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Alles wat u wou weet oor Maryland, geskiedenis, ekonomiese mense en meer - geskiedenis

Alles wat u wou weet oor Maryland, geskiedenis, ekonomiese mense en meer - geskiedenis


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Basiese inligting

Afkorting in die pos: MD
Inboorlinge: Marylander

Bevolking 2018 6,043,000
Wettige bestuursouderdom: 18
(*16 w/ Driver's Ed.)
Ouderdom van meerderheid: 18
Mediaan ouderdom: 38.3

Staatslied: “Maryland! My Maryland ”
Lirieke: James Ryder Randall
Musiek: op die wysie van "Lauriger Horatius"

Mediaan huishoudelike inkomste:$80,776

Kapitaal..... Annapolis
In die unie aangegaan ..... 28 April 1788 (7de)

Huidige Grondwet aangeneem: 1867

Bynaam: Vrystaat
Ou lynstaat

Leuse:
“Fatti maschii, parole femine”
(Manlike dade, vroulike woorde)

Oorsprong van naam:
Is deur Lord Baltimore vernoem ter ere van Quuen Mary (Henrietta Maria), die vrou van Engeland se koning Charles I.

USS Maryland

Spoorwegstasies

Maryland Ekonomie

LANDBOU: beeste, hoenders,
mielies, vrugte, melk, sojabone.

MYNWERK: klei, kole, sand, klip.

VERVAARDIGING: chemikalieë,
elektronika, voedselverwerking,
masjinerie, drukwerk, vervoer
toerusting.


Maryland Geografie

Totale oppervlakte: 12 297 vierkante myl
Grond gebied: 9,775 vierkante myl
Watergebied: 2,522 vierkante myl
Geografiese sentrum: Prins Georges
4,5 myl. NW van Davidsonville
Hoogste punt: Ruggraatberg
(3,360 voet)
Laagste punt: Atlantiese Oseaan
(seevlak)
Hoogste aangetekende temp.: 109˚ F (7/10/1936)
Laagste aangetekende temp.: –40˚ F (1/13/19

Maryland word deur Chesapeake Bay in twee verdeel. Die land oos van die Baai word die oostelike oewer genoem. Die westelike deel van die staat word deur die Appalachian-, Blue Ridge- en Allegheny -berge gekruis.

Stede

Baltimore, 620,961
Frederick, 65 239
Rockville, 61.209
Gaithersburg, 59,933
Bowie, 54.727
Hagerstown, 39 662
Annapolis, 38,394;
College Park, 30,413
Salisbury, 30,343
Greenbelt, 23.068

Maryland Geskiedenis

1632 Charles I verleen aan die tweede Lord Baltimore 'n handves vir die land noord van
Potomac.
1633 The Ark and Love arriveer in Chesapeake Bay met 200 koloniste.
1691 William en Mary het Maryland tot 'n koninklike kolonie verklaar.
1729 Baltimore gestig.
1787 Die Annapolis -konferensie vind plaas as 'n voorspel tot die oproeping van
die grondwetkonvensie.
1788 Maryland het die sewende staat geword wat die grondwet bekragtig het.
1791 Maryland het grond langs die Potomac afgestaan ​​vir die bou van
Washington DC.
1814 Die Slag van Blandensburg gaan verlore deur Amerikaanse magte- die Britte slaag nie daarin om te vang nie
Baltimore en die gebeurtenis word verewig in die Star Spangled Banner
1828 Daar is met die eerste spoorweg begin- die Baltimore en Ohio.
1844 Die eerste telegraaf het Washington en Baltimore verbind.
1845 Die US Naval Academy het toe die Naval School genoem wat in Annapolis geopen is.
Op 19 April 1861 sterf sestien mense in die straat van Baltimore
Suidelike simpatiseerders val die Sesde Massachusetts Regiment in op pad na
Washington.
1862 16 September was die bloedigste dag in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis deur die Antietam
met die naam in die geveg, sterf die dag meer as 20 000 Amerikaners.

Beroemde mense



John Wilkes Boothe
Samuel Chase
Frederick Douglass
John Hopkins
Thurgood Marshall
Charles Wilson Peale
Liefie Ruth
Upton Sinclair
Roger Taney

Maryland National Sites

1) Antietam National Slagveld
Die bloedigste dag in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis het hier naby Sharpsburg plaasgevind toe troepe van die Unie en die Konfederasie op 17 September 1862 vergader het.

2) Chesapeake en Ohio Canal National Historical Park
Hierdie park is parallel met die Potomacrivier van Cumberland Maryland na Washington DC.

3) Clara Barton National Historic Site
Hierdie webwerf by Glen Echo was die tuiste van Clara Barton, die burgeroorlogse verpleegster en stigter van die Amerikaanse Rooi Kruis

4) Fort McHenry National Monument en Historic Shrine
Die park in die Baltimore -hawe is die fort wat die bombardement van die Britse vloot in die oorlog van 1812 weerstaan ​​het. Dit is verewig deur Francis Scott Key in die gedig wat die volkslied geword het.

5) Fort Washington Park
Hierdie fort aan die oorkant van die Potomacrivier van die George Washington Mount Vernon -huis is gebou na die oorlog van 1812. Dit is in 1872 laat vaar

6) Hampton National Historic Site
Hierdie perseel in Towson Maryland is 'n historiese herehuis wat gebou is deur die ystermagnaat Charled Ridgely.


Feite en geskiedenis van Maryland Colony

Maryland Colony was 'n Britse kolonie wat bestaan ​​het van 1632 tot 1776, toe dit by die ander twaalf van die 13 oorspronklike kolonies in opstand teen Groot -Brittanje aangesluit het en die Amerikaanse staat Maryland geword het. Die eerste nedersetting en hoofstad was St Mary & rsquos City, in die suidelike punt van St. Mary & rsquos County, wat 'n skiereiland in die Chesapeakebaai is en ook begrens word deur vier getyriviere.

Maryland Colony het begin as 'n eie kolonie van die Engelse Lord Baltimore, wat 'n toevlugsoord vir Engelse Katolieke in die nuwe wêreld wou skep tydens die Europese godsdiensoorloë. Alhoewel Maryland 'n vroeë pionier was van godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid in die Engelse kolonies, was godsdienstige onenigheid onder Anglikane, Puriteine, Katolieke en Kwakers in die beginjare algemeen, en Puriteinse rebelle het kortliks die beheer oorgeneem. In 1689, die jaar na die glorieryke rewolusie, het John Coode 'n opstand gelei wat Lord Baltimore uit die mag in Maryland verwyder het. Die mag in die kolonie is in 1715 aan die Baltimore -gesin herstel toe Charles Calvert, 5de Baron Baltimore, in die openbaar aandring dat hy 'n protestant is.

Ondanks die vroeë mededinging met die Virginia -kolonie in die suide en die Nederlandse kolonie Nieu -Nederland in die noorde, het die provinsie Maryland baie soortgelyk ontwikkel as Virginia. Die vroeë nedersettings en bevolkingsentrums was geneig om saam te trek rondom die riviere en ander waterweë wat in die Chesapeakebaai uitloop, en, net soos Virginia, het Maryland en die ekonomie vinnig gefokus op die verbouing van tabak, te koop in Europa. Die behoefte aan goedkoop arbeid, en later met die gemengde boerdery -ekonomie wat ontwikkel het toe tabakpryse in duie gestort het, het gelei tot 'n vinnige uitbreiding van diensbaarheid, strafvervoer en gedwonge immigrasie en slawerny.

Maryland Colony was 'n aktiewe deelnemer aan die gebeure wat gelei het tot die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog, en herhaal die gebeure in die New England Colonies deur korrespondensiekomitees te stig en 'n eie teepartytjie aan te bied, soortgelyk aan die in Boston. Teen 1776 is die Britse bewind verwyder en wou die burgers en hul leiers onafhanklikheid van Groot -Brittanje hê.


Is die verhuising na Maryland reg vir u? 'N Gids vir 2021.

As die staat Maryland in gesprek gebring word, volg 'n opmerking oor krapkoeke beslis. Maryland? Het hulle nie wonderlike krapkoeke daar nie?

Wel, as u van krapkoeke hou, ja, trek 100% na Maryland. Maar netnou het die staat baie meer om te bied as hope en baie krap pasteitjies.

Wat, terloops, 'n interessante kanttekening hier ... Maryland verkoop meer krapkoeke as wat dit kan verskaf. Ons weet, tragies. Die staat moet eintlik krapvleis van ander dele van die wêreld aflewer. Trouens, 38% van die krapvleis wat in Maryland -krapkoeke voorkom, is nie afkomstig van krappe in Maryland nie. Maar moenie dit teen hulle weerhou nie. Daar is nog steeds baie om van Maryland lief te hê. Boonop is die krapkoeke baie lekker.

Verhuis na Maryland, 'n kort oorsig van die staat.

Ons sal hier vooraf wees, Maryland is beslis heelwat anders in vergelyking met ander state wat ons hier by Bellhops bedien. Nie op 'n slegte manier anders nie. Maar tog, baie anders. Die grootste swakheid van Maryland is miskien dat dit nie baie groot stede het om uit te kies nie. Regtig, net een, Baltimore. (O, en ter inleiding, ons is Bellhops - Baltimore -verhuisers, Rockville -verhuisers en verhuisers regoor die land).

Met 4,8 uit 5 sterre op meer as 100,000 bewegings, kan u sê dat ons die beste in die onderneming is.

1. Maryland is 'n toestand van baie interessante eerstes.

Een van die interessantste dinge van Maryland is miskien dat dit die eerste plek is. Dit is die tuiste van ons land se eerste sambreelfabriek, ons eerste spoorwegstasie, die eerste telegraaf, die eerste Amerikaanse klavier en die eerste tandheelkundige skool ... dankie tog vir die laaste een.

Boonop is Maryland ook die plek waar die eerste six-pack verkoop is, die eerste lugballon wat met passasiers vervoer is, gelanseer is en waar die ouija-bord uitgevind is (super creepy).

En as u ooit u hand oor u hart gegooi het terwyl The National Anthem op 'n luidspreker blaas ... u het Francis Scott Key en Maryland ook daarvoor te bedank. Maryland was die geboorteplek van die Star Spangled Banner

2. Verhuis na Maryland as u lief is vir die buitelug.

Maryland is 'n wonderlike toestand in die buitelug. Glo dit of nie, 41% van die staat is met bome bedek. Dus, waar Maryland in groot stede ontbreek, maak dit uit in skoonheid. Maryland se geografie voel soos 'n uitstalling, 'n pragtige versameling van die mees asemrowende kenmerke van die Verenigde State. Die Chesapeake -baai oorheers die grootste deel van die oostelike deel van die staat, en daarmee saam kom sandstrande, tonne eilande wat versprei is, moerasse, inhamme en varswaterkruie. Maryland het ook twee bergreekse wat daardeur loop - die Blue Ridge Mountains en die Appalachian Mountains

As u 'n ware buitelugman (of vrou) is, oorweeg dit om 'n klein dorpie in Maryland, Thurmont, te besoek. Alhoewel dit slegs 'n klein bevolking van slegs 6 000 mense het, bied dit inwoners ongelooflike toegang tot die ongetemde skoonheid van Maryland.

Thurmont is in die middel van twee pragtige staatsparke, die Cunningham Falls State Park en die Catoctin Mountain Park, geleë. Die twee bied toegang tot die grootste waterval in Maryland en die pragtige Blue Ridge -berge.

En laastens, dit is waarskynlik die coolste ding wat jy die hele dag gelees het ... so Maryland het 'n eiland met die naam Assateague, waar 'n groot trop wilde ponies wild loop, op die gras smul en vars water drink en dinge doen wat wilde ponies doen. Na ons mening is dit alleen die moeite werd om na Maryland te spring.

Wat is die voor- en nadele om na Maryland te verhuis?

Maryland is nie perfek nie, en soos elke staat, het dit 'n groot deel van die voor- en nadele. Alhoewel ons u meer as bly is om u te help beweeg waarheen u ook al gaan, wil ons hê dat u gelukkig moet wees waar u volgende huis toe bel. Voordat u na Maryland verhuis, moet u dus oorweeg wat goed is met die staat en wat nie so wonderlik is nie.

3. Die voordele om in Maryland te woon ... naby aan ander groot stede en uiteenlopende kultuur.

Ons beskou ons graag as 'n glas halfvol tipe onderneming hier by Bellhops. Dus, ons begin eers hierdie gedeelte met die goeie dinge oor Maryland. Die staat Maryland, en meer spesifiek Baltimore, het 'n uitstekende ligging. Baltimore is slegs 30 minute se ry na Washington DC, dit is 'n uur se ry na Philadelphia, en dit is twee uur se ry na New York. Dus, in die eerste plek, is die ligging van Maryland 'n groot voordeel om in die staat te woon.

Maryland is ook die tuiste van 'n baie uiteenlopende kultuur. Omdat dit die Mason-Dixon-lyn omhels, is dit 'n soort deel van die suide. Maar met dit gesê, sal die meeste Marylanders vir u sê dat hulle Noordelikes is. Dit, tesame met 'n wye verskeidenheid etnisiteite, gee Maryland 'n fassinerende en baie aanvaarbare kultuur.

4. Die nadele van om in Maryland te woon, om dit reguit te sê ... dit is nie goedkoop nie.

Maryland is 'n baie welgestelde staat. Sommige koerante soos die Washington Post en US News beweer dat Maryland heel moontlik die rykste staat in die land kan wees. Volgens CNBC het Maryland die hoogste konsentrasie miljoenêrs in die land, met 1 uit 12 huishoudings ter waarde van $ 1 miljoen of meer. Ja. Ons moes dit ook 'n paar keer lees. Gek. Dus, natuurlik, met al hierdie geld kom hoër koste. Dit kan moeilik wees om na te dink hoeveel huisvesting in Maryland kos. As u 'n beskeie eenslaapkamerwoonstel wil hê, verwag u beter om $ 1,500+te betaal ... en die gemiddelde huur vir 'n huis in Maryland is $ 1,6000+.

As ons nog 'n voorsprong van die verskuiwing na Maryland sou noem, sou dit weer die opsies wees met betrekking tot stede. Ons wil nie 'n dooie perd hier slaan nie, maar dit is iets om van bewus te wees. As u 'n stad is, is dit beter om in Baltimore te woon, anders kan u beter 'n ander staat kies om huis toe te gaan.

Wys ons die geld, Maryland.

Goed, so ons het net terloops genoem dat 1 uit elke 12 Maryland -huishoudings $ 1 miljoen of meer werd is ... geen probleem nie. Met dit gesê, laat 'n mens wonder ... wat doen hierdie Marylanders om soveel geld te verdien? Kom ons kyk na die ekonomie van Maryland van naderby.

5. Maryland het 'n uitstekende ekonomie.

Maryland is 'n belaglike ryk staat met 'n gemiddelde huishoudelike inkomste van ongeveer $ 70,000. Howard County, geleë in Maryland, is die 11de rykste in die land. So, weereens, hoe?

Baie van die rykdom van Maryland kan aan die regering toegeskryf word. Aangesien die meeste van sy groot stede net 'n uur van Washington DC af geleë is, het die staat talle goed betaalde kontrakteurs wat direk met die Amerikaanse regering werk. Om nie te praat nie, die lugvaartbedryf in Maryland is verantwoordelik vir êrens in die omgewing van $ 814 miljard. So, dit maak ook nie 'n bietjie seer nie.

Met 4,8 uit 5 sterre op meer as 100,000 bewegings, kan u sê dat ons die beste in die onderneming is.

As u na Maryland verhuis, moet u hier woon.

Die grootste stad in Maryland het ongeveer 611 000 mense. Die tweede grootste stad tel 71 000 mense. Dus, as u op soek is na 'n groot stad, dan het u een opsie ...

6. Baltimore, die enigste opsie (maar tog 'n goeie opsie).

In 'n artikel gepubliseer in The Smithsonian, "How Baltimore Quietly Becoming the Next Cool City", kyk skrywer David Amsden weer na die plek waar hy gebore en grootgemaak is nadat hy byna twee dekades lank weg was.

Hy is verbaas om 'n stad te vind wat op baie maniere onherkenbaar is, en in ander baie herkenbaar is. Gedurende die dekade wat van 2000 tot 2010 strek, het die aantal professionele persone in Baltimore met 92%toegeneem. Soos ander stede wat ons al soveel keer genoem het--Chattanooga, Richmond en Austin-beleef Baltimore 'n soort mini-renaissance. Hulle het geword en word presies soos The Smithsonian dit beskryf ... East Coast's Next Cool City.

Ons kan u vertel om na Thurmont te verhuis omdat dit ongelooflik naby die mooiste natuurlandskappe van Maryland is. Ons kan u vertel om na Takoma Park te gaan om deel te wees van 'n liefdevolle en baie oop hippiegemeenskap, net 'n entjie van Washington DC af. Ons kan u vertel om na Frederick te verhuis vir sy maklike toegang tot vyf verskillende lughawens.

Maar ons dink dat Baltimore die stap is as u 'n jong professionele persoon wil wees wat deel wil wees van iets groter as uself.

Besluit u nog steeds om na Maryland te verhuis?

Verhuising is 'n moeilike besluit. Ons kry dit. Vertrou ons. Met dit gesê, is daar 'n paar goeie redes om Maryland tuis te noem. Die toegang tot die buitelug is ongeëwenaard. Dit spog met 'n belaglik sterk ekonomie. Dit is naby sommige van die grootste stede in die Verenigde State. En dit bied 'n kultuur wat u moet ervaar om ten volle te begryp.

Dit alles is egter gesê: as Maryland net nie vir u is nie, bedien ons tientalle en tientalle ander stede in die Verenigde State. Dus, maak nie saak waar u besluit om huis toe te bel nie, net nou dat ons alles in ons vermoë sal doen om die werklike bewegende deel die maklikste te maak.

Maar as u besluit om in te trek of na Maryland, moet asseblief nie huiwer om uit te reik nie. Ons koördineer plaaslike en langafstandvervoerdienste in Maryland, en ons help graag!


Alles wat u wou weet oor Maryland, geskiedenis, ekonomiese mense en meer - geskiedenis

Small Planet Communications, Inc. + Union Street 15, Lawrence, MA 01840 + (978) 794-2201 + Kontak

Gedurende die koloniale tyd het baie mense na die kolonies verhuis weens godsdienstige onverdraagsaamheid en vervolging. In Engeland het Henry VIII in die 1530's van die pous en die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk weggebreek. Vir 'n groot deel van die 1500's en 1600's, en selfs tot in die 1800's, het Engelse Katolieke vervolging ondergaan en ondergronds aanbid.

George Calvert en sy seuns, Cecilius (Cecil) en Leonard, het besluit om die kolonie Maryland in die New World te vestig as 'n toevlugsoord vir Katolieke vlugtelinge. Hulle het ook gehoop om rykdom te kry uit die ontwikkeling daarvan. Maryland se handves van 1632 het die Calverts tot feodale here en eienaars gemaak, met die besit en beheer van die rykdom, winste, grond en baie van die bestuur van die kolonie.

Terwyl Maryland inderdaad 'n veilige plek geword het vir vervolgde Katolieke om hulle te vestig, het baie protestante en puriteine ​​ook ander kolonies verlaat om hulle daar te vestig. Maryland het verskeur geraak deur godsdienstige wrywing en politieke stryd tussen katolieke en protestante. Teen 1649 het Maryland 'n wet aanvaar waarin godsdiensverdraagsaamheid belowe is - 'n baken in die koloniale Amerikaanse geskiedenis. Alhoewel godsdiensstryd in die koloniale Maryland sou voortduur, word dit oor die algemeen meer verdraagsaam as ander kolonies beskou.

Klik op die prentjie om 'n vergrote kaart van te sien
Maryland, 1634–1660.

Die eerste mense wat hulle in die huidige Maryland gevestig het, het meer as 10 000 jaar gelede aangekom. Hierdie Amerikaanse Indiese groepe het 'n nomadiese leefstyl geleef, jag en versamel. Ongeveer 1500 jaar gelede het hulle muurbal, boontjies en tabak begin verbou. Mettertyd het Amerikaanse Indiane in hierdie gebied die grootste deel van die jaar of selfs die hele jaar in dorpe begin bly. Die meeste van hierdie Amerikaanse Indiane was Woodland -Indiane wat 'n Algonkwiese taal gepraat het. Sommige van die belangrikste Amerikaanse Indiese stamme van Maryland ten tyde van die Europese nedersetting was die Piscataway, Yaocomaco (of Yeocomico), Shawneee, Accohannock, Nanticoke en Susquehannock. Europese nedersetting het hierdie gebied dramaties verander vir die Amerikaanse Indiese bevolking. Byvoorbeeld, in 1500, voor Europese kontak, was die bevolking van Amerikaanse Indiane in die omgewing van Chesapeakebaai ongeveer 24 000 mense. Teen 1650 het minder as 3000 Amerikaanse Indiane weens oorlog, siektes en migrasie in die Baai gebly.

Die Chesapeakebaai -gebied is vermoedelik eers in die vroeë 1500's deur Europeërs ondersoek. Die Engelse kaptein John Smith het hierdie streek later in die vroeë 1600's verken en in kaart gebring. Die kolonie Maryland is egter eers in 1632 gehuur of formeel gevestig tot 1634. Dit was oorspronklik bedoel deur sy eienaars, George Calvert - die eerste Lord Baltimore - en sy seun Cecilius (Cecil) - die tweede Lord Baltimore - om 'n toevlug te wees vir Engelse Katolieke en 'n bron van welvaart in die gesin.

George Calvert, Eerste Lord Baltimore.

Lees meer oor George Calvert's
Newfoundland kolonie, Avalon.

George Calvert het eers op volwassenheid 'n Katoliek geword. Hy was jare lank 'n prominente politikus. In 1617 word hy tot ridder geslaan en daarna in 1619 'n staatsekretaris aangewys. Toe Calvert aankondig dat hy hom in 1625 tot Katolisisme bekeer het, moes hy sy politieke posisie prysgee. Dieselfde jaar kry Calvert die titel Baron (Lord) Baltimore.

George Calvert se belangstelling in die New World het begin toe hy oortuig is om in die Virginia Company te belê. Hy het ook 'n belang in die New England -maatskappye gehad. Calvert het 'n eie klein nedersetting in Newfoundland begin, onder die naam Avalon. Toe hy sy kolonie in Newfoundland in 1627 besoek, vind hy die klimaat egter te streng vir enige hoop op 'n groot sukses om dit te ontwikkel. Daarbenewens het daar twis ontstaan ​​oor sy Rooms -Katolieke gebruike.

Op soek na grond met 'n warmer klimaat waar katolieke vrylik kon aanbid, het George Calvert in 1629 'n toelaag aangevra vir 'n stuk grond naby Virginia langs die noordelike Chesapeakebaai (huidige Maryland en Delaware). laat hom toe om hom daar te vestig weens sy Katolisisme. Hulle het ook probeer om hom te verhinder om 'n handves in enige Virginiese gebied te bekom. Calvert keer terug na Engeland en met sy seun het Cecil volhard in die verkryging van die nodige handves. George Calvert se dood het hom verhinder om die handves te sien wat op 20 Junie 1632 uitgereik is. Die handves verleen hom en sy erfgename in die boonste Chesapeake, Maryland ter ere van die koningin.

Calvert se handves, 'n eie handves, was sterk feodaal. Calvert en sy erfgename sou absolute here en eienaars wees. As eienaars van die kolonie kon hulle titels en gronde met hereregte verleen. Boonop kon hulle dorpe inkorporeer, lisensiehandel, regshowe skep, geld munt, en selfs 'n weermag oprig. Wat belasting en wetgewing betref, kon die eienaars egter slegs belasting invorder en wette opstel onderhewig aan die toestemming van die vrymanne van die kolonie. Hierdie laasgenoemde aspek van die handves van Maryland is nog 'n voorbeeld van demokrasie wat vroeg in die koloniale Amerika begin posvat het.

Calvert se erfgenaam, die tweede Lord Baltimore, Cecil Calvert, het die ekspedisie gereël om die kolonie te stig. Om politieke steun vir die handves in Engeland te verseker, het Cecil agtergebly en sy broer, Leonard, genoem om die ekspedisie te lei en as die eerste goewerneur van die kolonie te dien. In ooreenstemming met die wense van sy vader om godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid te bevorder en die finansiële sukses van die kolonie te verseker, het Cecil beide Katolieke en Protestante genooi om Maryland te vestig. Die meeste van die setlaars - ongeveer 140 in getal - was Protestante (so goed as wat ons uit die historiese rekords kan haal). Baie van hulle was bediendes. Die setlaars het ook ongeveer 20 here, sommige van hul vroue, en twee Katolieke priesters ingesluit.

Op 22 November 1633 het die setlaars aan boord van Cecil se twee skepe, die Ark en die Duif, het Cowes op die Isle of Wight, Engeland, verlaat na die Maryland -kolonie. Hulle het 'n suidelike roete gevolg deur stormweer te oorleef en selfs van mekaar geskei te wees. Toe stop hulle vir voorraad in die Wes -Indiese Eilande voordat hulle vroeg in Maart 1634 by Chesapeakebaai kom. Op 25 Maart 1634 roei die setlaars aan wal na 'n klein eiland, wat hulle St. Clement's noem, geleë in die monding van die Potomacrivier (deel van die waterbak van Chesapeakebaai). Hulle het dankie gesê en gehou wat beskou word as die eerste Katolieke mis in die Engelse kolonies. Hulle danksegging word nou gevier as Maryland Day, 'n staatsvakansie.

Na onderhandeling oor grond met twee plaaslike Amerikaanse Indiese stamme, die Piscataway en Yaocomaco, verhuis Leonard Calvert die setlaars na 'n beter plek vir 'n permanente nedersetting. Hierdie nuwe perseel was verder stroomaf van St. Clement's Island geleë, langs die oewers van 'n sytak van die Potomac, wat nou St Mary's River genoem word. Hier stig hulle hul nedersetting, wat hulle Saint Maries genoem het, of St. Mary's City - die eerste hoofstad van die kolonie Maryland. 'N Fort is gebou met verskeie kanonne bo -op. Aangesien die Yaocomaco -mense reeds 'n bietjie grond skoongemaak het, kon 'n mielie -oes vir voedsel verbou word. Tabak sou verbou word vir handel en uitvoer. Die eerste setlaars van Maryland het die foute van die eerste setlaars van Virginia vermy, met die fokus op boerdery en handel in plaas van goud te soek. Hulle het ook nuwe boerderytegnieke by die plaaslike Amerikaanse Indiane geleer.

HET JY GEWEET?
Calvert het die titel van die toelae verlaat
leeg op die handves toe hy
het dit aan die koning gegee om te teken. Die
koning ingevul die leeg met
"Terra Maria", wat vertaal word
na Maryland. Klik om meer te wete te kom
oor koningin Henrietta Maria,
naamgenoot van Maryland.

Lord Baltimore bied ruim voorwaardes vir grond in die nuwe kolonie. Die oorspronklike (manlike) setlaars wat op hul eie manier betaal het - en dié van vyf ander mans - is 'n toekenning van 2 000 hektaar beloof (diegene na 1635 sou 1 000 hektaar ontvang). Vir die mans wat minder as vyf mans gebring het, sou hulle 100 hektaar plus nog 100 vir elke man ontvang. 'N Getroude man het 100 hektaar vir homself ontvang, 'n ander honderd vir sy vrou en 50 vir elke kind jonger as 16 jaar.

Een van die vele noemenswaardige eerste setlaars van Maryland was Mathias de Sousa, wat op die Ark as 'n bediende dienaar van vader Andrew White, 'n Katolieke priester. De Sousa was waarskynlik van Afrika en Portugese afkoms. Hy word beskou as die eerste gratis Afro-Amerikaner wat in Maryland gewoon het, en het sy vryheid in 1638 verdien. De Sousa het daarna 'n pelshandelaar en matroos geword. In die vroeë 1640's is de Sousa verkies tot lid van die Maryland Assembly.

Teen die tyd dat de Sousa in die vergadering gestem het, het Maryland slawe van Afrikane oorgebring om die tabakvelde te bewerk. Tabak het die belangrikste kontantgewas van die vroeë koloniale Virginia en Maryland geword. Dit is selfs soms in die plek van geld gebruik. Die verbouing van tabak het egter meer arbeid vereis as wat deur bediendes voorsien kon word. As gevolg hiervan is 'n toenemende aantal slawe Afrikane na die tabakplantasies in Maryland gebring. Slawerny en tabak sou steeds 'n leidende rol speel in die geskiedenis en kultuur van die koloniale Maryland.

Alhoewel Engeland die pogings van Virginia om die voorkoming van die vestiging van die Maryland -kolonie teëgekeer het, het Lord Baltimore spoedig meer probleme ondervind met die Virginians toe Maryland gevestig raak. In 1631 het William Claiborne van Virginia 'n onafhanklike handelsstasie op Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay geskep. Claiborne het geweier om Lord Baltimore se jurisdiksie oor Kent Island te erken. Gevolglik het daar in 1635 gewapende konflik tussen die magte van Baltimore en Claiborne uitgebreek. Alhoewel Claiborne die stryd aangegaan het om Kent Island vir baie jare te behou - tot en met sy dood - het dit uiteindelik deel geword van Maryland.

Lees 'n biografie van Leonard
Calvert, eerste goewerneur van Maryland.

Toe 'n burgeroorlog in die 1640's tussen Katolieke en Protestante in Engeland losbars, het 'n gewelddadige tydperk in die geskiedenis van Maryland ook tot gevolg gehad. In 1645 het Richard Ingle, 'n Protestantse seekaptein, 'n opstand teen goewerneur Leonard Calvert gelei om die Protestante van Maryland te beskerm. Claiborne het Kent Island in beslag geneem, terwyl Ingle St. Mary's ingeneem het, wat goewerneur Calvert genoop het om toevlug te soek in Virginia. Hierdie gewapende konflik het bekend geword as Ingle's Rebellion en het ongeveer twee jaar geduur. Goewerneur Calvert het teruggekeer en die orde herstel, aangesien Ingle reeds gevlug het. Goewerneur Calvert sterf egter kort daarna, in 1647.

Toe goewerneur Leonard Calvert sterf, was Maryland steeds in beroering. Vanaf sy sterfbed het goewerneur Calvert Margaret Brent aangestel as die eksekuteur van sy boedel. Destyds was hierdie aanstelling van 'n vroulike eksekuteur ongewoon. Maar Margaret Brent was 'n uitsonderlike vrou van hierdie tye. Brent was afkomstig uit 'n familie van Engelse Katolieke heersers wat ongetroud gebly het in 'n land waar mans baie meer as vroue was. As 'n ongetroude vrou in Maryland het Brent haar eiendom besit en bestuur soos sy gedink het. Margaret se beslissende optrede om Leonard se sake op te los, veral in die afbetaling van Calvert se soldate wat naby muitery was, het gehelp om te verseker dat die nedersetting hierdie moeilike tye sou oorleef.

Asof hierdie dade nie opvallend genoeg was nie, is Brent miskien veral bekend vir haar verskyning voor die Maryland -vergadering. Op 21 Januarie 1648 vra Brent die vergadering om haar twee stemme toe te staan: een vir haarself as 'n grondeienaar en een as eksekuteur van goewerneur Calvert se boedel. Alhoewel haar versoek geweier is, word Brent dikwels beskou as die eerste suffragette van Amerika.

Om die godsdienstige onrus in Maryland in hierdie tyd verder te kalmeer, het lord Baltimore (Cecil Calvert) 'n protestant, William Stone, as goewerneur aangestel. Stone neem sy amp in 1649 aan en word die eerste protestantse goewerneur van Maryland. In dieselfde jaar is die koning Charles I van Engeland onthoof, en Lord Baltimore het 'n wetsontwerp gestuur vir godsdiensverdraagsaamheid, bekend as die 'Maryland Act betreffende godsdiens', wat dikwels die 'Act of Toleration' genoem word, maar miskien die bekendste as 'The Toleration' Daad." Lord Baltimore het gehoop om die godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid wat die kolonie sedert die begin gehad het, in die Maryland -wet in te stel. Aangesien die Maryland -vergadering ongeveer ewe verdeel was tussen Protestante en Katolieke, het lede 'n deel van die wetsontwerp herskryf om hul stempel daarop af te druk. Die vergadering neem toe die Wet op Verdraagsaamheid op 21 April 1649 in werking.

HET JY GEWEET?

Margaret Brent is soms
beskou as die eerste vrou
prokureur in Amerika. Sy was
betrokke by meer as 100 hofsake
- en hulle almal gewen het.

Die verdraagswet word beskou as 'n belangrike mylpaal in die koloniale Amerikaanse geskiedenis. Dit was 'n vroeë poging om te verseker dat die staat en die kerk geskei word. Alhoewel die wet aan die einde van die 1600's herroep sou word, het dit die Amerikaanse grondwet en die handves van regte beïnvloed - aangesien die eerste wysiging van die grondwet die skeiding tussen kerk en staat verseker.

Gedurende die volgende 50 jaar het godsdiens die koloniale Marylanders steeds verdeel. Op die spel was die eie stelsel van die Calverts. In 1649 het goewerneur Stone Puriteine ​​uit Virginia genooi om hulle in Maryland te vestig. Hulle stig Providence aan die Severnrivier, naby die huidige Annapolis. Die Puriteine ​​het die volgende paar jaar met Stone gesukkel om politieke mag. Die vergadering, wat nou deur Puriteine ​​beheer word, het anti-Katolieke wetgewing goedgekeur, asook ander wette wat godsdiensvryheid beperk. In Maart 1655 het Stone en 'n mag van ongeveer 100 soldate 'n onsuksesvolle poging aangewend om die regering in die Slag van die Severn te herower. Maryland sou nog etlike jare onder die beheer van die Puriteine ​​bly. Uiteindelik is hierdie godsdienstige en politieke stryd in Londen opgelos, maar net vir 'n tyd. Oliver Cromwell, wat nou in Engeland regeer het, het min simpatie met die uiterste optrede van die Maryland Puriteine. In 1657 is Lord Baltimore heraangestel as eienaar.

Tot in Engeland se glorieryke rewolusie van 1688, wat die Protestante William en Mary op die troon gebring het, het die eiendomsreg in Maryland meestal onbetwis gebly. Die kolonie het steeds gegroei, net soos die aantal slawe wat Afrikaners aan die plantasies laat werk het. Namate die aantal bediendes wat bereid was om na Maryland te kom, afneem, word die ekonomie van Maryland afhanklik van slawe -arbeid. In 1664 het die vergadering wette uitgevaardig wat slawerny amptelik toelaat en dit lewenslange toestand maak (in teenstelling met 'n bediende wat na 'n sekere aantal jare sy of haar vryheid verdien het).

Lees meer oor Cecil Calvert,
Tweede Here Baltimore.

Na die Glorious Revolution het die wrok wat die Protestante van Maryland teenoor die Katolieke leiers van die provinsie in St. Mary's City gehou het, tydens die Maryland Revolusie van 1689 gekook. In daardie jaar het John Coode, 'n balju van Charles County, en 'n groep protestantse rebelle die eie regering van die Calverts. William en Mary plaas Maryland daarna onder koninklike beheer, wat tot 1715 geduur het. In 1694–1695 is die hoofstad van die kolonie verskuif van die deur Katoliek gedomineerde St. Mary's City na die Protestant-gedomineerde Anne Arundel Town-en Annapolis vernoem na prinses Anne, die dogter van koningin Mary.

Alhoewel Maryland teruggekeer het na sy eie status-die vierde Lord Baltimore, Benedict Calvert, was 'n protestant-het die vergadering in 1718 Maryland se Katolieke ontneem, maar eers in 1776 het die Katolieke van Maryland weer 'n franchise gekry. Oor die algemeen bly Maryland 'n sentrum van die Amerikaanse katolisisme, grootliks deur die pogings van John Carroll. Carroll was born in Maryland in 1735 and was a cousin of Charles Carroll, one of Maryland's signers of the Declaration of Independence. In 1789, Carroll was named the first bishop in the United States, and he was also a founder of Georgetown University.

Maryland continued to grow during the 1700s. By then, most of the American Indians in the colony had been pushed out, killed in various conflicts, or died from diseases, such as smallpox. Some estimates suggest that less than 150 of the Piscataway population survived in Maryland by 1700. At about this time, it's also thought that only two tribes remained on Maryland's Eastern Shore, one being the Nanticoke.

Learn more about the day
the Mason-Dixon line was
formed by clicking here.

In 1729, Baltimore Town was chartered, becoming a major port and shipbuilding center. Although Baltimore did not officially become a city until 1796, the Continental Congress met there for a brief time in 1776–1777 after escaping the British in Philadelphia. During the Revolutionary War, Baltimore served as a major supply center. Baltimore was also home to a significant population of free African-Americans, even though enslaved Africans continued to be brought into Maryland during the 1700s. In Prince George's County, slaves made up over 50 percent of the county's population by the mid-1700s. Prince George's County, also called the tobacco county, was dependent on tobacco—and enslaved African-Americans for labor. In fact, Virginia and Maryland's economies were so dependent on tobacco, more than half of all slaves lived in these two colonies in the mid- to late 1700s.

One free African-American who lived most of his life on his family farm in Baltimore County was Benjamin Banneker, born in 1731. Banneker became a self-taught scientist and published a very popular series of almanacs, for which he calculated the tides, sunrises, and sunsets, and correctly predicted an eclipse. During the 1790s, Banneker played a leading role in planning Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.

As Maryland grew, it came into conflict with another growing colony on its northern border, Pennsylvania. The two colonies had been disputing their shared border for many years, almost since the founding of Pennsylvania in the late 1600s. Finally after years of failed negotiations, the matter was settled by an English court, which instructed two British astronomers and surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, to establish the border. From 1763 to 1767, Mason and Dixon trekked along a mostly wilderness area, surveying and setting stone markers (at set intervals, markers had an "M" or the Calvert coat-of-arms on the south-facing sides and a "P" or the Penn coat-of-arms on their north-facing sides). When they had completed their work, the Maryland-Pennsylvania border (and that of Maryland and Delaware) had finally been established. The Maryland-Pennsylvania border, which stretched for 233 miles, became better known as the Mason-Dixon line. This line divided the North from the South, slave states from free states, during the Civil War.

Maryland also played an important role in the French and Indian War of 1754–1763. Settlers of western Maryland, like other settlers of the early western frontier of Colonial America, came into conflict with the French and American Indians. In Maryland, two forts were built for protection: Fort Cumberland (now the City of Cumberland) and Fort Frederick (near Hancock). During this war, Fort Cumberland served as George Washington's headquarters for a time and as an important British staging and supply point. Fort Frederick also served as a supply center and was a unique frontier fort for its time, built with stone walls instead of the more typical wood and earth.

After the French and Indian War, Marylanders, like the other colonists, began to come into greater conflict with England over its policies. As a way to raise money to pay off England's war debts—and to pay for administering its colonies—the English government passed a series of acts in the 1760s and 1770s, such as the Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Act (1765), and the Tea Act (1773). One well-known opponent of the Stamp Act was Danial Dulany of Annapolis. Dulany wrote a popular pamphlet at the time, arguing for no taxation by England without colonial representation. Samuel Chase and William Paca, two of Maryland's four signers of the declaration of Independence, also led protests against the Stamp Act.

Although the Boston Tea Party may be the American colonies' most famous protest against the Tea Act, Maryland held two of its own tea parties in 1774. The first was in May in Chestertown, where colonists raided a tea ship during the day without any disguises. The second was in October in Annapolis, where the Peggy Stewart lay with her cargo of imported tea. The ship's owner, Anthony Stewart, had paid the tea tax even though Maryland voted to ban British imports in support of Boston, whose harbor had been closed. When a mob threatened Stewart (and his family), he agreed to burn the tea—and his ship.

As the American colonies moved closer to independence, Marylanders again played an important role. In addition to Chase and Paca, Charles Carroll and Thomas Stone also represented Maryland at the Continental Congress and were signers of the Declaration of Independence. Paca served three terms as Maryland's governor and as a federal district judge. Chase served as a justice of the United States Supreme Court. Stone died relatively young at age 44, shortly after the death of his beloved wife. Carroll was the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence, and he was the last surviving signer upon his death in 1832. For a time in late 1776 and early 1777, the Declaration of Independence was kept in Baltimore for safekeeping.


Pocahontas & John Smith

The well-known story of how Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, saved Captain John Smith's life very likely did not happen, at least not the way most people have heard it (and most certainly not the way the Disney animated movie told it), said Bridges.

Smith, who was elected president of the colony's council after most of the councilors died or became incapacitated, wrote that the colony depended on trade with friendly Powhatan in order to survive. Indeed, according to park ranger Bridges, when they weren't fighting each other, Powhatan's people often visited the settlers. The chief's daughter, about 10 years old at the time, was a frequent visitor to Jamestown, delivering messages from her father and bringing food and furs to trade for hatchets and trinkets, Bridges said.

She also liked to play, and would spend time turning cartwheels with the boys of the colony. Her name was actually Matoaka, and Pocahontas was a nickname meaning "Little Wanton," according to Historic Jamestowne.

Smith later wrote that at one point during an expedition in December 1607, he was captured and brought to Powhatan. He was first welcomed and offered a feast. Then he was grabbed and forced to stretch out on two large, flat stones. Indians stood over him with clubs as though ready to beat him to death if ordered. Suddenly, Pocahontas rushed in and took Smith's "head in her arms and laid her owne upon his to save him from death," wrote Smith. The girl then pulled him to his feet. Powhatan said that they were now friends, and he adopted Smith as his son, or a subordinate chief.

Smith's tale has become legend, and he romanticized it in later writings, according to Historic Jamestowne. Smith told the story only after Pocahontas converted to Christianity, and he didn't mention it in an earlier account of his adventures in Virginia. And if Smith's story is true, this mock "execution and salvation" ceremony was traditional with the Powhatan, and Pocahontas' actions were probably one part of a ritual.


Character of the city

Washington is an extraordinary city, one with multiple personalities: a working federal city, an international metropolis, a picturesque tourist destination, an unmatched treasury of the country’s history and artifacts, and a cosmopolitan centre that retains a neighbourly small-town ambience. The role Washington plays as the capital of the United States often overshadows its lively local history and its complex political, economic, and social issues. About half the land in Washington is owned by the U.S. government, which pays no taxes on it. Several hundred thousand people in the D.C. metropolitan area work for the federal government.

During the last half of the 20th century, “suburban flight” of the middle class contributed to the city’s loss of more than one-fourth of its population. As new jobs, especially those in the high-technology industries, were created in Maryland and Virginia, the population of the suburbs increased as much as 50 percent per decade. By the first decade of the 21st century, however, Washington’s population began to increase as younger workers moved into revitalized city neighbourhoods. Despite these shifts in population, the economies of the District and those of nearby Maryland and Virginia remain interdependent.


Black history is U.S. history — but some of my students don’t want to hear it

It’s happened ever since I began teaching as a graduate student in 1991. Most semesters in which I have taught a course related to U.S. history, the complaint appears at least once on my students’ course evaluations: “too much time on race.”

Whether at the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon, Duquesne, George Washington or University of Maryland University College, the refrain from this small but vocal minority has been the same. And a few students have gone further than just registering their complaints. In two of my upper-level courses on U.S. history since 1945 — which covers the Civil Rights movement, white flight and the neoconservative movement — I got the typical handful of complaints in my evaluations that I spent “too much time on race.” But two of those students also wrote that UMUC should fire me for it. This

A small but persistent minority of my students seem to want their U.S. history a certain way — the story of Europeans escaping political persecution and religious oppression for the pristine wilderness of the New World, of people building the greatest nation that has dominated the world with its military, its capitalism and its brand of democracy.

It’s not only possible to teach a U.S. history course like this, it’s normal. In many schools, teaching American history often means ignoring racism. A

On the only 8 percent of high school seniors identified slavery as the cause of the Civil War. It isn’t a surprise, then, when some of my students don’t know about slavery, migration or the connections between these central American constructions and how the U.S. developed over time. It doesn’t shock me that most of my students are baffled when I tell them not all whites were “white” when they immigrated to the United States, that the term was once restricted to Anglo-Saxon Protestants.

American history is the history of modern racism. Native Americans numbered around 10 million to 15 million in what would become British North America at the time of the Jamestown settlement in 1607. Diseases, wars, starvation and constant encroachment would reduce this population by 90 percent. White migrants and West Africans were used as indentured servants and slaves to make the colonies profitable through tobacco, rice and indigo. Eventually the connection between African skin and slavery was codified into state laws and the U.S. Constitution. The profits and products of slavery made industrialization possible, and supplied the United States and Europe with the cotton that would create modern capitalism. It was this system, so contradictory to American ideals, that led to a civil war that killed and maimed 1.1 million soldiers, civilians and sailors.

This is only U.S. history until 1865. There’s also Indian removal, the stealing of land from Mexican Americans in the Southwest, Southern and Eastern European immigrants and the idea that Irish, Italian, and Polish newcomers weren’t white (scientific racism), Jim Crow, lynchings, race riots, black migration, Mexican migration, the assimilation of white ethnics, the Harlem Renaissance and the civil rights movement. This list is hardly exhaustive, but its topics are the key ones in any U.S. history course. Race is critical to North Carolina and

The problem isn’t just general ignorance of this nation’s history of racism, as evinced by this student. It’s also about the willingness of many Americans to ignore this history. It’s their willingness to only see America one way, to only see Americans of color as subtext, a mere addition to a story mostly about rich and powerful white men.


For everything you've always wanted to know about Germany

to give context. I'm German but my partner is not. he gave me a heads up that one of his relatives might make some insensitive remarks about Nazis/Nazi Germany since I am German. I've never been in a situation like that before and I have honestly no clue how to handle that. Call him out? or just brush it off? I am not a person that likes conflict and I don't speak up for myself but I'm not sure if situation like that requires it.

Edit: Thank you so much for all your answers!! <3

Misspelled name on German driving license

Hi, I’m posting this to help a friend out. He finally received his converted German driving license after lots of red tape and waiting, but unfortunately there is a minor typo in his name… his name has double letters but they only printed one of them.

E.g. Garet instead of Garret or Hary instead of Harry

They are preparing a new one but it will take another month to arrive. In the meantime, can he just rent a car with the misspelled license instead of waiting another month?

25 20 14 19

ChaseApp - One Search. Any App.

Welcome to the Language Cafe! ☕️

This Discord server was created in order to bring together a small community of people who wish to teach and learn languages and help each other study. If you feel like this would be a place for you to develop yourself and find new friends, then join us using the link :)

Help with Plattdeutsch

I am a American, some of my ancestors emigrated from the Schleswig-Holstein area (Dithmarschen) to Iowa in the 1850s. I recently inherited a keepsake from my grandparent's 1991 trip to visit relatives that still living in the Ditschmarschen area.

It is a small cutting board/serving tray with fire-burnished writing and decoration, the writing is in plattdeutsch which I'm having difficulty translating. I understand a good deal of the individual words, but making sense of it is difficult.

Could anyone suggest a website to help or help with the translation itself. Text below, transcribed as best I could. Danke


What History’s Economy-Disrupting Outbreaks Can Teach Us About Coronavirus Panic

Y ou could ignore cholera as easy as you could ignore a case of arsenic poisoning, wrote historian Charles Rosenberg more than half a century ago. The disease&rsquos symptoms of severe diarrhea and spasmodic vomiting left the victim&rsquos &ldquoface blue and pinched, his extremities cold and darkened, the skin of his hands and feet drawn and puckered.&rdquo A person could be healthy and upright one moment and prostrate a moment later, as suddenly &ldquoas if knocked down with an axe.&rdquo

In 1832, the terrifying disease brought New York City, then home to a quarter million residents and one of the busiest ports in the world, to a standstill, striking panic in residents and wreaking havoc on the &ldquogreat commercial mart&rsquos&rdquo economy. It was not the first pandemic to bring the city&rsquos businesses to a halt, and it certainly would not be the last.

Now, the world is confronting the possibility of another disease causing severe financial disruption, as American cities from New York to San Francisco isolate and quarantine people, as some of their biggest employers encourage employees to work from home, and as the Dow rollercoasters in response to the spread of COVID-19. &ldquoThe virus and the measures that are being taken to contain it will surely weigh on economic activity, both here and abroad, for some time,&rdquo said Fed Chair Jerome H. Powell last week.

At a moment like this, looking back to the economic impact of the 1832 outbreak might be comforting&mdashbut the lesson of that time is more complicated than it may seem.

Back in 1832, anxious New Yorkers had watched for months as &ldquoAsiatic&rdquo cholera, which had originated in India, made its way across Russia and then Europe, terrorizing cities from St. Petersburg to London. Seven thousand had died in Berlin, New York papers reported, and the disease had claimed four percent of the population of Egypt. Late on a Monday night in June, New York health officials documented the city&rsquos first case. A week later, city doctors tallied nine cases. Just one had survived. Doctors pressed to make the news public, but the city&rsquos health board and mayor hesitated. The doctors, argued a prominent banker, clearly weren&rsquot thinking about what such an announcement would do to the city&rsquos businesses and trade.

But the very news that cholera was moving westward across the globe had already prompted New Yorkers, or at least those who could afford it, to leave the city in haste. By the day after the city&rsquos eight deaths were finally announced, the Evening Post reported that &ldquothe roads, in all directions, were lined with well-filled stage coaches, livery coaches, private vehicles and equestrians, all panic struck, fleeing.&rdquo

For city merchants, business did indeed dry up. One reported that he was the only one left on his street. A merchant&rsquos wife reported having to bake all her own bread as there was nothing to buy at city shops. The lively dry goods market on Pearl Street &ldquoappeared as still and gloomy as the Valley of the Shadow of Death,&rdquo wrote merchant John Pintard. City residents emptied their bank accounts in droves. On the Saturday after the first cases were announced, one bank paid out more than $20,000 to anxious clients.

Hotels wrote to the local papers asking them to run notices that they were cholera-free and open for business. &ldquoThe American Hotel,&rdquo the Evening Post dutifully reported, &ldquoneither has been nor will be closed.&rdquo But the paper added that a simple walk by the building showed it deserted of visitors and boarders. Wealthy Newport, R.I., meanwhile, drew an armed militia around itself, fearing refugees importing the disease from New York.

On the other hand, there were those who made money off the epidemic. Thirty miles outside New York City, country hotels and boarding houses filled to capacity. Back in town, doctors hiked their fees. Peddlers made hefty profits on dubious cholera cures. New jobs opened up, especially for nurses, night watchmen and construction workers, whom the city hired to clean up and build out New York&rsquos notoriously pestilent streets, long piled with household refuse and the excrement left behind by roaming hogs, goats and dogs.

Cholera, mercifully, was seasonal. As the summer waned, cases declined. By mid-August, the epidemic was &ldquogreatly diminished.&rdquo By the end of the month, residents began to return and businesses reopened. &ldquoThe stores are all opened, footwalks lined with bales and Boxes & streets crowded with carts & porters cars,&rdquo wrote Pintard, who went on to be a founder of the New-York Historical Society. &ldquoWhat a contrast with the middle of July.&rdquo

New York bounced back to normal, and its population and commerce continued to boom.

Cholera would visit the U.S. three more times before century was through, the last time in 1873. New York was much more populous by then, as was the U.S., but new scientific knowledge meant that the disease, by then known to be caused by a bacterium transmitted primarily through contaminated water, took a far, far smaller toll.

Still other pandemics followed, though, and the worst of them hit local, state and the national economies just as hard. Bubonic plague crossed the Pacific in the 1900, landing in San Francisco. The city, facing embargoes of goods from the rest of the state as well as neighboring ones, cordoned off Chinatown, whose residents later sued for $2 million in losses. The deadly 1918 flu arrived later, spread in the U.S. by a member of the military. Businesses in Little Rock, Ark., reported losing $10,000 a day. Tennessee shut its mines. When the &ldquoHong Kong&rdquo flu struck the U.S. in 1968, brought in by troops returning from Vietnam, the Dow lost more than 13.24%.

Just over a decade ago, the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis published a study of the economic effects of the 1918 flu, which killed roughly 675,000 people living in the U.S. the study&rsquos aim was to estimate the potential effects of a similarly deadly epidemic in modern times. Total economic losses due to the 1918 epidemic are difficult to estimate, but one thing was clear: after it ended, society recovered. As the study&rsquos author concluded, the flu changed individual lives forever, but the economy bounced back.

Historians, as Robert Peckham notes, tend to believe that &ldquoanalogies create blind spots.&rdquo Each epidemic takes place in its own context. The state of trade in New York in 1832&mdashas well as the city&rsquos infrastructure, wealth, poverty, graft and relationship to the rest of the world&mdashplayed a role in cholera&rsquos spread. The economy recovered then, and has many times since. At the same time, a number of historians credit medieval plague with a role in the collapse of feudalism and the rise of capitalism, so it is hard to generalize about the relationship between epidemics and economies. The national and global financial systems will still exist on the other side of a disease. But no amount of looking backward can tell us what they will look like then&mdashor what COVID-19 might be capable of changing.

Historici se perspektiewe op hoe die verlede die hede inlig


Best History Books Of All Time: 12 Essential Reads On Western Civilization

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You can't make sense of the present without understanding the series of events thought brought us here. My day job may be focused on entrepreneurial and innovative tech but outside of my 9-to-5, I'm a lover of history. That's why I’ve compiled for you my favorite history books about western civilization, including some of the bestselling history books of all time that are consistently reprinted and in demand, even if it was originally published more than a century ago. These reads will surely help you catch up on your world history. Here they are, in historical order:

Many call Henry VI the worst English king ever and it's tough to blame them. He lost the Hundred Years’ War to France and, through fiscal mismanagement and poor leadership, ushered in a civil war that ultimately tore apart the ruling classes and the Crown itself and led to the infamous War of the Roses. Despite his failures, Henry VI was also responsible for the founding of Eton College, King's College, Cambridge, and All Souls College, Oxford. Interesting times.

A history professor and host of the always educational and oftentimes hilarious podcast History Is Sexy, Southon paints a fascinating and terrifying portrait of the woman who was the daughter of the almost-emperor General Germanicus, the granddaughter of former emperor Augustus, the sister of the emperor Caligula as well holding the dual roles of niece and wife to the emperor Claudius (remember folks, it’s ancient Rome!). Forget Arianna Huffington, this woman had power! The book is not only a story of a supremely significant figure in Roman history, but a reminder that some women don't need a hashtag to get the respect they deserve. Look for Agrippina: The Most Extraordinary Woman of the Roman World in hardcover to be released in August.

Roman civilization arguably represents the highest (and the lowest) of human achievements. Will Durant, who is more known for his multi-volume Story of Civilization books of which this is a part, explores all aspects of the greatest empire ever, from its government to its culture, its wars, to its leaders and how religion ultimately became a dominating factor in the empire’s inevitable collapse. Most important, Durant's writing style is easy-to-read and keeps the reader engaged throughout the rise and fall of the Romans.

Sure, it's a novel. But as historical fiction goes this book ranks among the very best. Told from the viewpoints of five aristocratic families—Bezukhovs, the Bolkonskys, the Rostovs, the Kuragins, and the Drubetskoys, the book paints a stark picture of life in Russia and France during the mid-19 th century as France invaded, the Tsarist society reeled and Napoleon ruled.

At almost 1,100 pages, Paul Johnson's sweeping masterpiece tells the story of America from colonial times all the way through the last 20th century. He writes in a manner that only a British historian with an unmatched command of the English language and an unwavering dedication to free markets, capitalism—as well as an appreciation of all that this country was able to achieve and produce in its relatively short history. A former editor of the New Statesman, Johnson also contributed many fine columns to Forbes on world events and how the U.S. plays into them.

Broke in 1854 and a national hero just ten years later, the rags-to-riches story of Civil War general and two-term President Ulysses S. Grant captures the tumultuous times of the mid-nineteenth century in a gripping and realistic manner. Chernow weaves in unforgettable tales of Grant's rise to fame, his oftentimes brutal military techniques and his battles with alcohol and then corruption during his presidential terms into a narrative that only makes the reader—at least this reader—appreciate just how bad things were back then for this country and how relatively easy we have it today.

Ever wonder how the first World War really started? No, it wasn't all about the Archduke Ferdinand's assassination. It was brought on by the tensions that were growing for many years before that—much of it surrounded the enormous dreadnought warships that both England and Germany were turning out like meat pies and schnitzel during that period. The rulers of both countries (England's King George V and Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II) were obsessed with outdoing each other with a new weapon of war, and of course things didn't end well. Massie gives a textbook description as to how wars really start which is usually a combination of human error, large egos and lots of lots of stupidity.

As a white, middle-aged man I will never truly have an understanding of the type of racial challenges that African-Americans have endured in this country for hundreds of years and continue to endure. But after reading this autobiography, I learned about the despicable history of racism not only in America but throughout the world and I've come to better understand how thousands of years of prejudice and ignorance are slowly being changed by the likes of Malcolm X and other leaders like him

"The Second World War was among the most destructive conflicts in human history more than forty-six million soldiers and civilians perished, many in circumstances of prolonged and horrifying cruelty." Those are the first words in Gilbert's massive book about that massive confrontation, a book that never leaves the theme of death throughout its 928 pages. But this book cannot be read without Gilbert's masterpiece on Winston Churchill as a companion. Both histories will remind you of the reasons why countries should never go to war and the importance of great leadership for when they do.

The dropping of the Atomic Bomb was as an important event in human history as the reconstruction that took place immediately after the biggest conflict in human history. In this readable narrative, historian David McCullough explains how Harry Truman, a haberdasher from Kansas City who becomes the 33rd President, used his office to bring about the difficult transition to the nuclear age, while navigating the communist threat and launching America into the greatest economic expansion experienced by any country, ever. McCullough's book teaches how even a mild-mannered hat salesman can demonstrate great leadership and how that doesn't necessarily need great communication skills (he didn’t have them) or a bombastic personality (he didn’t have that either). It just needs common sense, something he did have.

What better way to understand the last part of the 20th century and the first decades of this century than to read an autobiography written by a woman who had a front-row seat to these as she and her husband traveled, studied, raised a family and then made their way all the to the White House? Michelle Obama gives a perspective on this current period of American history that few others can.



Kommentaar:

  1. Grokinos

    Dankie vir jou hulp in hierdie saak, hoe eenvoudiger hoe beter ...

  2. Tallon

    Ongelooflike onderwerp, ek hou daarvan)))))

  3. Healy

    Na my mening is jy nie reg nie. Ek is verseker. Kom ons bespreek dit. Skryf vir my in PM, ons sal kommunikeer.

  4. Jarren

    Het vinnig geantwoord :)



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