The last pre-war exercise of its type, Fleet Problem XXI contained two exercises (comparatively minor at the time) where air operations played a major role. Fleet Joint Air Exercise 114A prophetically pointed out the need to coordinate Army and Navy defense plans for the Hawaiian Islands, and Fleet Exercise 114 proved that aircraft could be used for high altitude tracking of surface forces—a significant role for planes that would be fully realized in the war to come.

With the retention of the Fleet in Hawaiian waters after the conclusion of Fleet Problem XXI, Yorktown operated in the Pacific off the west coast of the United States and in Hawaiian waters until the following spring, when the success of German U-boats preying upon British shipping in the Atlantic required a shift of American naval strength. Thus, to reinforce the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, the Navy transferred a substantial force from the Pacific including Yorktown, Battleship Division Three (the New Mexico-class battleships), three light cruisers, and 12 accompanying destroyers. [4]

Yorktown departed Pearl Harbor on 20 April 1941 in company with destroyers Warrington, Somers, en Jouett headed southeast, transited the Panama Canal on the night of 6–7 May, and arrived at Bermuda on 12 May. From that time until the United States entered the war, Yorktown conducted four patrols in the Atlantic, ranging from Newfoundland to Bermuda and logging 17,642 miles (28,392 km) steamed while enforcing American neutrality.

Although Adolf Hitler had forbidden his submarines to attack American ships, the men who manned the American naval vessels were not aware of this policy and operated on a wartime footing in the Atlantic.

On 28 October, while Yorktown, the battleship New Mexico, and other American warships were screening a convoy, a destroyer picked up a submarine contact and dropped depth charges while the convoy itself made an emergency starboard turn, the first of the convoy's three emergency changes of course. Late that afternoon, engine repairs to one of the ships in the convoy, Empire Pintail, reduced the convoy's speed to 11 knots (13 mph 20 km/h).

During the night, the American ships intercepted strong German radio signals, indicating submarines probably in the vicinity reporting the group. Rear Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, commanding the escort force, sent a destroyer to sweep astern of the convoy to destroy the U-boat or at least to drive him under.

The next day, while cruiser scout planes patrolled overhead, Yorktown and the cruiser Savannah fueled their escorting destroyers, finishing the task as dusk fell. On 30 October, Yorktown was preparing to fuel three destroyers when other escorts made sound contacts. The convoy subsequently made 10 emergency turns while the destroyers Morris en Anderson dropped depth charges, with Hughes assisted in developing the contact. Anderson later made two more depth charge attacks, noticing "considerable oil with slick spreading but no wreckage".

The short-of-war period was becoming more like the real thing as each day went on. Elsewhere on 30 October, U-552 torpedoed the destroyer Reuben James, sinking her with a heavy loss of life, the first loss of an American warship in World War II. After another Neutrality Patrol stint in November, Yorktown put into Norfolk on 2 December. [4]

On the early morning of 7 December 1941, Japanese warplanes attacked the U.S. base at Pearl Harbor without warning, damaging or sinking 16 U.S. warships. With the battle line crippled, the undamaged American carriers assumed great importance. There were, on 7 December, only three in the Pacific: Onderneming, Lexington, en Saratoga. Yorktown, Ranger, Wasp, and the recently commissioned Hornet were in the Atlantic. The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor resulted in massive outrage across the United States and led to the country's formal entry into World War II the next day. Yorktown departed Norfolk on 16 December for the Pacific, her secondary gun galleries studded with new Oerlikon 20 mm guns. (The ship's Gunnery Officer retained the Browning M2 .50 caliber machine guns the Oerlikons replaced, and acquired a supply of M1919A4 .30 caliber machine guns as well. The crew discovered the pintle mounts of the .30 calibers fitted neatly into cut swab handles, and the swab handles themselves fit neatly into the hollow pipes used for the ship's safety lines. Dozens of sailors went into the unofficial antiaircraft gun business, and according to one report, "Yorktown bristled with more guns than a Mexican revolution movie." [5] ) She reached San Diego 30 December 1941 and soon became flagship for Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's newly formed Task Force 17 (TF 17).

The carrier's first mission in her new theater was to escort a convoy carrying Marine reinforcements to American Samoa. Departing San Diego on 6 January 1942, Yorktown and her consorts covered the movement of Marines to Pago Pago in Tutuila to augment the garrison already there.

Having safely covered that troop movement, Yorktown, in company with sister ship Onderneming, departed Samoan waters on 25 January. Six days later, Task Force 8 (built around Onderneming), and TF 17 (around Yorktown) parted company. The former headed for the Marshall Islands, the latter for the Gilberts, each to take part in some of the first American offensives of the war, the Marshalls-Gilberts raids.

Yorktown was being screened by two cruisers, Louisville en St. Louis and four destroyers. At 05:17, Yorktown launched 11 Douglas TBD-1 Devastators and 17 Douglas SBD-3 Dauntlesses, under the command of Commander Curtis W. Smiley. Those planes hit what Japanese shore installations and shipping they could find at Jaluit, but severe thunderstorms hampered the mission, and seven planes were lost. Ander Yorktown planes attacked Japanese installations and ships at Makin and Mili Atolls.

The attack on the Gilberts by Task Force 17 had apparently been a surprise since the American force encountered no enemy surface ships. A single Japanese Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" flying boat attempted to attack American destroyers sent astern in hope of recovering the crews of planes overdue from the Jaluit mission. Antiaircraft fire from the destroyers drove off the intruder before it could cause any damage.

Later, another Mavis, or possibly the same one, came out of low clouds 15,000 yards (14,000 m) distant from Yorktown. The carrier withheld her antiaircraft fire in order not to interfere with the combat air patrol (CAP) fighters. Presently, the Mavis, pursued by two Grumman F4F Wildcats, disappeared behind a cloud. Within five minutes, the enemy patrol plane fell out of the clouds and crashed in the water.

Although TF 17 was slated to make a second attack on Jaluit, it was canceled because of heavy rainstorms and the approach of darkness. Therefore, the Yorktown force retired from the area.

Admiral Chester Nimitz later called the Marshalls-Gilberts raids "well conceived, well planned, and brilliantly executed." The results obtained by Task Forces 8 and 17 were noteworthy, Nimitz continued in his subsequent report, because the task forces had been obliged to make their attacks somewhat blindly, due to lack of hard intelligence data on the Japanese-held islands.

Yorktown subsequently put in at Pearl Harbor for replenishment before she put to sea on 14 February, bound for the Coral Sea. On 6 March, she rendezvoused with TF 11 which had been formed around Lexington and under the command of Vice Admiral Wilson Brown. Together they headed towards Rabaul and Gasmata to attack Japanese shipping there in an effort to check the Japanese advance and to cover the landing of Allied troops at Nouméa, New Caledonia. The two carriers were screened by eight heavy cruisers (including the Australian warships HMAS Australië en HMAS Canberra) and 14 destroyers. As they steamed toward New Guinea, the Japanese continued their advance toward Australia with a landing on 7 March at the Huon Gulf, in the Salamaua-Lae area on the eastern end of New Guinea.

Word of the Japanese operation prompted Admiral Brown to change the objective of TF 11's strike from Rabaul to the Salamaua-Lae sector. On the morning of 10 March 1942, American carriers launched aircraft from the Gulf of Papua. Lexington flew off her air group commencing at 07:49 and, 21 minutes later, Yorktown followed suit. The choice of the gulf as the launch point for the strike meant the planes would have to fly some 125 miles (200 km) across the Owen Stanley mountains, which provided security for the task force and ensured surprise, at the cost of poor flying conditions.

In the attacks that followed, Lexington ' s Douglas SBD Dauntlesses from Scouting Squadron 2 (VS-2) dive-bombed Japanese ships at Lae at 09:22. The carrier's torpedo and bomber squadrons (VT-2 and VB-2) attacked shipping at Salamaua at 09:38. Her fighters (VF-2) split up into four-plane attack groups: one strafed Lae and the other, Salamaua. Yorktown ' s planes followed on the heels of those from Lexington. VB-5 and VT-5 attacked Japanese ships in the Salamaua area at 09:50, while VS-5 went after auxiliaries moored close in shore at Lae. The fighters of VF-42 flew CAP over Salamaua until they determined there was no air opposition, then strafed surface objectives and small boats in the harbor.

After carrying out their missions, the American planes returned to their carriers and 103 planes of the 104 launched were back safely on board by noon. One SBD-2 Dauntless had been downed by Japanese antiaircraft fire. The raid on Salamaua and Lae was the first attack by many pilots, and, if accuracy was below that achieved in later actions, the fliers gained invaluable experience which helped in the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway.

Task Force 11 retired at 20 knots (37 km/h 23 mph) on a southeasterly course until dark, when the ships steered eastward at 15 knots (28 km/h 17 mph) and made rendezvous with Task Group 11.7 (TG11.7), three heavy cruisers (USS Chicago, HMAS Australië, and HMAS Canberra) and four destroyers under the Royal Australian Navy Rear Admiral John Crace, which provided cover for the carriers on their approach to New Guinea.

Yorktown resumed her patrols in the Coral Sea area, remaining at sea into April, out of reach of Japanese land-based aircraft and ready to carry out offensive operations whenever the opportunity presented itself. After the Lae-Salamaua raid, the situation in the South Pacific seemed temporarily stabilized, and Yorktown and her consorts in TF 17 put into the undeveloped harbor at Tongatabu, in the Tonga Islands, for needed upkeep, having been at sea continuously since departing from Pearl Harbor on 14 February.

However, the enemy was soon on the move. To Admiral Nimitz, there seemed to be "excellent indications that the Japanese intended to make a seaborne attack on Port Moresby the first week in May". Yorktown accordingly departed Tongatapu on 27 April, bound once more for the Coral Sea. TF 11—now commanded by Rear Admiral Aubrey W. Fitch, who had relieved Brown in Lexington—departed Pearl Harbor to join Fletcher's TF 17 and arrived in the vicinity of Yorktown ' s group, southwest of the New Hebrides Islands, on 1 May. [4]

Battle of the Coral Sea Edit

At 15:17 the next afternoon, two SBD Dauntlesses from VS-5 sighted a Japanese submarine running on the surface. Three TBD Devastators from Yorktown succeeded only in driving the submarine under.

On the morning of 3 May, TF 11 and TF 17 were some 100 miles (161 km) apart, engaged in fueling operations. Shortly before midnight, Fletcher received word from Australian-based aircraft that Japanese transports were disembarking troops and equipment at Tulagi in the Solomon Islands. Arriving soon after the Australians had evacuated the place, the Japanese landed to commence construction of a seaplane base there to support their southward thrust.

Yorktown accordingly set course northward at 27 knots (50 km/h 31 mph). By daybreak on 4 May, she was within striking distance of the newly established Japanese beachhead and launched her first strike at 07:01―18 F4F-3 Wildcats of VF-42, 12 TBD Devastators of VT-5, and 28 SBD Dauntlesses from VS and BY-5. Yorktown ' s air group made three consecutive attacks on enemy ships and shore installations at Tulagi and Gavutu on the south coast of Florida Island in the Solomons. Expending 22 torpedoes and 76 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs in the three attacks, Yorktown ' s planes sank the destroyer Kikuzuki, three minesweepers and four barges. In addition, Air Group 5 destroyed five enemy seaplanes but lost two F4F Wildcats (the pilots were recovered) and one TBD Devastator (whose crew was lost).

Meanwhile, that same day, TF 44, a cruiser-destroyer force under Rear Admiral Crace (RN), joined Lexington ' s TF 11, thus completing the composition of the Allied force on the eve of the crucial Battle of the Coral Sea.

Elsewhere, to the northward, eleven troop-laden transports—escorted by destroyers and covered by the light carrier Shōhō, four heavy cruisers, and a destroyer—steamed toward Port Moresby. In addition, another Japanese task force—formed around the two Pearl Harbor veterans, carriers Shōkaku en Zuikaku, and screened by two heavy cruisers and six destroyers—provided additional air cover.

On the morning of 6 May, Fletcher gathered all Allied forces under his tactical command as TF 17. At daybreak on 7 May, he dispatched Crace, with the cruisers and destroyers under his command, toward the Louisiade archipelago to intercept any enemy attempt to move toward Port Moresby.

While Fletcher moved north with his two flattops and their screens in search of the enemy, Japanese search planes located the oil tanker Neosho and her escorting destroyer, Sims and misidentified the former as a carrier. Two waves of Japanese planes—first high-level bombers and then dive bombers—attacked the two ships. Sims, her antiaircraft battery crippled by gun failures, took three direct hits and sank quickly with a heavy loss of life. Neosho was more fortunate in that, even after seven direct hits and eight near-misses, she remained afloat until, on 11 May, her survivors were picked up by Henley and her hulk sunk by the rescuing destroyer.

Neosho en Sims had performed a valuable service, drawing off the planes that might otherwise have hit Fletcher's carriers. Meanwhile, Yorktown en Lexington ' s planes found Shōhō and sank her. One of Lexington ' s pilots reported this victory with the radio message, "Scratch one flattop".

That afternoon, Shōkaku en Zuikaku, still not located by Fletcher's forces, launched 27 bombers and torpedo planes to search for the American ships. Their flight proved uneventful until they ran into fighters from Yorktown en Lexington, which proceeded to down nine enemy planes in the ensuing dogfight.

Near twilight, three Japanese planes incredibly mistook Yorktown for their own carrier and attempted to land. The ship's gunfire, though, drove them off, and the enemy planes crossed Yorktown ' s bow and turned away out of range. Twenty minutes later, when three more enemy pilots made the mistake of trying to get into Yorktown ' s landing circle, the carrier's gunners splashed one of the trio.

However, the battle was far from over. The next morning, 8 May, a Lexington search plane spotted Admiral Takeo Takagi's carrier striking force—including Zuikaku en Shōkaku. Yorktown planes scored two bomb hits on Shōkaku, damaging her flight deck and preventing her from launching aircraft. In addition, the bombs set off explosions in gasoline storage tanks and destroyed an engine repair workshop. Lexington ' s Dauntlesses added another hit. Between the two American air groups, the hits killed 108 Japanese sailors and wounded 40 more.

While the American aircraft were attacking the Japanese flattops, Yorktown en Lexington had been alerted by an intercepted message that indicated that the Japanese knew of their whereabouts and prepared to fight off a retaliatory strike, which came shortly after 11:00.

American Combat Air Patrol F4F Wildcats downed 17 aircraft, although some still got through the defenses. Nakajima B5N "Kates" launched torpedoes from both sides of Lexington ' s bow, achieving two hits on the port side while Aichi D3A "Val" dive bombers managed three bomb hits. Lexington began to list from three partially flooded engineering spaces. Several fires raged below decks, and the carrier's elevators were put out of commission.

Meanwhile, Yorktown was having problems of her own. Skillfully maneuvered by her commanding officer, Captain Elliott Buckmaster, the carrier dodged eight torpedoes. Attacked by "Val" dive-bombers, the ship managed to evade all but one bomb. At 11:27, Yorktown was hit in the centre of her flight deck by a single 250 kg (550 lb), semi-armour-piercing bomb which penetrated four decks before exploding, causing severe structural damage to an aviation storage room and killing or seriously wounding 66 men, as well as damaging the superheater boilers which rendered them inoperable. Up to 12 near misses damaged Yorktown ' s hull below the waterline.

Lexington ' s damage control parties brought the fires under control, and the ship was still able to continue flight operations despite the damage. The air battle itself ended shortly before noon on the 8th within an hour, the carrier was on an even keel, although slightly down by the bow. However, an explosion caused by the ignition of gasoline vapors later caused a fire and tore apart her interior. Lexington was abandoned at 17:07, and later sunk by the destroyer Phelps.

The Japanese had won a tactical victory, inflicting comparatively heavier losses on the Allied force, but the Allies, in stemming the tide of Japan's conquests in the South and Southwest Pacific, had achieved a strategic victory. Yorktown had not achieved her part in the victory without cost, and had suffered enough damage to cause experts to estimate that at least three months in a yard would be required to put her back in fighting trim. However, there was little time for repairs, because U.S. naval intelligence had gained enough information from decoded Japanese naval messages to estimate that the Japanese were on the threshold of a major operation aimed at the northwestern tip of the Hawaiian chain. These were two islets in a low coral atoll known as Midway Island. [4]

Battle of Midway Edit

Armed with this intelligence, Admiral Nimitz began methodically planning Midway's defense, rushing all possible reinforcement in the way of men, planes and guns to Midway. In addition, he began gathering his comparatively meager naval forces to meet the enemy at sea. As part of those preparations, he recalled TF 16, Onderneming en Hornet to Pearl Harbor for a quick replenishment.

Yorktown, too, received orders to return to Hawaii she arrived at Pearl Harbor on 27 May, entering dry dock the following day. The damage the ship had sustained after Coral Sea was considerable, and led to the Navy Yard inspectors estimating that she would need at least two weeks of repairs. However, Admiral Nimitz ordered that she be made ready to sail alongside TF 16. Further inspections showed that Yorktown ' s flight elevators had not been damaged, and the damage to her flight deck and hull could be patched easily. Yard workers at Pearl Harbor, laboring around the clock, made enough repairs to enable the ship to put to sea again in 48 hours. [6] The repairs were made in such a short time that the Japanese Naval Air Commanders would mistake Yorktown for another carrier as they thought she had been sunk during the previous battle. However, one critical repair to her power plant was not made: her damaged superheater boilers were not touched, limiting her top speed. [5] Her air group was augmented by planes and crews from Saratoga which was then headed for Pearl Harbor after her refit on the West Coast. Yorktown sailed as the core of TF 17 on 30 May.

Northeast of Midway, Yorktown, flying Vice Admiral Fletcher's flag, rendezvoused with TF 16 under Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance and maintained a position 10 miles (16 km) to the northward of him.

Patrols, both from Midway and the carriers, were flown during early June. At dawn on 4 June Yorktown launched a 10-plane group of Dauntlesses from VB-5 which searched a northern semicircle for a distance of 100 miles (160 km) out but found nothing.

Meanwhile, PBYs flying from Midway had sighted the approaching Japanese and broadcast the alarm for the American forces defending the key atoll. Admiral Fletcher, in tactical command, ordered Admiral Spruance's TF 16 to locate and strike the enemy carrier force.

Yorktown ' s search group returned at 08:30, landing soon after the last of the six-plane CAP had left the deck. When the last of the Dauntlesses were recovered, the deck was hastily respotted for the launch of the ship's attack group: 17 Dauntlesses from VB-3, 12 Devastators from VT-3, and six Wildcats from "Fighting Three". Onderneming en Hornet, meanwhile, launched their attack groups.

The torpedo planes from the three American carriers located the Japanese striking force, but met disaster. Of the 41 planes from VT-8, VT-6, and VT-3, only six returned to Onderneming en Yorktown none made it back to Hornet.

As a reaction to the torpedo attack the Japanese CAP had broken off their high-altitude cover for their carriers and had concentrated on the Devastators, flying "on the deck", allowing Dauntlesses from Yorktown en Onderneming to arrive unopposed. [4]

Virtually unopposed, Yorktown ' s dive-bombers attacked Sōryū, making three lethal hits with 1,000 pounds (450 kg) bombs and setting her on fire. [7] Onderneming ' s planes, meanwhile, hit Akagi en Kaga, effectively destroying them. The bombs from the Dauntlesses caught all of the Japanese carriers in the midst of refueling and rearming operations, causing devastating fires and explosions.

Three of the four Japanese carriers had been destroyed. The fourth, Hiryū, separated from her sisters, launched a striking force of 18 "Vals" and soon located Yorktown.

As soon as the attackers had been picked up on Yorktown ' s radar at about 13:29, she discontinued fueling her CAP fighters on deck and swiftly cleared for action. Her returning dive bombers were moved from the landing circle to open the area for antiaircraft fire. The Dauntlesses were ordered aloft to form a CAP. An auxiliary 800-US-gallon (3,000 l) gasoline tank was pushed over the carrier's fantail, eliminating one fire hazard. The crew drained fuel lines and closed and secured all compartments. [4]

All of Yorktown ' s fighters were vectored out to intercept the oncoming Japanese aircraft, and did so some 15 to 20 miles (24 to 32 km) out. The Wildcats attacked vigorously, breaking up what appeared to be an organized attack by some 18 "Vals" and 6 "Zeroes". [8] "Planes were flying in every direction", wrote Captain Buckmaster after the action, "and many were falling in flames." [4] The leader of the "Vals", Lieutenant Michio Kobayashi, was probably shot down by the VF-3's commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander John S. Thach. Lieutenant William W. Barnes also pressed home the first attack, possibly taking out the lead bomber and damaging at least two others. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Despite an intensive barrage and evasive maneuvering, three "Vals" scored hits. Two of them were shot down soon after releasing their bomb loads the third went out of control just as his bomb left the rack. It tumbled in flight and hit just abaft the number two elevator on the starboard side, exploding on contact and blasting a hole about 10 feet (3 m) square in the flight deck. Splinters from the exploding bomb killed most of the crews of the two 1.1-inch (28 mm) gun mounts aft of the island and on the flight deck below. Fragments piercing the flight deck hit three planes on the hangar deck, starting fires. One of the aircraft, a Yorktown Dauntless, was fully fueled and carrying a 1,000 pounds (450 kg) bomb. Prompt action by LT A. C. Emerson, the hangar deck officer, prevented a serious fire by activating the sprinkler system and quickly extinguishing the fire.

The second bomb to hit the ship came from the port side, pierced the flight deck, and exploded in the lower part of the funnel, in effect a classic "down the stack shot." It ruptured the uptakes for three boilers, disabled two boilers, and extinguished the fires in five boilers. Smoke and gases began filling the firerooms of six boilers. The men at Number One boiler remained at their post and kept it alight, maintaining enough steam pressure to allow the auxiliary steam systems to function.

A third bomb hit the carrier from the starboard side, pierced the side of number one elevator and exploded on the fourth deck, starting a persistent fire in the rag storage space, adjacent to the forward gasoline stowage and the magazines. The prior precaution of smothering the gasoline system with carbon dioxide undoubtedly prevented the gasoline from igniting.

While the ship recovered from the damage inflicted by the dive-bombing attack, her speed dropped to 6 knots (11 km/h 6.9 mph) and then at 14:40, about 20 minutes after the bomb hit that had shut down most of the boilers, Yorktown slowed to a stop, dead in the water.

At about 15:40, Yorktown prepared to get underway and, at 15:50, thanks to the black gang in No. 1 Fireroom having kept the auxiliaries operating to clear the stack gas from the other firerooms and bleeding steam from No. 1 to the other boilers to jump-start them, Chief Engineer Delaney reported to Captain Buckmaster that the ship's engineers were ready to make 20 knots (37 km/h 23 mph) or better. Damage control parties were able to temporarily patch the flight deck and restore power to several boilers within an hour, giving her a speed of 19 knots (35 km/h 22 mph) and enabling her to resume air operations. Yorktown yanked down her yellow breakdown flag and up went a new hoist-"My speed 5." [9] Captain Buckmaster had his signalmen hoist a huge new (10 feet wide and 15 feet long) American flag from the foremast. Sailors, including Ensign John d'Arc Lorenz called it an incalculable inspiration: "For the first time I realized what the flag meant: all of us — a million faces — all our effort — a whisper of encouragement." [10]

Simultaneously, with the fires controlled sufficiently to warrant the resumption of fueling, Yorktown began refueling the fighters then on deck just then the ship's radar picked up an incoming air group at a distance of 33 miles (53 km). While the ship prepared for battle, again smothering gasoline systems and stopping the fueling of the planes on her flight deck, she vectored four of the six fighters of the CAP in the air to intercept the raiders. Of the 10 fighters on board, eight had as little as 23 US gallons (87 l) of fuel in their tanks. They were launched as the remaining pair of fighters of the CAP headed out to intercept the Japanese planes.

At 16:00, maneuvering Yorktown churned forward, making 20 knots. The fighters she had launched and vectored out to intercept had meanwhile made contact with the enemy. Yorktown received reports that the planes were "Kates". The Wildcats shot down at least three, but the rest began their approach while the carrier and her escorts mounted a heavy antiaircraft barrage.

Yorktown maneuvered radically, avoiding at least two torpedoes before another two struck the port side within minutes of each other, the first at 16:20. The carrier had been mortally wounded she lost power and went dead in the water with a jammed rudder and an increasing list to port.

As the ship's list progressed, Commander Clarence E. Aldrich, the damage control officer, reported from central station that, without power, controlling the flooding looked impossible. The Chief Engineer, Lieutenant Commander John F. Delaney, soon reported that all boiler fires were out, all power was lost, and that it was impossible to correct the list. Buckmaster ordered Aldrich, Delaney, and their men to secure the fire and engine rooms and lay up to the weather decks to put on life jackets.

The list, meanwhile, continued to increase. When it reached 26 degrees, Buckmaster and Aldrich agreed that capsizing was imminent. "In order to save as many of the ship's company as possible", the captain wrote later, he "ordered the ship to be abandoned".

Over the next few minutes the crew lowered the wounded into life rafts and struck out for the nearby destroyers and cruisers to be picked up by their boats, abandoning ship in good order. After the evacuation of all wounded, the executive officer, Commander Irving D. Wiltsie, left the ship down a line on the starboard side. Buckmaster, meanwhile, toured the ship one last time, to see if any men remained. After finding no "live personnel", Buckmaster lowered himself into the water by means of a line over the stern, by which time water was lapping the port side of the hangar deck. [4]

Salvage and sinking Edit

After being picked up by the destroyer USS Hammann, Buckmaster transferred to the cruiser Astoria and reported to Vice Admiral Fletcher, who had shifted his flag to the heavy cruiser after the first dive-bombing attack. The two men agreed that a salvage party should attempt to save the ship, since she had stubbornly remained afloat despite the heavy list and imminent danger of capsizing.

While efforts to save Yorktown had been proceeding apace, her planes were still in action, joining those from Onderneming in striking the last Japanese carrier—Hiryū—late that afternoon. Taking four direct hits, the Japanese carrier was soon helpless. She was abandoned by her crew and left to drift out of control.

Yorktown, as it turned out, floated throughout the night. Two men were still alive on board her one attracted attention by firing a machine gun, heard by the sole attending destroyer, Hughes. The escort picked up the men, one of whom later died. Buckmaster selected 29 officers and 141 men to return to the ship in an attempt to save her. Five destroyers formed an antisubmarine screen while the salvage party boarded the listing carrier on the morning of 6 June. The fleet tug USS Vireo, summoned from Pearl and Hermes Reef, commenced towing the ship, although progress was painfully slow.

Yorktown ' s repair party went on board with a carefully predetermined plan of action to be carried out by men from each department—damage control, gunnery air engineering, navigation, communication, supply and medical. To assist in the work, Lieutenant Commander Arnold E. True brought Hammann alongside to starboard, aft, furnishing pumps and electric power.

By mid-afternoon, the process of reducing topside weight was proceeding well one 5-inch (127 mm) gun had been dropped over the side and a second was ready to be cast loose, planes had been pushed over the side, and a large quantity of water had been pumped out of engineering spaces. These efforts reduced the list about two degrees.

Unknown to Yorktown and the six nearby destroyers, however, Japanese submarine Ek-168 had discovered the disabled carrier and achieved a favorable firing position. The I-boat eluded detection—possibly due to the large amount of debris and wreckage in the water—until 15:36, when lookouts spotted a salvo of four torpedoes approaching the ship from the starboard beam.

Hammann went to general quarters, with a 20-millimeter gun going into action in an attempt to explode the torpedoes in the water as she tried to get underway. One torpedo hit Hammann directly amidships and broke her back. The destroyer jackknifed and went down rapidly. Two torpedoes struck Yorktown just below the turn of the bilge at the after end of the island structure. The fourth torpedo passed astern of the carrier.

About a minute after Hammann sank there was an underwater explosion, possibly caused by the destroyer's depth charges going off. The concussion killed many of Hammann ' s and a few of Yorktown ' s men who had been thrown into the water, battered the damaged carrier's hull, dislodged Yorktown ' s auxiliary generator and numerous fixtures from the hangar deck, sheared rivets in the starboard leg of the foremast, and injured several onboard crew members. [ aanhaling nodig ]

The remaining destroyers initiated a search for the enemy submarine (which escaped), and commenced rescue operations for Hammann survivors and the Yorktown salvage crew. Vireo cut the tow and doubled back to assist in rescue efforts.

Throughout the night of 6 June and into the morning of 7 June, Yorktown remained afloat but by 05:30 on 7 June, observers noted that her list was rapidly increasing to port. Shortly afterwards, the ship turned over onto her port side, and lay that way, revealing the torpedo hole in her starboard bilge- the result of the submarine attack. Captain Buckmaster's American flag was still flying. [11] All ships half-mastered their colors in salute all hands who were topside with heads uncovered and came to attention, with tears in their eyes. Two patrolling PBYs appeared overhead and dipped their wings in a final salute. [12] At 07:01, the ship rolled upside-down, and slowly sank, stern first, in 3,000 fathoms (5,500 m) of water with her battle flags flying. [4] To most who witnessed the sinking, the Yorktown went quietly and with enormous dignity- "like the great lady she was," as one of them put it. [13] In all, Yorktown ' s sinking on 7 June 1942 claimed the lives of 141 of her officers and crewmen. [ aanhaling nodig ]

On 19 May 1998, the wreck of Yorktown was found and photographed by oceanographer Dr. Robert Ballard, discoverer of the wrecks of the RMS Titanic and the German battleship Bismarck. The wreck of Yorktown, 3 miles (5 km) beneath the surface, was sitting upright on the bottom in excellent condition. Despite spending 56 years on the deep-sea floor, much paint and equipment were still visible. [14] As of 13 July 2019, there have not been any follow-up expeditions to the Yorktown ' s wreck.

Yorktown (CV-5) earned three battle stars for her World War II service, two of them for the significant part she had played in stopping Japanese expansion and turning the tide of the war at Coral Sea and at Midway. [4] CV-10, the second vessel of the Essex-class of aircraft carriers, was renamed from USS Bonhomme Richard aan Yorktown in honor of her loss at Midway, and was preserved after decommissioning in 1970 to become a museum ship in 1975.


Inhoud

McClellan had chosen to approach the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, with an amphibious operation that landed troops on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at Fort Monroe. His Army of the Potomac numbered 121,500 men, transported starting on March 17 by 389 vessels. [1] McClellan planned to use U.S. Navy forces to envelop Yorktown, but the emergence of the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia and the Battle of Hampton Roads (March 8–9, 1862) disrupted this plan. The threat of the Virginia on the James River and the heavy Confederate batteries at the mouth of the York River prevented the Navy from assuring McClellan that they could control either the York or the James, so he settled on a purely land approach toward Yorktown. [4]

The Confederate defenders of Yorktown, led by Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder, initially numbered only 11–13,000 men [5] the rest of the Confederate forces, under the overall command of General Joseph E. Johnston, remained spread out across eastern Virginia at Culpeper, Fredericksburg, and Norfolk. Magruder constructed a defensive line from Yorktown on the York River, behind the Warwick River, to Mulberry Point on the James River (even taking advantage of some trenches originally dug by Cornwallis in 1781 [6] ) to effectively block the full width of the Peninsula, although he could adequately man none of the defensive works at that time. This became known as the Warwick Line.

McClellan's plan called for Maj. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman's III Corps to fix the Confederate troops in their trenches near the York River, while the IV Corps under Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes enveloped the Confederate right and cut off their lines of communication. McClellan and his staff, ignorant of the extent of Magruder's line, assumed the Confederates had concentrated only in the immediate vicinity of Yorktown. [7]

Union advance and Lee's Mill Edit

On April 4, 1862, the Union Army pushed through Magruder's initial line of defense but the following day encountered his more effective Warwick Line. The nature of the terrain made it difficult to determine the exact disposition of the Confederate forces. McClellan correctly estimated that the Confederates had 15-18,000 troops in the defensive line. [8] It has been claimed that Magruder attempted to deceive by moving infantry and artillery in a noisy, ostentatious manner to make the defenders seem a much larger forces than their actual numbers. [9] However, his reports do not mention this and no reference before 1988 can be found claiming this, except for Shelby Foote's three volume history of the Civil War, first published in 1956. [10] On 6–7 April McClellan correctly estimated (given Magruder's reinforcements) that 30,000 troops were at Yorktown. [11] Troops continued to arrive and on 20 April McClellan correctly estimated "more than 80,000" were at Yorktown. [12]

McClellan had five divisions available and advanced in two columns. The 4th Corps of two divisions under Keyes advanced towards Lee's Mill, whilst the 3rd Corps of two divisions under Heintzelman advanced towards Yorktown proper. He kept his last division (Sedgwick) in reserve to commit to either column. The lead division of Keyes' corps under Smith contacted the position at Lee's Mill in the early afternoon of the 5th. He had two brigades (Davidson and Hancock) and a battery (Wheeler's) to hand and attempted to suppress the superior enemy artillery. He lost the firefight and despite an order from McClellan to Keyes "to attack with all his force if only with the bayonet", Smith withdrew back to Warwick Court House. The 3rd Corps advanced directly towards Yorktown, but were stopped by heavy artillery fire. [13]

That evening McClellan ordered two brigades to march across the entire frontage of the enemy line. The next day (April 6) Hancock and Burns took parts of their brigades and marched across the entire frontage to provoke enemy fire. Hancock took the 6th Maine Infantry and 5th Wisconsin Infantry left to right, and Burns went right to left. This proved that there was no break in the river that could easily be assaulted. That evening a major storm started, and shut down all troop movements until the 10th. Further recces were ordered in order to find a weak point to attack, and on April 9 Hancock performed a reconnaissance around Dam Number One, where Magruder had widened the Warwick to create a water obstacle nearby. The rebel picket line was along the Garrow Ridge on the eastern side of the river. Hancock drove off the Confederate pickets and took some prisoners. Smith and the attached engineer (Comstock) noted this was the only place along the river where the ground was higher on the eastern bank than the western, and hence was vulnerable. McClellan chided Smith for not taking an opportunity to attack stating "if you had gone and succeeded, you would have been a Major General". Hancock considered this area a weak spot in the line, but his messenger was captured by the rebels en route to Smith's HQ. [14] Keyes believed that the Warwick Line fortifications could not be carried by assault and so informed McClellan. [15]

During this phase, Union Army Balloon Corps aeronaut Professor Thaddeus S. C. Lowe used two balloons, the Grondwet en die Onversetlik, to perform aerial observation. On April 11, Onversetlik carried Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter, a division commander of the V Corps, aloft, but unexpected winds sent the balloon over enemy lines, causing great consternation in the Union command before other winds returned him to safety. Confederate Captain John Bryan suffered a similar wind mishap in a hot air balloon over the Yorktown lines. [16]


Alexander Hamilton was key to the American victory at Yorktown

That's right, America's hippest Founding Father gave General Washington a leg up in the Battle of Yorktown, ultimately helping him force the British forces to throw in the towel. And how did he do it? Why, his sick rap battling skills, of course. Okay, not really. Alexander Hamilton wouldn't embark on his rap career until more than two centuries after his death, but he did have some killer moves that helped the fledgling nation get a foothold on this earth. But he almost didn't even get the chance to help.

According to Mental Floss, Hamilton had to talk Washington into putting him into the game. In order to extend their trench line, the American and French forces needed to take down a pair of earthen barricades the British had erected known as Redoubts 9 and 10. French Commander Marquis de Lafayette wanted to send his assistant to take the Redoubts, but Hamilton convinced Washington to give him the job, and the general was not disappointed with his decision. Hamilton took 400 men with him to Redoubt 10, hopped over the structure and its defenses of sharpened tree limbs at the top, and took it for the American and French forces in just 10 quick minutes. Hamilton claimed to have lost only nine men in the process. Later, Washington would make him his secretary of the treasury, but Hamilton would end up having a much less impressive performance in his infamous duel with Aaron Burr.


Kyk die video: Морские легенды: USS Yorktown. World of Warships (Augustus 2022).