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Inti tydlyn

Inti tydlyn



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Inti Tydlyn - Geskiedenis

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Inca, ook gespel Inka, Suid -Amerikaanse Indiane wat tydens die Spaanse verowering in 1532 'n ryk regeer het wat langs die Stille Oseaan -kus en die Andes -hooglande strek vanaf die noordelike grens van die moderne Ecuador tot by die Maule -rivier in die middel van Chili. 'N Kort behandeling van die Inca volg vir volledige behandeling, kyk pre-Columbiaanse beskawings: die Inca.

Die Inka's vestig hul hoofstad in Cuzco (Peru) in die 12de eeu. Hulle het in die vroeë 15de eeu met hul verowerings begin en binne 100 jaar het hulle beheer oor 'n Andes -bevolking van ongeveer 12 miljoen mense verkry. Net soos ander Andes -kulture, het die Inca geen geskrewe rekords gelaat nie. Hulle geskiedenis is veral bekend uit die mondelinge tradisie wat deur die geslagte behoue ​​gebly het deur amptelike "memorisators" en uit die geskrewe rekords wat hulle na die Spaanse verowering daaruit saamgestel het. Volgens hul tradisie het die Inca sy oorsprong in die dorpie Paqari-tampu, ongeveer 24 kilometer suid van Cuzco. Die stigter van die Inca -dinastie, Manco Capac, het die stam laat vestig in Cuzco, wat daarna hul hoofstad oorgebly het. Tot die bewind van die vierde keiser, Mayta Capac, in die 14de eeu, was daar weinig om die Inca te onderskei van die vele ander stamme wat klein domeine in die Andes bewoon het. Onder Mayta Capac het die Inca begin uitbrei, die dorpe van naburige mense aangeval en geplunder en waarskynlik 'n soort huldeblyk beoordeel. Onder Capac Yupanqui, die volgende keiser, het die Inca eers hul invloed uitgebrei tot buite die Cuzco -vallei, en onder Viracocha Inca, die agtste, het hulle 'n permanente veroweringsprogram begin deur garnisone te vestig tussen die nedersettings van die mense wat hulle verower het.

Die vroegste datum wat met vertroue aan die Inca -dinastiese geskiedenis toegeken kan word, is 1438, toe Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, 'n seun van Viracocha Inca, die troon van sy broer Inca Urcon ingeneem het. Onder Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438–71) verower die Inka gebiede suid tot by die Titicaca-kom en noordwaarts tot by die huidige Quito, wat onderdanige mense maak van die magtige Chanca, die Quechua en die Chimú. 'N Beleid van gedwonge hervestiging van groot kontingente uit elke verowerde volk het politieke stabiliteit verseker deur etniese groepe oor die hele ryk te versprei en sodoende die organisasie van opstand baie moeilik te maak. Plaaslike goewerneurs was verantwoordelik vir die heffing van die arbeidsbelasting waarop die ryk gebaseer was, die belasting kon betaal word deur diens in die weermag, op openbare werke of in landbouwerk.

Onder Topa Inca Yupanqui (1471–93) bereik die ryk sy mees suidelike omvang in die middel van Chili, en die laaste spore van weerstand aan die suidelike Peruaanse kus is uitgeskakel. Sy dood is gevolg deur 'n stryd om die opvolging, waaruit Huayna Capac (1493–1525) suksesvol voortgekom het. Huayna Capac het die noordelike grens van die ryk na die Ancasmayo -rivier gestoot voordat hy gesterf het in 'n epidemie wat moontlik deur 'n stam uit die ooste gebring is wat dit by die Spanjaard by La Plata opgetel het. Sy dood het 'n ander opvolgingstryd veroorsaak, wat in 1532 nog nie opgelos was nie, toe die Spanjaarde teen 1535 in Peru aankom, het die ryk verlore gegaan.

Die Inka -samelewing was hoogs gestratifiseer. Die keiser regeer met behulp van 'n aristokratiese burokrasie en oefen gesag uit met streng en dikwels onderdrukkende kontrole. Inka -tegnologie en argitektuur was hoogs ontwikkel, hoewel dit nie opvallend oorspronklik was nie. Hulle besproeiingstelsels, paleise, tempels en versterkings kan nog steeds in die Andes gesien word. Die ekonomie was gebaseer op die landbou; sy krammetjies was mielies (mielies), wit en patats, stampmielies, tamaties, grondboontjies (grondbone), chilipepers, koka, kassava en katoen. Hulle het proefkonies, eende, lamas, alpakkas en honde grootgemaak. Klere was gemaak van lama wol en katoen. Huise was van klip of modder. Byna elke man was 'n boer en het sy eie kos en klere vervaardig.

Die Inca het 'n groot netwerk van paaie in hierdie ryk gebou. Dit bestaan ​​uit twee noord-suid paaie, waarvan die een ongeveer 3600 km lank langs die kus loop, die ander in die binneland langs die Andes vir 'n vergelykbare afstand, met baie onderlinge verbindings. Baie kort rots tonnels en wingerd-ondersteunde hangbrue is gebou. Die gebruik van die stelsel was streng beperk tot die regering en militêre sake; 'n goed georganiseerde aflosdiens het boodskappe in die vorm van geknoopte toue genoem quipu (Quechua khipu) teen 'n snelheid van 240 myl per dag. Die netwerk het die Spaanse verowering van die Inka -ryk baie vergemaklik.

Die Inca -godsdiens kombineer kenmerke van animisme, fetisjisme en die aanbidding van natuurgode. Die pantheon was onder leiding van Inti, die songod, en het ook Viracocha, 'n skeppingsgod en kultuurheld, en Apu Illapu, die reengod, ingesluit. Onder die ryk was die Inka -godsdiens 'n hoogs georganiseerde staatsgodsdiens, maar hoewel aanbidding van die songod en diensplig van onderdane vereis word, is hul inheemse godsdienste geduld. Inka -rituele het uitgebreide vorme van waarsêery en die offer van mense en diere ingesluit. Hierdie godsdienstige instellings is vernietig deur die veldtog van die Spaanse veroweraars teen afgodery.

Die afstammelinge van die Inka's is die huidige Quechua-sprekende kleinboere van die Andes, wat miskien 45 persent van die bevolking van Peru uitmaak. Hulle kombineer boerdery en veewag met eenvoudige tradisionele tegnologie. Landelike nedersettings is van drie soorte: gesinne wat te midde van hul velde woon, ware dorpsgemeenskappe met velde buite die bewoonde sentrums en 'n kombinasie van hierdie twee patrone. Dorpe is middelpunte van mestizo (gemengde bloed) bevolking. Gemeenskappe is nou saam, en gesinne trou gewoonlik. Baie van die landbouwerk word in samewerking gedoen. Godsdiens is 'n soort Rooms -Katolisisme met die heidense hiërargie van geeste en gode.

Die redakteurs van Encyclopaedia Britannica Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Adam Zeidan, assistent -redakteur.


Southwest Airlines begin met die inlywing van 15 Maart 1967 Air Southwest Co. deur Lamar Muse, Rollin King en Herb Kelleher om in die deelstaat Texas te vlieg. [1] [2]

Kelleher beweer dat die prysbeheer en markregulasies wat deur die federale burgerlike lugvaartraad van toepassing is, nie van toepassing is nie, en dat die lugdiens die pryse van mededingers kan onderbreek deur in Texas te bly. [3] Drie lugdienste (Braniff, Trans-Texas Airways en Continental Airlines) het met regstappe begin wat drie jaar geneem het om op te los. Air Southwest het in 1970 die oorhand gekry toe die hooggeregshof in Texas die reg van Air Southwest om in Texas te vlieg, bekragtig het. [4] Die Texas -beslissing het op 7 Desember 1970 finaal geword toe die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof geweier het om die saak sonder kommentaar te hersien, [5] wat Kelleher se mening oor die grense van die federale regulering van die mark bevestig.

Op 29 Maart 1971 het Air Southwest Co. sy naam verander na Southwest Airlines Co. [2] met sy hoofkwartier in Dallas. Southwest het op 18 Junie 1971 op twee roetes met geskeduleerde passasiersdiens begin: tussen Dallas Love Field en Houston Intercontinental Airport (IAH) en tussen Dallas Love Field en San Antonio met drie Boeing 737-200's. [6] Diens tussen Houston Hobby -lughawe (HOU) en Dallas Love Field en tussen Houston Hobby en San Antonio begin op 14 November 1971. [7] Die Official Airline Guide vir 15 Oktober 1972 bevat 61 vlugte per week tussen Dallas Love en Houston Hobby, 23 vlugte per week tussen Dallas Love en San Antonio en 16 vlugte per week tussen San Antonio en Houston Hobby, geen vlugte word op Saterdae uitgevoer nie.

Inkomste passasierkilometer, in miljoene
Jaar Verkeer
1975 480
1979 2,405
1985 8,587
1990 16,024
1995 37,535
2000 67,923
2005 97,097

Herb Kelleher, stigter van Southwest Airlines, bestudeer Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) in Kalifornië en gebruik baie van PSA se idees om die korporatiewe kultuur van Southwest te vorm. Vroeë vlugte het dieselfde tema "Long Legs And Short Nights" gebruik vir stewardesses aan boord van tipiese Southwest Airlines -vlugte. 'N Komitee met dieselfde persoon wat gasvrouens vir Hugh Hefner se Playboy-straler gekies het, het die eerste stewardesses, vrouens wat as langbeen-dansers, majorette en cheerleaders met' unieke persoonlikhede 'gekies is, gekies. Southwest Airlines en Herb Kelleher het hulle in 'n warm broek en go-go stewels aangetrek. [8]

Die New York Times het in 1971 geskryf dat die president van Southwest Airlines, Lamar Muse, "eerlik en herhaaldelik sê dat Southwest Airlines sedert sy ontstaan ​​ontwikkel is rondom die idees wat suksesvol was vir Pacific Southwest Airlines." 'Ons gee nie om as 'n kopie van so 'n operasie nie,' met verwysing na 'n besoek wat hy en ander bestuurders in Suidwes aan PSA gemaak het toe hulle hul bedryfsplanne opgestel het. PSA het hulle verwelkom en selfs vlug- en operasionele opleiding aan hulle verkoop. Muse het later geskryf dat die opstel van die bedieningshandleidings vir sy nuutste lugredery "hoofsaaklik 'n knip -en -plak -prosedure was" en daar word gesê dat "Southwest Airlines PSA so volledig gekopieer het dat jy dit amper 'n fotostaat kan noem." [9]

Die res van 1971 en 1972 was bedryfsverliese. Een van die vier 737's van die lugdiens is aan Frontier Airlines verkoop om betaalstaat en ander uitgawes te dek. Southwest het 'n skedule voortgesit wat gebaseer was op vier vliegtuie, maar slegs drie gebruik, sodat die 'tien minute draai' gebore is en die standaard grondtyd vir baie jare was. [10] [11] Southwest het in die boekjaar 1973 'n wins behaal en sal konsekwent winsgewend bly tot 2020. [12]

Bedrywighede van Love Field was 'n sentrale beginsel van Southwest se sakemodel vanweë die maklike nabyheid van die sentrum van Dallas. [3] Jare se binnegevegte tussen die stede Dallas en Fort Worth oor Greater Southwest International Airport (GSW) en Love Field het die Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) egter in 1964 aangespoor om die stede te beveel om 'n nuwe gesamentlike streekslughawe te bou. [13] Die stede het ooreengekom om die Dallas/Fort Worth Internasionale Lughawe (DFW) te bou, en in 1968 is ooreenkomste aangegaan wat die stede verbied om mededingende kommersiële lughawens te bedryf en alle bestaande lugrederye [14] by Love en GSW verplig om na die nuwe lughawe. [13] [15] Die planne van Southwest om by Love Field te bly, was in stryd met die harde ooreenkoms om Love by gesertifiseerde lugrederye te sluit en dit vir algemene lugvaart te herontwikkel. [15] Die lugredery het vasgehou en beweer dat daar geen regsgrondslag bestaan ​​om die lughawe vir kommersiële diens te sluit nie, en dat hulle nie gebonde is aan 'n ooreenkoms wat hulle nie onderteken het nie. [3] Dallas, Fort Worth en die DFW -lughaweraad het aangekla vir 'n verklarende uitspraak waarin Dallas geregtig is om Suidwes uit die lughawe te ontruim ingevolge die CAB -bevel van 1964, maar Southwest het aangevoer dat die CAB geen gesag het oor vlugte wat nie staatsgrense oorskry het nie, en in 1973 het 'n federale distrikshof beslis dat Southwest se voorgestelde intrastate diens buite die CAB -jurisdiksie val, en solank Love Field oop bly, kan die stad Dallas nie verhinder dat Southwest daar werk nie. [16] [17]

Wysiging van Wright Wysig

Die Wright -wysiging van 1979 was 'n federale wet wat die verkeer by Dallas Love Field beheer het totdat baie beperkings van die wysiging einde 2014 verwyder is. Dit het oorspronklik die meeste ononderbroke vlugte beperk tot bestemmings in Texas en buurstate. [18] Die perke het in 1997 en 2005 in 2006 begin uitfaseer, die wysiging is herroep, met 'n paar beperkings ongeskonde tot 2014, maar 'n beperking op die aantal toegelate hekke is bygevoeg. [19]

Die Wright -wysiging het gegroei deur die weiering van Southwest om na DFW te verhuis. Nadat die Wet op die deregulering van lugrederye in 1978 ingestel is, het Southwest planne aangekondig om in 1979 met tussenstate te begin met vlugte na New Orleans, 'n voorstel wat vinnig deur federale reguleerders onderskryf is. Amptenare in Texas - veral dié van Fort Worth - het egter gedink dat groter verkeer op Love Field vlugte van die DFW -lughawe kan wegneem en die finansiële stabiliteit daarvan kan bedreig. [20] Gevolglik het Jim Wright, lid van die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers wat Fort Worth bedien, 'n wysiging aan die International Air Transportation Act van 1979 in die kongres geborg en gehelp om passasiersverkeer uit Love Field op die volgende maniere te beperk:

  • Passasiersdiens met grootmaatvliegtuie kan slegs aan lughawens in Texas en sy vier buurstate in die VSA, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico en Oklahoma gelewer word. Destyds was alle bestaande en beplande suidwestelike roetes in hierdie gebied vervat, sodat die wet geen onmiddellike uitwerking op die lugdiens gehad het nie.
  • Vlugte na ander lande is slegs toegelaat op vliegtuie met 56 sitplekke of minder, in 'n poging om die passasiersdiens buite die gebied met vyf state te verbied.
  • Lugrederye kon nie aansluitingsvlugte aanbied nie, deur diens by 'n ander lugredery of deur kaartjies buite die vyfstate-streek. [21]

Netwerkuitbreiding Wysig

Terwyl die Wright-wysiging groot lugrederye afgeskrik het om diens uit Love Field te begin (of te hervat), het Southwest sy Love Field-operasie vinnig uitgebrei deur die hoë tariewe wat deur ou lugrederye gehef word, te onderdruk om na kleiner, minderwaardige lughawens in die vyfstate-streek te vlieg. [3]

Suidwes het slegs na Dallas Love Field, Houston (IAH, toe HOU) en San Antonio gevlieg tot 1975 toe dit Harlingen bygevoeg het. In 1979 vlieg Suidwes na elf Texas-stede en voeg sy eerste roete uit die staat, Houston-New Orleans, op 25 Januarie daardie jaar by. [22] In 1980 brei Suidwes noord uit na Tulsa en Oklahoma City en wes na Albuquerque in 1982, noord na Kansas City en wes na Phoenix, Las Vegas en Kalifornië.

Vlugte na Denver begin in 1983 (en eindig in 1986), na Little Rock 1984, na St Louis en Chicago Midway in 1985, na Nashville in 1986 en na Detroit Metro en Birmingham in 1987. Uitwaartse uitbreiding hervat in 1992 met Cleveland en Columbus, daarna Baltimore in 1993. Die Pacific Northwest begin in 1994 nadat die Morris Air-verkryging Tampa en Fort Lauderdale in Januarie 1996 begin het. Oos na Providence in 1997, Manchester in 1998, en Islip en Raleigh-Durham in 1999.

Suidwes se enigste roete in Kalifornië was San Francisco-San Diego totdat dit in 1989 in die volgende paar jaar met Oakland begin het, en sy kapasiteit aan die Weskus het gebalanseer.

Southwest het sy eerste swart vlieënier, Louis Freeman, in 1980 aangestel. In 1992 is hy aangewys as die eerste swart hoofvlieënier van enige groot Amerikaanse lugredery. [23]

In 1981 is Southwest suksesvol aangekla vir sy destydse bestaande beleid om slegs vroulike stewardesses en kaartjie-agente aan te stel. [24] [25]

Southwest se Houston Pilot Base het op 1 Junie 1984 sy eerste bemanningsbasis buite Dallas geopen. [26]

Op 30 November 1984 het Southwest sy eerste Boeing 737-300 afgelewer. Southwest was 'n bekendstellingskliënt en was in Mei 2012 die grootste operateur van die tipe. [27] Die eerste 737-300 is 'Kitty Hawk' genoem. [28]

In 1985 het Dallas, Fort Worth en die DFW-lughaweraad gepoog om Continental Airlines van Love Field te blokkeer op grond daarvan dat dit interlyn-kaartjies bied, 'n diens wat onder die Wright-wysiging verbied is en nie deur Southwest aangebied word nie. Die Amerikaanse departement van vervoer (USDOT) het egter beslis dat 'n lugdiens bloot nie toegelaat is om vliegsegmente na of van Love Field te verkoop nie, en dat 'n passasier 'n afsonderlike kaartjie verkoop op 'n aansluitingsvlug op 'n ander lughawe-'n praktyk bekend as dubbele kaartjies - was heeltemal wettig, op voorwaarde dat die lugredery nie "adverteer, bevorder of andersins bevestigend passasiers vra nie". Hierdie beslissing het Suidwes bevoordeel deur die verkoop van verbindingskaartjies vanaf Love Field toe te laat, mits reisigers dit versoek eerder as om direk deur die lugdiens of sy werknemers aangevra te word. [29] Na hierdie uitspraak kan 'n gesofistikeerde Suidwes-passasier die stelsel werk en die beperkings van die Wright-wysiging omseil deur van Dallas na 'n ander lughawe in die vyfstate-streek te vlieg, vliegtuie te verander en dan op 'n aparte kaartjie te vlieg na enige stad wat in Suidwes bedien word .

Southwest het $ 60,5 miljoen aan voorraad en kontant vir Muse Air betaal toe Muse in 1985 op die punt was om in duie te stort. Na die verkryging het Southwest die naam van MuseAir TranStar Airlines hernoem. TranStar het 'n volfiliaal van Southwest geword en as 'n onafhanklike lugredery bedryf. Southwest, wat onwillig was om aan 'n tariefoorlog teen Frank Lorenzo se Texas Air deel te neem, het uiteindelik TranStar se bates in Augustus 1987 aan Lorenzo verkoop. [30] [31]

Southwest verhuis na die huidige hoofkwartier in 1990. Die lugredery het sy hoofkwartier in 3300 Love Field Dr, dan in die 1820 Regal Row -gebou in Dallas in 1979, deur Love Field. [32] Destyds het die hoofkwartier 23 000 m 2 ruimte en ongeveer 650 werknemers gehad. [33] Die huidige hoofkwartierfasiliteit is gebou vir $ 15 miljoen in 1990 dollar. [34] Vroeg in 1995 het die gebou 'n bykomende 60.000 vierkante voet (5.600 m 2) ruimte gekry. Vanaf 2006 [update] het ongeveer 1400 werknemers in die gebou met drie verdiepings gewerk. [33]

In 1990 het die lugdiens sy vliegtuie in Houston geregistreer sodat dit vliegtuigbelasting in Houston kon betaal, al was die hoofkwartier in Dallas. Suidwes het geen bates verplaas nie, maar die wet van Texas het die lugdiens toegelaat om Dallas of Houston as die registrasiestad van sy vliegtuie te kies. [35]

Southwest het Morris Air, 'n lugredery in 1993, in Salt Lake City, Utah, aangekoop en het $ 134 miljoen aan voorraad betaal. [36] Nadat die aankoop voltooi is, het Southwest die hoofstad en roetes van Morris Air opgeneem in die voorraad en diens van Southwest, insluitend Morris se bestemmings in die Stille Oseaan van Noordwes wat nog nie voorheen deur Southwest bedien is nie. [37] Een stigter van Morris Air, David Neeleman, het 'n kort tydjie saam met Southwest gewerk voordat hy vertrek het om WestJet en daarna JetBlue Airways, 'n mededingende lugredery, te stig. [38]

Op 16 Maart 1995 het Southwest sy eerste webwerf geskep. Oorspronklik die "Southwest Airlines Home Gate" genoem, kon passasiers skedules, 'n roetekaart en inligting oor die onderneming op Iflyswa.com sien. [39] Southwest.com was volgens PhoCusWright die nommer een lugdienswebwerf vir aanlyninkomste. Nielsen/Netratings het ook berig dat Southwest.com die grootste webwerf vir lugrederye was wat unieke besoekers betref. [6] In 2006 is 70 persent van die vlugbesprekings en 73 persent van die inkomste verkry uit besprekings op southwest.com. Vanaf Junie 2007 [update] het 69 persent van die Suidwes -passasiers aangemeld vir hul vlugte aanlyn of by 'n kiosk. [6]

Southwest Airlines het 'n reputasie verwerf vir 'buite die boks -denke' en pro -aktiewe risikobestuur, insluitend die gebruik van brandstofverskansing om te isoleer teen skommelinge in brandstofpryse. Sommige ontleders het aangevoer teen die styl van winsgemotiveerde energiehandel wat Suidwes tussen 1999 en die vroeë 2000's gedoen het. Hulle het voorgestel dat Suidwes eerder as om sakrisiko's (soos 'n verskansing teen die weer van 'n boer) te verskans, bloot oor energiepryse bespiegel sonder 'n formele rede daarvoor. [40]

Southwest geniet baie positiewe pers (en 'n sterk finansiële hupstoot) van sy vaardighede in energiehandel. [41] [42] [43] Hoewel die meeste ontleders dit eens is dat wisselvalligheidskanse voordelig kan wees, word [44] spekulatiewe verskansings nie wyd ondersteun as 'n voortgesette strategie vir wins nie. [45]

In Maart 1996, nadat die stadsraad van Dallas eenparig gestem het om die bou moontlik te maak, het die lugdiens 'n toevoeging tot die bestaande korporatiewe hoofkwartier begin bou teen 'n koste van $ 30 miljoen in 1996 dollar. [46] [47] Dit het plaasgevind nadat die lugredery op Woensdag 13 Maart 1996 [48] twee stukke grond, 'n totaal van 10 hektaar, van die stad Dallas gehuur het om 'n nuwe vlieëniersopleidingsfasiliteit te bou , 'n uitbreiding van die hoofkwartier en meer parkeerplek. 'N Loodsopleidingsfasiliteit van $ 9,8 miljoen is gebou op 'n stuk grond van 2,2 ha wat in die stad Dallas besit, en dit sou in die lente van 1997 voltooi wees. Met die nuwe opleidingsfasiliteit wat gebou is, word die ou verwyder en die onderneming sou sy hoofkwartier op die opleidingsfasiliteit uitbrei. 120 000 vierkante voet (11 000 m 2) se hoofkwartierruimte is bygevoeg, teen 'n prys van $ 16 miljoen, insluitend toebehore, wat 'n totaal van 436,000 vierkante voet (40,500 m2) beslaan. Die lugredery het ook 1,9 ha van die stad Dallas gehuur vir meer parkeerplek, 700 plekke is by die bestaande 1200 gevoeg. Na die uitbreiding het Southwest 'n totale erfpag van ongeveer 9,7 ha, insluitend die hoofkwartier, opleidingsgeriewe en parkeerplek. Teen die einde van 1997 sou die uitbreiding van Love Field -fasiliteite en verskeie terminale verbeterings na verwagting $ 47 miljoen aan Suidwes kos. [33]

In 1997 het Southwest en Icelandair interlinie- en bemarkingsooreenkomste aangegaan wat voorsiening maak vir gesamentlike tariewe, gekoördineerde skedules, die vervoer van passasiersbagasie tussen die twee lugrederye in Baltimore en 'n plek wat passasiers tussen verskeie Amerikaanse stede en verskeie Europese stede verbind. [49] Die gereelde vliegprogramme is nie by die ooreenkoms ingesluit nie.

Herroeping van die Wright -wysiging

In 1996 het die opstartmaatskappy Legend Airlines voorgestel om langafstandvlugte vanaf Love Field te begin met McDonnell Douglas DC-9's met 56 sitplekke, die maksimum wat toegelaat word onder die Wright-wysiging. Die USDOT het egter in September 1996 beslis dat die beperking van 56 sitplekke van toepassing was op die 'ontwerpte kapasiteit' van 'n vliegtuig eerder as op die aantal sitplekke wat werklik geïnstalleer is, wat Legend aangespoor het om die wet te verander. [50] [51] Teen Julie 1997 het Legend die hulp van senator Richard Shelby van Alabama ingeroep. [52] In Oktober 1997 aanvaar die Senaat van die Verenigde State 'n finansieringswetsontwerp wat die Shelby -wysiging insluit, wat onbeperkte vlugte na Alabama, Kansas en Mississippi en landwye vlugte met groter vliegtuie met 56 sitplekke moontlik maak. [53] [54] Suidwes het nie vlugte by die nuwe state gevoeg nie, met verwysing na 'n gebrek aan vraag. [55] Ander lugrederye is egter aangespoor om Southwest by Love Field uit te daag, die eerste was Continental Express, wat in Junie 1998 tussen Love Field en die George Bush -interkontinentale lughawe in Houston begin het, en aangekondig het dat hy voornemens is om tussen die staat te vlieg sodra dit wettig en regulatories is struikelblokke is oorkom. [56]

Op 5 April 2000 het Legend Airlines die eerste langafstanddiens met 56 sitplekke van Love Field ingehuldig na bestemmings buite die Wright- en Shelby-wysigingsgebiede. [57] Teen Julie 2000 het American Airlines, [58] Continental Express [59] en Delta Air Lines se plaaslike aangeslote Atlantic Southeast Airlines by hom aangesluit. [60] Bedryfswaarnemers voorspel dat mededingende lugrederye se streeksvliegtuigdiens by Love Field sou voortduur, [61] maar Southwest-wat nie vliegtuie met 56 sitplekke bedryf het nie-kon nie mededingende diens aanbied nie omdat die Shelby-wysiging wat deur Legende gesteun is, die 56 verlaat het -sitplekbeperking vir langafstand in plek. [62]

Aan die einde van 2004 het Southwest aktief begin soek na die volledige herroeping van die Wright -wysigingsbeperkings. Aan die einde van 2005 is Missouri via 'n wetsontwerp op vervoerkrediete by die lys van toelaatbare bestemmingsstate gevoeg. Nuwe diens vanaf Love Field na Saint Louis, Missouri en Kansas City, Missouri, het vinnig in Desember 2005 begin. [63]

Op 'n gesamentlike perskonferensie wat die stad Dallas, die stad Fort Worth, die DFW -lughawe, American Airlines en Southwest Airlines gehou het, het die partye op 'n gesamentlike perskonferensie van 15 Junie 2006 'n voorlopige ooreenkoms aangekondig oor hoe die Wright -wysiging uitgefaseer sal word. Sowel die Amerikaanse senaat as die Huis van Verteenwoordigers het op 29 September 2006 wetgewing wat verband hou met Wright goedgekeur, en dit is op 13 Oktober 2006 deur president George W. Bush onderteken. Die nuwe wet het op 16 Oktober 2006 in werking getree toe die Die FAA -administrateur het die kongres in kennis gestel dat enige nuwe lugvaartbedrywighede wat as gevolg van die nuwe wet sou plaasvind, sonder 'n nadelige uitwerking op die lugruim geakkommodeer kon word. [64]

Southwest het op 19 Oktober 2006 begin om kaartjies te verkoop onder die nuwe wet. Hoogtepunte van die ooreenkoms is die onmiddellike uitskakeling van deurverbodverbod en onbeperkte vlugte na binnelandse bestemmings agt jaar nadat die wetgewing in werking getree het. As gevolg van die ooreenkoms het landwye diens vir Suidwes moontlik geword, en die wet definieer ook die maksimum aantal hekke op Love Field. Suidwes het al vier die Love Field -hekke beheer. United Airlines het twee beheer en American Airlines was aanvanklik veronderstel om vanaf die ander twee te werk, maar weens die samesmelting van American met US Airways moes die twee hekke by DAL afstand doen. Virgin America het op 13 Oktober 2014 begin om die twee hekke van American te verhuur. [65]

Southwest is steeds die dominante passasiersvliegtuig op Love Field, het sy hoofkwartier, hangars, opleidingsentrums en vlugsimulators wat daaraan grens, en weerspieël sy bande met Love Field in sy gevleuelde hart en sy aandelebeurs -simbool (LUV).

2000–2009 Redigeer

Op 5 Maart 2000 het Southwest Airlines Flight 1455, 'n Boeing 737-3T5, registrasie N668SW, met 137 passasiers en 5 bemanning, die aanloopbaan by die Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena-lughawe, Burbank, Kalifornië, oorskry en na 'n stadsstraat gekom rus by 'n Chevron -vulstasie. 2 passasiers het ernstige beserings opgedoen, terwyl die kaptein en 41 passasiers geringe beserings opgedoen het, die vliegtuig erg beskadig en afgeskryf is. Dit was die eerste groot ongeluk in die 29-jarige geskiedenis van die lugredery. Die ongeluk word toegeskryf aan vlieënierfout, aangesien die vlieëniers teen 'n oormatige lugsnelheid beland het, 'n bydraende faktor was die verkeersbeheerfout. [66] [67] [68]

Southwest se codeshare -ooreenkoms met Icelandair is beëindig toe die diens van die lugdiens van Baltimore na die Keflavík Internasionale Lughawe in Januarie 2007 geëindig het. [69]

In 2008 het Southwest 'n ooreenkoms met Pratt en Whitney aangegaan om die eie Ecopower-waterdrukstelsel te voorsien, waarmee Southwest vuil en besoedeling van motorturbine kan skoonmaak terwyl die vliegtuig by die hek staan. Die gereelde gebruik van die Ecopower -stelsel sal na raming die brandstofdoeltreffendheid met ongeveer 1,9%verbeter. [70] [71]

Southwest het 7,5 miljoen dollar betaal om sekere bates van die bankrot ATA Airlines in 2008 te bekom. Southwest se hoofrede vir die aankoop was om die bedryfsertifikaat en landingsgleuwe op die LaGuardia -lughawe in New York, wat voorheen deur ATA beheer was, te bekom. Alhoewel daar tydens die aankoop 'n voorkeuraanstelling was, het die transaksie uiteindelik nie die aankoop van vliegtuie, fasiliteite of oordragte van werknemers direk van ATA ingesluit nie. [72] Ten tyde van die afsterwe van ATA in April 2008 het die lugredery meer as 70 vlugte per week na Hawaii aangebied vanuit die fokusstede van Southwest in PHX, LAS, LAX en OAK, met verbindings wat beskikbaar is na baie ander stede in die Verenigde State. Die ATA/Southwest -codeshare is beëindig toe ATA op 3 April 2008 aansoek gedoen het vir Chapter 11 -bankrotskap. [73]

Op 6 Maart 2008 het inspekteurs van die Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) dokumente by die Amerikaanse kongres ingedien waarin hulle beweer dat Southwest 117 van sy vliegtuie toegelaat het om passasiers te vervoer, ondanks die feit dat hulle volgens lugondersoekondersoekers 'nie lugwaardig' was nie. [74] In sommige gevalle is die vliegtuig toegelaat om tot 30 maande te vlieg nadat die keerdatums verby was, wat hulle ongeskik maak om te vlieg. Rekords dui daarop dat duisende passasiers op vliegtuie gevlieg is wat volgens federale standaarde as onveilig beskou is. Southwest het destyds kommentaar geweier en die Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger James Oberstar het aangeraai dat 'n verhoor gehou sal word. [74] [75]

Op 12 Maart 2008 het Southwest Airlines vrywillig 44 vliegtuie gegrond om te kyk of hulle verdere inspeksie nodig het. Die FAA beweer dat Southwest Airlines byna 60 000 vlugte gevlieg het sonder dat rompinspeksies plaasgevind het. Southwest Airlines het 'n boete van $ 10,2 miljoen opgelê as dit blyk dat dit die FAA -regulasies oortree het. Daar was ook gerugte dat die FAA geweet het van die oortredings van Southwest Airlines, maar besluit het om nie die lugdiens te beboet nie omdat dit die diens van die lugdiens sou versteur. [76] Op 2 Maart 2009 het Southwest hierdie eise afgehandel en ingestem om die FAA -boetes van $ 7,5 miljoen vir hierdie veiligheid- en onderhoudskwessies te betaal. Die oorspronklike boete van $ 30,2 miljoen - 'n bedrag wat die grootste boete in die geskiedenis van die agentskap sou gewees het - is verlaag na 'n jaar se onderhandelinge. Die FAA het Southwest twee jaar gegun om die boete te betaal. [77]

Op 8 Julie 2008 onderteken Southwest Airlines 'n codeshare -ooreenkoms met WestJet van Kanada, wat die twee lugrederye die geleentheid bied om sitplekke op mekaar se vlugte te verkoop. [78] Oorspronklik sou die vennootskap teen einde 2009 afgehandel wees, maar is dit weens ekonomiese toestande uitgestel. [79] Op 16 April 2010 het Southwest- en WestJet -lugdienste vriendelik ooreengekom om die implementering van 'n codeshare -ooreenkoms tussen die twee lugrederye te beëindig.

Op 30 Julie 2009 het Southwest Airlines 'n bod van $ 113,6 miljoen gemaak vir die bankrot Frontier Airlines Holdings, die moedermaatskappy van Frontier Airlines. Southwest was van plan om Frontier aanvanklik as 'n losstaande vervoerder te bedryf, en uiteindelik die lugdiens op te neem en Frontier se vliegtuie te vervang met Boeing 737's. [80] Minder as 'n maand nadat hy sy bod ingedien het, het Southwest op 14 Augustus verneem dat hy die aanvanklike bod aan Republic Airways Holdings verloor het en besluit het om die ooreenkoms nie teë te gaan of voort te sit nie. Southwest het verklaar dat sy vereiste dat vlieëniersvakbonde by beide maatskappye 'n onderhandelde (nie arbitrêre) ooreenkoms moet bereik as voorwaarde vir verkryging, 'n belangrike faktor is in die staking van sy bod. [81]

Southwest het op 10 November 2008 sy tweede internasionale codeshare-ooreenkoms met die Mexikaanse laekostevervoerder Volaris onderteken. Die ooreenkoms het Suidwes toegelaat om kaartjies op Volaris -vlugte te verkoop. [82]

Op 26 Augustus 2009 het die FAA Southwest ondersoek na die installering van onbehoorlike onderdele op ongeveer 10% van sy stralers. Die werk is uitgevoer deur 'n eksterne instandhoudingsonderneming. Die FAA het gesê dat die onderdele nie 'n veiligheidsgevaar inhou nie, maar die lugredery het tot 24 Desember 2009 tyd gekry om die onderdele te vervang deur die wat deur die FAA goedgekeur is. [83]

AirTran Airways -verkryging Edit

Southwest Airlines het die verkryging vir die eerste keer op 27 September 2010 aangekondig en op 27 April 2011 die finale goedkeuring van die Amerikaanse departement van justisie ontvang. Op 2 Mei 2011 het Southwest Airlines die verkryging van AirTran Airways voltooi deur al die uitstaande gewone aandele te koop. , korporatiewe identiteit en bedryfsbates van AirTran Holdings, Inc., die voormalige moedermaatskappy van AirTran Airways. Southwest Airlines skat die waarde van die transaksie op $ 3,2 miljard en verwag tydelike koste om die twee lugrederye van $ 500 miljoen te integreer, met koste -sinergieë van ongeveer $ 400 miljoen jaarliks. Die grootste impak op Suidwes, toegang tot Atlanta, internasionale diens en die toevoeging van landingsgleuwe op die lughawe New York-LaGuardia en die lughawe Washington-Reagan. Southwest het op 1 Maart 2012 'n enkele bedryfsertifikaat (SOC) van die Federal Aviation Administration van die Verenigde State verkry, maar die lugdiens was eers volledig geïntegreer totdat AirTran sy laaste vlug op 28 Desember 2014 gehad het.

An entity called Guadeloupe Holdings was formed by Southwest to act as a wholly owned subsidiary of Southwest Airlines and holding company for AirTran's operations and assets. Southwest's organized labor groups ceded contractual "scope" provisions pending acceptable negotiated seniority integration agreements. [84] Southwest transitioned aircraft, routes and employees from AirTran to Southwest on a one-by-one basis until all parts of AirTran were integrated to Southwest.

The purchase added 25 additional destinations previously not served by Southwest including cities in the Caribbean and Atlanta, Georgia, an AirTran hub and at the time, the largest U.S. city not served by Southwest. On October 10, 2011, USA Today reported that Southwest would work to no longer bank flights in Atlanta as AirTran did. [84]

On February 14, 2013, Southwest began codesharing with AirTran. It took the first step on January 26, 2013 by launching shared itineraries in five markets. Southwest continued to launch shared itineraries with 39 more markets beginning February 25, 2013. In April 2013, shared itineraries were expanded to all Southwest and AirTran cities (domestic and international). [85] The airlines were fully integrated on December 29, 2014. [86]

2010–2019 Edit

For the tenth year in a row, Fortuin magazine recognized Southwest Airlines in its annual survey of corporate reputations. Among all industries in 2004, Fortuin has listed Southwest Airlines as number three among America's Top Ten most admired corporations. [87]

On December 13, 2011, Southwest placed a firm order for 150 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, becoming the launch customer for the type. The first 737 MAX Aircraft was delivered to Southwest on August 29, 2017, with their first revenue service began on October 1. [88] [89]

In January 2012, Southwest Airlines expressed interest in serving Mexican- and South American destinations out of Houston's William P. Hobby Airport. [90] On May 30, 2012 Houston's city council approved Southwest's request for international flights from Hobby. [91] Southwest agreed to invest at least $100 million to cover all costs tied to the Hobby upgrade, which included designing and building five new gates and a customs facility. Construction at Hobby took two years, with international flights beginning in October 2015. [92] [93]

On April 11, 2012, Southwest introduced the 737-800 to the fleet. It seats 175 passengers as compared to the regular 143-seater 737-700. The first 737-800 was called "Warrior One" [94] in salute of the Southwest Employees’ Warrior Spirit.

On February 22, 2013, the connecting agreement with Volaris was terminated. It was said to be mutual between the airlines. Most industry experts believe that the expansion of the subsidiary of Southwest, AirTran Airways, into more Mexican markets, was a main reason for the termination of the agreement. [95]

On May 5, 2014, Southwest announced that it had chosen Amadeus IT Group to replace its current domestic reservation system. Southwest already operated its international reservation system with Amadeus. The new domestic reservation system was expected to take a few years to be fully implemented. When completed, Southwest will operate one reservation system by Amadeus. [96]

In September 2014, Southwest introduced new branding, including a new livery and logo. [97]

On October 13, 2014, the Wright Amendment restrictions at Dallas Love Field were repealed and Southwest expanded service at Love Field to include cities outside the previous location restrictions. [98]

Throughout 2014, Southwest expanded service at Reagan-National in Washington D.C. and LaGuardia Airport in New York City through slot acquisitions from the American Airlines/US Airways merger. [99]

On June 10, 2016, Southwest received approval to begin flights to Cuba. [100] Southwest was one of six airlines chosen by the USDOT to commence scheduled service to Cuba. Southwest launched service from Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport to Varadero, Cuba and Santa Clara, Cuba. [100]

In July 2016, an operational outage caused by technology problems cancelled hundreds of Southwest flights, stranding tens of thousands of passengers and many aircrew. [101] [102] [103]

On April 17, 2018, Southwest Airlines Flight 1380, one person was killed after an engine failure on a Southwest Airlines flight from New York to Dallas. The engine exploded on the Boeing 737-700 and sent shrapnel flying back towards the passenger window, breaking it. [104] The passenger was partially sucked out through the broken window as an uncontrolled decompression ensued. While other passengers managed to pull the passenger out of the window, she ultimately died from her injuries. [105] This death was the first in-flight fatality due to an accident in the history of Southwest. [106]

On March 13, 2019, the FAA grounded all 737 MAX aircraft following the discovery of evidence suggesting a common cause for the crashes of Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, 2019. [107] The 737 MAX 8 constituted about 5 percent of the Southwest fleet at the time, and the airline offered to rebook travelers' previously scheduled MAX 8 flights on other aircraft without charging additional fees or fare differences. [108] On October 17, 2019, the airline stated that it was expecting the MAX 8 to remain grounded until at least February 8, 2020, forcing the preemptive cancellation of roughly 175 flights per weekday. [109]

In June 2019, Captain Bryan Knight flew his dad, Colonel Roy A. Knight, home to Dallas Love Field. 52 years ago, Colonel Knight left Love Field to serve in the Vietnam War, but four months later, he was shot down over Laos. At the time when his son said goodbye to him, he was five years old. His body was recovered, and was flown from Laos to California. There, Southwest flight 1220, bound for Dallas, Texas, brought him home. When Colonel Knight arrived, he was given full military honors.

2020–present Edit

In January 2020, the Wall Street Journal reported the United States Department of Transportation was working on an investigation that found Southwest flew more than 17 million passengers on planes with unconfirmed maintenance records over two years and that the FAA had allowed Southwest to fly aircraft with unresolved safety concerns. [110]

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a severe impact on Southwest operations, as a 92% drop in United States air travel compared to March 2019 prompted the airline to cancel 1,500 daily flights constituting about 40% of its schedule. In March 2020, Southwest Airlines had stored 50 737-700 aircraft at Southern California Logistics Airport, adding to the 34 grounded 737 MAX jets already in storage. [111] By 7 April, it became clear that summer travel was being adversely affected, and the airline suspended close to 50% of it flight schedule through 27 June. [112] On 14 April, Southwest finalized a deal to receive congressional relief funding consisting of $2.3 billion in grants and a $1 billion low-interest loan. [113]

In April 2020, Southwest suspended relatively fewer flights than other major airlines, becoming the world's largest airline measured by operational seat capacity. [114] By 28 April, Southwest had parked 350 of its 742 aircraft, negotiated the delay of many anticipated Boeing 737 MAX deliveries, and was reporting daily losses of at least $30 million. [115]

In July 2020, around one-third of Southwest's employees had expressed interest taking early retirement or long-term leave, and the company launched voluntary separation and extended time off initiatives over 16,800 employees signed up for the programs. [116] On 5 October 2020, chief executive officer (CEO) Gary C. Kelly announced pay cuts for non-union employees and senior management starting in 2021 to avert furloughs, and stated that Southwest would negotiate with its pilot and flight attendant unions for similar cuts, although the unions expressed opposition. [117] On 6 November 2020, citing ongoing pandemic-related losses and stalled negotiations with the unions, Southwest issued WARN Act notices to 42 employees—the first time in company history that the airline had formally threatened to furlough an employee. [118] On 18 November, another 402 WARN notices were issued to mechanics. [119] However, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 was enacted on 27 December 2020, providing $15 billion in airline aid, and Southwest rescinded the furlough notices and pay cuts. [120]

Amid the upheaval in the airline industry due to the coronavirus, Southwest sought to challenge the larger airlines by expanding into their hub airports and increasing service to vacation-oriented destinations in 2021. [121] Southwest announced it would expand its footholds in the Houston and Chicago markets, supplementing its hubs at Hobby and Midway with service to Bush Airport in Houston (a United hub) and O'Hare Airport in Chicago (a hub for United and American Airlines). The return to Bush is the first time Southwest has served the airport since it pulled out in 2005, and the entry into O'Hare is the first time it has ever served the larger Chicago airport. [122] Southwest also began service at Miami International Airport, an American Airlines hub. It also announced service to three Colorado ski cities and several southern destinations for a total of ten new destinations in 2021. [123]

In October 2020, Southwest announced that it was considering the Airbus A220 as an alternative to the MAX 7 to replace its 737-700s, with deliveries from 2025. [124] However, in March 2021 Southwest announced an order for 100 MAX 7 jets with deliveries from 2022 and said that negotiations with Airbus were never initiated. [125]

In November 2020, the FAA formally ended the 737 MAX grounding, and Southwest began the process of returning its 34 737 MAX aircraft to service and retraining all of its pilots. [126] On March 11, 2021, Southwest resumed 737 MAX operation, becoming the fourth US airline to do so. [127]

Southwest posted a $3.1 billion loss for fiscal year 2020, the first time the airline had not turned an annual profit since 1972. [12]


Inti Timeline - History

3500 BCE Jerusalem first settled on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring

19th Century BCE Jerusalem listed in the Egyptian Execration Texts first recorded mention of the city as Rusalimum

14th Century BCE The name Jerusalem appears in diplomatic correspondence as Urusalim in the Amarna Letters 1010-970 The reign of King David 1003 King David establishes Jerusalem as Capital of United Kingdom of Israel 970-931 The reign of King Solomon 950 King Solomon commences construction of the First Temple. 931 Division of Kingdom into Israel and Judah. 837-800 The reign of Hezekiah, King of Judah tunnels conduit from Gihon spring to Siloam pool. 721 Assyrians conquer northern Kingdom of Israel and carry 10 of the 12 tribes into captivity and eventual dispersal. 701 Hezekiah successfully withstands Sennacherib's assault on Jerusalem. 598-587 Nebuchadnezzar's second invasion 597 Babylonians capture Jerusalem 588-586 Nebuchadnezzar's third invasion 586 Destruction of Jerusalem and of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar, and the exile of the Jews to Babylon (Lam 1.4 / 2.2) 539 Fall of Babylon

538 Edict of Cyrus 537 Remnant of about 50,000 Jews return from Babylon by edict of King Cyrus 520 Work begins on rebuilding the Temple 515 Completion and rededication of the Second Temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra 6.15-18) 458 Ezra the Scribe comes from Babylon Law revived 445 Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea by Artaxerxes, return from Babylon rebuilds city walls 397 Ezra, the Scribe initiates religious reforms

332 Alexander the Great defeats Daruis at Gaugamela and conquers Palestine from the Persians (Daniel 11.3) captures Jerusalem and Helenization begins 323 Death of Alexander in Babylon Wars of Succession begin 320 Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem 320-198 Rule of the Egyptian Ptolemies 198-167 Rule of the Syrian Seleucids 169 Seleucid king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163) outlaws Judaism and on December 25th, profanes the Temple

166 The priest Mattathias begins Maccabean revolt 167-141 Maccabean War of Liberation 164 Judah Maccabee recaptures Jerusalem and restores the Temple 166-160 Rule of Judah the Maccabee 160-143 Rule of Jonathan 150 Essene community founded 143-135 Rule of Simon Maccabeus

63 General Pompey captures Jerusalem for Rome 63-37 Hasmonean rules continues but under the protection of Rome 40 Rome appoints Herod King of Judea 40-AD 4 Reign of Herod the Great 37 King Herod the Great captures Jerusalem 19 Preparation of stones for the rebuilding of the Temple 18 Herod starts actual rebuilding of the Temple 10 Although not complete until AD63, Temple is dedicated About 5/4 John the Baptist, Jesus of Nazareth born (year approximate) 04 Herod the Great dies

26-36 Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea for 10 years

31 April 25 / Nisan 14 Crucifixion of Jesus

41-44 Agrippa, king of Judea, builds new city wall (The "Third Wall"). 44 Death of Herod Agrippa 63 Temple completed 64 66-73 The Great Revolt - The War of the Jews against the Romans 70 Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the Second Temple by Titus 73 Fall of Masada 132-135 Bar Kochba's war of freedom - Jerusalem again the Jewish Capital 135 Emperor Hadrian's total destruction of Jerusalem and building of new walls and new city renamed Aelia Capitolina Jews not allowed in Jerusalem

326 Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, visits Jerusalem, determines locations of events associated with the last days of Jesus, and causes churches to be build to commemorate them, most notably the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in AD 335.

438 Empress Eudocia permits Jews to live in Jerusalem 614 Persian conquest of Jerusalem They destroy most churches and expel Jews 629 Recaptured by Byzantines.

638 Six years after Mohammed's death, the Caliph Omar enters Jerusalem and Jews are readmitted to Jerusalem 691 Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik 701 The construction of the al-Aqsa mosque completed by Caliph al-Walid 1010 Caliph al-Hakim orders destruction of synagogues and churches

1099 Crusaders, led by Godfrey de Bouillon, capture of Jerusalem following Pope Urban's call in 1096. Baldwin I declared King of Jerusalem 1187 Kurdish general Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders. He permits Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city. 1192 Richard the Lion Heart attempts to re-capture Jerusalem but fails. Treaty with Saladin permitting Christians to worship at their Holy sites. 1219 City walls razed by Sultan Malik-al-Muattam 1244 Khawarizmian Turks capture Jerusalem. End of Crusader rule.

1244 Mameluk Sultans defeat the Ayyubids and rule Jerusalem 1260 The Mameluks of Egypt capture Jerusalem 1267 Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman (Nahmanides) arrives from Spain, revives the Jewish congregation and establishes synagogue and center of learning bearing his name. 1275 Marco Polo stops in Jerusalem on his way to China 1348 The Black Death Plague hits Jerusalem 1488 Rabbi Obadiah of Bertinoro settles in Jerusalem and leads the community.

The Ottoman Turkish Period

1517 Ottomans effect peaceful takeover of Jerusalem 1537-1541 Unwalled since 1219, Sultan Suleiman ("The Magnificent"), rebuilds the city walls including the present day 7 gates and the "Tower of David." The Damascus gate in 1542. 1700 Rabbi Yehuda He'Hassid arrives, starts building "Hurva" Synagogue 1836 First visit of Sir Moses Montefiore 1838 First consulate (British) opened in Jerusalem 1860 First Jewish settlement outside walls of the city 1898 Visit by Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the World Zionist Organization.

The British Mandate Period

1917 British conquest and General Allenby's entry into Jerusalem. 1918 Dr. Chaim Weizmann lays foundation stone of Hebrew University on Mount Scopus. 1920 Sir Herbert Samuel appointed first British High Commissioner and "Government House" established in Jerusalem. 1925 Hebrew University buildings inaugurated. 1947 United Nations Resolution recommending the partition of Israel.

14 May 1948 British Mandate ends and State of Israel Proclaimed. 14 May 1948-Jan 1949 Israel War of Liberation. 28 May 1948 New City of Jerusalem remains intact but Jewish Quarter in Old City falls. April 1949 Israel-TransJordan Armistice Agreement signed, whereby Jerusalem divided between the two countries. 13 Dec 1949 Jerusalem is Declared Capital of the State of Israel. 1965 Teddy Kollek elected Mayor of Jerusalem 5 June 1967 Jordan shells and mortars New City on opening day of the Six Day War. 7 June 1967 Israeli troops capture Old City and Jerusalem reunites. 23 June 1967 Moslems and Christians and Jews again given access to their Holy Places. 1980 Jerusalem Basic Law enacted declaring united Jerusalem to be capital of Israel. 1994 Mutual recognition of Israel and the PLO


'Socialists are sexy': overnight celebrity

No one was prepared for Ocasio-Cortez to beat Crowley in the Democratic primary. Or, even stranger, for her to become a star and the next right-wing boogeywoman.

"No way, shape, or form could I think that any of us saw that coming," said Vigie Ramos Rios, Ocasio-Cortez's co-campaign manager. "I've had moments where I've described it like getting hit by a tsunami, a wildfire, and an earthquake all at once."

But on June 26, Ocasio-Cortez shocked the American political world. The difference was just over 4,000 voters in the Bronx and Queens. In a deep blue district, she was virtually assured a seat in the 116th Congress.

Crowley declined to comment for this story.

Hillary Clinton, Nancy Pelosi, and Valerie Jarrett called. About 1,000 media outlets requested interviews over the next three days. After tweeting about her preferred lipstick (Stila Stay All Day Liquid in Beso), it sold out the day after the primary.

In a political moment that rewards celebrity, she's already more famous than most other members of Congress and many likely 2020 presidential contenders.

Ocasio-Cortez credits social media with powering her rise. Since the first days of her campaign, she's used it to develop a relationship with her followers, sharpen her message, and control the media narrative.

When she launched her bid, in May 2017, she had fewer than 300 Twitter followers. Her Facebook livestreams got a few dozen likes. But by primary day, she'd grown her Twitter following to 60,000 — more than many sitting House members.

She argues that her online presence allowed her to bypass a media largely uninterested in her race and communicate directly with voters.

"It was literally just through tweeting and getting that feedback and learning through commentary and testing messages," she said. "Because every time you tweet something how it performs is basically like an A/B test."

Ocasio-Cortez hit 2 million Twitter followers on Saturday, far more than the other 60 freshman House Democrats combined. And she has a shiny new handle to go with it, @AOC.

She uses social media like a lifestyle blogger or a celebrity influencer. She talks like a normal person. She details the challenges and gives advice. Thousands of people tune in to watch her talk politics and make Instant Pot mac and cheese on Instagram Live.

"She's willing to let people see her fears, and she's willing to let people see her hesitancies, and she's willing to let people see a process that normally is shadowed," Trent said.

Ocasio-Cortez has always written her own tweets.

"It's funny because a lot of people don't think I do," she said. "I was sitting next to a public official here in New York and I had pulled up my Twitter feed and I was drafting a tweet, and she was, like, 'You write those?' And I was, like, 'Yeah.'"

And as many have pointed out, she's skilled at creating viral moments — often when clapping back at her critics.

Much like millennial conservative influencers Ben Shapiro and Charlie Kirk, who've built their personas around "owning the libs," Ocasio-Cortez seems to relish defending herself and lampooning the right wing.

She regularly calls online critics sexist, racist, and ageist. She turns attacks on her clothes, childhood home, and high-school yearbook photos into Twitter memes and frequently ridicules Fox News and its relentless coverage of her.

In almost Trumpian fashion, Ocasio-Cortez slammed the president's son on Twitter just hours after Trent told The Washington Post she had no comment on Don Jr.'s meme suggesting democratic-socialist rule would mean Americans will have to eat dogs.

Her missives are beginning to rival the president's in engagement.

Perhaps unlike the president, she doesn't hit send on every angry tweet she drafts.

"There are so many tweets that do not see the light of day — there are so many," she said, laughing. "In my house we joke: We call it "emptying the cart." It's like when you go online shopping and then you're, like, 'Oh no, never mind,' and you leave the website."

Does she run her most controversial missives by her staff? "Once in a blue moon."

Buffoonish right-wing attacks on her regularly inspire a legion of memes parodying them before she even has a chance to respond. The cheap shots only further endear her to her supporters.

But critics, including Democrats, have also put forward substantive criticism of the political newcomer. They argue her policy proposals are too costly, impracticable, or ill-informed.

Fact-checkers have taken issue with inaccurate or sweeping claims she's made about the cost of programs she supports, like Medicare for All, and her claims about the unemployment rate.

Ocasio-Cortez calls constant questions about how she'll pay for her proposals "very disingenuous." She argues there are myriad ways to fund free college, Medicare for All, and a federal jobs guarantee. She subscribes to modern monetary theory, a burgeoning theory among some economists positing that the federal debt is not an economic restraint for the US.

"You can pay for it by saving costs on expenditures that we're already doing," she said. "We can do it by saving money on military spending. We can pay for it by raising taxes on the very rich. We can pay for it with a transaction tax. We can pay for it with deficit spending."

She said modern monetary theory, which holds that the government doesn't need to balance the budget and that budget surpluses actually hurt the economy, "absolutely . needs to be a larger part of our conversation."

Ocasio-Cortez staked out a more concrete position this week when she told "60 Minutes" that she supports taxing the super rich — those who make above $10 million — at 70% rate to help pay for programs like the Green New Deal.


This solution is a bit annoying but it does work. Open the Settings app and go to the Accounts group of settings. On the Your Info tab, click the ‘Sign in with a local account instead’ option. Switch to the local account and Timeline should start working.

You might want to stick to using a local account for a while before you switch back to a Microsoft account. Users report that switching to the local account will fix Timeline not working right away however, if it doesn’t fix the problem instantly, you may want to use your desktop for a while with just a local account. It may need some time to get going and once it does, you can switch back to your Microsoft account.

We should also mention that Timeline works with apps that support it. If your problem is that Timeline isn’t showing you all your apps, it may be because the app you’re hoping to see doesn’t support the new feature just yet. The stock apps all work so if you’re trying to check whether it’s the apps that are a problem, or the feature itself, use Edge for a while.

2 Comments

Fatima Wahab, Thank you! My Timeline stopped working when I switched to “Slow Ring” Build 17744.rs5_release 180818-1845. It would not let me remove tiles from today, they just “greyed out” and would clear at all. Went through several voo-doo sequences to try to get it to work, all to no avail. I was seconds away from reverting back to the previous build. The switching to “Local Account” then back worked beautifully! Can’t Thank you enough!


All-T’oqapu Tunic

The Inka were masters of statecraft, forging an empire that at its height extended from modern Quito, Ecuador to Santiago, Chile. One of the engines that drove the empire was the exchange of high-status goods, which helped to secure the reciprocal but unequal economic and power relationships between the Inka and their subjects. Precious materials such as Spondylus shell from the warm waters of coastal Ecuador or gold from remote mountain mines were shaped into high-status objects. These were given to local leaders as part of a system of imposed obligations that gave the Inka the right to claim portions of local produce and labor as their due. Along with jewels, political feasts and gifts of finely-made textiles would also cement these unequal relationships.

Textiles and their creation had been highly important in the Andes long before the Inka came to power in the mid-15th century—in fact, textile technologies were developed well before ceramics. Finely-made textiles from the best materials were objects of high status among nearly all Andean cultures, much more valuable than gold or gems. Die All-T’oqapu Tunic is an example of the height of Andean textile fabrication and its centrality to Inka expressions of power.

The making of Andean textiles

Weaving on a backstrap loom, Diego Rivera, The Weaver, 1936, tempera and oil on canvas, 66 x 106.7 cm (Art Institute of Chicago)

Diagram of warp and weft, (image, CC BY-SA 3.0)

Weaving in Andean cultures was usually done on backstrap looms made from a series of sturdy sticks supporting the warp, or skeletal threads, of the textile. A backstrap loom is tied to a post or tree at one end, while the other end is attached to a strap that passes around the back of the weaver. By leaning forward or tilting back, the weaver can adjust the tension on the warp threads as he or she passes the weft threads back and forth, creating the pattern that we see on the surface of the textile. By the time of the Inka, an incredible number of variations on this basic technique had created all kinds of textile patterns and weaves.

Detail, All-T’oqapu Tunic, Inka, 1450–1540, camelid fiber and cotton, 90.2 x 77.15 cm (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.)

The two main fibers spun into the threads of the tunic came from cotton and camelids. Cotton plants grew well on the Andean coast, in a variety of natural colors. Camelids thrived in the highlands (this includes the wild guanacos and vicuña and their domesticated brethren, the llama and the alpaca). Most Andean camelid-fiber textiles were made with the silky wool of the alpaca. Animal fibers are more easily dyed than plant fibers, so when weavers wanted bright colors they most commonly used alpaca wool. Die All-T’oqapu Tunic is made of dyed camelid wool warp over a cotton weft, a common combination for high-status textiles.

Collecting, spinning, and dyeing the fibers for a textile represented a huge amount of work from numerous people before a weaver even began their task. Some dyes, like cochineal red or indigo blue, were especially prized and reserved for high-status textiles. Cochineal dye comes from the bodies of small insects that live on cacti, and it takes thousands of them to make a small amount of dye. Indigo dyeing requires a high level of technical skill and a large investment in time. Red- and blue-dyed textiles were not only beautiful, they also represented the apex of the resources needed to produce them and the social and political power that commanded those resources.

In the Inka empire, textiles were produced by a number of groups, but the finest cloth, called qompi in Quechua (the language of the Inkas), was produced by acllas (“chosen women”), women who were collected from across the empire and cloistered in buildings to weave fine cloth. Die acllas also performed religious rituals, and made and served chicha (corn beer) at state feasts. These women spun, dyed, and wove fibers that were collected as part of the Inka taxation system. The textiles they produced were then given as royal gifts, worn by the royal household, or burned as a precious sacrifice to the sun god, Inti. The threads in the All-T’oqapu Tunic were spun so finely that there are approximately 100 threads per centimeter, making for a light, strong weave. It was traditional to weave garments in a single piece if possible, as cutting the cloth once it was off the loom would destroy its spirit existence (camac), which formed as it grew on the loom. Die All-T’oqapu Tunic is a single piece of cloth, woven with a slit in the center for the head to pass through, and folded over and sewn together along the sides with spaces left open as arm holes.

Ikonografie

Detail, All-T’oqapu Tunic, Inka, 1450–1540, camelid fiber and cotton, 90.2 x 77.15 cm (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.)

The decoration of the tunic is where its name derives from. T’oqapu are the square geometric motifs that make up the entirety of this tunic. These designs were only allowed to be worn by those of high rank in Inka society. Normally, an Inka tunic with t’oqapu on it would have a band or bands of the motif near the neck or at the waist. Individual t’oqapu designs appear to have been related to various peoples, places, and social roles within the Inka empire. Covering a single tunic with a large variety of t’oqapu, as seen in this example, likely makes it a royal tunic, and symbolizes the power of the Inka ruler (the Sapa Inka). The Sapa Inka’s power is manifest in the tunic in several ways. Firstly, its fine thread, expert weave, and bright colors signify his ability to command the taxation of the empire, access to luxury goods like rare and difficult dyes, and the weaving expertise of the acllas. Secondly, among the t’oqapu in the tunic is one pattern than contains a black and white checkerboard. This was the tunic pattern worn by the Inka army, and shows the Sapa Inka’s military might. Lastly, the collection of many patterns shows that the Sapa Inka (which means “unique Inka” in Quechua) was a special individual who held claim to all t’oqapu and therefore all the peoples and places of his empire. It is a statement of absolute dominion over the land, its people, and its resources, manifested in an item that is typically Andean in its material and manufacture.

Bykomende hulpbronne:

Raoul d’Harcourt, Textiles of Ancient Peru and Their Techniques, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974.

John Murra, “Cloth and Its Functions in the Inca State,” Amerikaanse antropoloog 64 (1962), pp. 710-728.

Rebecca Rollins Stone, “”And all theirs different from his”: The Dumbarton Oaks royal Inka tunic in context,” in Variations in the Expression of Inka Power, edited by Joanne Pillsbury, Jeffrey Quilter, Richard Burger, Craig Morris and Ramiro Matos (Washington, D.C.: Harvard University Press, 2007), pp. 385-422.

Rebecca Stone-Miller, To Weave For The Sun: Ancient Andean Textiles (Boston: Thames and Hudson, 1992).


Antieke Inkas - hedendaagse wonders

Die ontdekking van Machu Picchu het die byna vergete Inkas gehelp om internasionale erkenning te kry. Omdat hulle nie 'n groot skryfstelsel gehad het nie, is legendes en verhale deur professionele redenaars oorgedra, en 'n groot deel van hul geskiedenis is gekombineer met wat in antieke citadels en tempels ontdek is. Baie van ons kennis is afkomstig van verslae wat die Spaanse indringers huis toe gestuur het. Hulle het berig gelewer oor grandiose stede, mooier en beter georganiseerd as in Europa, en indrukwekkende paaie en akwadukte wat hulle nog nooit teëgekom het nie.

Danksy nuwe ontdekkings is die geskiedenis van die Inkas nog steeds 'n voortdurende raaisel wat die hele wêreld wag om te voltooi.

By Chimu Adventures bied ons 'n wye verskeidenheid op maat gemaakte reisopsies na Peru. Kom van aangesig tot aangesig met 'n paar van die mees ontsagwekkende oorblyfsels van die antieke Inka-ryk. Trek 'n hartroerende staptog langs die ou Inca-roete na Machu Picchu, of neem eerder 'n gemaklike en net so betowerende treinrit. Besoek museums en wêreldwye tempels van wêreldgehalte, verken die Heilige Vallei van die Inkas, en ontdek een van die indrukwekkendste antieke beskawings wat die wêreld nog ooit geken het.

Skrywer: Laura Pattara

'Laura Pattara is 'n moderne nomade wat die afgelope 15 jaar onophoudelik oor die hele wêreld rondbeweeg. Sy reis deur die land deur Suid-Amerika en Afrika, reis onafhanklik deur die Midde-Ooste en het 'n motorfietsreis van 6 jaar na Australië voltooi. Wat maak haar die mooiste? Diere ontmoetings in afgeleë wildernis, outentieke ervarings buite die roete en skouspelagtige herfskleure in Patagonië. ”


The Origin and History of the Aryans of Ancient India

This article presents the divergent opinions and pros and cons of Aryan invasion from different perspectives. However, it requires further improvement, order and clarity. Hence, please consider this as a work in progress, and not the final version. We have several other essays on this subject. Please check the links at the end of this essay

There is a consensus opinion among many historians that the Aryans were a heterogeneous group of people who lived in different parts of the ancient world in the area comprising Mediterranean, parts of Europe, central Asia and north western India. There is also an established opinion in the academic circles that the ancestors of "some" Indians, Persians, Germans, Greeks, Romans, and the Celts were Aryans, who worshipped different gods and goddesses, used fire in their rituals and spoke many languages, which have evolved into the present day Indo European languages.

The Indo Iranian group of Aryans settled in Iran and parts of north western India. Although they seemed to have shared a common ancestry, they parted their ways in matters of language and religion.

However, there is a divergence of opinion among various scholars as to the original homeland of Aryans, which is summarized below. Indian historians who deal with the subject fall broadly into two categories: those who suggest that the Indian origin of the Aryans and those who support the non-Indian origin of Aryans. Neither side has come up with convincing evidence or argument so far.

Historikus Propose Homeland of Aryans
Max Mueller Central Asia
B.G.Tilak Arctic Region
A.C.Dass Sapta Sindhu or the Punjab region
Swami Dayanand Saraswathi Tibet
Nehring Southern Russia
Pokorny A wide area located in Russia between Weser and Vistula and up to White Russia and Volhynia
Brandenstein Kirghiz steppe
Nazi/German Scholars Duitsland
Morgan Western Siberia
Jairazbhoy West of Caspian Sea
Prof. MacDonnel Oos -Europa
Dr. Giles Austria and Hungary
Dr. Subhash Kak and others Indië

There is also a divergence of opinion among those who support the Aryan invasion theory with regard to their subsequent expansion in the Indian subcontinent.

According to one school of thought the Aryans came in hordes and first settled in northwestern India, from where they migrated gradually towards the Gangetic valley, north eastern India and southern India.

According to some, they probably came in two or more waves and colonized the land. There is no evidence to suggest that they occupied the land forcibly and even if they did it must have been on a limited scale. As they migrated towards the east, they had to deal with more powerful and organized native communities and established political powers, whom they could not conquer politically. So their expansion into the subcontinent beyond the Sapta Sindhu region must have happened peacefully through the migration of families of wandering priests and sages rather than through political conquest.

The ruling classes in these regions were drawn to Vedic religion but not completely. So some compromise on the part of both sides and some integration of religious practices took place. This is evident from the fact that regions comprising of present day UP, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, parts of MP, all of southern India and western India were not thoroughly Aryanized and that the basic character of Vedic religion underwent dramatic changes during the post Rigvedic period. Historically these areas also witnessed the predominance of non-Vedic faiths and sectarian movements like Saivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism.

The last view that India itself might be the original land of the Aryans has been gaining ground as circumstantial evidence and genetic studies do not confirm the Aryan invasion theory as proposed by the British and other European scholars. Historically, India was known as Aryavarta, meaning the land of the Aryans. This was not a mere coincidence. No other country, land, or region was historically known by that name. The ancestors of Aryans might have come from Africa or Central Asia, but the Aryan culture was distinctly indigenous and derived from the Kshatriya clans of the Vedic civilization. The Buddha was a Kshatriya, a person of noble birth. His followers often addressed him as Aryaputra, meaning the son of an Arya. So was Mahavira. They were remnants of the ancient wisdom which the Kshatriyas preached through the Upanishads, and which was at times in variance with the ritual knowledge of the Vedas (karmakanda) practiced by the Brahmanas.

The Aryans were men of the original Indian nobility. The Rajputs of today and other warrior groups, are their descendants. They originally worshipped Brahma, Indra, Varuna, Soma, Mitra, etc., who were Kshatriya gods (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad), who were subsequently relegated to a secondary position in the Hindu pantheon as rulers of directions (dikpalas). It is not a coincidence that the only major temple of Brahma is found in Rajaputana and he lost his popular appeal. By the time of the Nandas and Mauryas (who came from lower castes), the Vedic Kshatriyas lost their power and disappeared, but left their mark as symbols of authority and nobility. In India, until recent times, men of higher castes, landlords and those who occupied positions of authority were customarily addressed as Arya. In native literature, speeches, correspondence and letter writing it was used as the equivalent of "respected Sir." Its corrupt form in Telugu, the second largest native language after Hindi, is "ayya," which is used even today as a mark of respect to address elderly people, fatherly figures and men of authority.

Thus, by usage and by custom we have clear evidence that India had a very deep and historic connection with the concept of Arya, a tradition which most likely originated in memory of an ancient group of people who inhabited the region and wielded considerable influence, power and authority before they were superseded by other political and feudal groups.

It has to be remembered that India has always been, as it is now, a heterogeneous society where people belonging to difference races, religions, languages and backgrounds coexisted.

They came to India in the remote past from different parts of the world, from Africa, Mediterranean, Europe, central Asia, Russia, China and probably Arctic region by land and by sea.

While there was an inward migration into the subcontinent, there was also probably some outward migration towards the east, north and west and even to some islands in the Pacific and Australia.

For example, contrary to the popular opinion, the people of Andhra Pradesh were immigrants from different regions within the subcontinent as well from regions outside India. The invading armies of Sakas, Pahlavas, Persians and Kushanas settled in various parts of the country and became an integral part of native communities. So it is incorrect to divide the Indian population merely into two or three groups. It is also incorrect to classify Telugu as a purely Dravidian language. In fact, it has elements of both Indo-European and Dravidian languages. Its most literary form, which, Sri Krishna Devaraya, the king of Vijayanagara, famously considered the best of the native tongues, is very close to Sanskrit both grammatically and syntactically.

The Indus people knew how to build ports or trade merchandise by rivers and sea, using boats. They knew how to chart their course through dangerous seas using the position of the stars and the movements of the sun and the moon. It is wrong to assume that the Aryans introduced an organized religion or an advanced civilization in the Indian subcontinent in the backdrop of an inferior civilization.

In conclusion we may say that the Aryan migration, if there was one, was part of a series of migrations of different nomadic communities and races that came either peacefully or through force to the Indian subcontinent by land or by sea during the early human migrations between 10000 BCE - 5000 BCE before the Sindhu Saraswathi civilization reached its peak and settled there. Over time those communities created a rich tapestry of social, religious and cultural diversity that is peculiarly and uniquely Indian.


Inti Timeline - History

Map of the Events Surrounding Jesus' Finals Days in Jerusalem

Jesus Drives the Vendors Out of the Temple (Mat 21:12,13 Lk 19:45, 46).

The Blind and Lame Come to Jesus (Mat 21:14).

Jesus Was Teaching Daily in the Temple (Lk 19:47, 48).

The Parable of the Two Sons (Mat 21:28-31)

The Parable of the Great Supper (Mat 22:1-14 Lk 14:16-24).

Jesus Warned Beware of the Scribes and the Pharisees (Mat 23 Mk 12:38-40 Lk 20:45-47).

Jesus Pointed Out A Certain Poor Widow (Mk 12:41-44 Lk 21:1-4).

Prophecy of Isaiah About the Blindness of the Jewish Leaders (Jn 12:37-50).

Jesus Foretells the Destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem (Mat 24 Mk 13 Lk 21:5-36).

Jesus Saw the City and Wept Over It, (Mat 23:37 Lk 19:41-44).

The Parables of the Ten Virgins and The Talents (Mat 25:1-30).

Jesus is Anointed with the Flask of Spikenard (Mat 26:6-13 Mk 14:3-9 Jn 12:1-8).

The Last Passover with His Disciples (Mat 26:17-30 Mk 14:12-25 Lk 22:7-20).

Jesus Washes the Disciples' Feet (Jn 13:1-17).

Jesus - The Hand of My Betrayer is With Me (Mat 26:23 Mk 14:18-21 Lk 22:21 Jn 13:18).

Jesus Teaches About the Holy Spirit (Jn 14 15 16).


The Garden at Gethsemane

The House of Caiaphas


The Fortress of Antonia

Jesus Before Herod. Pilate Sent Him to Herod (Lk 23:6-12).

Jesus is Mocked by the Soldiers (Mat 27:27-31 Mk 15:16-20).

Jesus Appeared to Simon (Lk 24:34 1 Cor 15:5).

Jesus Appears to Two Disciples on the Road to Emmaus (Mk 16:12, 13 Lk 24:13-35).


Map of the Ministry of Jesus (Clickable Map)

Isaiah 52:7 - Hoe beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!

Jesus came to his home, the Land of Israel, which was the land promised to the first Hebrew, Abraham. The Lord established a covenant with Abraham and promised that one day his "seed" (descendant) would be a blessing to all nations. This was exactly why Israel was referred to as "The Promised Land." Jesus, the promised seed of Abraham was the fulfillment of that promise, and everything beautiful about the land of Israel is because of Jesus. The geography is only secondary, yet it is truly amazing how much the Lord adored the land of Israel because in it He not only saw the beauty throughout, but He saw landmarks that revealed the promises that God had faithfully kept with His people.

An understanding of the geography of the ancient world is of tremendous value in understanding the life of Jesus. It is a true statement that a good Bible atlas is an essential tool for any serious student of the Bible, therefore this map program was created. You can follow the yellow numbers on the map in numerical order.


You can look at the Map to trace the route of Jesus' ministry. Our focus is Geography and the life of Christ.


Kyk die video: Inti Gowravam Full Movie. Sobhan Babu. Chandra Mohan. Janaki. V9 Videos (Augustus 2022).