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Prudence Crandall

Prudence Crandall



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Prudence Crandall is op 3 September 1803 in Rhode Island gebore. Nadat sy by die Society of Friends -skool in Plainfield, Connecticut, opgelei is, het Crandall haar eie private akademie vir meisies in Canterbury gestig.

Die skool was 'n groot sukses totdat sy besluit het om 'n swart meisie op te neem. Toe Crandall, 'n toegewyde Quaker, weier om haar beleid om swart en wit studente saam op te voed, te verander, begin ouers hul kinders van die skool wegneem. Met die ondersteuning van William Lloyd Garrison en die Anti-Slavery Society, het Crandall in Maart 1833 'n skool vir swart meisies in Canterbury geopen.

Plaaslike mense was woedend oor Crandall se optrede en pogings is aangewend om te keer dat die skool noodsaaklike voorrade ontvang. Die skool het voortgegaan en meisies uit Boston en Philadelphia begin lok. Die plaaslike owerhede het toe 'n dwalingswet teen hierdie studente begin gebruik. Hierdie meisies kon nou tien wimpers geslaan word om die skool by te woon.

In 1834 het Connecticut 'n wet goedgekeur wat dit onwettig maak om gratis onderwys aan swart studente te bied. Toe Crandall weier om die wet te gehoorsaam, is sy gearresteer en in die tronk gesit. Crandall is skuldig bevind, maar het die saak in appèl gewen. Toe die nuus van die hofbeslissing Canterbury bereik, het 'n blanke skare die skool aangeval en die lewens van Crandall en haar studente bedreig. Crandall was bang dat die kinders dood of ernstig beseer sou word en besluit om haar skool te sluit.

In September 1834 verhuis Crandall na Illinois waar sy trou met Calvin Philleo, 'n Baptiste predikant. Prudence Crandall is op 28 Januarie 1890 in Elk Falls, Kansas, oorlede.


Prudence Crandall

Prudence Crandall is op 3 September 1803 in Hopkinton, RI, gebore uit 'n Quaker -gesin. Haar pa verhuis in 1813 na 'n plaas in Canterbury, Connecticut. gestig Canterbury Vroulike koshuis. Toe Sarah Harris, dogter van 'n gratis Afro -Amerikaanse boer in die omgewing, vra om toegelaat te word tot die skool om haar voor te berei vir die onderrig van ander Afro -Amerikaners, is sy aanvaar. Die inwoners van die stad het onmiddellik beswaar aangeteken en druk op Harris laat ontslaan.

Crandall was bekend met die afskaffingsbeweging en het William Lloyd Garrison daarvan gelees Bevryder. Gekonfronteer met die besluite van afkeuring in die stad, ontmoet sy afskaffingslede in Boston, Providence en New York om steun te kry vir die transformasie van die Canterbury -skool in 'n skool vir Afro -Amerikaanse meisies. Die Bevryder vir nuwe leerlinge geadverteer. In Februarie 1833 is die blanke leerlinge ontslaan, en teen April het 20 Afro -Amerikaanse meisies studeer. 'N Handelsboikot en ander teisterings van die skool het gevolg. Waarskuwings, dreigemente en gewelddade teen die skool het afkeurende resolusies van die stadsvergadering vervang.

Abolitioniste kom ter verdediging van Crandall en gebruik die kwessie as 'n standpunt teen die opposisie om die opvoeding van bevryde Afro -Amerikaners te bevorder. Ondanks aanvalle het die skool voortgegaan met die operasie. Op 24 Mei 1833 het die Connecticut -wetgewer 'n wet uitgevaardig wat so 'n skool met Afro -Amerikaners van buite die staat verbied, tensy dit die stad se toestemming gehad het, en kragtens hierdie wet is Crandall in Julie gearresteer. Sy is vir een nag in die tronk geplaas en daarna onder borgtog vrygelaat.

'N Bekende afskaffer, Arthur Tappan van New York, het geld verskaf om die bekwame prokureurs te huur om die onderwyser van die Quaker -skool te verdedig tydens haar verhoor, wat op 23 Augustus 1833 by die Windham County Court geopen is. wet aangaande die opvoeding van Afro -Amerikaners. Volgens die verdediging was Afro -Amerikaners burgers in ander state, dus in Connecticut en kon hulle nie hul regte ontneem word ingevolge die federale grondwet nie. Die vervolging ontken dat vrygelate Afro -Amerikaners burgers was. Die landdroshof het nie tot 'n besluit gekom nie. Hoewel 'n nuwe verhoor in die hooggeregshof teen die skool beslis het, toe die beslissing in appèl by die hooggeregshof kom, is die saak van die hand gewys weens gebrek aan bewyse.

Die geregtelike proses het die werking van die Canterbury -skool nie gestop nie, maar die inwoners van die stad teen die geweld het toegeneem en dit uiteindelik op 10 September 1834 gesluit. Crandall het op 4 September 1834 met 'n Baptiste -prediker, Calvin Philleo, getrou. haar na Ithaca, NY, en van daar is hulle na Illinois en uiteindelik na Elk Falls, Kans., Waar sy gewoon het tot haar dood op 28 Januarie 1890. In 1886 het die Connecticut -wetgewer haar 'n jaarlikse pensioen van $ 400 gestem.


Geskiedenis van Prudence Crandall Center

Prudence Crandall -sentrum vir vroue is gestig in Junie van 1973 deur 'n groep omgee en besorgde vroue wat 'n plek bedink het vir vroue om mekaar te ontmoet, te deel en te ondersteun. Die aanvanklike fokus van die sentrum was om die behoeftes van gesondheid, werk en maatskaplike dienste van vroue in die omgewing te identifiseer en hulle te bemagtig om aan alle aspekte van die gemeenskapslewe deel te neem.

PCCW was oorspronklik geleë in die kelder van die South Congregational Church in New Britain. Gedurende die eerste twee jaar van die sentrum het dit 'n verskeidenheid dienste aan vroue in die gemeenskap gebied, insluitend opleiding, 'n nuusbrief met die titel 'Nuwe begin', 'n ontmoetingsplek en ondersteuningsgroepe. 'N Opname is deur die sentrum gedoen met die titel "'n gevoel van heelheid". Die opname het dokumentasie gelewer dat vroue in die gemeenskap dringend noodbehuising nodig het, veral na egskeiding, skeiding of geweld in die huis.

Die eerste benadering was die oprigting van 'n 'Safe Home' netwerk waarin besorgde individue binne die gemeenskap gehawende vroue en hul kinders na hul huise geneem het om veilige toevlug te bied teen mishandeling. In Oktober van 1975 , is 'n woonstel met ses kamers in Nieu-Brittanje gehuur om tydelik skuiling aan mishandelde vroue en hul kinders te bied. Hierdie 'veilige woonstel' was baie belangrik, aangesien dit die eerste skuiling vir mishandelde vroue in Connecticut was. Dit was 'n historiese gebeurtenis vir die mishandelde vrouebeweging, wat die tweede mishandelde vroueskuiling in die Verenigde State was.

Uiteindelik het die behoefte aan skuiling die kapasiteit van die klein woonstel ver oortref, en Prudence Crandall Center het na groter woonbuurte begin soek. 'N Huis is in November aangekoop 1977 met 'n afbetaling verseker deur uitgebreide fondsinsamelingspogings in die private sektor. Die volgende jaar is 'n subsidie ​​van die Arbeidsdepartement in Connecticut verkry om 'n personeel van nege personeellede in diens te neem om saam met die inwoners van die skuiling te werk.

11 April, 1978 was nog 'n histories belangrike datum vir die sentrum. Die deure van die nuwe skuiling het amptelik vir die eerste keer oopgemaak. Die huis sou die gemeenskappe van New Britain, Bristol, Plymouth, Southington, Plainville en Berlyn bedien. Die huis met twaalf kamers het 'n maksimum kapasiteit van sestien vroue en kinders met 'n gemiddelde duur van dertig tot sestig dae. Onderdakdienste sluit in krisisintervensie, berading, inligting en verwysings, voorspraak, 'n 24-uur-blitslyn en 24-uur toegang tot noodskuiling. 'N Kinderontwikkelingsprogram en 'n voltydse kinderadvokaat is bygevoeg om aan die behoeftes van die kinders in die skuiling te voldoen.

In Junie van 1982 , Prudence Crandall Centre het 'n kantoor in die First Church of Christ Congregational in New Britain geopen om meer toeganklik te wees vir vroue in die gemeenskap en vir ander agentskappe in die omgewing. Die kantoorruimte het die sentrum in staat gestel om sy gemeenskapsopvoedingsdienste uit te brei en opleiding oor gesinsgeweld te bied. Hierdie kantoor was die administratiewe hoofkwartier en het 'n sentrum vir twee en dertig uur se beradingsdienste per week aan die New Britain-gemeenskap gebied.

In 1983 , is 'n kantoor in Bristol gevestig, wat vroue in die Bristol -omgewing alle dienste wat in New Britain beskikbaar was, aangebied het. Aanvanklik was die kantoor twintig uur per week beman. Tans is die kantoor veertig uur per week beman. Die kantoor in Bristol bied individuele berading, drie weeklikse ondersteuningsgroepe vir vroue en kinderkliente, benewens die blitslyn en skuiling.

Die 1986 die aanvaarding van die Wet op die voorkoming en reaksie op gesinsgeweld het gehawende vrouebeweging gehelp deur gesinsgeweld as 'n misdaad te stel, kriminele beskermingsbevele beskikbaar te stel en die volgende dag aanklagte beskikbaar te stel, wat die slagoffers van hierdie misdade baie help. Dit het ook posisies geskep en befonds vir advokate vir slagoffers wat op skuilings gebaseer is. In 1987 , Die Prudence Crandall -sentrum kon 'n voltydse slagofferadvokaat huur. Tans is daar drie slagofferadvokate, wat dit moontlik maak om 'n voltydse advokaat in New Britain, Bristol en Meriden Superior Courts te hê.

Gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid en opvoeding is noodsaaklike hulpmiddels om 'n samelewing sonder gesinsgeweld te skep. Die koördineerder van gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid is bygevoeg om vrywilligers te werf en die opleidingsprogram vir vrywilligers te organiseer/ontwikkel, wat ten minste twee keer per jaar aangebied word. Die koördineerder van gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid ontwikkel en bied ook werkswinkels aan oor huishoudelike geweldverwante onderwerpe wat aangepas is vir die gehoor van kinders, tieners, studente, professionele persone, sosiale/burgerlike groepe of geestelikes in ons hele diensgebied.

In Mei van 2002 , Die Prudence Crandall -sentrum het hul hoof administratiewe kantoor na Hartstraat 18 verskuif. Hierdie nuwe ligging bied meer ruimte en is reg langs die buslyn. Die Prudence Crandall-sentrum het tans tien voltydse werknemers, veertien deeltydse werknemers en twintig vrywilligers in diens, benewens die ontelbare aantal toegewyde gemeenskapslede wat ondersteuning bied in 'n verskeidenheid dienste, insluitend: verspreiding van lektuur, skenking van items en hulp aan fondsinsamelingspogings.

Vroeg 2003 ons naam is verander van Prudence Crandall Center for Women, Inc. na Prudence Crandall Center, Inc.. Hierdie besluit is geneem om die diversiteit van kliënte wat ons help beter te weerspieël, wat vroue, mans en kinders insluit. Saam met die naamsverandering het 'n verandering in ons logo gekom. Ons het besluit om 'n logo te herstel wat ons in die vroeë dae van die sentrum gebruik het om weer die belangrikheid van ons geskiedenis te erken.

Ook vroeg 2003, die Raad van Direkteure het 'n langtermynplan vir die agentskap goedgekeur. Hierdie plan fokus op alle gebiede van die sentrum en sal ons deur die volgende vyf jaar lei. Een van die hoofdoelwitte van die plan behels die ontwikkeling van 'n ondersteunende behuisingsprogram. Die dogters van Maria van die Onbevlekte Ontvangenis is genader om met ons saam te werk deur ons toe te laat om 'n gebou op hul eiendom te gebruik.

In Desember van 2003 ons het ons eerste befondsingsbevestiging ontvang om die ontwikkeling van die Prudence Crandall Center Rose Hill Campus -projek te ondersteun. Die Departement van Behuising en Stedelike Ontwikkeling (HUD) het die sentrum meer as 'n miljoen dollar toegeken om die ondersteunende behuisingsprogram te finansier. Ons het 'n kapitaalveldtog begin wat $ 8 miljoen ingesamel het en die opknappings van die Rose Hill -kampus voltooi het 2008 .

In Maart van 2009 die eerste gesinne het oorgegaan na die oorgangs- en langtermynbehuisingswoonstelle by Rose Hill. Ons droom het uiteindelik 'n werklikheid geword. Hierdie voorheen hawelose individue en gesinne het nou 'n veilige ondersteunende omgewing om hul lewens in 'n positiewe rigting te help verander.

Ons is trots op die manier waarop die agentskap gegroei het en net so trots op die manier waarop dit dieselfde gebly het. Ons het nog steeds 'n nuusbrief, 'New Beginnings', wat kwartaalliks versprei word. Ons bemagtig steeds ons kliënte om hul eie keuses te maak terwyl hulle hul lewenservarings respekteer. Ons glo steeds dat geen individu mishandel moet word nie en dat hulle nie in vrees hoef te lewe nie. Ons 40 jaar se vooruitgang gee ons die geleentheid om verhoogde dienste aan slagoffers van gesinsgeweld te lewer terwyl ons aan die behoeftes van 'n diverse gemeenskap voldoen.

Ons sal nie ons wortels of die stryd van ons stigters vergeet nie. Net soos in ons begin, bly ons toegewyd en streef ons daarna om 'n einde te maak aan geweld in die huise en lewens van alle vroue, mans en kinders. Ons werk en hoop saam met ons kliënte namens hulle en in hul geheue die dag dat ons ons deure sluit as gevolg van ons oorwinning in die uitskakeling van gesinsgeweld.


Prudence Crandall

Die staat Connecticut sluit trots aan by die staat Kansas om die lewenslange prestasies van Prudence Crandall, opvoeder en voorstander van menseregte, te vereer. Die moed en vasberadenheid van Crandall dien as voorbeelde van almal wat oënskynlik onoorkomelike kans het en vir diegene wat weier om beperk te word deur sosiale konvensies. Tot vandag toe bly haar pogings om gelykheid in die onderwys te bevorder, ongeëwenaard.

Die gebou wat die akademie van Crandall in Canterbury, Connecticut, gehuisves het, word in 1984 as 'n museum geopen en word bestuur deur die Connecticut Historical Commission. Die nasionale belangrikheid van die museum is in 1991 erken toe dit deur die Amerikaanse departement van binnelandse sake as 'n nasionale historiese baken aangewys is.

Opgerig deur burgers van die staat Connecticut.

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplyste gelys: Abolition & Underground RR & bull Afro -Amerikaners en bull Civil Rights & bull Education. 'N Belangrike historiese jaar vir hierdie inskrywing is 1984.

Ligging. 37 & deg 22.361 ′ N, 96 & deg 12.012 ′ W. Marker is in Elk Falls, Kansas, in Elk County. Marker is op die kruising van US 160 en Osage Street, aan die regterkant wanneer hy oos ry op US 160. Marker is langs 'n pad langs die pad. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoorgebied: Elk Falls KS 67345, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 6 ander merkers is binne

10 myl van hierdie merker, gemeet as die kraai vlieg. 'N Ander merker, ook genoem Prudence Crandall (hier, langs hierdie merker) Pershing / Praire Gem School House (ongeveer 0,3 myl weg) Elk Falls Pratt Truss Bridge (ongeveer 0,9 myl weg) Veterans Memorial (ongeveer 7,3 myl weg) Howard Klokke (ongeveer 7,6 myl weg) Benjamin F. Hobbs (ongeveer 9,7 myl weg).

Sien ook. . .
1. Prudence Crandall Biografie. (Voorgelê op 30 Julie 2012 deur William Fischer, Jr. van Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. Prudence Crandall Museum. (Voorgelê op 30 Julie 2012 deur William Fischer, Jr. van Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
3. Prudence Crandall: Woman of Courage. (Voorgelê op 30 Julie 2012 deur William Fischer, Jr. van Scranton, Pennsylvania.)


Prudence Crandall

Prudence Crandall is op 3 September 1803 in Hopkinton, Rhode Island, gebore. Crandall het die New England Friends & rsquo -kosskool in Providence bygewoon en 'n opleiding ontvang wat soortgelyk is aan die meeste mans, ondanks die feit dat hy 'n vrou was. In Oktober 1831 open Crandall 'n privaat meisiesakademie in Canterbury, Connecticut, en dit word gou een van die beste skole in die staat.

In 1833 het Crandall 'n Afro -Amerikaanse student met die naam Sarah Harris toegelaat. Ouers van die studente het geëis dat Crandell Harris moet verdryf. Crandell het die betogings geïgnoreer en Harris toegelaat om op skool te bly en haar opleiding voort te sit. Aangesien Crandell nie vir Harris geskors het nie, het ouers hul studente verwyder, en Crandell het eerder 'n skool vir Afro -Amerikaanse meisies georganiseer. Die skool het in April 1833 geopen en die inwoners het gereageer deur onbeskofte opmerkings te maak, klippe, eiers en mis te gooi en weier om die items wat sy nodig het om die skool te bestuur, aan Crandall te verkoop. Crandall moes noodgedwonge goedere van buite die stad laat stuur om haar skool aan die gang te hou. In 1833 het die gemeentelede van Canterbury gesprekke gevoer oor die sluiting van die Crandell & rsquos -skool, en in 'n stadsstemming gestem om die skool te protesteer. Ondanks die opposisie het Crandell & rsquos -skool aanvanklik floreer met die hulp van William Lloyd Garrison, die redakteur van Die Bevryder, wat advertensies vir die skool in die land se grootste koerant teen slawerny geplaas het.

In 1834 het die staat Connecticut die & ldquoBlack Law goedgekeur, en 'n wet wat bepaal het dat skole nie Afro -Amerikaners van buite die staat Connecticut kon onderrig nie. Crandall is gearresteer omdat hy die wet oortree het, maar die saak is later op 'n tegniese wyse omgekeer. Stadsmense het egter voortgegaan om Crandall en haar studente te teister, en na 'n gewelddadige skare -aanval wat die vensters en sommige van die meubels in haar skool vernietig het, het Crandall sy deure gesluit vir die veiligheid van haar studente.

Crandall is getroud met dominee Calvin Philleo en saam verhuis hulle na Illinois, waar Crandall studente van haar huis af onderrig en toesprake lewer oor vroue se stemreg en verdraagsaamheid. Philleo sterf in 1874 en Crandall verhuis na Elk Falls, Kansas om by haar broer te woon. In 1884 het die staat Connecticut 'n pensioen aan Crandall gestuur wat deur verskeie lede van Canterbury, Connecticut, versoek is. Crandall sterf 28 Januarie 1890 in Elk Falls, Kansas. Crandall was bekend daarvoor dat hy die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse skool in Amerika geopen het.

Inskrywing: Crandall, Prudence

Skrywer: Kansas Historical Society

Skrywer inligting: Die Kansas Historical Society is 'n staatsagentskap wat die staat se geskiedenis aktief beskerm en deel.

Datum geskep: Junie 2012

Datum gewysig: Januarie 2016

Die skrywer van hierdie artikel is alleen verantwoordelik vir die inhoud daarvan.

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Histories gepraat: Harris -susters is gekoppel aan Prudence Crandall se Canterbury -skool

Dit is nie verbasend dat Prudence Crandall haar lewe lank 'n vriendskap met Sarah Harris onderhou het nie, en later 'n briefwisseling met Mary Fayerweather, Sarah Harris Fayerweather en rsquos -dogter voortsit.

Sowel die Crandall- as die Harris -gesinne het te staan ​​gekom vir die opposisie van die gemeenskap toe Prudence Crandall Sarah Harris as 'n student in haar vroulike koshuis in Canterbury aanvaar het, en die bande wat tydens hierdie tydperk tussen die Crandall -vroue en die Harris -vroue gevorm is, weerspieël word in die lewens van verskeie Harris -susters.

Die Prudence Crandall Museum, die tuiste van die Canterbury Female Boarding School, is 'n nasionale historiese monument in Canterbury. In 1832 word Crandall, die wit skoolhoof van die Canterbury Female Boarding School, genader deur 'n jong Afro -Amerikaanse vrou met die naam Sarah Harris wat vra om die akademie by te woon.

Toe inwoners teen die integrasie van die skool en rsquos protesteer en ouers dreig om hul studente terug te trek, het Crandall haar skool gesluit en in 1833 heropen vir Afro -Amerikaanse studente. Haar studente kom uit verskeie state. Connecticut het gereageer deur die & ldquoBlack Law, & rdquo, te aanvaar, wat buitelandse Afro-Amerikaners verhinder het om in Connecticut-dorpe skool te gaan sonder die plaaslike stadsgoedkeuring. Crandall is gearresteer, het 'n nag in die tronk gesit en drie hofverhore onder oë gehad voordat die saak van die hand gewys is.

In September 1834 het 'n nagaanval die skool gesluit. Hierdie gebeure het in die 1830's nasionale en internasionale nuus gekry en die ontluikende afskaffingsbeweging gegalvaniseer. Crandall & rsquos -verhoor was die eerste sistemiese hofsaak vir Afro -Amerikaanse burgerskap, en het as presedent gedien vir Dred Scott, het 'n impak op Brown v. Topeka gehad en die raamwerk gelê vir die 14de wysiging van die Amerikaanse grondwet.

Sarah Harris, die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse student wat ingeskryf was by Crandall & rsquos Canterbury Female Boarding School, trou op 28 November 1833 met die smid George Fayerweather. Nadat hulle 'n geruime tyd in New London gewoon het, verhuis Sarah en George Fayerweather uiteindelik na Kingston, Rhode Island, waar George & rsquos gesin geleef het.

Sarah Fayerweather het 'n prominente lid van die afskaffingsgemeenskap geword, met besoeke van William Lloyd Garrison, 'n kruisvaarder teen slawerny en ondersteuner van die Crandall & rsquos-skool, en die afskaffer en redakteur Frederick Douglass. Die huis van Fayerweathers was 'n stop op die Underground Railroad, en Sarah Fayerweather het deelgeneem aan konvensies teen slawerny, wat groot vergaderings was waar mense wat teen slawerny gekant was, vergader het om sprekers te hoor, mense te ontmoet en politieke taktieke te beplan om slawerny te beëindig.

Op die oggend van 9 September 1834, ongeveer 15 uur voor die skare die skool aangeval het, het Sarah Fayerweather by haar huis geboorte geskenk aan haar eerste kind, 'n dogter wat sy vernoem het na haar onderwyser: Prudence Crandall Fayerweather. Sarah Fayerweather het haar lewe lank in kontak gebly met Prudence Crandall, en in 1877 het sy weswaarts na Kansas gereis om Crandall te besoek. Fayerweather is 'n jaar later dood, en 'n huidige gebou op die Universiteit van Rhode Island -kampus is vernoem na Sarah Harris Fayerweather.

Terwyl Sarah Harris oorspronklik die Prudence Crandall & rsquos -skool wou bywoon as onderwyseres, was dit haar jonger suster, Mary Harris, wat 'n bekende opvoeder geword het.

Mary Harris trou in 1845 met Pelleman Williams, 'n onderwyser uit Norwich. Hy was ook 'n afskaffer en dien as president van die Connecticut Convention of Colored Men in 1849. Saam gee hulle onderrig in Connecticut en later New York. Tydens die Burgeroorlog, in 1863, verhuis die Williamses suidwaarts na New Orleans, Louisiana, met hul drie kinders. Daar het hulle voorheen slawe -Afro -Amerikaners opgevoed en word hulle twee van die eerste professore aan die Straight College, nou bekend as die Dillard -universiteit. Pelleman Williams het die onderrigafdeling gelei en Mary Harris Williams het Engels geleer.

Hul seun, Arthur, het ook 'n opvoeder geword en is getroud met 'n onderwyser en skoolhoof, Sylvanie Francoz. Hul skoondogter Sylvanie Williams sou dieselfde vreesaanjaende ervaring ondergaan het dat 'n skool in 1899 deur 'n rassistiese en gewelddadige skare vernietig word. Mary Harris Williams sterf net voordat Sylvanie Williams haar skool herbou en heropen, maar net soos haar skoonma. , Williams het hard geveg vir die opvoedingsregte van Afro -Amerikaners. Verskeie skole in New Orleans is vernoem na Sylvanie Williams, en sy word vandag nog vereer as 'n vroeë aktivis vir Afro -Amerikaanse onderwys.

Maria Davis Harris (wat skoonsuster van Sarah Harris en Mary Harris geword het toe sy met Charles Harris in 'n dubbele troue met Sarah Harris en George Fayerweather getrou het) was regtig die eerste Afro-Amerikaner wat Crandall & rsquos-klasse bygewoon het. Maria Davis is deur Crandall aangestel as 'n huishoudelike assistent en is aangemoedig om tussendeur die lesse in te gaan. Dit was Maria Davis wat aan Crandall afskrifte van die afskaffingskoerant The Liberator verskaf het, wat sy van verloofde Charles Harris, 'n verspreider van die koerant, ontvang het. Dit is nie bekend of Sarah Harris Fayerweather of Maria Davis Harris klasse bygewoon het by die Canterbury Female Boarding School nadat hulle getroud is nie. Charles Harris keer later saam met sy vrou terug na Norwich en saam het hulle 'n suksesvolle restaurant bestuur.

Alhoewel daar geen afdoende bewyse is dat Olive Harris, jonger suster van Sarah en Mary Harris, die Canterbury Female Boarding School bygewoon het nie, bly dit 'n moontlikheid. Olive Harris was 10 jaar oud toe Sarah Harris toelating aangevra het, en sy het moontlik by haar ouer susters in die Crandall & rsquos -akademie aangesluit. Olive Harris trou in 1844 met Frederick Olney. Olney het in Canterbury gestop om 'n pakkie aan 'n student uit New York te gaan aflewer en saam met sy vriende, die pas getroude Charles en Maria Davis Harris, te gaan kuier. Terwyl hy 'n horlosie vir Crandall in 'n voorkamer herstel, het Olney ontdek dat die buitekant van die kamer aan die brand gesteek is. Hy het alarm gemaak en gehelp om die brand te blus. Later is hy gearresteer omdat hy die brand begin het, maar is vrygespreek, hoewel die ware skuldiges nooit gevind is nie. Frederick en Olive Harris Olney het hul hele lewe in Canterbury gebly.

Die jongste Harris -suster, en die laaste kind van William Monteflora en Sally Prentice Harris, het die naam Maria Crandall Harris gekry. Baie min is bekend oor die lewe van Maria Harris en haar lewe na haar geboortedatum op 9 Desember 1836 (twee jaar na die sluiting van die Canterbury -skool), maar haar middelnaam toon dat die verband tussen die Crandall- en Harris -gesinne bestaan ​​het.

In April vier die Otis -biblioteek die jaarlikse Harris Sisters -maand, en die Prudence Crandall -museum herdenk die wonderlike moed en werk van al die Harris -susters.

Historically Speaking, wat op Maandae verskyn, bied kort historiese verhale. Dit bevat onderwerpe wat verband hou met die geskiedenis van vroue en vroue in Norwich gedurende Maart, wanneer die vrouegeskiedenismaand gehou word. Joanie DiMartino is museumkurator by die Prudence Crandall Museum in Canterbury.


Eer aan 'n onderwyser wat vir gelykheid geveg het

Besoekers aan die klein Prudence Crandall -museum in Canterbury maak gereed om te leer oor 'n onbekende plaaslike bydrae tot die stryd om Amerikaanse burgerregte, of om een ​​wat hulle reeds ken, vir hulle te versterk.

Wat hulle moontlik nie besef wanneer hulle vertrek nie, is dat die verhaal van rasse-onrus wat hulle leer ken terwyl hulle die voormalige skoolhuis met 14 kamers besoek, steeds besig is om te ontrafel.

'Dit is aan die gang. Dit is nie 'n verhaal wat eindig nie, 'het sy kurator, Kazimiera Kozlowski, tydens 'n onlangse toer gesê.

Eerstens 'n inleiding: Prudence Crandall is die amptelike staatsheldin van Connecticut. In 1831 het Crandall, 'n onderwyser wat in die Quaker -tradisie grootgeword het, 'n privaat kosskool vir meisies in Canterbury geopen op aandrang van enkele prominente plaaslike gesinne. Die Canterbury Female Boarding School, soos Crandall dit genoem het, het die eerste groep studente, meisies uit die hoër middelklas, getrek van wie die ouers gehoop het om 'n beter opvoeding vir hulle te kry, uit die plaaslike gemeenskap. Die kurrikulum was ambisieus. In plaas daarvan om haar tienerjare tradisioneel vroulike vaardighede soos naaldwerk te leer, het Crandall chemie, aardrykskunde en oor die algemeen streng soorte kursusse aangebied by seunsskole in die middel van die 19de eeu.

Maar dit was die progressiewe gevoel van geregtigheid van Crandall, nie haar akademiese vrymoedigheid nie, wat haar in die moeilikheid gebring het met die gemeenskap en uiteindelik vir haar 'n museum met haar naam gekry het.

In 1833 word Crandall genader deur Sarah Harris, 'n 20-jarige Afro-Amerikaanse vrou wat 'n eie skool vir swart kinders wou oopmaak. Harris het Crandall gevra om haar as student toe te laat. Crandall, gelei deur haar Quaker -oortuigings sowel as deur liberale menings oor vroueregte en gelykheid tussen die rasse, het ja gesê.

Albei vroue was genoeg bewus van die plaaslike teenkanting teen gemengde rasse-privaatonderrig om te weet dat Harris se aanvaarding met woede teëgekom het. Maar hulle het volgehou, en Harris het ingeskryf. Tydsberekening was beduidend: slawerny en die rol van vrye swartes in die Amerikaanse samelewing het nasionaal steeds meer kwessies geword. Nadat Crandall deur 'n vrou van 'n plaaslike minister gewaarsku is dat haar skool gesluit sou word as Harris bywoon, het haar vasberadenheid om swart studente te help, nog sterker geword.

In kort bestel het Crandall haar voorneme aangekondig om swart meisies uitsluitlik te onderrig, hoewel Afro-Amerikaners slegs 7 persent van die bevolking van 2 000 uit Canterbury uitmaak (Canterbury is steeds oorwegend wit, het me. Kozlowski gesê).

Haar herontwerpte skool, "vir jong dames en klein kleure," het op 1 April 1833 geopen en was onmiddellik omstrede, veral onder inwoners van Canterbury wat woedend was dat een van die beste geboue in die stad, selfs tydelik, die tuiste sou wees van Afrika- Amerikaners.

Tog het meisies gekom. Begin Mei is 17 swart studente uit Philadelphia, New York, Providence, Boston en Connecticut ingeskryf, en Crandall se naam het internasionaal sinoniem geword met dapperheid en vermetelheid. Sy is in hegtenis geneem, gevangenisstraf opgelê en drie keer verhoor weens die oortreding van 'n staatswet wat die opgawe van 'n gekleurde persone verbied het.

Hoewel bekendheid en verlies van vryheid Crandall nie afgeskrik het nie, het die dreigende vooruitsig op gevaar vir haar studente dit wel gedoen. In 1834, met 20 meisies in die gebou, het 'n woedende skare die eerste verdieping deurval en die vensters van die vroulike koshuis Canterbury stukkend geslaan. Crandall het oorgegee en die skool in September gesluit.

As die verhaal van Prudence Crandall oud is, is die museum wat daarop gemik is om dit te vertel, relatief jonk. Die skoolhuis, wat in 1805 in die federale styl gebou is en in 1969 deur die staat Connecticut vir $ 70,000 gekoop is, het eers in 1984 amptelik 'n museum geword.

En tot in die middel van die negentigerjare het die gebou ruimte gedeel met plaaslike belangegroepe "vir basies alles wat hulle wou uitstal," het me. Kozlowski gesê.

Die museum fokus nou hoofsaaklik op Crandall. Dit lok 200 besoekers op 'n gemiddelde maand, baie van hulle in skoolgroepe, vir begeleide, uurlikse toere (selfgeleide toere is ook 'n opsie).

"Toe die museum in 1984 ingewy is, het ons nie geïnterpreteer en geleer soos ons nou is nie," het me. Kozlowski gesê. Tog is daar 'n manier om te gaan voordat die legende van Crandall, wat in 1803 gebore is en in 1890 gesterf het, een word wat die meeste Amerikaners kan noem, en erken: 'Die meeste mense het naamherkenning, maar hulle ken moontlik nie die volledige besonderhede van wat het hier gebeur."

Huidige verhaalgereedskap bevat 'n reproduksieportret van Crandall wat prominent in die gang gehang is met foto's en biografieë van voormalige studente en ondersteuners, soos Arthur Tappan, 'n leier in die evangeliese hervormingsbeweging en dokumente, insluitend die oorspronklike aankondiging van die opening van die skool in 1831 in The Brooklyn Advertiser, 'n plaaslike publikasie. Meubels uit die tyd help om te illustreer hoe die skool se binnekant tydens die werking daarvan sou gelyk het.

Uitstallings lok ook nuwe besoekers. Die mees onlangse kledingstuk, 'n spesifieke tydperk van die reproduksieperiode wat tipies is van wat 'n student soos Julia Williams, een van Boston-studente in Crandall, moontlik gedra het, 'is 'n manier waarop mense 'n idee kan kry van hoe die meisies werklik hier gewoon het,' het me. . Kozlowski gesê. Die rok, wat in 2013 vir die museum deur Lisa Joseph, 'n museumgids, toegewerk is, is oor 'n kleremaker se dummy in een van die twee voorste salonne van die museum aangebring. Aan sy voet is 'n kattebak vol voorrade wat Williams van die huis af kon bring: kouse, 'n draagbare skootrekenaar, 'n kers. Dokters en personeellede vroetel deur die items saam met kinders om die ervaring van die bywoning van die akademie te illustreer.

'Ons wou 'n uitstalling hê wat interaktief en ook kindervriendelik sou wees,' het me. Kozlowski gesê.

Williams is gekies as onderwerp vanweë die lang afstand wat sy van die huis af gereis het om die skool by te woon, en ook omdat die besonderhede van haar lewensreis een is wat deur die museum met hulp van onafhanklike navorsers saamgevoeg is.

Williams, wat in 1870 oorlede is, het aan die hoof van 'n skool vir meisies in Jamaika gegaan, waarheen sy as sendeling gereis het, en later saam met vrygelate slawe in Washington gewerk.

Die paaie wat die voormalige studente van Crandall afgelê het, word nog steeds deur navorsers in Canterbury en daarna opgespoor. 'N Klein biblioteek in die museum is vir hulle oop, en me. Kozlowski moedig aan dat sy bevindings bedoel as sy sê dat Crandall se verhaal' aan die gang is '.

'Daar is soveel wat ons nog nie weet nie,' het sy gesê.

Sometimes, “I’ll get a call with a new piece of information, some connection that’s been made,” she said. For example, this spring Afua Cooper, a history professor who is the Ruth Wynn Woodward Endowed Chair in Women’s Studies at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, called because she discovered that the wife of Henry Bibb, an African-American man she was studying, had attended the school.

“That’s how we know about Prudence’s student Mary Elizabeth Miles Bibb,” Ms. Kozlowski said. “And we’re still learning more. These are the kinds of things that give you goose bumps.”


(H)our History Lesson: Prudence Crandall, Sarah Harris, and a Struggle for Black Women’s Education

Portrait of Prudence Crandall painted by Francis Alexander, 1834. Courtesy Cornell University Library.

Inleiding

"Women's History to Teach Year-Round" provides manageable, interesting lessons that showcase women’s stories behind important historic sites. In this lesson, students explore the struggle to maintain a school for African-American women in Canterbury, Connecticut three decades before the Civil War.

This lesson was adapted by Talia Brenner and Katie McCarthy from the Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan, “From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans.” To find out more about this topic, explore the full lesson plan.

Grade Level Adapted For:

This lesson is intended for middle school learners but can easily be adapted for use by learners of all ages.

Lesson Objectives:

Examine how Prudence Crandall grew into an advocate for African-American rights.

Explain the ways in which Sarah Harris influenced Prudence Crandall’s activism.

Describe prevailing attitudes about race and education in New England in the early 1800s, and the steps some individual took to challenge them.

Cite specific textual evidence to support the analysis of primary sources.

Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose.

Prudence Crandall’s house, 2007. Courtesy Jerry Dougherty, WikiMedia Commons.

Inquiry Question:

What do you notice about this building? What do you think this building’s details can tell you about the person or people who lived here?

Agtergrond

The American South is not the only region of the United States with a legacy of slavery and racism. Northern states are also tied to this history. In Connecticut, the majority of African Americans were free by 1800 but the state did not fully end slavery until 1848. African Americans would not be recognized as U.S. citizens until after the Civil War. Many white citizens opposed slavery, but did not often believe that African Americans should have full legal rights. A large number of white New Englanders also profited from the slave trade and the manufacture of products created by enslaved labor. At this time, the popular colonizationist movement proposed that African Americans could never be part of the United States and should be forcibly returned to Africa.

Events in Canterbury, Connecticut, in the early 1830s brought racism to the forefront when a white teacher named Prudence Crandall admitted Sarah Harris, an African-American student, to her boarding school and subsequently opened a school for Black students. The town's angry and ultimately violent reaction gained national attention.

Prudence Crandall’s house, 2007. Courtesy Jerry Dougherty, WikiMedia Commons.

Lees

In the fall of 1831, the residents of Canterbury, Connecticut asked Prudence Crandall to open a private school for young women. Crandall was known as an excellent teacher. She had received a good education and taught successfully at local district schools. She agreed and paid the down payment on a mansion on the town’s green.

The Canterbury Female Boarding School was a success and a source of pride for the community. At the school, young white women learned reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geography, history, chemistry, astronomy, and moral philosophy. Students’ families could pay extra for instruction in drawing, painting, music, and French. With student tuition, Crandall was able to pay off the $1500 mortgage within a year.

Crandall practiced Quakerism. Quakers opposed slavery and promoted education for people of color. Yet Crandall was not strongly committed to fighting against racism, either. Marcia Davis, a Black woman who worked as a housekeeper in Crandall's home, and Davis' friend Sarah Harris educated Crandall on the realities of racism in the United States. Sarah Harris’ father was the local distributor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator. Marcia Davis would sometimes leave copies of the newspaper where she knew Crandall would find them. The Liberator promoted immediate abolition, a more radical idea than the gradual abolition that many white abolitionists supported.

In the fall of 1832, Sarah Harris asked Prudence Crandall to admit her to the Canterbury Boarding School. At the time, white and African-American children received a free elementary education at the district schools. Black children did not have access to schooling above the primary level, either in public or private schools. Harris had completed primary school and wanted to continue her education in order to become a teacher for Black students in her hometown of Norwich, Connecticut. Crandall agreed and Harris enrolled as a day student. By enrolling at Prudence Crandall’s academy, Sarah Harris integrated what had been an all-white school.

Most of Canterbury’s residents immediately objected. They were horrified that African-American women would be educated in their town. The parents of Crandall’s white students threatened to pull their daughters out of school if Harris remained as a student. Crandall was unwilling to expel Harris. She realized she must find some alternative to keep the school open.

In the spring of 1833, Crandall traveled to Boston to meet with William Lloyd Garrison. Garrison was an outspoken white abolitionist and the publisher of The Liberator. They discussed the possibility of reopening the school as an academy for African-American young women. With Garrison's assistance, Prudence Crandall traveled throughout New England to meet with upper-middle class Black families who might send their daughters to the school. She soon realized that the school could be successful. Newspaper advertisements announced that as of April 1, 1833, the academy would reopen to educate "young ladies and little misses of color." Enrollment soon rose to 24 students, most of whom were boarders. The school's curriculum was identical to that of Crandall's first Canterbury school.

Sarah Harris Fayerweather later in life. Courtesy Prudence Crandall Museum Collections, Department of Economic and Community Development, State of Connecticut.

Town residents responded with outrage, urging Crandall to abandon the project. When she refused, they organized a general boycott of the school. Both Crandall and her students endured constant harassment. Shopkeepers refused to sell them food and townspeople pelted the building with stones and eggs. The school's opponents even attempted to set the building on fire in January 1834.

Racist community members were so determined and so influential that, on May 24, 1833, the Connecticut General Assembly enacted a measure known as the Black Law. This act made it illegal for African Americans from outside the state to get an education in Connecticut without the town's permission.

Crandall believed that the Assembly's new law was immoral and constitutionally illegal. She ignored the law and continued to recruit and teach her students. She was arrested on June 27, 1833 and spent one night in jail for violating the Black Law. Crandall was found guilty at her trial in October 1833. Judge David Daggett ruled that African Americans were not citizens and therefore did not have the freedom to get an education. Crandall appealed the decision to Connecticut's Supreme Court. Throughout it all, she continued to operate her school.

The Black Law and Crandall's resistance to it sparked a year-long debate among New Englanders on the issues of abolition. The Liberator thundered against the injustice. Soon people living throughout the United States knew of Canterbury and Prudence Crandall. The conflict allowed abolitionists to show yet another example of racism in the United States. Leaders in the abolitionist movement helped Crandall recruit students for her school, gave her support, and provided for her financially.

On July 26, 1834, the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors dismissed the case against Crandall on a technical issue. She was free to keep running her school. The decision that African Americans were not protected as citizens, however, still remained. Although Crandall had won a technical legal victory, the residents of Canterbury would not accept the Supreme Court's decision. On the night of September 9, 1834, an angry mob broke in and ransacked the school building, breaking more than 90 windows. The mob terrorized the students with clubs and iron bars. Crandall had not been deterred by the Black Law and local backlash, but the threat of violence was too much. Fearing for the girls' safety, Crandall closed the school the following morning.

Prudence Crandall left Canterbury shortly after the school closed. She continued to be active in abolitionist circles, speaking at banquets sponsored by abolitionists and African-American societies. She also became an advocate for women’s suffrage. In 1848 Crandall moved to Illinois, where she taught school and farmed land owned by her father. In 1877 she moved to Elk Falls, Kansas, where she started a school that served Indigenous students.

Sarah Harris became an active abolitionist and a conductor on the Underground Railroad. She helped enslaved people journey to freedom.1 In 1877, she travelled to Kansas, a long journey at the time, to visit Prudence Crandall.2 The two also wrote letters to each other for updates about former students. At least five of the African-American students Crandall taught in Canterbury (Mary Harris, Miranda Glasko, Elizabeth N. Smith, Mary Elizabeth Miles, and Julia Williams) became teachers in African-American schools.3

In 1883, Mark Twain, a resident of Hartford, Connecticut, offered to buy Crandall her former home in Canterbury, but she declined the offer. Prudence Crandall died in Elk Falls, Kansas, in 1890 at the age of 87.

1 "Students at Prudence Crandall’s School for African-American Women: 1833 to 1834," CT.gov (November 2017), https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/DECD/Historic-Preservation/04_State_Museums/Prudence-Crandall-Museum/Black-Students-1833-1834.pdf?la=en, 1.
2 "Students at Prudence Crandall’s School for African-American Women: 1833 to 1834," 1.
3 "Students at Prudence Crandall’s School for African-American Women: 1833 to 1834," 1-4.

Besprekingsvrae

How did Marcia Davis and Sarah Harris teach Crandall about racism in the United States?

Why did Crandall close her school the first time? Why did she reopen it as an academy for Black women?

What risks did Crandall take once she reopened the school? What risks did her African-American students take?

Why do you think the events at Canterbury captured so much attention at the time?

Why do you think Prudence Crandall moved away from Canterbury after the school closed for the second time? Why do you think she declined Mark Twain’s offer?

What kind of legacy did Prudence Crandall leave behind?

Activities

Each of the following activities encourages participants to analyze primary sources to understand the lives and decisions of historical peoples. In the first activity, learners examine Prudence Crandall’s growth as an advocate for African-American rights. In the second activity, learners analyze a song by African-American students at Crandall’s school. Educators may choose to complete one or both of the following activities with their participants.

Activity 1: The Awakening of Prudence Crandall

Have participants read the following two documents and answer the questions below, working either individually or in small groups. Then, working either individually or in pairs, participants should create timelines showing what they believe were Prudence Crandall’s steps in becoming an advocate for African-American rights. For each point on their timelines, learners should cite a phrase or sentence from the documents as evidence. Afterwards, have participants present their timelines in small groups and discuss the differences between their chronologies.

Document 1: "Letter to the Windham County Advertiser (May 7, 1833)"
Crandall describes how her school for African-American students came to be. Document 1 was published in Fruits of Colonization (1833) and is available online at The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition.

Mr. Holbrook: Whatever reluctance I may feel to appear before the public, circumstance require that I should do so. After all that has been said in various newspapers, about me and my school and my friends it seems that I owe it to them and to myself to make a simple statement that you and others may know the object of my present school and also what first induced me to establish it and to exonerate my friends and myself from several unreasonable censures and misrepresentations that are in circulation.

A colored girl of respectability — a professor [believer] of religion — and daughter of honorable parents called on me sometime during the month of September last and said in a very earnest manner "Miss Crandall, I want to get a little more learning, if possible enough to teach colored children and if you will admit me to your school, I shall forever be under greatest obligation to you. If you think it will be the means of injuring you, I will not insist on the favor."

I did not answer her immediately, as I thought if I gave her permission some of my scholars might be disturbed. In further conversation with her however I found she had great anxiety to improve in learning.

Her repeated solicitations were more than my feelings could resist and I told her if I was injured on her account I would bear it — she might enter as one of my pupils. The girl had not long been under my instruction before I was informed by several persons that she must be removed or my school would be greatly injured.

This was unpleasant news for me to hear but I continued her in my school. Previous to any excitement concerning her there fell in my way several publications that contained many facts relative to the people of color of which I was entirely ignorant. My feelings began to awaken. I saw that the prejudice of whites against color was deep and inveterate. In my humble opinion it was the strongest if not the only chain that bound those heavy burdens on the wretched slaves, which we ourselves are not willing to touch with one of our fingers. I felt in my heart to adopt the language of the Sacred Preacher when He said — "So I turned to consider all the oppressions that are done under the sun and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter and on the side of their oppressors there was power but they had no comforter. Therefore I praised the dead that are already dead more than the living which are yet alive."

I said in my heart, here are my convictions. What shall I do? Shall I be inactive and permit prejudice, the mother of abominations, to remain undisturbed? Or shall I venture to enlist in the ranks of those who with the Sword of Truth dare hold combat with prevailing iniquity? I contemplated for a while the manner in which I might best serve the people of color. As wealth was not mine, I saw no other means of benefitting them, than by imparting to those of my own sex that were anxious to learn, all the instruction I might be able to give, however small the amount. This I deem my duty, how to perform it, I knew not.

Questions for Document 1

According to the first paragraph, why did Prudence Crandall write this letter?

Who is the “colored girl of respectability” that Crandall describes?

Why was Crandall hesitant to enroll her first African-American student?

For what reasons did Crandall agree to enroll the student? Note that Crandall writes, “Previous to any excitement concerning her…” at the beginning of the paragraph describing the publications she read.


Document 2: "Letter to Simeon Jocelyn (April 17, 1833)"
Crandall wrote this letter soon after she reopened her school for African-American students. Document 2 was published in "Abolition Letters Collected by Captain Arthur B. Spingarn," Journal of Negro History, vol. XVIII, 1933, p. 82-84, and is available online at The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition.

Canterbury, April 17th, 1833

Rev. S. S. Jocelyn
New Haven, Conn.

My very Dear Friend
Disappointment seems yet to be my lot. I have only two boarders and one day scholar — one girl is under warning to depart the town. Her accusation is that she is residing here against the peace of the state…

The thought of such opposition as has been raised in the minds of the people of Canterbury and the adjoining towns never once entered into my mind while contemplating the change I am now endeavoring to effect in my school. Very true I thought many of the high-minded worldly men would oppose the plan but that Christians would act so unwisely and conduct in a manner so outrageously was a thought distant from my view. I have put my hand to the plough and I will never no never look back — I trust God will help me keep this resolution for in Him only there is safety for mine own arm never brought salvation.

I have had in the Providence of God to pass through many trying seasons but place them all together they are of small moment compared with the present scene of adversity — yet in the midst of this affliction I am as happy as at any moment of my life…

If this school is crushed by inhuman laws another I suppose cannot be obtained, certainly one for white scholars can never be taught by me. As for myself I think I shall fare well enough — I have sufficient property in my hands to pay my debts — to work I am not ashamed and to beg I do not fear the necessity…

I have received a letter from that invaluable man A. Tappan today — he thinks it best to sustain the school where it is if it can be done without to great expense and if otherwise seek a place somewhere else — Mr. May yesterday received a letter from a friend of his informing him that in the town of Reading Mass. the people are willing to have my school established. Do not mention this to anyone until we get further information from that town…


Questions for Document 2

Was Crandall surprised about the amount of opposition the school received? Why do you think this was?

Why do you think Crandall said she would never again open a school for white students?

Why do you think Crandall was “as happy as at any moment of my life”?

What did Crandall say about the town of Reading, Massachusetts? Why do you think Crandall later decided not to reopen her school somewhere else after it was forced to close?

Activity 2: Analyzing a Song

Divide participants into small groups and have them read the song lyrics out loud. Participants should research any words or references that they do not know. Then, have learners answer the questions below. After participants have completed the questions, discuss the following:

Why do you think Prudence Crandall wrote this song?

What effect do you think it had on her supporters who visited the school?

Document 3: "Four little children here you see. "
Prudence Crandall composed this song for her students in June 1833. The students would sing it to supporters of the school when they visited. Document 3 is available online at The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition.

Four little children here you see
In modest dress appear.
Come listen to our song so sweet
And our complaints you'll hear.

'Tis here we came to learn to read
And write and cipher too.
But some in this enlightened land
Declare 'twill never do.

The morals of this favored town
Will be corrupted soon.
Therefore they strive with all their might
To drive us from our home.

Sometimes when we have walked the streets
Saluted we have been
By guns and drums and cow bells, too
And horns of polished tin.

With warnings, threats, and words severe
They visit us at times
And gladly would they send us off
To Africa's burning climes.

Our teacher too they put in jail
Fast held by bars and locks!
Did ere such persecution reign
Since Paul was in the stocks?

But we forgive, forgive the men
That persecute us so
May God in mercy save their souls
From everlasting woe!

Questions for Document 3

What is the main message of this song?

What examples of sarcasm can you find in the song lyrics?

What do the song lyrics mean by, “gladly would they send us off to Africa's burning climes”?

Why do you think the song lyrics said, “we forgive, forgive the men that persecute us so”?

1 "Students at Prudence Crandall’s School for African-American Women: 1833 to 1834," CT.gov (November 2017), https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/DECD/Historic-Preservation/04_State_Museums/Prudence-Crandall-Museum/Black-Students-1833-1834.pdf?la=en, 1.
2 "Students at Prudence Crandall’s School for African-American Women: 1833 to 1834," 1.
3 "Students at Prudence Crandall’s School for African-American Women: 1833 to 1834," 1-4.

Wrap-up:

After reading about Prudence Crandall and her students, what angles of this story are missing? What is the account that you think should be told?

What aspect of this story would like to explore more?

Why might this story be important to you or your community? How might it matter in a larger context?

How do you think Prudence Crandall, Sarah Harris, and Crandall’s other students felt at different times throughout their attempts to maintain the school? What was a time when you felt like that?

Are there times when you or people in your community have stood up to injustice?

Bykomende hulpbronne:

Adams, Ann-Marie (2010) The Origins of Sheff v. O’Neill: The Troubled Legacy of School Segregation in Connecticut. Available from Dissertations & Theses @ Howard University ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. See especially the chapter, "The Challenges of Black Education in Connecticut, 1820 - 1920"


Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute
The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute is an educational partnership between Yale University and the New Haven Public Schools designed to strengthen teaching and learning in schools. The Web site features curricular resources produced by teachers participating in Institute seminars.

The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition.
The Gilder Lehrman Center at Yale University provides a collection of online resources on slavery and freedom in New England that includes both primary and secondary resources.


Prudence Crandall

In 1831, Prudence Crandall, educator, emancipator, and human rights advocate, established a school which in 1833, became the first Black female academy in New England at Canterbury, Connecticut. This later action resulted in her arrest and imprisonment for violating the "Black Law."

Although she was later released on a technicality, the school was forced to close after being harassed and attacked by a mob. She moved with her husband Reverend Calvin Philleo to Illinois.

After her husband died in 1874, she and her brother moved to a farm near Elk Falls. Prudence taught throughout her long life and was an outspoken champion for equality of education and the rights of women. In 1886, supported by Mark Twain and others, an annuity was granted to her by the Connecticut Legislature. She purchased a house in Elk Falls where she died January 27, 1890.

Over a hundred years later, legal arguments used by her 1834 trial attorneys were submitted to the Supreme Court during their consideration of the historic civil rights case of Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education.

Erected by Kansas Historical Society and Kansas Department of Transportation. (Merkernommer 112.)

Onderwerpe en reekse. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Abolition & Underground RR

&bull African Americans &bull Civil Rights &bull Education. In addition, it is included in the Kansas Historical Society series list. A significant historical month for this entry is January 1901.

Ligging. 37° 22.362′ N, 96° 12.013′ W. Marker is in Elk Falls, Kansas, in Elk County. Marker is at the intersection of U.S. 160 and Osage Street, on the right when traveling east on U.S. 160. Marker is at a roadside pulloff. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in this post office area: Elk Falls KS 67345, United States of America. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. At least 6 other markers are within 10 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. A different marker also named Prudence Crandall (here, next to this marker) Pershing / Praire Gem School House (approx. 0.3 miles away) Elk Falls Pratt Truss Bridge (approx. 0.9 miles away) Veterans Memorial (approx. 7.3 miles away) Howard Bells (approx. 7.6 miles away) Benjamin F. Hobbs (approx. 9.7 miles away).

Related marker. Click here for another marker that is related to this marker.

Sien ook. . .
1. Prudence Crandall: Woman of Courage. (Submitted on July 30, 2012, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. Prudence Crandall Biography. (Submitted on July 30, 2012, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
3. Prudence Crandall Museum, Connecticut


Ongeveer

Our Mission: Prudence Crandall Center is dedicated to helping individuals achieve lives free of domestic violence by providing care, advocacy, support, and education.

Prudence Crandall Center is a 501(c) 3 tax qualified organization as defined by the Internal Revenue Service.

Service Area

At Prudence Crandall Center we provide a variety of programs, ranging from education to emergency services, and have countless opportunities for those wishing to contribute to our mission.

Our service area includes these Connecticut towns:

  • Berlyn
  • Bristol
  • Burlington
  • Kensington
  • Plainville
  • Plymouth
  • Nuwe Brittanje
  • Southington
  • Terryville

Geskiedenis

Prudence Crandall Center for Women was established in June of 1973 by a group women who had a vision of a place for women to meet, share, and support one another. The initial focus of the center was to identify the health, employment and social service needs of area women and empower them to participate in all aspects of community life.

In the Center’s first two years, PCCW offered a variety of services to women in the community including training, a newsletter entitled “New Beginnings,” a meeting place and support groups.

In October of 1975 a six-room apartment was rented in New Britain to provide temporary shelter to battered women and their children.

A house was purchased in November of 1977 with a down payment secured through extensive fundraising efforts in the private sector.

On April 11, 1978 PCCW officially opened the doors of the new shelter house.

In June of 1982 PCCW opened an office in downtown New Britain to be more accessible to women in the community and to other area agencies.

In 1983 an outreach office was established in Bristol that offered women in Bristol a 24-hour, toll free hotline and access to a trained counselor.

1986 brought the passage of the Family Violence Prevention and Response Act. This comprehensive legislation established family violence as a crime, making criminal protective orders and next day arraignments available which greatly assists victims of these crimes.

In May 2002 a move was made to new administrative offices at 18 Hart Street in New Britain. This location, conveniently located on the bus line, offers more space as our staff and services continue to grow.

In September 2008 we moved the Administrative Offices to the newly refurbished Rose Hill Campus at 594 Burritt Street, New Britain.

In March 2009 the dream of providing women and their children, who have been victims of domestic violence, a range of housing and support options that they need to be safe, healthy and maintain violence-free lives became a reality when the first families moved into the Rose Hill Supportive Housing Campus.


Kyk die video: PRUDENCE CRANDALL MUSEUM. Connecticuts Cultural Treasures (Augustus 2022).