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Die weduwee van voorsitter Mao is ter dood veroordeel

Die weduwee van voorsitter Mao is ter dood veroordeel



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Jiang Qing, die weduwee van die Chinese leier Mao Zedong, word ter dood veroordeel vir haar 'kontrarevolusionêre misdade' tydens die Kulturele Revolusie.

Haar huwelik met Mao in 1939, wat oorspronklik 'n aktrise was in die kommunistiese teater en film, is wyd gekritiseer, aangesien sy derde vrou, Ho Zizhen, 'n gevierde veteraan van die Long March was wat Mao geskei het terwyl sy in 'n hospitaal in Moskou lê. Sy tweede vrou, Yang Kaihui, is tydens die Chinese burgeroorlog deur die nasionaliste vermoor. Mao se eerste vrou, Luo Yixiu, is in 1910 aan dysenterie dood.

Jiang Qing is beveel om uit die politiek te bly, en sy het dit gedoen tot in die sestigerjare, toe sy die tradisionele Chinese opera en die burgerlike invloede in Chinese kuns en letterkunde openlik gekritiseer het. In 1966 het Mao haar eerste adjunkhoof van die Kulturele Revolusie geword en haar verreikende magte oor China se intellektuele en kulturele lewe gegee. Die Kulturele Revolusie was Mao se poging om die Chinese samelewing te revolusioneer, en Jiang was vaardig in die manipulasie van die media en die jong radikale wat bekend staan ​​as die Rooi Garde. Die beweging is gekenmerk deur terreur en suiwering waarin tienduisende gesterf het en miljoene gely het.

Aan die einde van die sestigerjare het die kulturele rewolusie afgeneem, en Jiang het uit die openbare oog verdwyn. Na haar man se dood in 1976 word sy en drie ander radikale wat in die rewolusie aan bewind gekom het, egter uitgesonder as die 'Gang of Four'. Jiang is gearresteer en in 1977 uit die Kommunistiese Party geskors. Drie jaar later is die Gang of Four verhoor. Jiang is verantwoordelik gehou vir die onrus en bloedvergieting van die rewolusie, maar sy ontken die aanklagte en veroordeel China se leiers. Sy is skuldig bevind en ter dood veroordeel. Op 25 Januarie 1983, presies twee jaar nadat sy veroordeel is, het die Chinese regering haar vonnis tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf verander. In 1991 sterf sy in die tronk weens 'n skynbare selfmoord.


MAO 'S WIDOW FREE, TYDSKRIF VERSlae

Volgens 'n tydskrif in Hong Kong is Jiang Qing, die weduwee van Mao Zedong, uit die gevangenis vrygelaat en leef hy onder 'n swak gesondheid buite Beijing.

The Far Eastern Economic Review berig in sy uitgawe van 31 Desember dat juffrou Jiang, 73 jaar oud, in 'n villa in die voorstede van Beijing woon. Die tydskrif, in dieselfde uitgawe, het gesê dat die res van die sogenaamde Gang of Four - Zhang Chunqiao, die voormalige adjunk -premier Wang Hongwen, voormalige ondervoorsitter van die Kommunistiese Party en die propagandis Yao Wenyuan - ook binnekort uit die tronk vrygelaat kan word .

Die tydskrif gee geen toeskrywing vir die kort verslag nie, en amptenare van die ministerie van staatsveiligheid wou nie daaroor kommentaar lewer nie, en ook nie ander Chinese amptenare hier nie.

Daar was vanjaar gerugte dat juffrou Jiang kanker gehad het, maar amptenare het dit ontken.

Vyf jaar na die dood van Mao in 1976, is sy weduwee en die drie ander lede van die Bende van Vier skuldig bevind aan die poging om mag oor te neem tydens die Kulturele Revolusie, wat van 1966 tot 1976 geduur het.

Juffrou Jiang is skuldig bevind aan die vervolging van die Kommunistiese Party en staatsleiers. Haar doodsvonnis met 'n tweejarige teregstelling is in 1983 tot lewenslange tronkstraf verander.

Mnr. Zhang is ter dood veroordeel, maar sy vonnis is ook in lewenslange tronkstraf verander in 1983. Wang is tot lewenslange tronkstraf gevonnis. Yao is 20 jaar tronkstraf opgelê.

Vandag stroom ongeveer 25 000 mense deur die mausoleum waar Mao in die staat lê om die man te eer wat die absolute leier van China was van 1949 tot sy dood in 1976.

Mao se seun Mao Anqing en sy kleinseun, Mao Xinyu, het 'n mandjie rooi en geel krisante en pouvere neergesit by die standbeeld van Mao in die gang van sy mausoleum in die Tian An Men -plein. Besoekure verleng

Die amptelike New China News Agency het gesê dat die besoekure by die mausoleum van vier tot sewe en 'n half uur verleng is om skares bymekaar te bring wat hulde gebring het. Die skare was omtrent dubbel die normale grootte.

Die nasionale aandnuus beklemtoon 'n uitstalling van Mao se werke en 'n biografie van die ontslape leier, maar daar was geen amptelike seremonies om sy geboorte op 26 Desember 1893 in Shaoshan in die Hunan -provinsie te vier nie.

China se leiers huldig Mao as die vader van die land en die inspirasie vir die Chinese rewolusie. Sy portret hang nog steeds aan Tian An Men Gate, en advertensieborde in die hoofstad spoor mense steeds aan om uit sy leerstellings te leer.

Maar Mao kry nou ook die skuld vir die ellendes wat die Groot Sprong vorentoe van 1958 veroorsaak het, toe hy probeer het om die land te industrialiseer deur middel van vinnige kollektivisering, en die Kulturele Revolusie, toe sy poging om ideologiese suiwerheid te herstel, die volk op die rand van burgerlike gebied gebring het oorlog.


MAO 'S VIDEO VIR DIE DOOD GEVIND, MAAR STRAF IS 2 JAAR

Jiang Qing, die weduwee van Mao Zedong, het vandag 'n opgeskorte doodsvonnis gekry van 'n spesiale hof wat haar en nege ander voormalige Chinese leiers tydens die Kulturele Revolusie van 1966-76 skuldig bevind het aan kontra-revolusionêre misdade.

Die vonnis is opgeskort vir twee jaar waartydens die 67-jarige voormalige aktrise in Sjanghai gehelp sal word om deur arbeid te hervorm, volgens die kriminele wet van China.

As sy berou toon na die tydperk, kan die hof die vonnis na lewenslange gevangenisstraf verander. As sy uitdaag, kan die hof haar teregstel.

(Juffrou Jiang het geen teken van berou getoon toe sy uit die hofsaal geskreeu is nie, volgens The Associated Press. Sy het na berig word gevra dat Deng Xiaoping, die belangrikste leier in China, verdring word en skree: "Dit is reg rebelleer! ' ' en ' ' Om revolusie te maak is geen misdaad nie! ' '

Alhoewel daar 'n veldtog was om haar tereg te stel, is die vonnis beskou as 'n politieke kompromie deur China se leiers om kritiek van linkses wat in gesagsposisies bly, af te weer en wat beleid ondersteun deur Mao.

Juffrou Jiang, drie ander lede van die sogenaamde Gang of Four, en ses ander politieke en militêre leiers is aangekla van 48 misdrywe, waaronder die beplanning van 'n gewapende rebellie in Sjanghai, poging om Mao te vermoor en om 700,000 politieke leiers en partylede te vervolg. , insluitend 34 800 wat na bewering gesterf het.

Die vonnisse vir die ander drie lede van die Gang of Four is ook aangekondig. Zhang Chunqiao, die 63-jarige voormalige burgemeester van Sjanghai wat juffrou Jiang gehelp het om haar mag te bekom en die spesiale hof in stilte te trotseer, het dieselfde vonnis gekry as juffrou Jiang, wat permanente ontneming van politieke regte insluit.

Yao Wenyuan, die 49-jarige party-teoretikus wat in beheer was van massakommunikasie-organisasies in China, is tot 20 jaar gevonnis en sy politieke regte is vir vyf jaar weggeneem. Hy het tydens die verhoor erken dat hy skuldig was aan baie misdade.

Wang Hongwen, die 45-jarige voormalige katoen tekstielwerker wat tydens die Kulturele Revolusie tot die posisie van adjunk-partyvoorsitter gestyg het, is lewenslange gevangenisstraf opgelê en permanente ontkenning van sy politieke regte, wat lidmaatskap van die Kommunistiese Party uitsluit.

Die gevangenisstraf begin vanaf die dag dat die beskuldigdes in die tronk gestop is, wat in 1976 vir Yao en Wang was. Ander beskuldigdes, waaronder Chen Boda, 76 jaar oud, wat politieke sekretaris van Mao was, kry tronkstraf van 16 tot 18 jaar en die ontneming van politieke regte vir vyf jaar.

Aangesien die meeste van hulle in 1971 tronk toe gestuur is na 'n poging van die voormalige minister van verdediging, Lin Biao, om Mao omver te werp, het hulle reeds meer as die helfte van hul vonnisse uitgedien. Geen besonderhede verstrek nie

Die ander verweerders, voormalige militêre medewerkers van Lin Biao, is: Wu Faxian, 65 Li Zuopeng, 66 Qiu Huizuo, 66, en Jiang Tengjiao, 61, Huang Yongsheng.

Die uitsprake en vonnisse is vanoggend aan buitelandse joernaliste bekend gemaak deur 'n woordvoerder van die Ministerie van Buitelandse Sake wat geen ander besonderhede verskaf het oor hoe die spesiale paneel van 35 regters van die Hooggeregshof tot die uitspraak gekom het of hoe die vonnisse aangekondig is nie aan die 10 beskuldigdes.

Ses ander leiers van die tydperk 1966-76, waarna die Chinese owerhede nou die tien jaar van rampspoed noem, is ook aangekla. Hulle het Lin Biao ingesluit. Almal is dood.

Gedurende die verhoor, wat op 2 November begin het, het juffrou Jiang uitdagend gebly. Sy het haar beskuldigers en die 35 regters veroordeel as ' ' #revisioniste ' ' wat hul rug op Mao se beleid gedraai het. Sy het volgehou dat sy opgetree het volgens Mao se wense.

Sy is twee keer tevore uit die hofsaal verwyder en het die owerhede by haar laaste verskyning, op 29 Desember, gewaag om haar tereg te stel.


Volg die opkoms en ondergang van 'Madame Mao'

'Sy is nogal 'n karakter,' het die aktrise Kim Miyori gesê en Jiang Qing-die weduwee van die Chinese voorsitter Mao Tse Tung-saamgevat. Miyori sal haar uitbeeld in die eenbedryf van Henry Ong, 'Madame Mao's Memories', wat Vrydag in die teater/teater in Hollywood geopen word.

"Ek was regtig onkundig oor die kulturele rewolusie-en die Chinese geskiedenis in die algemeen," het Miyori opgemerk (Dr. Wendy Armstrong op "St. Elders", Yoko Ono in die TV-bio "John and Yoko"). 'Dit is nie iets wat ons baie op skool bestudeer nie. Maar ek was die afgelope somer 'n paar maande in Hong Kong, en ek was daar tydens die studentedemonstrasies (in China). Dit was 'n baie opwindende tyd-die naaste gevoel wat ek onthou aan die (politieke aktivisme van die) '60's, maar baie meer intens. "

Terwyl sy oorsee was, het die aktrise navorsing oor Madame Mao begin doen. 'Ek het baie van haar geleer,' het sy gesê. 'Dit was skrikwekkend die hoeveelheid mag en invloed wat sy blykbaar uitoefen. Al was Mao die openbare leier, was sy en die Gang of Four die werklike leiers. Hulle was verantwoordelik vir 34 000 sterftes, 74 000 mense in die gevangenis, honderde duisende vervolg. Eintlik het almal wat persoonlik of polities in die pad gekom het, van hulle ontslae geraak. ”

Madame Mao se mag kom tot 'n einde kort na die dood van voorsitter Mao in 1976, is sy verhoor weens sameswering, skuldig bevind en ter dood veroordeel. Hoewel die doodsvonnis later tot lewenslange tronkstraf verander is, is daar vandag nie veel inligting oor Madame Mao beskikbaar nie. Die vertoning, wat in 'n tronksel verskyn, herinner aan herinneringe aan haar kinderjare en adolessensie, en haar opleiding aan die eksperimentele kunste -akademie.

"Die storie is dat sy nie 'n aktrise was nie," het Miyori gesê. "Natuurlik, sy beweer dat sy die roosterbrood van Hong Kong was. Sommige hiervan is vanuit haar oogpunt, sommige vanuit ander se oogpunt. Baie kritici beskryf haar as 'n verdraaide, kwaai, bitter vrou op 'n groot ego -reis. Maar China het nog altyd 'n onstuimige geskiedenis gehad-en die kommuniste het probeer om die land te hervorm. So nee, ek speel haar nie as boos nie. Ons voel almal geregverdig in ons optrede. Dit is net om die regverdiging vir haar te vind. ”

Nog 'n toneelstuk oor Jiang Qing, "The Chairman's Wife" van Wakako Yamauchi ("And the Soul Shall Dance"), word op 17 Januarie by East West Players geopen.

TEATERLêER: Wet 2: Kunsspelkompetisie van die binnestad-kultuursentrum-met meer as 100 voorleggings-begin Maandag met 'Autumn Heat' (vier bekroonde stukke, wat verlede jaar in die kortspelkompetisie aangebied is). In die program is Ernie Fann se "Evanna", Luis Alfaro se "True Stories From the Corner of Pico and Union", Lenai Chapman se "Home Run" en J. D. Hall se "G.E."

Die Tony-bekroonde San Francisco Mime Troupe keer hierdie week terug na Los Angeles met 'Seeing Double'. Bydraers tot die musikale klug op die Wesbank sluit in die Israeliese dramaturg Sinai Peter, die Palestina-Amerikaanse skrywer Emily Shihadeh en die groep se Joan Holden, Bruce Barthol en Randy Craig. Daniel Chumley regisseer die produksie en speel slegs drie optredes (Donderdag tot Saterdag) in die Bing -teater van USC.

Ook by USC: die debuut van Second City se nuwe Weskus -toeronderneming. Na die opwarming van Maandagaand by die groep se tuisbasis in Santa Monica, stap die groep op 18 Oktober met 'n verskyning by USC's Student Commons. Direkteur Will Aldis hou toesig oor die vyf maande oue rolspelers in die geselskap: Andy Dick, Jesse Douglas, Linda White, Christopher Bert, Mike DeCarlo, Megan Cavanaugh, Teresa Ganzel, Joseph Plewa en Brad Sherwood-almal gegradueerdes van Second City se Santa Monica-werkswinkel program.

CRITICAL CROSSFIRE: Alan Ayckbourn se nuwe komedie agter die verhoog, 'A Chorus of Disapproval', wat by South Coast Repertory geopen is-op 'n koor van gemengde reaksies.

Dan Sullivan het in The Times gesê: 'David Emmes se SCR -rolverdeling maak dit 'n wonderlike vermaaklike aand. . . . Of dit alles uit Ayckbourn se dagboek kom, weet mens nie, maar dit voel waargeneem en die optredes is ewe oplettend. ”

Die Daily News se Daryl H. Miller het 'n 'bekwame, maar nie altyd oortuigende toneel' gevind nie. (Dit) begin stadig, met die eerste daad wat 1 1/2 uur duur. Die aksie kan maklik opgeskort word, wat dinge sal bespoedig en die aandag van die gehoor kan behou. ”

Van Charles Marowitz in die Herald Examiner: 'Om Ayckbourn amusant te vind, moet u die aandeelindeks van die Wall Street Journal amusant vind. Om Ayckbourn opbouend of stimulerend te vind, moet u 'n promosiebrosjure vind oor deodorante onder die arm wat so verrykend is as die 'Ilias' of die 'Odyssey.'

Die Welton Jones van die San Diego Union: "Teaterbeamptes sal gereeld geamuseerd (en ontsteld) wees deur tonele soos die nagmerrie -tegniese repetisie, die chaotiese oudisie. . . . Maar niks hiervan is uniek nie en, vreemd genoeg, nie soveel pret as wat mens sou verwag nie. ”

Van Thomas O'Connor in die Orange County Register: 'Ons lag-taamlik hard, op plekke-vir die dwase van mense wat net sien en hoor wat hulle wil sien. Maar ons raak nooit vasgevang in die versnelde ritme van klug nie, en verloor nooit die spoor van waar ons in die komiese skema is nie. ”


Uitspraak oor Mao se vrou 'te sag'?

Die opgeskorte doodsvonnis uitgespreek oor Mao Tse-tung se weduwee, Jiang Qing, is ligter as wat baie Chinese verwag of gedink het sy verdien. Sy skree revolusionêre slagspreuke en word uit die Peking -hof gesleep ná die uitspraak van 25 Januarie.

Maar dit was hierdie soort verset tydens die 'bende van vier' -verhoor, en veral Jiang Qing se onberoulike gesindheid teenoor getuies wat op haar bevel mishandel is of wie se naaste familielede weens sulke mishandeling gesterf het, wat baie Chinese ontstel het wat ywerig uittreksels gevolg het uit die verhoor op televisie.

Een intellektueel, nou 'n toonaangewende redakteur, wat self tydens die Kulturele Revolusie mishandel is, het erken dat hy sy koel, losstaande houding verloor het toe hy die optrede van Jiang Qing bekyk en gedink het dat sy die doodsvonnis moes kry. ('N opgeskorte doodsvonnis, 'n besondere Chinese praktyk, beteken in werklikheid dat die misdadiger nooit tereggestel sal word nie.)

Miskien belangriker: nie die verhoor of die vonnis stel die deurslaggewende vraag of die voorsitter Mao self verantwoordelik was vir die kulturele rewolusie se tien jaar van onrus (1966-76) nie. Gedurende haar verhoor het Jiang Qing herhaaldelik beklemtoon dat sy opgetree het in opdrag van die voorsitter Mao en die sentrale komitee van die party, wat in daardie dae deur die bende van vier beheer was, met haarself as die leier.

Die kwessie van Mao se rol sal na verwagting die onderwerp wees van 'n belangrike verslag wat gedurende die eerste helfte van hierdie jaar by die twaalfde kongres van die Chinese Kommunistiese Party gelewer sal word.

Die man beskou die brein agter die bende van vier, die voormalige burgemeester van Sjanghai en adjunk -premier Zhang Chunqiao, is ook 'n opgeskorte doodsvonnis opgelê.

Tydens die verhoor was hy en Jiang Qing die twee beskuldigdes wat eerder uittarting as berou getoon het. Jiang Qing het verregaande opmerkings op getuies en regters geskree. Haar gewelddadige verwydering uit die hof na die vonnisoplegging was die derde keer dat sy uitgeskiet is. Zhang bly minagtend stil van die lees van die beskuldiging tot die uitspraak van die vonnis.

Die ander twee lede van die bende van vier het teruggetrek en ligter vonnisse opgelê-lewenslange gevangenisstraf vir Wang Hongwen, voormalige ondervoorsitter van die party, en 20 jaar vir Yao Wenyuan, die hoofpolemis van die bende.

Westerse verslaggewers is nie toegelaat om die verhoor by te woon nie, en baie was van mening dat dit 'n vertoningsverhoor was, met aanklaers en die meeste beskuldigdes wat vooraf geskrewe skrifte gelees het, en die regters met hul vonnisse reeds bepaal voordat die verhoor begin het.

Die verhoor het beslis hierdie aspekte gehad. Maar vanuit 'n Chinese oogpunt, veral uit die oogpunt van diegene wat die rowwe en regverdige regverdigheid van die jare van die Kulturele Revolusie verduur het, het die prerogatiewe toegelaat dat Jiang Qing en haar medebeskuldigdes gelyk het aan, of miskien selfs 'n bietjie meer as wat hulle bereid was om verdra.

Spesiale korrespondent Tony Walker berig van Peking:

Die "bende van vier" is op 6 Oktober 1976 in hegtenis geneem, slegs weke na Mao Tse-tung se dood. Die vier is eers weer in die openbaar gesien voordat hulle einde verlede jaar voor die Peking -hof gebring is. Na hul vonnisoplegging van 25 Januarie sal hulle waarskynlik vir baie jare nie meer in die openbaar gesien word nie. Daar is geen appèl teen die vonnisse van die hof nie.

Lede van die bende is beskuldig van 'n verskeidenheid misdade, waaronder die vervolging van duisende amptenare, onder wie Liu Shaoqi, die voormalige staatshoof van China. Die beskuldiging beweer dat die vier 'onvoorsiene rampe in ons land en nasie meegebring het'.

Die ses medewerkers van Lin Biao, die voormalige minister van verdediging, wat in 'n vliegtuigongeluk dood is terwyl hy in 1971 probeer het om China te ontsnap, is ook gevonnis op 25 Januarie. Die medewerkers is tot 16 tot 18 jaar gevonnis, maar hulle sal vroeër vrygelaat word nadat hulle reeds 10 jaar in die tronk was.

Chen Boda, die voormalige persoonlike assistent van voorsitter Mao, wat na bewering by die bende van vier en Lin Biao betrokke was, is tot 18 jaar tronkstraf gevonnis.

Volgens die Chinese wet kan Jiang Qing tereggestel word nadat sy twee jaar van haar opgeskorte doodsvonnis uitgedien het as sy haar nie bekeer nie. Maar dit lyk onwaarskynlik dat die doodstraf toegepas sal word, ongeag haar gedrag in gevangenskap.

Die besluit om Mao se weduwee nie tereg te stel nie, was blykbaar 'n kompromie. Sommige Chinese amptenare wat tydens die kulturele rewolusie gely het, het vermoedelik aangemoedig dat sy ander geskiet word, insluitend die ondervoorsitter van die party, Deng Xiaoping, teen die teregstelling.

Na die verhore was die vonnis byna antiklimakties. Volgens die Chinese vonnis is die uitspraak daarop gewys dat Jiang Qing 'n 'belangrikste skuldige' was wat as 'n leier in die teenrevolusionêre aktiwiteite opgetree het.

Die ander 'belangrikste skuldige', Zhang Chunqiao, word daarvan beskuldig dat hy met Jiang Qing saamgewerk het om teenrevolusie te bevorder. 'Gedurende die dekade van onrus het Zhang Chunqiao die staat en die mense baie ernstig berokken,' lui die uitspraak.

Onder die aanklagte wat spesifiek teen Jiang Qing gerig is, was dat sy persoonlik die ondervraging en marteling van amptenare beveel het in haar poging om Wang Guangmei, die weduwee van Liu Shaoqui, as 'n spioen van die Amerikaanse sentrale intelligensie -agentskap bloot te stel.


Selfmoord van Jiang Qing, Mao se weduwee word aangemeld

Jiang Qing, die weduwee van Mao en self 'n leier van China gedurende sommige van die mees onstuimige jare, het selfmoord gepleeg, het die regering vanaand aangekondig. Sy was 77 jaar oud.

Jiang dien lewenslange tronkstraf uit vir haar rol as leier van die Gang of Four. Die naam is gegee aan die groep radikale kommunistiese leiers wie se nabyheid aan die almagtige Mao hulle in staat gestel het om in sy naam te praat en uit te voer wat volgens hulle sy beleid was tydens die Kulturele Revolusie van 1966 tot 1976.

Jiang het haarself in die vroeë oggendure van 14 Mei doodgemaak, berig die amptelike New China News Agency. Die versending van drie paragrawe het nie gesê hoe sy selfmoord gepleeg het of hoekom nie, en dit was onmoontlik om die verslag te bevestig. Volgens die agentskap ontvang mev Jiang mediese behandeling buite die gevangenis sedert Mei 1984. Het grootgeword in armoede

Jiang, wat in so 'n swak toestand was dat honger haar lewenslank met maagprobleme gelaat het, het grootgeword om 'n pragtige aktrise te word, en daarna haar huwelik met Mao gebruik om die toppunt van mag in China te bereik en die brutale vervolging en chaos van die Kulturele Revolusie. Sy het probeer om haar eie magsbasis op te bou en werklike beheer uit te oefen oor 'n groot deel van die Chinese kultuur, maar uiteindelik het sy haar gesag, en haar vermoë om vrees aan te wakker, te danke aan haar band met Mao. Toe hy in 1976 sterf, is sy en haar bondgenote in die Gang of Four gou omvergewerp.

Min mense is so gehaat in die moderne Chinese geskiedenis, en na haar val het sy 'n simbool geword van die oordrewe en brutaliteit van die kulturele rewolusie. Toe haar verhoor einde 1980 elke aand op televisie uitgesaai word, was die grootste deel van die land verheug en opgewonde oor die skouspel van mev Jiang in die beskuldigdebank. Sy wou nie berou toon nie, en het selfs die hof getart om haar kop af te kap.

Dit was 'n groot drama, want mev Jiang kon wreed, kleinlik, genadeloos en moedig wees. Bowenal was haar ambisie duiselingwekkend.

& quotSex neem deel aan die eerste rondes, & quot, het sy eenkeer aan 'n onderhoudvoerder gesê. "Wat op lang termyn belangstelling inhou, is politieke mag."

Die vertraging om haar dood aan te kondig, het byna seker verband gehou met die kommer van die regering oor moontlike protesoptogte tot vandag toe die tweede herdenking van die weermag se ineenstorting van die demokrasiebeweging op die Tiananmenplein plaasvind. Hoewel dit moeilik sou wees om te dink dat universiteitstudente op straat gaan om haar te treur, het die owerhede blykbaar die beste gedink om geen risiko's te neem nie. Tiananmen Date gaan rustig verby

Trouens, die Tiananmen -herdenking het vandag rustig verloop, en dit lyk onwaarskynlik dat die dood van me. Jiang 'n groot impak op die Chinese politieke toneel sal hê. Alhoewel daar 'n mate van nostalgie vir Mao is, is sy weduwee verbind met net die soort ideologiese ekstremisme waaruit baie Chinese nou probeer ontsnap.

Jiang (haar naam word jyahng ching uitgespreek) het die fanatiese egalitarisme en passie vir ideologie van die jare van die Kulturele Revolusie simboliseer. Paradoksaal genoeg het China in die afgelope twee jaar 'n halwe stap in die rigting teruggekeer, en die huidige leierskap is byna beslis ideologies nader aan haar as aan die groeiende aantal jong intellektuele wat wag dat 'n post-kommunistiese tydperk aanbreek.

Vir baie jong Chinese is daar nie veel verskil tussen Jiang en sommige van die neo-Maoïstiese hardliners wat aan bewind bly nie. Jiang word skuldig bevind aan die vervolging van intellektuele, vir die aandrang op 'n kranksinnige eenvormigheid in die kunste en vir die gewelddadige onderdrukking van 'n demokrasiebeweging op die Tiananmen -plein - 'n vroeëre, in 1976. Dit is presies die klagtes wat jong mense het oor sommige van vandag se leiers.

Tydens die Kulturele Revolusie het me. Jiang toesig gehou oor massasaamtrekke waarin haar vyande verneder en fisies mishandel is. Daar word ook gesê dat sy diegene wat haar vroeër jare verwerp het, gesoek en vermoor het.

Een van haar ernstige wanberekeninge, in retrospek, was om 'n vyand te maak van Deng Xiaoping, nou China se leier, en hom as 'n 'internasionale kapitalistiese agent' te veroordeel.

Jiang is wyd gekritiseer vir haar ambisie en vir haar pogings om haar verhouding met Mao vir persoonlike gewin uit te buit. Daar bestaan ​​geen twyfel dat die voormalige aktrise ander leiers, gewoonlik mans, met haar aggressiwiteit beledig het nie, en dat baie haar daarvan beskuldig het dat sy skoonheid en seks gebruik het om mag te wen.

Jiang het Mao in die grotte van Yanan, die Rooi Leër se skuilplek in die noorde van China, tydens die burgeroorlog teen die nasionaliste in 1938 in die oog gesteek, en sy het die grootste kommunistiese amptenare in die skande gesteek toe die egpaar blykbaar saam begin woon het voordat Mao aangekom het om sy vorige vrou, 'n gerespekteerde revolusionêr, te skei. Jiang was die derde vrou van Mao en het nie 'n verloofde uit die kinderjare getel wat nooit voltooi is nie.

Blykbaar weens verontwaardiging oor die egskeiding van die tweede vrou en 'n gevoel van onbehoorlikheid dat mej. Jiang net 24 jaar oud was terwyl Mao 45 was, het partyamptenare volgens berigte daarop aangedring dat Mao slegs met me. Jiang kon trou as sy nooit enige politieke mag uitoefen nie.

Mao het hierdie winskopie dekades lank gehou, selfs nadat die Kommunistiese oorwinning van 1949 hom as die leier van die Volksrepubliek China gevestig het. In die 1950's het Jiang slegs klein poste in die kulturele wêreld beklee, en daar is 'n paar aanduidings dat die huwelik nie goed gaan nie. Jiang was byvoorbeeld in Moskou vir gesondheidsbehandeling toe Mao 'n staatsbesoek aan die Sowjetunie gemaak het. Maar hy het haar nie besoek nie. Rol in die kulturele revolusie

In die 1960's, toe Mao voel hoe sy invloed kwyn en omdat hy hom bekommer dat die Kommunistiese Party deur jare aan bewind verdelg en korrup word, het hy die Kulturele Revolusie geloods. Jiang was betrokke by die beplanning van die kulturele rewolusie en het 'n toenemend belangrike rol in die tydperk gespeel.

As adjunk -direkteur van die Cultural Revolution Group, het me. Jiang byeenkomste begin in 1966 verskyn en die Rooi Garde geprys, jong volgelinge van Mao wat die land in chaos gesleep het. Haar status het gestyg, en sy het 'n sterk verband gebring met die faksie wat langdurige rewolusie en klassestryd bevoordeel het.

Sy dien in die party Politburo, was verantwoordelik vir letterkunde en kunste en bevorder revolusionêre operas en ander werke wat bedoel was om 'n geskikte ideologiese uitkyk te bevorder.

Mao is in September 1976 oorlede, en binne 'n maand is sy en die ander lede van die Gang of Four - Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao en Yao Wenyuan - in 'n virtuele staatsgreep omvergewerp. Daar was groot vreugde in die strate. Mnr. Wang, Zhang en Yao bly blykbaar in die gevangenis, of ten minste in een of ander vorm van huisarres. Standvastig in haar sienings

Vir al die beskuldigings dat sy 'n belaglike opportunis was, was me. Jiang die afgelope paar dekades een van die min voorste Chinese leiers wat by haar standpunte gehou het, selfs al was dit ongewild. Selfs premier Zhou Enlai, vereer deur baie Chinese, buig met die politieke winde, maar nadat sy gearresteer is en die moontlikheid van 'n doodsvonnis in die gesig gestaar het, het me. Jiang nie afstand gedoen van haar vurige maïsme nie.

"Ek was die voorsitter van Mao se hond," het sy ter verdediging gesê. & quot Elkeen wat hy vir my gesê het om te byt, het ek gebyt. & quot

Na 'n beroemde vertoningsverhoor wat in November 1980 begin het, is me. Jiang ter dood veroordeel, met 'n twee jaar uitstel. Dit is omgeskakel na lewenslange gevangenisstraf, en die New China News Agency het vandag in sy versending gesê dat sy sedert Mei 1984 uit sorg en mediese behandeling ontvang het.

Vroeër hierdie jaar het 'n amptelike Chinese koerant in 'n seldsame berig oor mev. Jiang voorgestel dat sy steeds sterk teen die huidige regeringsbeleid gekant is. Die koerant, die Hainan Daily, het geskryf dat sy haar lippe kwoteer, snork en selfs 'n paar nonsens soos "Dit is nie die revolusionêre lyn van die voorsitter nie."

Alhoewel dit vreemd kan lyk dat die leiding van die Kommunistiese Party Mao gedurende die 1980's kan aanhang terwyl hy sy weduwee vergewe en in die tronk sit, was die twee nog nie naby die tyd toe mev Jiang die mag bereik het nie. Teen die sewentigerjare woon hulle apart, en 'n Chinese boek wat verlede jaar gepubliseer is, beweer dat mev. Jiang toestemming van die party se sentrale komitee se werkkantoor moes vra om haar man te ontmoet. Onderhoude met Amerikaanse geleerde

'N Paar van die beste insigte in mev Jiang kom uit 'n merkwaardige reeks onderhoude wat sy in 1972 aan 'n Amerikaanse geleerde, Roxane Witke, gegee het. Jiang het blykbaar probeer om haar gestalte te versterk met die onderhoude. Mededingers het haar veroordeel omdat sy ongemagtigde verklarings afgelê het, en uiteindelik het die onderhoude haar erg seergemaak.

Jiang Qing, met die naam van Li Jin by haar geboorte in Maart 1914, het mev Witke vertel dat sy 'n ellendige kinderjare gehad het. Haar ma was 'n byvrou en haar pa 'n grondeienaar wat ma en dogter geslaan het totdat hulle huis toe gevlug het.

Op 14 -jarige ouderdom het sy by 'n ondergrondse teatergroep in die Shandong -provinsie aangesluit. Op 16 -jarige ouderdom, selfs sonder onderklere, het sy met 'n reisende teatergroep na Beijing gegaan sonder om haar ma te raadpleeg. Sy het gesê dat sy kontak gemaak het met die kommuniste in Qingdao, 'n hawestad in Shandong, en dat sy in 1932 by die party aangesluit het.

In Sjanghai, die opwindendste stad in China in daardie dae, het me. Jiang stukke gespeel in verskillende toneelstukke, en later films, asook 'n paar groter rolle. Een van haar rolle was die van Nora, die opstandige moderne vrou, in Henrik Ibsen 's & quotDoll 's House & quot; wat toe baie in die mode was in China.

Akteurs is toe in China verag, maar die teater is oorheers deur linkse politiek en het haar politieke bewustheid verhoog. Sy het in hierdie tydperk ook getrou of saam met ten minste twee mans gewoon, en later het sy moeite gedoen om haar vroeë romanse en mislukkings te bedek. Sy het ook tydens die Kulturele Revolusie probeer om iemand te straf wat op haar neergesien het tydens haar Sjanghai -dae.

Sy het beweer dat sy ontvoer is deur nasionalistiese agente en agt maande lank aangehou het of dit waar was of nie, maar sy het uit Shanghai gevlug vir die Kommunistiese basis in Yanan, waar sy Mao ontmoet het.

Na die triomf van die rewolusie in 1949, het sy, net soos ander kommunistiese leiers, 'n smaak vir luukse ontwikkel. Selfs tydens die Kulturele Revolusie, toe sy op egalitarisme gekyk het en foto's gemaak het met landbouarbeid, geniet sy buitelandse films, fynproewersmaaltye en die gebruik van 'n privaat vliegtuig.

Die afgelope paar jaar was gerugte dat me. Jiang aan keelkanker ly en dat sy geweier het om behandel te word, maar dit was onduidelik of dit lewensgevaarlik was.

Haar enigste bekende kind was 'n dogter, Li Na, die vader van Mao. Volgens 'n Chinese verslag het Li Na mev. Jiang in die vroeë 1980's gereeld in die Qincheng -gevangenis besoek, maar geweier om aan die owerheid te skryf om haar vry te laat.

By die weiering van haar dogter, word gesê dat me. Jiang 'n waatlemoen op die grond geslinger het en protesteer: "Selfs jy gee nie om vir my nie. Jy is harteloos. & Quot


JIANG QING, MAO SE WIDOW, STERF

Jiang Qing (77), die weduwee van die voorsitter van die Kommunistiese Party in China, Mao Tse-tung, wat ná die dood van haar man aan die bewind geval het en as 'n kontrarevolusionêr vir haar rol in die Kulturele Revolusie van 1966-1976 gevange geneem is, pleeg selfmoord op 14 Mei in haar villa in Beijing.

Die Chinese staatsbeheerde Xinhua News Agency het die dood gister aangekondig, maar het nie gesê hoe Jiang haar lewe geneem het nie. Maandag het die regering geweier om 'n berig in die tydskrif Time te bevestig dat sy haarself opgehang het.

Once one of the most powerful figures in China, Jiang had been a member of the ruling Politburo, and she was one of the primary architects of the Cultural Revolution, a period of strife and turmoil in which millions of Chinese suspected of revolutionary infidelity were killed, beaten, tortured and jailed.

After Mao's death in 1976, Jiang and the other leaders of the Cultural Revolution were arrested. Later, they came to be known as "the Gang of Four," and they subsequently were put on trial for excesses of that era.

Jiang was accused of complicity in 34,000 deaths and 700,000 persecutions at a three-month show trial that began in November 1980. In 1981, she was sentenced to death, with the sentence suspended for two years to give her time to repent. The sentence was commuted to life in prison in 1983 after a review panel found that she had "not resisted reform in a flagrant way."

At her trial, Jiang had openly mocked the proceedings, and she insisted she had acted only on behalf of her husband. "I was Chairman Mao's dog," she said. "Whomever he told me to bite, I bit."

She was born in Shangtung Province to the concubine of a hard-drinking, small-town landowner who beat mother and daughter until they fled the household. When Jiang was in her early teens, she joined an underground theatrical troupe and later settled in Shanghai, a center of leftist political activity. Her circle of friends and acquaintances included several writers and directors who were close to the Communist Party in the 1920s and 1930s.

She appeared in stage productions and some Grade B movies under the name of Lan Ping (Blue Apple). Her stage and screen performances and her love affairs were written up in Shanghai's entertainment magazines.

She was married to a writer and film critic named Tang Na, but the marriage did not last. By 1937, Jiang had fled Shanghai for Yenan, the remote stronghold of the Communist rebels in Western China. There she entered a center for training propaganda teams.

It was there also that she met Mao, who was 21 years her senior. She became his fourth wife and gave birth to two daughters. For more than 25 years, Jiang had no visible political role.

Then in 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution, ostensibly to purge China of its Confucian past and of anything suggesting a "bourgeois" lifestyle. But it also was aimed at crushing party moderates who opposed Mao, and Jiang became one of the movement's most zealous leaders.

She encouraged armed factional fighting and helped orchestrate the actions of the militant Red Guard terrorists. The Red Guard searched homes, destroying or confiscating antiques and religious artifacts and dragging party officials off to mass criticism sessions on charges of having been corrupted by capitalist ideas. She was said to have supervised with delight the persecution and imprisonment of Mao's rivals and others whom she disliked.

Among her enemies in this period was Deng Xiaoping, China's current paramount leader, who was purged from power during the Cultural Revolution. In 1977, a year after her arrest, a party document said the Gang of Four's "frenzied attacks and framing up of Comrade Deng Xiaoping were an important, integral part of their plot to usurp the party and seize power." Their trial in 1980-81 was widely interpreted as a sign of China's sharp break with the past in politics and economics.

Jiang is the first of them to die. The others, none of whom has been seen in public since the trial, are:

Wang Hongwen, a Shanghai textile worker whose enthusiasm in attacking mill bosses at the start of the Cultural Revolution gained him fame and, eventually, a position as vice chairman of the Communist Party. He was sentenced to life in prison.

Zang Chunqiao, vice premier and director of the Army political department. He was boss of Shanghai during the Cultural Revolution and controlled a private militia of thousands. His death sentence, like Jiang's, was commuted to life in prison.

Yao Wenyuan, a Shanghai journalist who, on the orders of Jiang, launched one of the first salvos of the Cultural Revolution with a review condemning a popular Beijing play as an attack on Mao. He was rewarded with a seat on the Politburo. He confessed to falsifying evidence against Deng. Yao was sentenced to 20 years in jail.

In announcing Jiang's death yesterday, the Xinhua News Agency did not identify her as Mao's widow, only as a leading member of a criminal conspiracy.

Navy Admiral, Administrator

Blinn Van Mater, 86, a retired Navy rear admiral who was administrator of the Washington School of Psychiatry, died June 1 in the nursing facility of the Ginger Cove retirement community in Annapolis. He had Alzheimer's disease.

A resident of Washington for more than 40 years, Adm. Van Mater had lived at Ginger Cove for two years.

He retired from active Navy duty in 1957 as director of new developments and operational evaluation in the office of the chief of naval operations. His 30-year career in the Navy included destroyer and cruiser commands and intelligence and diplomatic assignments.

He was executive officer and administrator of the Washington School from 1961 until he retired in 1971.

Adm. Van Mater was born in Brooklyn, N.Y. He was a 1927 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy. During World War II, he commanded destroyers in the Pacific, and participated in operations in the Solomons, Saipan, Guam and the Philippine Sea. He was in command of the destroyer Zellars in 1945 when it was severely damaged by a kamikazi attack.

After the war, Adm. Van Mater served as naval and air attache' in Turkey and as assistant chief of staff for intelligence at the NATO command in Malta. His last assignment was as commander of the heavy cruiser Columbus.

He retired from active duty and became an administrator with the National Academy of Sciences, where he worked on the U.S. committee for the International Geophysical Year. He was an administrator at the research firm of Human Sciences Inc. before joining the Washington School.

After his second retirement, Adm. Van Mater worked for more than a decade as a volunteer with the Smithsonian Institution in the division of naval history, helping to set up exhibits and document the history of World War II.

His decorations included four Bronze Star medals with combat V.

He belonged to the U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association, the Army & Navy Club, the International Club of Washington, the National Press Club, the Holland Society of New York and the Netherland-American Foundation.

His first wife, Marguerita Van Mater, died in 1979. Survivors include his wife, Ileana F. Henderson Van Mater of Annapolis and a sister, Bishop Williamson of South Bethany, Del.

Sollie B. "Blackie" Whitaker, 64, a Washington area house painter for 35 years, died June 1 at Malcolm Grow Medical Center at Andrews Air Force Base after a heart attack.

Mr. Whitaker, who lived in Morningside, Md., was born in Johnson City, Tenn. He moved to this area from Tennessee 35 years ago.

His wife, Madeline Leake Whitaker, died in 1979. Survivors include two sisters, Juanita Whitehead of Johnson City and Fannie Powell of Los Angeles three stepchildren, Allen Tice of Lothian, Md., Gary Tice of Lanham and Barbara Sauber of Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 12 grandchildren and six great-grandchildren.


Inhoud

The group was led by Jiang Qing, and consisted of three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. Two other men who were already dead in 1976, Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi, were named as having been part of the "Gang". Chen Boda and Mao Yuanxin, the latter being Mao's nephew, were also considered some of the Gang's closer associates.

Most Western accounts consider that the actual leadership of the Cultural Revolution consisted of a wider group, referring predominantly to the members of the Central Cultural Revolution Group. Most prominent was Lin Biao, until his purported defection from China and death in a plane crash in 1971. Chen Boda is often classed as a member of Lin's faction rather than Jiang Qing's. [4]

At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, on November 10, 1965, Yao Wenyuan in one of his most famous pieces of writing published an article in Wenhuibao criticizing the play Hai Rui Dismissed from Office. [1] The article argued that the opera was actually a sympathetic portrayal of the reformist efforts of the military hero Peng Dehuai and thus an attack on Chairman Mao's Great Leap Forward. Mao subsequently purged Peng from power. [5] [6] The article is cited as the spark that launched the Cultural Revolution. [7]

Jiang Qing staged revolutionary operas during the Cultural Revolution and met with the Red Guards. [8] [9]

The removal of this group from power is sometimes considered to have marked the end of the Cultural Revolution, which had been launched by Mao in 1966 as part of his power struggle with leaders such as Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and Peng Zhen. Mao placed his wife Jiang Qing, a former film actress who before 1966 had not taken a public political role, in charge of the country's cultural apparatus. Zhang, Yao and Wang were party leaders in Shanghai who had played leading roles in securing that city for Mao during the Cultural Revolution.

Around the time of the death of Lin Biao in 1971, the Cultural Revolution began to lose momentum. The new commanders of the People's Liberation Army demanded that order be restored in light of the dangerous situation along the border with the Soviet Union (see Sino-Soviet split). Premier Zhou Enlai, who had accepted the Cultural Revolution, but never fully supported it, regained his authority, and used it to bring Deng Xiaoping back into the Party leadership at the 10th Party Congress in 1973. Liu Shaoqi had meanwhile died in prison in 1969.

Near the end of Mao's life, a power struggle occurred between the Gang of Four and the alliance of Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Ye Jianying.

Zhou Enlai died in January 1976, and in the subsequent months of mourning, a power struggle occurred in the top echelons of the party. The reformist Deng was named acting premier, while the Gang of Four began using their newspapers to criticize Deng and to mobilize their urban militia groups. Much of the military and party security remained under the control of the party elders of the Central Committee, who generally took a cautious role in mediating between the reformist Deng and the radical Gang of Four. They agreed to the removal of Deng from office after the April Tiananmen Incident, but took steps to ensure that Deng and his allies would not be personally harmed in the process.

On September 9, Chairman Mao died. For the next few weeks the Gang of Four retained control over the government media, and many articles appeared on the theme of "principles laid down" (or "established") by Mao near the end of his life. [10] [11] (The words "principles laid down" were themselves supposedly a quotation from Mao, but their canonical status was in dispute. [10] ) Urban militia units commanded by supporters of the radical group were placed on a heightened state of readiness. [12] [11]

Premier Hua Guofeng attacked the radicals' media line at a Politburo meeting in late September [13] but Jiang Qing emphatically disagreed with Hua, and she insisted that she be named as the new party Chairman. [13] The meeting ended inconclusively. [13] On October 4 the radical group warned, via an article in the Guangming Daily, that any revisionist who interfered with the established principles would "come to no good end". [11]

The radicals hoped that the key military leaders Wang Dongxing and Chen Xilian would support them, but it seems that Hua won the Army over to his side. On 6 October 1976, Hua had the four leading radicals and a number of their lesser associates arrested. Han Suyin gave a detailed account of their overthrow:

An emergency session of the Politburo was to take place in the Great Hall of the People that evening. Their presence was required. Since Wang Dongxing had been their ally, they did not suspect him. As they passed through the swinging doors into the entrance lobby, they were apprehended and led off in handcuffs. A special 8341 unit then went to Madam Mao's residence at No. 17 Fisherman's Terrace and arrested her. That night Mao Yuanxin was arrested in Manchuria, and the propagandists of the Gang of Four in Peking University and in newspaper offices were taken into custody. All was done with quiet and efficiency. In Shanghai, the Gang's supporters received a message to come to Beijing "for a meeting". They came and were arrested. Thus, without shedding a drop of blood, the plans of the Gang of Four to wield supreme power were ended. [14]

According to historian Immanuel C.Y. Hsü, the operation was not completely bloodless – Wang Hongwen killed two of the guards trying to capture him, and was wounded himself before being subdued. [15]

Beginning on 21 October, nationwide denunciations of the Gang began, which culminated in the December release of files related to the Gang's alleged crimes to the public. The party issued a denunciation of the Gang of Four as "appearing to be leftist, but practically rightist". Government media blamed the Gang of Four and Lin Biao for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Celebrations were prominent and not limited to the streets of Beijing and other major cities. During the nationwide "Movement of Exposition, Criticism and Uncovering (揭批查运动)" millions of formerly "rebel faction (造反派)", red guards were publicly criticized as they were thought to be related to the Gang of Four.

Immediately after the arrests, Premier Hua Guofeng, Marshal Ye Jianying, and economic czars Chen Yun and Li Xiannian formed the core of the next party leadership. [16] These four, together with the rehabilitated Deng Xiaoping and Wang Dongxing, were elected party Vice Chairmen at the August 1977 National Party Congress. [17] At the politburo level, the membership of all four living marshals, seven other generals and at least five others with close military ties reflected the deep concern for national stability.

In 1981, the four deposed leaders were subjected to a trial and convicted of anti-party activities. During the trial, Jiang Qing in particular was extremely defiant, protesting loudly and bursting into tears at some points. She was the only member of the Gang of Four who bothered to argue on her behalf. The defence's argument was that she obeyed the orders of Chairman Mao Zedong at all times. Zhang Chunqiao refused to admit any wrongdoing. Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen expressed repentance and confessed their alleged crimes. [18]

The prosecution separated political errors from actual crimes. Among the latter were the usurpation of state power and party leadership the persecution of some 750,000 people, 34,375 of whom died during the period 1966–1976. [19] The official records of the trial have not yet been released. [ wanneer? ] [ aanhaling nodig ]

Jiang Qing and Zhang Chunqiao received death sentences that were later commuted to life imprisonment, while Wang Hongwen and Yao Wenyuan were given life and twenty years in prison, respectively. All members of the Gang of Four have since died Jiang Qing committed suicide in 1991, Wang Hongwen died in 1992, and Yao Wenyuan and Zhang Chunqiao died in 2005, having been released from prison in 1996 and 1998, respectively.

Supporters of the Gang of Four, including Chen Boda and Mao Yuanxin, were also sentenced. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In the struggle between Hua Guofeng's and Deng Xiaoping's followers, a new term emerged, pointing to Hua's four closest collaborators, Wang Dongxing, Wu De, Ji Dengkui and Chen Xilian. [20] In 1980, they were charged with "grave errors" in the struggle against the Gang of Four and demoted from the Political Bureau to mere Central Committee membership. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 2013, Mainland Chinese state media labelled Anson Chan, Martin Lee, Joseph Zen and Jimmy Lai as ‘Hong Kong's "Gang of Four"’ due to their alleged foreign connections. [21]

In 2019, Chinese state media labelled Anson Chan, Martin Lee, Jimmy Lai and Albert Ho as the gang of four due to their alleged collusion with foreign forces in relation to the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests. [22] [23] The phrase has in turn been denounced by the four individuals. [22]


Chairman Mao’s widow sentenced to death - HISTORY

[JURIST] German prosecutors on Monday charged 91-year-old former member of the Nazi Waffen SS [USHMM backgrounder] Siert Bruins with the murder of a Dutch resistance fighter in 1944. The Dortmund prosecutor [official website, in German] accused Bruins of executing [AP report] captured Dutch Nazi-opposition fighter Aldert Klaas Dijkema in September 1944 outside the town of Appingedam. Bruins and an accomplice, who has since died, are accused of taking Dijkema, a prisoner at the time, to an isolated location and then shooting him four times. The suspects reported at the time that Dijkema had been trying to escape when they shot him. The case has been assigned to a separate court in Hagen to determine whether the case should proceed. Bruins, who obtained German citizenship through his service in the German military, has been taken into custody. Bruins has already served time in the 1980s for the murders of two Dutch Jews during the war.

Germany has recently reopened investigations [JURIST report] and begun prosecuting Nazis for war crimes. In March John Demjanjuk, a former guard at a Nazi death camp who had been convicted in Germany of helping to murder thousands during the Holocaust, died while awaiting his appeal [JURIST reports]. In January German prosecutors filed a motion [JURIST report] to jail Klaas Faber, a Dutch native who fled to Germany after being convicted in the Netherlands in 1947 of Nazi war crimes. In September 2011 alleged Nazi Sandor Kepiro died while he awaited an appeal [JURIST report] on his acquittal on war crimes charges. The Dortmund state prosecutor also brought murder charges [JURIST report] against another former Waffen SS soldier, Heinrich Boere, for killing three Dutch resistance fighters in July 2009. The following year Boere was sentenced [JURIST report] to life in prison.


ExecutedToday.com

Mao Zemin, younger brother of Communist leader Mao Zedong, was executed on this date in 1943.

A party cadre since 1921, the non-chairman Mao served a variety of economic leadership posts for the Red Army.

As of early 1941, Mao (English Wikipedia entry | the far more voluminous Chinese) was detailed to the western province of Xinjiang, where the warlord Sheng Shicai maintained friendly relations with the neighboring Soviet Union.

To Mao’s grief, this “King of Xinjiang” saw in the unfolding global war an opportunity to realign.

After the German invasion of the USSR in 1941, Sheng boldly flipped his affiliation from Moscow to the nationalist Kuomintang government with which he had theretofore maintained only the frostiest of relations. Crackdowns on Communists ensued too, and both Mao Zemin and Chen Tanqiu were both arrested, tortured, and executed as a result.

Needless to say this KMT-Xinjiang axis did not hold the Celestial Empire’s destiny and the whole decision to fade Moscow looks pretty dumb in retrospect. Sheng, however, surely did not much regret the gambit since he was able to follow the nationalists to Taiwan and spend a comfortable retirement writing memoirs like Sinkiang: Pawn or Pivot?

Mao’s son Mao Yuanxin, a still-living pensioner as of this writing, was a political figure in the 1970s who was jailed post-Gang of Four.

On this day..

Possibly related executions:

1969: Liu Shaoqi dies under torture

At 6:45 a.m. on this date in 1969, the Chinese Marxist statesman and intellectual Liu Shaoqi passed away secretly in a room of the Kaifeng Municipal Revolutionary Committee building.

He had not been executed in the literal sense. But his death was the mere bodily consequence of an Orwellian civic annihilation: the onetime President of China, fallen to unperson. Like the Man in the Iron Mask, his identity was secret from his own guards (and later from the crematorium workers who disposed of the remains) his own children did not learn of his death until 1972.

A Communist revolutionary from student days in the early 1920s, Liu was among the first to publicly turn against Mao’s Great Leap Forward. In 1959 Liu succeeded Mao as President of the People’s Republic of China, and led the walkback from the Great Leap’s destructive stab at modernization.

A years-long factional struggle within the Chinese Communist Party would ensue, pitting Maoists against a more reform-minded clique.

Liu and the reformers got the worst of it in the 1960s. Mao and Maoists seized power back in the 1966 Cultural Revolution, and purged Liu as a “capitalist roader” — “China’s Khrushchev” ran one denunciation.

The renegade, hidden traitor and scab Liu Shaoqi and other sham Marxists and political swindlers … dished up the theory of taking the electronics industry as the center … They also said, “The development of a modern electronics industry will bring about a leap forward in our industry, and it will be a starting point for a new industrial revolution in the history of China.” This is a reactionary principle for opposing the principle of taking steel as the key link.*

Liu endured months of frightful public harassment leading up to his September 1967 arrest: there were episodes when Mao’s “Red Guards” broke into his official residence and even plastered Liu’s own walls with anti-Liu placards,** as well as “struggling against” campaigns with mobs of anti-Liu demonstrators hurling abuse while Liu was made to stand in a pose of contrition. The formal allegations, for whatever such things are worth, were that Liu worked as a World War II traitor for the Americans, Japanese, and/or nationalists.&dagger

Liu was badly mistreated in custody, possibly as a way to kill him off extrajudicially or just for the sadistic pleasure of bringing one who once stood so high to the depths of literally wallowing in his own shit. By summer 1968 Liu was suffering from pneumonia, cankered with bedsores, and could only be fed through a nasal tube. His neglectful medical care gradually wasted him to death.

Mao himself died in 1976. A reformist and onetime Liu ally, Deng Xiaoping, eventually emerged as China’s post-Mao leader. Soon thereafter the Chinese Communist Party officially rehabilitated Liu and declared several of his writings, so recently forbidden, to be “Marxist works of great significance.” He has remained an official hero, and political martyr, ever since.

* 1971 salvo quoted in Lowell Dittmer, “Death and Transfiguration: Liu Shaoqi’s Rehabilitation and Contemporary Chinese Politics,” Die Journal of Asian Studies, May 1981.

** “The Kuomintang vilified me for years but never used such language,” recalled Liu’s wife — who survived a decade in prison herself after her husband’s fall.

&dagger Mao’s widow would later admit that thousands of people were detailed to comb through the records of the Japanese occupation in search of anything prejudicial to Liu.

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1926: Shao Piaoping, journalist

On this date in 1928, Chinese journalist and social activist Shao Piaoping was shot at Beijing’s Tianqiao execution grounds — fulfillment of his lifelong motto, “To die as a journalist.”

The intrepid Shao blazed a trail for print media in his native country, bucking a prejudice that mere journalism was a bit on the declasse kant.

He co-founded and edited Hanmin Daily in 1911, just in time to get his support for the Xinhai Revolution into newsprint.

But Shao was no propagandist, and, post-revolution, was repeatedly arrested for his scathing critiques of Yuan Shikai and the various other illiberal strongmen taking roost. He had to duck out to Japan twice during the 1910s there, he kept cranking copy, now as a foreign correspondent for Shanghai’s top newspapers. As the decade unfolded, he also became a theoretician of journalism without abating his prodigious ongoing output.

“I saw my role as that of helpful critic and believed it wrong to praise petty people simply to avoid trouble,” this pdf biography quotes Shao saying of himself. “I was determined not to dispense with my responsibility.”

By the late 1910s, he was publishing his own capital-city newspaper, Jingbao (literally “The Capital”) and developing his academic thought as a teacher at Peking University. He was perhaps China’s premier journalist even so, he still had to slip into exile in Japan in 1919 after openly supporting the May Fourth student movement.

Shao left an impressive mark on his students, perhaps none more so than a penniless young leftist working in the university library, Mao Zedong.

As a guerrilla, Mao — still at that time an obscurity to most of the outside world — remembered Shao fondly to journalist Edgar Snow. In contrast to many other Peking University scholars who gave the provincial twentysomething short shrift, Shao “helped me very much. He was a lecturer in the Journalism Society, a liberal, and a man of fervent idealism and fine character.” Word is that Shao even loaned Mao money.

Shao’s acid pen and unabashed sympathy for agitators led to his arrest in 1926 by the warlord Zhang Zuolin — whose wrath Shao incited by denouncing bitterly a horrific March 18 massacre of students.

But the martyr journalist’s heroic career — not to mention his accidental link with the future Great Helmsman — insured his elevation into the pantheon, even though Shao’s underground membership in the Communist party was not known for decades after his death. Mao personally declared him a hero of the revolution, and intervened to see that his widow and children were cared for. China has any number of public monuments in Shao’s honor.

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1930: Yang Kaihui, Mao Zedong’s wife

(Thanks to Meaghan Good of the Charley Project for the guest post. -ed.)

On this date in 1930, Yang Kaihui was executed in Changsha, China.

The 29-year-old mother of three was beheaded for her refusal to renounce the Chinese Communist Party and Mao Zedong. She was technically Mao’s second wife a previous marriage had been arranged for Mao by his parents, but he and the woman never lived together and the marriage was never consummated.

Yang and Mao grew up together in Changhsa — she was the daughter of one of his teachers — and fell in love as young adults. Yang, like Mao, was an enthusiastic Communist. She joined the CCP in 1921, becoming one of its earliest members. She never held any official position in the CCP, however, and wasn’t terribly active in the movement, since she had to raise the children.

Mao and Yang truly loved one another. Phillip Short, in his biography of Mao, writes of this period: “Perhaps for the only time in Mao’s life, he had a truly happy family to come home to … It was a surprisingly traditional Chinese household.”

But Mao became more and more absorbed in dangerous revolutionary work, and he and Yang were often separated when he traveled. The last time she saw her husband was in 1927, the year the Chinese Civil War started and Mao became a guerrilla leader, hiding in the mountains, far from his family. They maintained sporadic contact after that, but often what little she knew about his activities came from the papers.

During the final years of her life, Yang missed her husband desperately and had thoughts of suicide. “No matter how hard I try,” she wrote once, “I cannot stop loving him.”

Yang predicted she might meet with a violent death. She was right: on October 24, 1930, a warlord loyal to the nationalists captured her and one of her sons.

She did not break under threats and torture, and refused to give in and publicly repudiate her husband and Communism, even though her captors offered to spare her life if she did so. She became one of the CCP’s earliest martyrs.

Yang was executed more for being Mao’s wife than she was for anything she’d done herself. She wasn’t the only woman who would be killed for being married to a prominent member of the CCP the wife of Zhu De had met with the same fate in 1929.

Mao, who had always called Yang his true love, was reportedly devastated by her death and wrote, “the death of Kaihui cannot be redeemed by a hundred deaths of mine!” He wrote a poem about her in 1957 that suggests he still grieved for her even then. But it must be noted that he never tried to rescue her or his sons when he knew their home had turned into a battleground and their lives were in danger.

Tragedy followed the lives of Yang and Mao’s three sons.

The youngest boy, Anlong, died of dysentery in Shanghai at the age of four, soon after his mother’s execution. The oldest, Anying, was killed in the Korean War. Middle child Anqing lived to be 83, but perhaps as a consequence of watching his mother being put to death as a youth, he suffered bouts of mental illness throughout his life. He died quietly in China in 2007.

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1951: Antonio Riva and Ruichi Yamaguchi

On this date in 1951, the first two foreigners — Italian merchant Antonio Riva and Japanese bookseller Ruichi Yamaguchi — were convicted and immediately executed in Beijing for a supposed plot to assassinate Mao Zedong.

Volgens Tyd magazine’s coverage of the affair, Radio Peking said that

“the streets they passed through [en route to execution] were thronged with people who expressed their feelings .. . with shouts of ‘Down with imperialism! Suppress counterrevolutionaries! Long live Chairman Mao!'”

Riva (English Wikipedia entry | Italian) was a World War I fighter ace who had relocated to Beijing/Peking in the 1920s to peddle aircraft and training the Chinese Koumintang.

(In 1936, Riva married Catherine Lum, the daughter of American wood block artist Bertha Lum and sister of Eleanor Peter Lum, who took after mom.)

When the guys those planes were being used against won the Chinese Civil War, Riva mulled an expedient departure, but reportedly declared (Spanish link) that he could do business under any regime type.

The Communist government decided he had a different sort of business in mind. Citing Chinese state media, the London Tye (Aug. 18, 1951) described the plot thus:

the conspirators planned to fire mortar shells at a reviewing stand outside the Tien An gate of the forbidden city in Peking during a procession to celebrate China’s national day on October 1 last year.

Several others, both Chinese and foreigners, drew long prison sentences as part of the “conspiracy” uncovered in a one-hour trial. The most illustrious of those was the Italian bishop Tarcisio Martina.*

Though Riva and Yamaguchi were the first foreigners officially executed by the new Chinese government, they were far from the last. All the more remarkable, then, that in a country that carries out thousands of executions per annum, Antonio Riva is thought to have been the laaste European citizen put to death there until Akmal Shaikh in 2009.

The Shaikh case helped rekindle interest in Riva’s execution — a timely confluence, since a recent book, L’ uomo che doveva uccidere Mao, critiqued the case against the Italian aviator.

* American diplomat Col. David Barrett, safely beyond the reach of the Maoists at Formosa, was a supposed ringleader.


Kyk die video: The Serrano 4 episode FC Atletico Santa Justa (Augustus 2022).