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Warrick AKA -89 - Geskiedenis

Warrick AKA -89 - Geskiedenis



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Warrick

(AKA-89: dp. 13,910 1. 473'1 "b. 63'0", dr. 26'4 "(lim.), S. 16,5 k., Cpi. 366 a. 1 5", 8 40 mm. , 18 20 mm. Cl. Andromeda; T. C2-S-B1)

Warrick (AKA-89)-oorspronklik die Swart Prins genoem-is op 7 April 1944 in Oakland, Kalifornië, deur die Moore Dry Dock Co .; op 29 Mei 1944 van stapel gestuur; geborg deur mev C. Wells Maren; en verkry en terselfdertyd in opdrag van die vloot op 30 Augustus 1944 by die Moore Dry Dock Company se westelike erf, lt.kom. Ernest J. Gray, USNR, in bevel.

Nadat hy winkels in die Naval Supply Depot, Oakland, gelaai het, ondergaan Warrick 'n afwyking van twee weke uit San Pedro, Kalifornië, en sluit die nodige kennisperiode en opleiding op 25 September af. Sy het daarna oefenings op San Clemente -eiland uitgevoer voordat sy tussen 13 en 20 Oktober herstelwerk en veranderinge ondergaan het. Op die 24ste het hy vrag in Wilmington, Kalifornië, aangeneem, en die volgende dag vertrek Warrick die weskus om 1430, op pad na Manus in die Admiralties.

Die skip het Manus besoek; Hollandia, Finschhafen en Langemakbaai, Nieu -Guinee, en Manus 'n tweede keer voordat sy na Hollandia teruggekeer het om die 333 ton algemene weermagvrag af te laai. Sy het daarna weer na Finschafen verhuis en op 1 Desember 1635 aangekom. Daar het sy 1 137 ton weermag -toerusting gelaai - meestal voertuie - en op die dag na Kersfees het sy 17 offisiere en 210 mans (weermag) by Langemakbaai aangepak. Nadat hy op die 27ste aangevuur het, het Warrick na Manus geseil, onderweg by Tryon (APH-1) aangesluit en op 28 op 'n ontmoeting met Task Group (TG).

Warrick stop van 29 Desember 1944 tot 2 Januarie 1945 by Manus, voordat hy op die laaste dag aan die Lingayen -golf, aan die noordelike kus van die eiland Luzon, in die Filippyne, aan die gang kom. Onderweg het die eskorte se eskorte drie duikbootkontakte opgetel en diepte opgelaai sonder om resultate te kry. Geen lugaanvalle was gelukkig die pad van TG 77.9 nie, aangesien Amerikaanse amfibiese magte bymekaargekom het by die Lingayen -golf.

Warrick bereik haar bestemming om 0500 op 11 Januarie en kom anker om 0830. 'n Uur later begin sy haar vrag aflaai, sowat twee dae nadat die eerste van die weermag onder die algemene bevel van generaal Douglas MacArthur by Lingayen aan wal gespat het. Warrick het die volgende dag met die aflaai van vrag voortgegaan. Landingsvaartuie, LCVP's ​​en LCM's van Warren (APA-53) het gehelp met die aflaai en die taak voortgesit tot 2200, toe die operasie weens twee faktore opgehou het: kontak met haar strandpartytjie het verlore gegaan en die strand self sou na berig word onder 'n vuurvuur ​​beland. .

Nadat die aflaai op die 13de hervat is, het Warrick haar opgedrae pligte teen 1015 voltooi. Toe die bote vanaf 1040 aan boord geneem is, het Warrick aan die gang gegaan na Leyte Island en by Task Unit (TU) 78.11.3, gevorm rondom Mount McKinley (AGC-7), aangesluit. op 1746. Sy bereik Leyte op die 16de.

Die aanvalsvragskip het twee LCVP's ​​aan boord geneem van die aanvalstransport Oconto (APA-187) om bote te vervang wat sy op die 17de by die Lingayen-golf verloor het. Sy vertrek op die 19de uit die Filippyne, op pad na die Carolines.

Toe Warrick op 23 Januarie by Ulithi kom, het Warrick op 1 Februarie van Merrimack (AO-37) gevuur, vyf dae voordat sy na die Marianas gegaan het. Op 8 Februarie by Guam aangekom, het die aanvalsvragskip twee dae later begin om vrag te laai en troepe aan te gaan. Haar vrag was uiteenlopend: 'n vervoermaatskappy, 'n peloton vir trekkers, 'n ingenieursmaatskappy, 'n oorlogshond-peloton, mediese maatskappye, eenheidsherstel-eenhede, vervanging van personeel, water, brandstof, rantsoene en ander voorrade. Met elemente van die 3d Marine Division wat so begin het, het Warrick op 17 Februarie aan die gang gegaan vir Iwo Jima.

As deel van TU 51.1.1 het die aanvalsvragskip deelgeneem aan die Iwo Jima -aanval as deel van TG 51.1, die Joint Expeditionary Force Reserve. Warrick, wat deur vier vernietigers en twee verwoesters vergesel is, het saam met Transport Divisions 31 en 33 na die binnekort bekende eiland gevlieg. Sy het op die 19de by punt "Equity" aangekom en gedurende die daaropvolgende dae in die operasionele gebied gery. "Porch" in ooreenstemming met haar reserwestatus. Sy het op die 22ste dag nader aan Iwo Jima gekom, maar het die volgende dag nog gelieg en afwagtend op bevele. Die aanvalsvragskip het uiteindelik op die 24ste in die vervoergebied, vier kilometer van die suidoostelike kus van Iwo Jima, begin aflaai.

Warrick het haar bote om 0750 uitgehys en kort daarna begin sak. Sy het al haar LCM's gestuur om te help met die aflaai van nabygeleë aanvalstransport. Sy het egter gou oor die stemradio verneem dat die kleiner LCVP's ​​'n neiging toon om op die steil strande te breek en uit te breek. Strandmeesters waai gevolglik die LCVP's, sodat die strande nie besmet raak met die wrakke van talle landingsvaartuie nie, wat die vloei van benodigdhede belemmer om die mariniers teen die hardnekkige Japannese verdedigers te laat vorder. Dus, sonder om te verlig, het Warrick eers die volgende dag haar eie vrag begin aflaai.

Nadat sy teruggekeer het uit die nagaftreegebied, het die aanvalsvragskip op 25 Januarie 0800 haar bote uitgehys. Destyds merk Warrick op dat 'n sterk see loop met matige tot swaar deinings, wat in verband met 'n goeie briesie die aflaai -toestande beslis ongunstig gemaak het. LST-731 het langs 1246 langs gekom, maar tydens haar poging het sy twee afskeidingsladers en stoof in 'n paar van Warrick se romp op twee plekke aan haar stuurboordkant weggedra. Om 1315, met haar tweede poging, het die LST-731 langs hom beveilig en begin om vrag op te neem.

Gedurende die volgende twee dae het die strandtoestande dieselfde gebly, terwyl die klein landingsvaartuie aansienlik in die swaar deinings gely het, wat daartoe gelei het dat baie verbod op vaartuie ter grootte van LCM's en LCVP's ​​van die strandkop afgesien is. Gevolglik is LST's en LSM's as aanstekers vir die vrag gebruik. In die volgende paar dae het die skip haar vrag afgelaai na LCT-692 en LST-7S1. Op 2 Maart het Warrick drie LCM's gestuur om te help om ammunisie van SS Columbia Victory af te laai. Daarna het sy die vrag na die LSM-266 en LSM-238 afgelaai. Boonop het sy 23 mariene ongevalle van die strand af opgedoen en later na Doyen (APA-1) oorgeplaas. Op 6 Maart, nadat hy rookpotte na LST-646 oorgeplaas het, het Warrick Iwo Jima skoongemaak, op pad na die Marianas.

Die vaartuig het van daar af na die Salomonseilande gevaar en op 18 Maart Tulagi bereik. Vir die res van die vyandighede het Warrick haar lewensbelangrike, maar onglamagtige ondersteuningsrol vervul. Sy vervoer bote van Guam en Manus na die eiland Florida en Nieu -Guinee, laai vrag en troepe uit Noumea, Nieu -Caledonië en Nieu -Guinee na Leyte, Cebu en Manila, in die Filippyne; en het terugreisigers na Manus geneem. Die einde van die vyandelikhede middel Augustus het die skip in Finschhafen, Nieu-Guinee, gevind.

Tussen die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die Stille Oseaan en die aanvang van die Koreaanse Oorlog - 'n tydperk van bietjie minder as vyf jaar - werk Warrick hoofsaaklik in die westelike Stille Oseaan en in die Verre Ooste. Kort na die Japannese oorgawe, het die aanvalsvragskip twee reise van die Filippyne na Honshu, Japan, gemaak, wat die hawens van Aomori, Sasebo en Yokosuka aangeraak het, met mense en materiaal om die besetting van die voormalige vyand se geboorteland te ondersteun. Sy neem deel aan Operasie "Magic Carpet" - die terugkeer van ontslagen matrose, mariniers, vlieëniers en soldate na die Verenigde State - en ondersteun later die besetting van China en Korea wat hawens besoek wat wissel van Tsingtao tot Hong Kong; en Sjanghai na Sasebo. Boonop het die aanvalsvragskip gedurende daardie 'tussenoorlogse jare' vrag na plekke soos Johnston Island, Tarawa, Ponape en Kwajalein opgehef. Behalwe dat sy haar belangrike logistieke funksies verrig het, het die skip ook aan die vloot deelgeneem.

Toe elemente van die Noord -Koreaanse volksleër die 38ste parallel op 26 Junie 1950 om 0400 na die Suid -Koreaanse gebied oorgesteek het, het dit die Koreaanse oorlog veroorsaak. Destyds was Warrick in die hawe in San Francisco. Sy vaar op 1 Julie na die Marshalls en maak die 14de by Eniwetok. Sy keer daarna, via Pearl Harbor, terug na die weskus van die Verenigde State op 8 Augustus. Op 16 Julie, terwyl sy na die westelike Stille Oseaan gestuur is, het sy bevele gekry om by die Naval Supply Center, Oakland, aan te lê om te laai as 'n vlootuitreikskip vir die westelike Stille Oseaan.

Warrick, wat van 10 tot 24 Augustus by die toevoersentrum vasgemeer is, laai gebalanseerde droë voorraad vir 90 dae vir 90 dae; skepe se voorraadvoorraad, klere- en kleinwinkels, materiaal vir algemene winkels en 'n deklas bottels gasse. Toe die taak voltooi is, vaar sy na die Verre Ooste en verlaat San Francisco op 24 Augustus.

Onderweg na Sasebo, Japan, het Warrick op 9 September by die hawe aangekom en van 10 tot 23 September die pligte van 'n vlootuitvoerskip uitgevoer. Die aanvalsvragskip wat op 11 September aan TF 79 geheg is, vaar op 23 September na die pas beveiligde hawe Inchon, Noord -Korea, minder as 10 dae nadat Amerikaanse amfibiese magte die hawe aangeval het.

Nadat sy haar winkels van 25 September tot 1 Oktober by Inchon uitgevoer het, het die aanvalsvragskip begin om skepe van TF 77 aan te vul. die woonstel op 2 Oktober om 1143 langs en begin 12 minute later met die vervoer van vrag. Na die aflewering van vlootvrag, pos, napalm- en droptenks, het Warrick koers gevoer met ander oorlogsmanne in die operasionele gebied aan die westelike kus van Korea.

Nadat hy winkels aan die veteraanvernietiger Fletcher (DDE-445) uitgereik het vanaf 2335 op 2 Oktober tot 0040 op die 3d Warrick, het hy 'n terugslag na Sasebo geneem en op 4 Oktober by die hawe aangekom. Sy het haar pligte uitgevoer as winkels wat van 5 tot 8 Oktober daar uitgestuur het, voordat sy na Inchon teruggekeer het om die skepe van TF 90 van 11 tot 14 Oktober 24 uur per dag aan te vul. 'Vir 'n doeltreffende werk onder ongunstige omstandighede', het Warrick se bevelvoerder later geskryf, 'het Warrick' goed gedoen '.

Toe ons weer na Sasebo terugkeer, ry die besige voorraadskip na Bucknerbaai, Okinawa, waar sy op die 24ste aankom. Sy het winkels van die watervliegtuig tender Salisburg Sound (AV-17) aangevul voordat sy op 25 op pad was na Keelung, Formosa. Sy het op die 28ste na die Pescadores oorgegaan en op die 29ste aangekom om die klein watervliegtuig tender Floydsbaai (AVP-40) by Shochi Wan-ankerplek aan te vul. Op 29 Oktober 1326 na Okinawa het die skip radioverslae ontvang oor die vordering van die tifoon "Ruby". Waarsku vir die kritieke gebied, het die aanvalsvragskip in die vroeë oggendure van die 30ste in die Formosa -straat gebly en probeer om die vordering van die storm te bepaal. Toe sy die koers van die tifoon akkuraat bepaal het - onthul dat sy blykbaar buite gevaar was - hervat die skip haar reis na haar oorspronklike bestemming.

Warrick het sy vrag aan boord geneem by Bucknerbaai en het op 3 November teruggekeer na Sasebo. Sy het die vrag wat van Okinawa afgehaal is, afgelaai en die oorblyfsels van haar vloot -uitgawe -winkels by Sasebo afgelaai, voordat sy op 16 November aan die gang was, op pad na die weskus van die Verenigde State.

Daar was egter min rus vir Warrick. Sy het nie eers by die huis gekom nie, maar sy het bevele ontvang om voor te berei vir nog 'n Koreaanse ontplooiing. Sy laai dienooreenkomstig proviand, klere en klein winkels; skeepswinkelartikels, algemene winkels en gestuurde vrag tussen 3 en 23 Desember en het 135 weermag- en lugmagpersoneel na Sasebo gestuur. Warrick het twee dae voor Kersfees 1950 vertrek uit San Francisco, en het Sasebo op 9 Januarie 1951 bereik en by aankoms langs Pollux (AKS-4) vasgemeer.

Warrick het tot middel Februarie by Sasebo gebly en haar pligte as vlootuitreiking uitgevoer. Nadat sy ongeveer 800 ton leë koper omhulsels aan boord geneem het om terug te stuur na die Verenigde State, en van 16 tot 18 Februarie haar droë voorraad en klerewinkels by Yokosuka afgelaai het, het Warrick op 19 Februarie na die Verenigde State gevaar.

Oor die volgende vier jaar het Warrick se roetine min verander. Sy het gereeld in die westelike Stille Oseaan gewerk, vlootvrag vervoer en die bekende hawens soos Sasebo en Yokosuka, sowel as Hong Kong en Manila aangeraak. Tussendeur was daar die gewone stopplekke by Pearl Harbor en San Francisco tydens die tydelike reise van die skip.

Nadat sy haar hele aktiewe loopbaan by die Stille Oseaan -vloot deurgebring het, het Warrick met haar laaste vaart na die Ooste begin toe sy op 28 Januarie 1957 uit San Francisco vertrek het. Haar reisplan op die reis was Yokosuka, Hong Kong, Sasebo en Subic Bay, voordat sy teruggekeer het. na San Francisco op 30 Maart. Op 4 Augustus 1957 in die reservaat in Astoria, Oreg., Is die vragskip op 'n perd gestaak op 3 Desember 1957.

Warrick, wat op 1 Julie 1961 van die vlootlys afgehaal is, is na die Maritime Administration (MarAd) oorgeplaas vir oplegging op die MarAd-reservaat in Olympia Wash. die skip is op 28 Mei 1971 deur 1400 vate water deur Trigger (SS-564) 100 myl van Cape Flattery, Wash.

Warrick (AEA-89) het twee gevegsterre ontvang vir haar diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en een vir Korea.


Warrick AKA -89 - Geskiedenis

Volgens www.usmm.org/battle-a-f.html het die Amerikaanse handelsskepe van die Amerikaanse handelaar waarvan die bemanning van die Naval Armed Guard verdien het, die Columbia Victory ingesluit vir die volgende:

25 Feb & ndash 6 Maart 1945 Aanranding-besetting van Iwo Jima

27 Mei & ndash 4 Junie 1945 Aanranding-Besetting van Okinawa Gunto

Op http://en.wikipedia.org/wike/main_Page vind u die WSS Warrick AKA-89, wat lui dat Warrick op 2 Maart 1945 drie LCM's gestuur het om ammunisie van SS Columbia Victory af te laai.

Op http://ftp.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/IV/USMC-IV-VI-8.html. vind u 'n lang publikasie getiteld Western Pacific Operations, History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II deur Garand.Strowbridge, Historical Branch.G-3 Division.Headquarters.U.S. Mariene korps. Op bladsye 602-603 vind u hierdie oor die Columbia Victory:

Die Japannese, wat toenemend verplig was om die byekorf van aktiwiteite langs die oostelike oewer in hulpelose frustrasie dop te hou, het 'n geleentheid gesien om in te meng met die operasies op die westelike strande. Op 1 Maart lewer 'n ammunisie -skip, die Columbia Oorwinning, nader die weskus met 'n vrag artillerie -ammunisie toe 'n mortiervuur ​​van Kama en Kangoku Rocks, sowel as die noordweste van Iwo, die vaartuig vasgesteek het. Een dop het so naby aan die skip ontplof dat dit een man gewond en ligte skade aan die vaartuig veroorsaak het. Angstig kyk die Japannese artillerievuur, insluitend dié van generaals Holland Smith en Schmidt, wat die aksie van die hoofkantoor van die VAC op die westelike strand sien. Meer as die verlies van 'n skip was betrokke. As die Columbia Victory & rsquos -vrag ammunisie opblaas, kan die hele weskus van Iwo daarmee saamgaan, saam met duisende mariniers wat op die strande werk. Die vragskip, terdeë bewus van die gevaar, het die koers omgedraai en op wonderbaarlike wyse bykomende ongelukke ontwyk, terug na die oop see. & Rdquo

Ons het op 'n baie trotse skip gedien. Onthou die Columbia Victory as u Flag of our Fathers gaan sien.


Warrick AKA -89 - Geskiedenis

(AKA-86: dp. 13,910 1. 459'2 "b. 63'0 '' dr. 26'4" (lim.) S. 16,5 k., Kpl. 425, a. 1 5 ", 8 40 mm. , 1620 mm. Cl. Tolland T. C2-S-AJ3)

Woodford (AKA-89) is op 17 Julie 1944 in Wilmington, NC, deur die Noord-Carolina ingevolge 'n kontrak van die Maritieme Kommissie (MC-romp 1399) neergelê.
Shipbuilding Co, wat op 5 Oktober 1944 gelanseer is, geborg deur mev. Ruth E. McInnis, die vrou van J. Frank McInnis wat verantwoordelik was vir die bou van alle skepe van die Maritieme Kommissie wat aan die ooskus gebou is, en op 19 Oktober in diens geneem is. Die sleepboot Rescue het Woodf ord na Hoboken, N.J., gesleep om by die Todd Shipyard Corp. vir vlootdiens omgeskakel te word. Sy is op 3 Maart 1945 in diens van die Todd Shipyard, kapt Winston P. Folk in bevel.

Na die aanvanklike proewe in Long Island Sound, afgeskud in Chesapeakebaai, die beskikbaarheid van post -shakedown by die Norfolk Navy Yard, verdere beproevingsproewe en nog 'n beskikbaarheid, het Woodford op 19 April by die Naval Operating Base (NOB), Norfolk, aangemeld om dit aan te pak haar eerste vrag. Toe dit gelaai is, het die aanvalsvragskip op 28 April aan die gang gegaan en op pad na die Panamakanaal, op die eerste been van haar reis na die Stille Oseaan.

Woodford se gang, saam met haar begeleier, die hoëspoed-vervoer Runels (APD-85), was sonder probleme tot vroeg op 1 Mei, toe Runnels 'n goeie kontak gemaak het. Terwyl haar begeleier die kontak wou ontwikkel, het die aanvalsvragskip na die algemene kwartaal gegaan en ontwykende aksies begin. Later staan ​​albei skepe uit hul hoeke toe Runels die kontak verloor en dit nie kon herwin nie.

Woodford het op 3 Mei oor die Ismiese waterweg gegaan en twee dae by Balboa deurgebring voordat hy saam met Runner (SS-476), Mora, na Pearl Harbor vertrek het.

y (SS 300) en Karp (SS-338). Terwyl hulle onderweg was, het die skepe gesamentlike oefeninge uitgevoer en met verskillende tussenposes amptenare tussen die skepe uitgeruil om hulle in staat te stel om elke oefening vanuit 'n ander perspektief te sien.

Onderweg het die skepe ook die nuus ontvang dat president Harry S. Truman 8 Mei 1945 as 'VE-dag' verklaar het, wat die oorwinning van die oorlog met Duitsland was. Soos die bevelvoerder van Woodford vertel: "Terwyl die opwindende nuus aan boord van Woodford met vreugde ontvang is, het die vreugde geprikkel met die gedagte dat daar immers 'n wonderlike taak voorlê."

Die aanvalsvragskip het uiteindelik op 20 Mei Pearl Harbor bereik waar sy haar vrag afgelaai het. 'N Week later het sy na Honolulu verhuis, waar sy 'n vrag met 'n hoë prioriteit aangeneem het - 'n ammunisie wat vir die 10de weermag in Okinawa bestem was. Toe Woodford eers gelaai is, het hy op 2 Junie onafhanklik na die Marshalls vertrek, maar is onderweg na die Carolines herlei.

Toe Woodford op 14 Junie by Ulithi kom, sluit Woodford hom toe aan by konvooi WOK-27 op pad na Okinawa, maar word weer herlei-hierdie keer na Kerama Retto, om afwagtings te wag op die aflegging van haar "hoë prioriteit" vrag. Drie weke, van 24 Junie tot 15 Julie, het die aanvalsvragskip - haar ammunisievrag nog in haar ruimtes - op die pad van die groep klein eilande gelê. Tydens haar verblyf het sy 21 keer na algemene kwartiere gegaan weens waarskuwings of werklike vyandelike aanvalle, 'n ongemaklike situasie vir 'n skip vol ammunisie.

Uiteindelik het bevele gekom - maar nie om te laai by Okinawa of Kerama Retto nie. In plaas daarvan is Woodford aangesê om terug te trek na die Marianas en by Guam af te laai. Die aanvalsvragskip het op 15 Julie anker by Kerama Retto geweeg en met die konvooi OKS-14 na die Marianas gegaan. By die 21ste in Saipan, het Woodf ord 'n week later onafhanklik na Guam gegaan en op 29th in Aganabaai geanker. Daar het Woodford haar ammunisie in amfibiese vragmotors (DUKW's) oorgeplaas, uiteindelik haar gevaarlike vrag afgelaai.

Na voltooiing van die aflaai het die aanvalsvragskip onmiddellik na Saipan teruggekeer om verdere bevele af te wag. Daar, om 0900 op 15 Augustus, het Woodford die boodskap ontvang dat die Japannese oorgegee het. Pandemonium het toe in die ankerplek geheers. Die bevelvoerder van Woodford vertel dat "fluitjies en sirenes klink in 'n storm van vreugdevolle vreugde wat die vreugdegeroepe wat uit duisende mans opgegaan het, verdrink."

Twee dae na die kapitulasie vaar Woodford na die Filippyne en bereik Leyte op die 20ste. Daar het sy by Transport Squadron (TransRon) 13, Transport Division (TransDiv) 53 aangesluit. TransRon 13 het kort daarna die manne en toerusting van die Amerikaanse afdeling gelaai - 'n deel van die mag wat die voormalige vyand se hoofstad sou beset.

Woodford en haar kollegas vaar daarna na Tokiobaai en bereik die watermassa op 8 September 1945-ses dae na die formele Japanse oorgawe-seremonie aan boord van die slagskip Missouri (BB-62). Die aanvalsvragskip het haar troepe losgelaat en haar vrag ontslaan voordat sy met TransDiv 53 teruggekeer het na die Filippyne. By die terugkeer by Leyte op 16 September het die skip haar eerste groep seevaarders wat in aanmerking kom vir ontslag losgemaak voordat hulle aan die gang is om onafhanklik te gaan. na Cebu om troepe aan boord te neem voor die aankoms van die res van TransDiv 53.

Bestrydig met die manne en toerusting van die 77ste afdeling van die leër, keer Woodford terug na Japannese waters met TransDiv 53 en vervoer die troepe en hul toerusting na Otaru, op die eiland Hokkaido wat op 5 Oktober daar aankom. Na voltooiing van die operasie keer sy terug na die Filippyne.

Woodford het tot in Desember in die Verre Ooste gebly. Tussen 27 Oktober en 4 November het sy die agterste elemente van die 3d Amphibious Corps - die 30ste Konstruksiebataljon (SeaBees) en die 32d Spesiale Konstruksiebataljon van San Pedrobaai - van San Pedrobaai, Leyte, na Taku, China, opgehef in samewerking met TransDiv 37, voordat u alleen na Guam gaan om vrag te ontslaan. Van daar af, op 4 Desember, gaan sy na Sasebo, op die eiland Kyushu, Japan.

Die skip het op 8 Desember in die Sasebo -hawe gestoom en daar anker gelê tot die 10de, toe sy langs 'n beskuldigdebank gaan. Daar het sy elemente van die 5th Marine Division en hul toerusting aangepak om na die weskus van die Verenigde State vervoer te word. Die skip se vertrek uit die Verre Ooste was egter nie sonder elemente van 'n 'Hollywood -riller' nie. Inligtingsbeamptes het ontdek wat hulle as Japannese sabotasieplanne beskou het, wat Woodford ná middernag op 13 Desember tot niet gemaak het. Omdat Woodf ord nie die kans gegun het dat die ontdekking 'n bedrog was nie, het sy die horlosie verdubbel, haar gewere en soekligte beman en karabines en Thompson -masjiengewere uitgebreek. Soos die bevelvoerder van die skip later berig: "Die koste van die nagwaak was gelukkig nie meer nie, maar slaapverlies vir alle hande, nie 'n skoot of 'n saboteur nie."

Op 14 Desember 1400, met 'n huiswaartse wimpel by die personeel, het Woodford op die see gestaan ​​om die 6,047 myl lange deur na San Diego te begin, en sy het haar bestemming bereik op die laaste dag van 1946. Nadat sy vrag afgelaai en haar passasiers vertrek het. , het die aanvragvragskip in Februarie 1946 in San Francisco vaarte herstel, voordat sy na die ooskus van die Verenigde State gevaar het.

Woodford, wat op 25 Februarie via die Panamakanaal in Norfolk aangekom het, het kort na New York verhuis voordat sy op 7 Maart na Norfolk teruggekeer het om in die 5de vlootdistrik gedeaktiveer te word. Gevolglik is Woodf ord op 1 Mei 1946 'n week later, op 8 Mei, van die vlootlys verwyder en word sy na die War Shipping Administration (WSA) van die Maritieme Kommissie teruggestuur.

Die voormalige aanvalsvragskip is in 1947 van die WSA verkry deur die A.H. Bull Steamship Co., New York City, en herdoop tot Suzanne. Die skip is daarna verkry deur die Westmount Shipping Co., ook van New York, en herdoop tot Rappahannock, en het in 1973 algemene vragdraende dienste verrig. Haar naam verdwyn in 1974 uit die Record of the American Bureau of Shipping.


Vierde algehele keuse van die 2000 NFL -konsep

Verpligte krediet: M. David Leeds/ALLSPORT

Die Cincinnati Bengals het Peter Warrick die vierde algehele keuse van die 2000 NFL Draft gemaak.

Die Bengals het gehoop Warrick kan die verwagtinge in die voordele oortref en sluit hom aan by Cris Collinsworth, Isaac Curtis en Carl Pickens as die beste breë ontvangers in die franchise -geskiedenis.

Cincinnati kom uit 'n rampspoedige 4-12 oorwinningsverlies 1999.

Die Bengals het ook die na -seisoen vir 'n negende agtereenvolgende jaar misgeloop.

Die ontvangs van die korps van Cincinnati was baie dun in die 2000 NFL -seisoen.

Die Bengals sny Pickens, laat Willie Jackson 'n gratis agent word, en sit Darnay Scott vir die hele seisoen langs die been nadat hy sy been gebreek het tydens die oefenkamp.

Die uitgebreide dieptegrafiek was ook nie besonder indrukwekkend nie: die gesonde ontvangers van Cincinnati het ouens soos Danny Farmer, Craig Yeast en Ron Dugans ingesluit.

Om hierdie redes het voetballiefhebbers uit Suidwes -Ohio en Noord -Kentucky hul hoop gevestig op die opwindende Warrick.

Warrick het tydens sy nuwelingseisoen 'n paar goeie getalle behaal en 51 aangee vir 592 meter en vier raakpunte behaal.

Die Bengals het voortgegaan om te sukkel terwyl hulle hul vreeslike rekord van 4-12 wen-verlies gedupliseer het.

Warrick was nie veel beter tydens sy tweede veldtog nie.

Terwyl hy effens meer onthale (70) en yards (667) ontvang het, het hy die hele seisoen slegs een keer vasgevang. Op 6-10 het Cincinnati dit in 2001 voortgesit.

Die derdejaar-pro het sy statistiese neiging in die 2002 NFL-seisoen omgekeer.

Hy het meer aanraakpasse (ses) gekry terwyl hy minder ontvangsterwe (606) en onthale (53) van 'n jaar gelede aangeteken het.

Uiteindelik het dit nie veel saak gemaak nie, aangesien die Bengals die bodem bereik het en slegs twee van hul 16 wedstryde in 2002 gewen het.

Ewe skielik het dinge 'n seisoen later na Warrick en Co begin soek.

Warrick het gedurende die 2003 NFL -seisoen die voorsprong verhoog en floreer as 'n slotontvanger.

Hy het rekordhoogtes in onthale (79), yards (819) en touchdowns (sewe) behaal.

Sy onvergeetlikste wedstryd was teen die 9-0 Kansas City Chiefs op 16 November 2003.

Die kenmerkende oomblik van sy NFL-loopbaan was waarskynlik sy terugkeer van 68 meter vir 'n terugslag.

Verskeie toneelstukke later het Warrick 'n afslagpas van die agterspeler Jon Kitna gekry om die Bengals se oorwinning met 24-19 oor die Chiefs te verseker.

11-16-2003 het die Bengals die Chiefs met 24-19 geklop. @Pdub80 Peter Warrick het 'n terugslag van 68 meter gehad en 'n terugslag van 77 meter van @CoachJKit gekry. Rudi Johnson hardloop 165 meter op 22 draaie. pic.twitter.com/L2xTocunRK

& mdash Scott F (@TheFrizz87) 17 November 2020

Warrick se uitbreekveldtog het die Bengale gehelp om in 2003 agt wedstryde te wen.

Ondanks die indrukwekkende ommeswaai, het Cincinnati steeds die na -seisoen misgeloop.

Dit was nietemin iets waarop die Bengale die volgende jaar kon voortbou.

Warrick het met Bengals.com en Geoff Hobson gesels oor sy beste pro -seisoen in 2003:

Ek het 'n lekker seisoen gehad. Ek dink net dat dit elke jaar beter word. Ek het vir my gesin gesê die vyfde jaar gaan die beste jaar wees net omdat ek die stelsel ken en wat ek moet doen. ”

Ons het Coach Brat (offensiewe koördineerder Bob Bratkowski) gekry, en ek is al hoeveel jaar by hom? Vier? Nou kan ek dinge beter doen met meer ervaring, meer weet wat ek moet doen. ”

Net toe Warrick se lotgevalle op die veld verbeter het, het hulle vinnig 'n draai geword.

Warrick het sy beenbeen gebars tydens die 31-24-nederlaag teen die New York Jets op 12 September 2004.

Sy besering het nie genees op 'n manier waarop hy produktief kon speel nie, het die destydse hoofafrigter van Bengale, Marvin Lewis, gesê Die Associated Press (via ESPN). Ons dokters is dit almal eens dat die beste manier vir Peter is om 'n operasie te ondergaan wat hom in staat sal stel om binne 2005 genoeg tyd te herstel. ”

Warrick het spaarsamig gespeel in die daaropvolgende wedstryde van die Bengals en#8217.

Die span het uiteindelik besluit om hom vir die res van die seisoen af ​​te sluit voor die wedstryd van week 7 teen die besoekende Denver Broncos.

Hy pas nooit weer in 'n Bengals -trui nie.

Warrick ’s se besering versterk T.J. Houshmandzadeh se status as Cincinnati nr. 2 wye ontvanger agter Pro Bowler Chad Johnson.

Sonder Warrick op sleeptou, het die Bengals hul rekord van 8 tot 8 oorwinnings van 2003 gedupliseer, wat die na-seisoen weer misgeloop het.

Aangesien die Bengals 'n logjam op die breë ontvangerplek gehad het, was daar gerugte dat Warrick vir sy vrylating versoek het.

Die span het teësinnig ingestem tot sy wense.

Daar is 'n mate van teleurstelling by die neem van hierdie stap, het Lewis in 'n spanverklaring gesê. Maar ek glo dit is in die beste belang van die Bengale en Peter om vorentoe te gaan. ”

Warrick het egter die lug skoongemaak in 'n onderhoud met The Bradenton Times ’ Dennis Maley in Maart 2012.

Warrick het gesê dat hy gerugte gehoor het oor sy naderende vrylating toe hy byna die hele 2004 NFL -seisoen sit.

Marvin Lewis, hoofafrigter van Bengale, het hom verseker dat so iets nie sal gebeur nie.

Die Bengals sny Warrick die volgende dag af.

Ek het regtig minagting gevoel vir die manier waarop dit hanteer is. Ek het alles wat ek gehad het aan Cincinnati gegee, en ek het net gevoel dat hulle dit aan my verskuldig was om my soos 'n man te vertel. ”

Ek hoor dit nie eers oral anders nie en vra dan net om nie verneder te word as dit die geval is nie. Laat weet my voordat ek daar instap, jy weet, mans is trots. ”

Dit was toe ek verstaan ​​dat dit net 'n besigheid is en hulle nie op soek is na iets anders as hul uiteinde nie. Daar is geen gesin, geen lojaliteit nie, dit is net 'n geldsaak. ”

Gelukkig hoef Warrick nie lank te wag om 'n ander span te kry nie.

Die Seattle Seahawks het Warrick 'n ooreenkoms van een jaar ter waarde van $ 1,4 miljoen onderteken net enkele dae voor die begin van die 2005 NFL-seisoen, per ESPN.

Seattle het verwag dat Warrick sou aanspraak maak op die nommer 3 -ontvangersrol agter die aanvangs Bobby Engram en Darrell Jackson.

Hy het nooit die hype gestand gedoen nie en die seisoen afgesluit met slegs 180 meter op 11 vangs.

Warrick het die veld ingeneem vir Super Bowl XL, en eindig met 27 punt terugkeer yards in die Seahawks ’ 21-10 verlies teen die Pittsburgh Steelers.

Seattle het Warrick uiteindelik ná die voorseisoen sewe maande later vrygestel.

Uiteindelik is 'n paar Bengale -lewenslange spyt daaroor dat hul span die vrugbare hardloopster Jamal Lewis, wat die Baltimore Ravens reguit ná Warrick in die 2000 NFL Draft gekies het, laat vaar het.

Cincinnati het ook Plaxico Burress, Thomas Jones, Corey Simon en Brian Urlacher laat vaar, wat almal na Warrick opgestel is en baie meer produktiewe loopbane in die NFL gehad het.

Om die loopbaan van Peter Warrick in die NFL op te som, was dit nêrens so produktief soos sy dae in die staat Florida nie.

Warrick ’s se opwindende spel op die universiteit het vroeër as verwag op pro -vlak verskyn.

Terwyl hy af en toe flitse van glans toon, was dit van die begin af duidelik dat hy nie die franchise -wye ontvanger was wat die Cincinnati Bengals hom voorgestel het om te word nie.


یواس‌اس واریک (ای‌کی‌ای -۸۹)

یواس‌اس واریک (ای‌کی‌ای -۸۹) (Afbeelding: USS Warrick (AKA-89)) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۵۹ فوت ۱ اینچ (۱۳۹ ٫ ۹۳ متر) بود. ی کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۴ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس واریک (ای‌کی‌ای -۸۹)
USS Warrick (AKA-89)
هنه
مالک
Beskrywing: ۷ آوریل ۱۹۴۴
از کار: مه ۱۹۴۴
Aandag: ۱۹۴۴ اوت ۱۹۴۴
مشخصات اصلی
Naam: Ton ٬ ۹۱۰ lang ton (۱۴ ٬ ۱۳۳ تن)
Gebed: ۴۵۹ فوت ۱ اینچ (۱۳۹ ٫ ۹۳ متر)
Tema: ۶۳ فوت (۱۹ متر)
Bespreking: ۲۶ فوت ۴ اینچ (۸ ٫ ۰۳ متر)
سرعت: ۱۶ ٫ ۵ گره (۳۰ ٫ ۶ کیلومتر بر ساعت ؛ ۱۹ ٫ ۰ مایل بر ساعت)

ی یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Inhoud

Tweede Wêreldoorlog, 1944–1945

Nadat u winkels in die Naval Supply Depot, Oakland, gelaai het, Warrick underwent a two-week shakedown out of San Pedro, California, concluding that necessary period of familiarization and training on 25 September. She subsequently conducted practice landings at San Clemente Island before undergoing repairs and alterations between 13 and 20 October. Taking on cargo at Wilmington, California, on the 24th, Warrick departed the west coast at 1430 the following day, bound for Manus in the Admiralties.

The ship visited Manus, Hollandia, Finschhafen, and Langemak Bay, New Guinea and Manus a second time before she returned to Hollandia to offload the 333 tons of general Army cargo. She then again shifted to Finschhafen, arriving at 1635 on 1 December. There, she loaded 1,137 tons of Army equipment — mostly vehicles — and, on the day after Christmas, embarked 17 officers and 210 enlisted men (Army) at Langemak Bay. After fueling on the 27th, Warrick sailed for Manus, joined Tryon (APH-1) en route, and rendezvoused with Task Group (TG) 77.9 on the 28th.

Warrick stopped at Manus from 29 December 1944 to 2 January 1945, before getting underway on the latter day for Lingayen Gulf, on the northern coast of the island of Luzon, in the Philippines. En route, her convoy's escorts picked up three submarine contacts and depth charged them without obtaining results. No air attacks came the way of TG 77.9, fortunately, as American amphibious forces converged on Lingayen Gulf.

Warrick reached her destination at 0500 on 11 January and came to anchor at 0830. One hour later, she commenced offloading her cargo, some two days after the first of the Army troops under the overall command of General Douglas MacArthur had splashed ashore at Lingayen. Warrick continued her unloading of cargo over the next day. Landing craft, LCVP's and LCM's, from Warren (APA-53) assisted in the unloading, continuing that task until 2200, when the operation ceased due to two factors: contact with her beach party had been lost and the beach itself was reportedly coming under shellfire.

After resuming the unloading on the 13th, Warrick completed her assigned duties by 1015. Taking the boats on board from 1040, Warrick got underway for Leyte Island, joining Task Unit (TU) 78.11.3 formed around Mount McKinley (AGC-7) at 1745. She reached Leyte on the 16th.

The attack cargo ship took on board two LCVP's from the attack transport Oconto (APA-187) to replace boats which she had lost at Lingayen Gulf on the 17th. She departed the Philippines on the 19th, bound for the Carolines.

Reaching Ulithi on 23 January, Warrick fueled from Merrimack (AO-37) on 1 February, five days before she headed for the Marianas. Arriving at Guam on 8 February, the attack cargo ship began loading cargo and embarking troops two days later. Her load was a varied one: a transportation company, a tractor-trailer platoon, an engineer company, a war dog platoon, medical companies, ordnance repair units, replacement drafts of personnel, plus water, fuel, rations, and other supplies. With elements of the 3rd Marine Division thus embarked, Warrick got underway for Iwo Jima on 17 February.

As part of TU 51.1.1, the attack cargo ship participated in the Iwo Jima assault as part of TG 51.1, the Joint Expeditionary Force Reserve. Screened by four destroyers and two destroyer escorts, Warrick sailed for that soon-to-be-famous island in company with Transport Divisions 31 and 33. She arrived at point "Equity" on the 19th and, during ensuing days, cruised in operating area "Porch" in keeping with her reserve status. She moved in closer to Iwo Jima on the 22nd, but was still lying to, awaiting orders, on the following day. The attack cargo ship finally commenced unloading operations on the 24th in the transport area four miles off the southeastern coast of Iwo Jima.

Warrick hoisted out her boats at 0750 and commenced lowering them soon thereafter. She dispatched all of her LCM's to assist in the unloading of nearby attack transports. She soon learned over the voice radio, however, that the smaller LCVP's were showing a tendency to broach and break up on the steep beaches. Beach-masters were accordingly waving off the LCVP's so that the beaches would not become fouled with the wrecks of numerous landing craft, thus impeding the flow of supplies necessary to keep the marines advancing against the stubborn Japanese defenders. Thus, with no lighterage, Warrick did not start unloading her own cargo until the following day.

After returning from the night retirement area, the attack cargo ship hoisted out her boats at 0810 on the 25th. At that time, Warrick was noting that a strong sea was running with moderate to heavy swells, which, in connection with a good breeze, made unloading conditions decidedly unfavorable. LST-731 came alongside at 1245 but, on her attempt, carried away two debarkation ladders and stove in some of Warrick's hull plating at two spots on her starboard side. At 1315, on her second attempt, LST-731 secured alongside and commenced taking on cargo.

Over the next two days, beach conditions remained the same, with the small landing craft suffering considerably in the heavy swells, leading to many bans on craft the size of LCM's and LCVP's being waived off from the beachhead. Accordingly, LST's and LSM's were utilized as lighters for the cargo. Over the next few days, the ship offloaded her cargo to LCT-692 and LST-731. On 2 March, Warrick dispatched three LCM's to help unload ammunition from SS Columbia Victory. She then completed discharging cargo in ensuing days to LSM-266 and LSM-238. In addition, she embarked 23 Marine casualties from the beach and later transferred them to Doyen (APA-1). On 6 March, after transferring smoke pots to LST-646, Warrick cleared Iwo Jima, bound for the Marianas.

Sailing from thence to the Solomon Islands, the attack cargo ship reached Tulagi on 18 March. For the remainder of hostilities, Warrick performed her vital but unglamourous support role. She transported boats from Guam and Manus to Florida Island and New Guinea lifted Army cargo and troops from Nouméa, New Caledonia, and New Guinea to Leyte, Cebu, and Manila, in the Philippines and took return passengers to Manus. The end of hostilities in mid-August found the ship at Finschhafen, New Guinea.

Inter-war years, 1945–1950

Between the end of World War II in the Pacific and the onset of the Korean War — a time span of a little under five years — Warrick operated primarily in the western Pacific and in the Far East. Soon after the Japanese surrender, the attack cargo ship made two trips from the Philippines to Honshū, Japan, touching at the ports of Aomori, Sasebo, and Yokosuka, carrying men and materiel to support the occupation of the erstwhile enemy's homeland. She participated in "Operation Magic Carpet" — the return of discharged sailors, marines, airmen, and soldiers to the United States — and later supported the occupation of China and Korea, visiting ports that ranged from Tsingtao to Hong Kong and Shanghai to Sasebo. In addition, during those "interwar" years, the attack cargo ship lifted cargo to such places as Johnston Island, Tarawa, Ponape, and Kwajalein. Besides performing her vital logistics functions, the ship also took part in exercises with the Fleet.

Korea and the Pacific Fleet, 1950–1957

When elements of the North Korean People's Army crossed the 38th parallel into South Korean territory at 0400 on 25 June 1950, they triggered the Korean War. At that time, Warrick was in port at San Francisco. She sailed for the Marshalls on 1 July and made port at Eniwetok on the 14th. She subsequently returned, via Pearl Harbor, to the west coast of the United States on 8 August. On 16 July, while deployed to the western Pacific, she received orders to berth at the Naval Supply Center, Oakland, to load as fleet issue ship for the western Pacific.

Moored at the supply center from 10 August to 24 August, Warrick loaded balanced dry provisions sufficient for 20,000 men for 90 days ships' store stock clothing and small stores general stores material and a deck load of bottled gases. When the task was complete, she sailed for the Far East, leaving San Francisco behind on 24 August.

Diverted to Sasebo, Japan, en route, Warrick arrived at that port on 9 September and, from 10 September to 23 September, carried out duties of fleet issue supply ship. Attached to TF 79 on 11 September, the attack cargo ship sailed for the newly secured port of Inchon, North Korea, on 23 September, less than 10 days after American amphibious forces had attacked that port.

After performing her stores issue duties at Inchon from 25 September to 1 October, the attack cargo ship got underway to replenish ships of TF 77. Making contact with the fast carrier task force built around the carrier Valley Forge (CV-45), Warrick received the flattop alongside at 1143 on 2 October and commenced transferring cargo 12 minutes later. After delivering fleet freight, mail, napalm and drop tanks, Warrick set course to rendezvous with other men-of-war in the operating area off Korea's western coast.

After issuing stores to the veteran destroyer Fletcher (DDE-445) from 2335 on 2 October to 0040 on the 3rd, Warrick set a return course for Sasebo and arrived at that port on 4 October. She carried out her duties as stores issue ship there from 5 October to 8 October before returning to Inchon to provide round-the-clock replenishment services to the ships of TF 90 from 11 October to 14 October. "For performing an efficient job under adverse conditions", Warrick's commander wrote later, "Warrick received a 'well done.' "

Returning once more to Sasebo, the busy supply ship then proceeded to Buckner Bay, Okinawa, where she arrived on the 24th. She replenished stores of the seaplane tender Salisbury Sound (AV-13) before getting underway for Keelung, Formosa, on the 25th. Shifting to the Pescadores on the 28th, she arrived on the 29th to replenish the small seaplane tender Floyds Bay (AVP-40) at Shochi Wan anchorage. Underway for Okinawa at 1326 on 29 October, the ship received radio reports en route of the progress of typhoon "Ruby". Warned of the critical area, the attack cargo ship remained in the Formosa Strait into the early hours of the 30th, trying to ascertain the progress of the storm. When she had accurately plotted the typhoon's course — revealing her to be apparently out of danger — the ship resumed her voyage to her original destination.

Taking on board cargo at Buckner Bay, Warrick returned to Sasebo, making port on 3 November. She unloaded the cargo lifted from Okinawa and discharged the remnants of her fleet issue stores at Sasebo before she got underway on 16 November, bound, once more, for the west coast of the United States.

There was little rest for Warrickegter. No sooner had she reached home than she received orders to prepare for yet another Korean deployment. She accordingly loaded provisions, clothing and small stores ship store items general stores and consigned cargo between 3 December and 23 December and embarked 135 Army and Air Force personnel for transportation to Sasebo. Departing San Francisco two days before Christmas 1950, Warrick reached Sasebo on 9 January 1951, mooring alongside stores ship Pollux (AKS-4) upon arrival.

Warrick remained at Sasebo, performing her duties as fleet issue ship, into mid-February. After taking on board approximately 800 tons of empty brass shell casings for shipment back to the United States, and unloading her dry provisions and clothing stores at Yokosuka from 16 February to 18 February, Warrick sailed for the United States on 19 February.

Over the next four years, Warrick's routine changed little. She operated in the western Pacific in regular deployments, carrying fleet freight, and touched at the familiar ports such as Sasebo and Yokosuka, as well as Hong Kong and Manila. In between, there were the usual stops at Pearl Harbor and San Francisco in the course of the ship's transpacific voyages.

After having spent her entire active career with the Pacific Fleet, Warrick commenced her last cruise to the Orient when she departed San Francisco on 28 January 1957. Her itinerary on the voyage included Yokosuka, Hong Kong, Sasebo, and Subic Bay, before she returned to San Francisco on 30 March.

Ontmanteling en wegdoening

Warrick was placed in reserve at Astoria, Oregon, on 4 August 1957, and the workhorse cargo ship was decommissioned on 3 December 1957. Struck from the Navy List on 1 July 1961, Warrick was transferred to the Maritime Administration for lay-up at the reserve site at Olympia, Washington. Reacquired by the Navy on 20 April 1971 for use as a target ship, the ship was torpedoed and sunk by attack submarine Trigger (SS-564) 100 miles off Cape Flattery, Washington, in 1400 fathoms of water, on 28 May 1971.


Meta Warrick Fuller: Trailblazing African American Sculptor and Poet

Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller (1877-1968), born to a black middle class family in Philadelphia, attended the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Arts in 1897, and moved to Paris in 1899 to study sculpture for three years. There, she met French sculptor Auguste Rodin who was impressed by her powerful work, and she became known as the “sculptor of horrors” for her dark, expressive artistic renderings. When she returned to the U.S., Warrick was commissioned by W.E.B. DuBois to create art for several world fairs that would represent African American history and contributions to the country. Despite opposition from her husband and ostracism from the U.S. art scene, Fuller created revolutionary sculptures throughout the 1910s and 1920s that elevated the African American experience as a subject worthy of depiction in art. Anticipating themes of the Harlem Renaissance, her work sought to celebrate African heritage and African American cultural identity. Late in her career, in the 1960s, she wrote poetry and created sculptural tributes to the civil rights movement.

Interviewees: historian Renée Ater, Associate Professor Emerita, American Art, The University of Maryland and author of Remaking Race and History: The Sculpture of Meta Warrick Fuller sculptor Alison Saar, whose artwork focuses on the African diaspora and black female identity.

To learn more about Meta Warrick Fuller and access learning resources, visit PBSLearningMedia.

Meta Warrick Fuller was really an important artist, at a time where not many African American sculptors were telling their own stories. Meta's work is passionate, it's daring.

22-year old Meta Warrick Fuller arrived alone from the U.S. to attend art school.

She was restricted from access in the U.S. from predominantly all white academies. This is why she goes to Paris.

There are not a lot of African American women who are doing this in the late 19th, early 20th century.

It's arranged that she will go to the American Girls Club to find residence there. But she's denied the minute she shows up at the door.

'The director said, 'You didn't tell me that you were not a white girl!' I said, 'I was told that the Club was here for American girls who came to Paris to study - and I felt that I, as an American girl, was entitled to come.'' Warrick Fuller found her own apartment and enrolled in art school.

Meta was shocked to encounter American style racism in Paris.

But that defining moment forced her to become independent and to become more fully an artist.

Meta Warrick Fuller was born in 1877 to a middle class family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Her father owned his own barber shop, and her mother was a hairdresser.

And they were able to provide her with activities that were fairly unusual for most black kids growing up in the United States- music and dance classes, art making classes.

'My father and I went to art exhibitions and together we lived in the pictures we saw, and the sculptures overwhelmed us.'

Fuller was very interested in work that can convey deep emotion and kind of the psychological interior.

Particularly as a teenager, she was interested in ghost stories and tales of horror.

'This was the food upon which my imagination thrived.'

Warrick Fuller was studying in Paris, when a world's fair opened in 1900.

World fairs were places that African Americans felt they could set the record straight about their education, their contributions to literature, to the arts, to music.

The organizers of the American Negro exhibit - including noted scholar W.E.B DuBois, one of the founders of the NAACP - invited Warrick Fuller to create displays celebrating black history.

She starts out as a young artist, and right away she makes this important connection with W.E.B DuBois.

He becomes someone who will promote her career. They assembled dioramas that were scenes of black life, and statistical information to prove the advancement of the black race.

In Paris, Warrick Fuller also met the country's leading sculptor, Auguste Rodin.

He takes her around his studios.

She sees his plaster casts of body parts and she is floored by this experience.

He is downright influential on her work- that interest in the interior life, but also in the artist's hand being present in the materials, is something she fully understands from Rodin.

'Rodin is the master of them all.

My heart went out and with clenched fists, I determined to fulfill my promise.'

Warrick Fuller's work was shown in three major exhibitions in Paris, including one at the students club, which rejected her three years prior.

She is the only American sculptor that is called out in the French press for her kind of amazing work.

And she's called 'the sculptor of horrors' because she is creating small scale objects that show the deepest, darkest emotions that we can have.

'My work is of the soul, rather than the figure, and sometimes the figure must be very crude in order to carry the full strength of the spiritual meaning.'

She's able to convey so much emotion and power in these figures, simply by a turn of the head or a tilt of the hip.

She's a real incredible and unique talent in that respect.

My name is Alison Saar, and I'm an artist.

I really enjoy the transformation of materials.

Such a huge part of sculpture is actually physically being able to experience it through touch. When I was growing up, it was pretty few and far between that we could see an exhibition of an artist of color, and more so of even women artists.

Being a sculptor and working with things like chainsaws and rusty tin definitely wouldn't have been considered ladylike then.

Sculpture has always been a man's world, all the schools I went to, all the sculpture teachers were male. It was very macho. So, it was a difficult trail to pursue.

Warrick Fuller returned to Philadelphia. Despite her success abroad, she was ostracized from the white male dominated art scene.

Once she walked into that gallery space as a black woman, the racism just was enacted almost immediately.

'There were many disappointments when I tried to sell work, but I resolved to work at all odds and continue to create.'

In 1907, Warrick Fuller became the first African American woman to receive a federal art commission, when DuBois invited her to mark the 300th anniversary of the Jamestown Virginia Settlement.

It was a very complicated situation.

African Americans were not allowed to attend during regular hours.

There would be what were called 'Negro days.' But she showed at this fair and won a prize for these dioramas about progress.

She's not resorting to those early 20th century images of the mammy or Uncle Tom. She's trying to offer an alternative vision about blackness.

'I was anxious to do the work because I loved it, and because it was an opening for me.'

She met Solomon Carter Fuller, the first person of African descent to practice psychiatry in the U.S. They married in 1909, set up a home in Framingham, Massachusetts, and had three sons.

Her husband wanted her to be a mother and a wife first.

He was not interested in her pursuing her art career full time.

She had to carve out a space in her attic where she continued to create.

Warrick Fuller later secretly built herself a studio near their home.

In 1910, a fire broke out in the warehouse where she stored her work.

Sixteen years of her art was destroyed.

Most of her work from Paris does not remain because it was destroyed in this fire. She must have been just heart sore at the loss of this collection.

'This morning I got up feeling so blue.

It is awful to feel you have power you cannot make use of.'

In 1913, Fuller was commissioned to create a sculpture for the 50th anniversary of the abolishment of slavery.

She creates a statue of two figures, a man and a woman.

They are semi nude, and they are not being liberated by Abraham Lincoln or a former owner.

She was radical during her time period for taking up the black body in sculpture.

My monument for Harriet Tubman in Harlem is probably the most prominent.

I have embedded in her skirt various objects that would belong to passengers on the underground railroad - what few things you could actually carry while trying to escape slavery. And then coming out of the back of her skirt are these roots, which symbolize her role in uprooting slavery.

I'm really interested in these strong African American female figures who have historically held up the world.

Warrick Fuller sculpted her most well known public work for a 1921 exhibit in New York.

She created this statue to represent the awakening of black people.

'Here was a Negro, gradually unwinding the bandage of its mummied past and looking out on life again, expectant but unafraid.'

As the health of her husband declined, he insisted she gave up her art career.

'I have given up everything to look after him.

I had hoped to leave behind work that would have meaning to the coming generation, but that is all over now.'

Despite her personal disappointments, Warrick Fuller was considered a forerunner of the Harlem Renaissance, an artistic and intellectual awakening among African Americans in the 1920s.

Meta becomes a model for other women sculptors - Augusta Savage, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, are looking to Fuller as a model of a African American woman sculptor who had made it in the early part of the century.

After her husband's death, Warrick Fuller, now in her 70s, returned to making art intermittently. Writing poetry, often of a religious nature became her new passion.

'Wait reverently and have no fear.

The hand which fashioned you is gentle and will guide with loving care.'

Warrick Fuller died in 1968 at age 91.

Three decades later, 'Emancipation' was cast in bronze and installed as a public monument in Boston's Harriet Tubman Square.

I imagine myself and other women of color working in sculpture are all part of this legacy, starting with her, and it would be really nice to think that she's going to continue to influence other young female artists yet to come.

'The Negro possesses as much artistic ability as any other group of Americans.

Despite the many hindrances, much has been accomplished in which we may take pride.'



  • AKA-15 Andromeda ex AK-66
  • AKA-16 Aquarius
  • AKA-17 Centaurus
  • AKA-18 Cepheus
  • AKA/LKA-19 Thuban
  • AKA-20 Virgo Reclassified AE-30
  • AKA-53 Achernar
  • AKA/LKA-54 Algol
  • AKA-55 Alshain
  • AKA/LKA-56 Arneb
  • AKA-60 Leo
  • AKA/LKA-61 Muliphen
  • AKA-62 Sheliak
  • AKA-63 AKA-88 Uvalde
  • AKA-89 Warrick
  • AKA-90 Whiteside
  • AKA-91 Whitley
  • AKA-92 Wyandot Reclassified T-AK-283
  • AKA/LKA-93 Yancey
  • AKA/LKA-94 Winston
  • AKA-95 Marquette
  • AKA-96 Mathews
  • AKA/LKA-97 Merrick
  • AKA-98 Montaque
  • AKA-99 Rolette
  • AKA-100 Oglethorpe
  • AKA-101 Ottawa

The following web sites contain information on USMM ships of Skagit's type. Those of us who were crew always heard that when Skagit's hull was first laid, she was to become the Merchant Ship Alden Besse but I'm not sure this has ever been confirmed.

Die Alden Besse was built by the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company at Wilmington, the same Company that built Skagit.

Die Alden Besse, MC# 1360 (C2-S-AJ1) was delivered to the Maritime Commission in February 1944.

Skagit MC# 1696 (C2-S-AJ3) was delivered in November 1944, so the rumor that Skagit was to be the Alden Besse seems unlikely.

===============================

Andromeda or Tolland Class?

There has always been some disagreement between "Jane's Fighting Ships" and the "Dictionary Of American Fighting Ships" concerning Skagit's class.

We found that the later Tolland Class AKAs (C2-S-AJ3) hull numbers 101 thru 108 were built from the keel up as AKAs, whereas Skagit was a converted merchant ship (C2-S-B1) according to the "Dictionary Of American Fighting Ships".

According to the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company web site, Skagit was delivered as a (C2-S-AJ3) as was Union, Ottawa, Prentiss, Vermillion, Washburn, Rankin, and Seminole.

I don't think the (C2-S-AJ3) designation has anything to do with how the ship is fitted out, since there were merchant ships built on this hull.

Also according to the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company web site, they didn't build or finish any C2-S-B1 ships during 1944 and 1945.

So until more information is found, I guess the controversy will continue.


Alcoa’s Warrick Mill business sold to new company for $670 million

WARRICK CO., Ind. (WFIE) - Alcoa Corporation announced Monday an agreement to sell its rolling mill business, held by Alcoa Warrick LLC, to Kaiser Aluminum Corporation for total consideration of approximately $670 million, which includes $587 million in cash and the assumption of $83 million in other postretirement employee benefit (OPEB) liabilities.

The sale is expected to close by the end of the first quarter of 2021, pending regulatory approval and customary closing conditions.

The rolling mill is located at Warrick Operations, an integrated aluminum manufacturing site near Evansville, Indiana.

Alcoa will retain ownership of the site’s 269,000 metric ton per year aluminum smelter and its electric generating units.

Alcoa will also enter into a ground lease agreement with Kaiser for property that Alcoa will continue to own at the Warrick site.

Officials say the announcement is part of Alcoa’s strategy to generate between $500 million and $1 billion in cash through the sale of non-core assets and will put total cash proceeds in the target range.

Earlier this year, Alcoa announced the sale of its former waste treatment business in Gum Springs, Arkansas, and received $200 million in cash with an additional $50 million that will be paid if certain post-closing conditions are satisfied.

“The sale will achieve a key target in our strategy to focus on core markets while generating additional cash,” said Alcoa President and CEO Roy Harvey. “We look forward to having Kaiser Aluminum as a valued customer at Warrick Operations, and we thank all of the employees who have contributed significantly to the site’s 60-year history of manufacturing excellence.”

As part of the transaction, Alcoa will enter into a market-based metal supply agreement with Kaiser Aluminum at closing.

Alcoa will continue to operate the smelter and the power plant, which together employ approximately 660 people.

Approximately 1,170 employees at the rolling operations, which includes the casthouse, hot mill, cold mills, and coating and slitting lines, will become employees of Kaiser Aluminum once the transaction is complete.

The rolling mill produces approximately 310,000 metric tons of flat rolled aluminum annually for use in packaging, including food containers, aluminum cans, and bottles.

After closing, Alcoa expects annual approximate decreases in sales of $800 million, net income (pre- and after-tax) of $45 million to $55 million, and Adjusted EBITDA of $90 million to $100 million, based on last 12-month pricing through September 2020. Alcoa expects to spend approximately $100 million for site separation and transaction costs, with approximately half being spent in 2021 and the remainder in 2022 and 2023.

Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC acted as exclusive financial advisor to Alcoa for this transaction and Jones Day served as legal counsel.


Dodging Death: America’s Mission to Find and Destroy Syria’s Chemical Weapons

Joby Warrick argues in his new book Red Line the international effort to remove Syria’s chemical weapons was unprecedented and a story of multilateral success.

The Syrian regime attacked the town of Ghouta in southwestern Syria with sarin, a nerve agent, that killed hundreds of civilians on August 21, 2013. With that, Syrian president Bashar al-Assad crossed a red line set by President Barack Obama, accelerating an effort to eliminate Assad’s stockpile of chemical weapons.

Joby Warrick, a Pulitzer Prize-winning author, recently discussed this historic undertaking to deprive Assad of the bulk of his nerve agents and production equipment. He joined Press the Button, a podcast from the Ploughshares Fund, to talk about his newest book Red Line: The Unraveling of Syria and America's Race to Destroy the Most Dangerous Arsenal in the World.

In his book, Warrick reflects on America’s mission to find and destroy Syria’s chemical weapons and keep them out of the hands of the Islamic State.

While the United States and others had already been working to respond to the limited use of chemical weapons before that moment, after the large attack in Ghouta, the United States was faced with a choice of whether to pursue military action. Interestingly, a Russian initiative paved the way for a diplomatic resolution instead. In September 2013, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 2118 that required Syria to destroy all chemical weapons until mid-2014. Warrick highlights that it was the first time in history that a stockpile was removed in the middle of a war.

In his book, he reconstructs the history of the Syrian chemical weapons program, as well as key decision points to avoid a catastrophic leakage of deadly nerve agents to Syrian combatants and terrorist groups. Warrick was struck by how close Al Nusra, an Al-Qaeda affiliate, or the Islamic State, came to gaining hold of Syria’s chemical weapons and material.

He further explained how challenging it was to remove the material. Syrian citizens had been risking their lives to bring evidence of the use of chemical agents to the outside world, according to Warrick. Further, “the Pentagon, the people who put together the plan to get the chemicals out and destroy them, they took part in what was for some of them, the most important mission of their lives and it happened in a flash in historical terms,” Warrick said.

Despite the success to remove some chemical weapons during the war, the Syrian regime preserved a part of its arsenal and conducted several more large-scale attacks, including those in Khan Shaykhun in April 2017 and Douma in April 2018. It has been challenging to find justice. Warrick argued that Assad “wasn't really held accountable. To this day he’s never had to admit to using chemical weapons against his own people. He always denies it. Russia supports them at the UN. Any action that's meaningful is always blocked by Russia.”

Warrick suggested that more needs to be done. “The evidence is continuing to mount, and one can envision a dayand it might not be this year or next, but somedaywhen Syria will be held accountable in some way before the world court or before the UN,” he said.

This delayed accountability is not new in international conflict. Warrick reminded the listeners of the Balkan conflict in the 1990s where it took twenty years until justice was served. “It’s important not to give up, not to think that, just because time has passed that it's not relevant anymore, but to keep pushing that boulder up the hill to hopefully one day see that Syrian victims have their moment of justice,” he said.

Despite all the challenges, Warrick succeeded in recapturing the story of the Syrian regime crossing the red line and subsequent international action. Removing thirteen hundred tons of the chemical weapons stockpile and manufacturing equipment is a story of an unprecedented international effort. Albeit imperfect—as Assad’s intentions weren’t changed and he used the chemical agents again—the diplomatic path and consequent removal of some of the weapons showed what multilateral success can look like.

The entire interview with Joby Warrick is available here on Press the Button.

Doreen Horschig is the current Roger L. Hale Fellow at the Ploughshares Fund, a global security foundation. She received her PhD in security studies from the University of Central Florida and studies nuclear policy, specifically public opinion and counter-proliferation, as well as norms of nuclear and chemical weapons. You can follow her on Twitter @doreen__h.


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