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Slae van Trenton en Princeton

Slae van Trenton en Princeton



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Die Tweede Slag van Trenton

Geskiedenis
Downtown Trenton is een van die belangrikste slagvelde van die Revolusionêre Oorlog. Die straatnetwerk vandag is in wese dieselfde as toe dit in die middestad gedien het as 'n plek vir twee belangrike verbintenisse wat die kontinentale weermag die vloed van militêre konflik teen Britse en Hessiese magte laat draai het.

Die eerste slag van Trenton het die oggend van 26 Desember 1776 deur die strate gewaai vanaf die terrein van die Slagmonument tot by die Assunpink Creek, na Washington se gewaagde kruising van die Delaware -rivier op Kersnag. Die geveg het uitgeloop op die kapitulasie van Hessiese troepe naby hierdie plek waar kaptein von Biesenrodt die Regiment von Knyphausen aan brigade -generaal Arthur St. Clair oorgegee het.

Die Tweede Slag van Trenton, ook bekend as die Slag van die Assunpink, is deels geveg oor wat vandag Mill Hill Park is op 2 Januarie 1777. Washington het 'n Britse stoot die stad suksesvol afgeweer deur troepe op die suidelike oewer van die Assunpink Creek in te span. Die hoër grond wat deur die Amerikaanse magte beset is, kan vanaf hierdie teken gesien word deur suidwaarts oor die spruit en net anderkant South Broad Street Bridge te kyk. Meer as 5 000 Britse soldate onder bevel van Lord Cornwallis het probeer om oor die brug en die brug te dwing

spruit, in die gesig gestaar deur 'n aanslag van Amerikaanse geweervuur. Die Britte het ten minste drie pogings aangewend voordat hulle teruggetrek het.

Terwyl die Britte hergroepeer en 'n hernieude aanval vir die volgende dag beplan het, het Washington sy leër onder die dekmantel van duisternis na Princeton verskuif. By Princeton behaal Washington nog 'n oorwinning teen die Britse agterhoede, wat voorspel hoe vinnig Amerikaanse optrede uiteindelik die onafhanklikheidsoorlog sou wen.

Donderdag 2 Januarie 1777
1)

12:00 'n Reënerige nag – ongeveer 6.000 Amerikaanse troepe onder generaal George Washington laer langs die suidelike oewer van die Assunpink Creek met 'n uitsig oor Trenton. die bevel van generaal Charles Cornwallis.

07:00 Britse en Hessiese troepe, nadat hulle in die nag gemobiliseer het, het hulle in Princeton bymekaargekom en begin hulle in ‘n kolom vorm en begin die modderige opmars suidwes na Trenton langs die King's Highway na‘ n stadige begin 'n mag van ongeveer 9 000 man uiteindelik.

07:22 Die son kom op op ’n sagte en nat wintersdag.

09:30 Amerikaanse sluipskutters lok die Britse en Hessiese voorhoede naby die kruising van die Shipetaukin Creek, wat hul vordering vertraag.

11:00 Die eerste kontingent van Hessian Jgers en Britse ligte infanterie

bereik Maidenhead (Lawrenceville) en skermutselings met Amerikaanse plakkate naby Maidenhead Church – 'n berede jager in die agtervolging van Elias Hunt, ook te perd, word deur 'n geweervuur ​​voor die kerk doodgemaak.

12:00. Die belangrikste groep Britse en Hessiese troepe het Maidenhead bereik.

13:00 nm. 'N Amerikaanse mag van bykans 1 000 man onder kolonel Edward Hand teister Britse en Hessiese troepe by Five Mile Run en die Shabakunk Creek.

15:00. Vertraag deur Amerikaanse weerstand, is Britse en Hessiese troepe nog twee kilometer van Trenton af, terwyl daglig vinnig verdwyn.

04:00. Hand se magte hergroepeer by Stockton's Hollow, 'n half kilometer van die rand van Trenton, en weerstaan ​​nog 'n keer die daaropvolgende betrokkenheid van die #musiekmengsel vermeng met artillerie en vertraag die Britse en Hessiese opmars verder .

2)
16:30 'Minute voor sononder kom die Britte en Hessiërs uiteindelik in Trenton toe die Amerikaners terugtrek oor die brug oor die Assunpink by die Trenton Mills – John Rosbrugh, en gewapende Presbiteriaanse kapelaan met die Pennsylvania -milisie, laat die Blazing Star -taverne verlaat en word aan die voet van Kingstraat doodgebaai.

16:46 Die son sak en temperature daal tot onder die vriespunt.

3)
5:00 nm. Na herhaalde pogings om die Assunpink oor te steek

die Britte en Hessiërs word afgeweer deur Amerikaanse artillerie en vuurwapens en die brug het rooi soos bloed gelyk met hul [Britte] vermoor en gewond en rooi jasse. ”

17:30 nm. Cornwallis skort die aanranding op en die slagoffer in die geveg oor die Assunpink is ongeveer 350 Britse en Hessiese dood, gewond en gevang, ongeveer 50 Amerikaners dood of gewond.

4)
07:00. Amerikaanse Amerikaanse artillerie raak uiteindelik stil nadat hulle Britse en Hessiese troepe na die veiligheid van hoë terrein in die noorde van die stad in die omgewing van die plaas Beakes gelei het.

8:00 nm. Cornwallis en Washington hou elk oorlogsrade en Washington en sy offisiere vergader in die Alexander Douglass House in die moderne South Broad Street en besluit om oornag na Princeton te marsjeer vir 'n verrassende oggendoffensief en Cornwallis berei voor op 'n groot aanval die volgende dag oor die Assunpink.

22:00. Washington vertrek uit die New Jersey -milisie om brande te bou en laer op die suidelike oewer van die Assunpink, en berei Washington die kontinentale leër voor vir 'n sluimerende nagmars na Princeton.

5)
12:00 op Vrydag 3 Januarie met temperature naby 20 ° F en die grond wat vinnig vries, berei die Amerikaners voor om hul bagasie -trein na Burlington terug te trek en via agterpaaie te vertrek vir hul betaalde advertensie

dagaanval op Princeton.

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word gelys in hierdie onderwerplys: Oorlog, Amerikaanse rewolusionêr. 'N Beduidende historiese datum vir hierdie inskrywing is 2 Januarie 1777.

Ligging. 40 & deg 13.129 ′ N, 74 & deg 45.84 ′ W. Marker is in Trenton, New Jersey, in Mercer County. Marker is by die kruising van S Broadstraat en E Frontstraat, aan die regterkant wanneer u noordwaarts op S Broadstraat reis. Die merker is in Mill Hill Park. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoor: Trenton NJ 08608, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne loopafstand van hierdie merker. Mill Hill Park (hier, langs hierdie merker) Historiese sentrum van Trenton (hier, langs hierdie merker) Washington se triomfboog (binne skree afstand van hierdie merker) Mahlon Stacy's Gristmill (binne skree afstand van hierdie merker) Taylor Opera Huis (ongeveer 300 voet ver, gemeet in 'n direkte lyn) Mahlon Stacy's Grist Mill (ongeveer 300 voet weg) 'n ander merker, ook genoem The Second Battle of Trenton (ongeveer 300 voet weg) Old City Hall (ongeveer 500 voet weg) . Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in Trenton.

Meer oor hierdie merker. 'N Slagkaart van 1777 links bo op die merker toon troepebewegings en verskillende bakens van die Tweede Slag van Trenton.
'N Gedeelte van die skildery “George Washington na die Slag van Trenton ” deur Charles Willson Peale, 'n tekening van die “Battle of Assunpink ” deur John Benson Lossing, en 'n beeld van “General Lord Cornwallis deur Samuel Hollyer &# 8221 verskyn onderaan die merker.


Revolusionêre oorlogsgevegte van Trenton (26 Desember) en Princeton (3 Januarie) het die geskiedenis vir ewig verander, verduidelik historikus

Alhoewel 25 Desember wêreldwyd prominente godsdienstige en kulturele betekenis het, is dit relatief onbekend dat die volgende dag 'n groot historiese betekenis in die Verenigde State het, sê Andrew Shankman.

Die historikus van die Rutgers University - Camden verduidelik dat George Washington die oggend van 26 Desember 1776 die Delaware van Pennsylvania na New Jersey oorgesteek het - 'n beeld wat beroemd in Emanuel Leutze se skildery uitgebeeld is - en die kontinentale leër gelei het in 'n verrassingsaanval op die Hessiërs in die Slag van Trenton. Nog 'n belangrike stryd sou op 3 Januarie in Princeton plaasvind.

Volgens die professor in die geskiedenis het die veldslae weinig die vloed van die oorlog omgedraai, maar dit het 'n baie groter impak op die toekoms van die kontinentale weermag en uiteindelik die lot van die Verenigde State.

"Wat militêre prestasies betref, was die Slag van Trenton en die Slag van Princeton 'n paar dae later nie baie opvallend nie," verduidelik hy. "Maar om die kontinentale weermag te oortuig om in die veld te bly en mense 'n nasionale instelling te gee om byeen te kom en te ondersteun, was daar moontlik geen groter gevegte in die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse rewolusie nie."

Tot op daardie stadium, verduidelik Shankman, "gaan dit regtig, baie sleg" vir Washington en sy manne in 1776. Die Britse superieure magte slaag daarin om hulle uit New York, oor New Jersey, te stoot en uiteindelik aan die Pennsylvania -kant van die Delaware Rivier wat val. Gedurende daardie tyd was die mans-wat vir een jaar aangegaan het-besig om te verdwyn.

'Die moraal word nou baie sleg vir die kontinentale weermag, en hierdie eenjarige aanstellings onder Washington was op die punt,' sê die navorser van Rutgers-Camden.

Daar was ook 'n gevoel van nutteloosheid op die kontinentale kongres. Trouens, Thomas Jefferson het reeds 'n brief geskryf waarin gesê word dat die rebelle met die Britte moet probeer onderhandel vir die beste moontlike ooreenkoms.

Die stadium was toe gereed vir Washington om iets "heldhaftigs en gewaagd" te doen.

'Hy moes hierdie mans wat nog 'n jaar oorgebly het, oortuig,' sê Shankman. 'As die mans nie weer ingeskryf het nie, sou daar nie eens 'n leër gewees het nie en sou hulle die oorlog verloor.'

Maar dit was nie alles nie, hy sê dat die oorwinnings ook blywende gevolge sou hê om 'die harte en gedagtes van die mense te wen'.

Om verskillende redes, verduidelik hy, het New Jersey en Pennsylvania die grootste bevolking van potensiële lojalistiese of beheerde mense in die 13 kolonies gehad. Die handelaarsklas in Philadelphia was destyds baie afhanklik van die Britse Ryk. Terwyl die Britte die rebelleër oor New Jersey en na Pennsilvanië aangejaag en agtervolg het, versprei hulle 'lojaliteitseeds', wat onderteken is deur duisende plaaslike inwoners wat trou aan die koning sweer.

Kaart van New Jersey en Pennsylvania uit “Atlas of the Battles of the American Revolution, ” gedruk in 1845.

Na die gevegte tussen Trenton en Princeton, het die Britte besluit om van klein buiteposte in hierdie besette gebiede terug te trek, en die mense wat nie hierdie ede onderteken het nie, die kans gelaat om hul woede - en selfs haat - op die wat onderteken het, vry te laat.

'Wat dit in die toekoms beteken, is dat almal wat wankelrig of selfs lojalistiese gevoelens gehad het, baie minder bereid was om dit uit te spreek,' sê hy. 'Dit word baie belangrik, want dit verskuif die momentum na mense wat baie meer toegewyd was aan die onafhanklikheidsbeweging.'

Hoe sou die Amerikaanse rewolusie daar uitgesien het sonder hierdie deurslaggewende gevegte?

Shankman beweer dat die kontinentale leër in 1777 sou “ontbind” het. Boonop sou die Britte heel waarskynlik die Mid-Atlantiese gebied, waar baie mense lojaliteitseed onderteken het, beset het en dit weer na die ryk gebring het.

'Selfs as Virginia toegewyd bly aan die saak, sou daar 'n groot Britse basis wees wat die noordelike en suidelike streke verdeel het,' sê hy. 'Baie mense in die Mid-Atlantiese Oseaan sou die uitnodiging waarskynlik verwelkom het, en dan het ander mense dit moontlik versoen.'

Shankman merk verder op dat New York en Philadelphia ekonomies baie beter gevaar het as Boston. Omdat New York en Philadelphia hulp van die Britse Ryk ontvang het, sou die ongelykheid vererger het.

'Ek weet nie hoe lank Boston uit die ryk gesluit kon gewees het terwyl New York en Philadelphia toegelaat is om te floreer nie, maar waarskynlik onderhandel het om terug te kom,' sê hy.

So ironies, sê die navorser van die Rutgers -Camden, terwyl die gevegte van Trenton en Princeton weinig daartoe bygedra het om die verloop van die geveg te verander, maar dit het die loop van die geskiedenis verander.


Die geskiedenis van die Slag van Princeton

Thomas Clarke en sy suster, Sarah, het 'n koue, maar rustige dag op hul plaas tussen die klein dorpie Princeton en die groter stad Trenton verwag.

Die plaasveld glinster van ryp, maar kort daarna glinster die veld met die bajonette van Britse en Amerikaanse soldate in die belangrikste Slag van Princeton, toe die twee leërs onverwags kort na sonop op 3 Januarie 1777 vergader.

Terwyl hy op 3 Januarie in die veld in die Princeton Battlefield State Park gestaan ​​het - presies 244 jaar gelede - het Roger Williams die Slag van Princeton en die betekenis daarvan beskryf vir die ontluikende Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog, wat nog ses jaar sou duur.

Williams, wat die president is van die Princeton-Cranbury Chapter van die New Jersey Society of the Sons of the American Revolution en 'n lid van die Princeton Battlefield Society, het tydens 'n kranslegging gepreek om die Slag van Princeton te herdenk.

Op die koue dag in 1777 het Thomas en Sarah Clarke toegekyk hoe 'n lang rubriek soldate en militante van die Amerikaanse kontinentale weermag voor hul plaashuis in die rigting van Princeton marsjeer. Hulle het die hele nag van Trenton, ongeveer 12 myl daarvandaan, op 'n agterpad na die dorp opgeruk en 'n beplande aanval op 'n klein kontingent Britse troepe.

Die Amerikaanse soldate was koud, moeg en honger, het Williams gesê. Hulle het 'n reeks aanvalle deur Britse troepe onder bevel van Lord Cornwallis in Trenton op 2 Januarie 1777 suksesvol afgeweer in wat bekend geword het as die Tweede Slag van Trenton.

"Die Amerikaners het hulself suksesvol verdedig in 'n aandkanonade by die Assunpink Creek (in Trenton), wat die weg gebaan het vir hierdie stealth -oornagoptog rondom die oorweldigende en ervare mag van Cornwallis," het Williams gesê.

Wat die Amerikaners egter nie geweet het nie, was dat Cornwallis 'n beroep op versterkings gedoen het om na Trenton te marsjeer. Kol. Charles Mawhood en die Britse 4de brigade was op pad na Trenton toe hulle die Amerikaanse soldate sien marsjeer na Princeton.

Omdat Mawhood en sy troepe besef het dat die klein groepie Britse soldate wat hy in Princeton agtergelaat het, die gevaar loop om oorweldig te word, het hulle teruggedraai en begin marsjeer na Princeton om die Amerikaanse soldate te verlaat.

'Nie een van die twee partye het 'n plan opgestel om op hierdie velde te veg nie,' het Williams gesê.

Intussen het genl George Washington genl Hugh Mercer en 'n paar troepe gestuur om uit te vind wat hulle as 'n Britse patrollie beskou. Hy het in plaas daarvan die Britse troepe ontmoet in die veld naby die plaashuis in Clarke.

Mercer se gewere het op die Britse troepe geskiet, maar hulle het nie genoeg tyd gehad om weer te laai voordat die Britte hulle met bajonette reggekry het nie. Terwyl die bang Amerikaners versprei het, het Mercer probeer om hulle te hergroepeer totdat sy perd onder hom uitgeskiet is, het Williams gesê.

Mercer het voortgegaan om te voet te veg, maar het verskeie bajonetwonde opgedoen, het Williams gesê. 'N Britse soldaat het Mercer met sy muskiet aan die kant van die kop geslaan, terwyl Mercer se tweede bevelvoerder, kolonel John Haslet, op slag dood is toe hy in die kop geskiet is.

Washington, wat ongeveer 'n kwartmyl ver was, het die stryd sien afspeel. Hy het kolonel Edward Hand se gewere -regiment in Pennsylvania en 'n ander brigade gelei om by die stryd aan te gaan speel op die Clarke -plaasvelde. Dit was Hand se regiment wat Cornwallis en sy troepe vertraag het om vroeër die dag op 2 Januarie 1777 in Trenton aan te kom.

Die Amerikaners val Mawhood en sy troepe aan en dwing die Britte om terug te trek. Washington en sy soldate gaan voort op hul opmars na Princeton, waar hulle 'n klein aantal Britse troepe verslaan het.

Omdat hy nie 'n ander ontmoeting met die troepe van Cornwallis wou waag nie, het Washington en sy kontinentale weermag en milisieërs noordwaarts na Morristown opgeruk, waar hulle die winter deurgebring het, het Williams gesê.

Terug by die slagveld op die huidige Mercerweg, het verskeie Amerikaanse soldate Mercer opgetel en na die plaashuis van Clarke geneem. Thomas Clarke en sy suster het gewonde Britse en Amerikaanse soldate aanvaar en met die hulp van hul slaaf, Susannah, en weermagdokters probeer om hulle gesond te maak.

Ondanks die dokters se pogings sterf Mercer op 12 Januarie aan sy beserings.

'Die betekenis van die geveg wat 244 jaar gelede vanoggend (3 Januarie) hier plaasgevind het, kan nie oorbeklemtoon word nie,' het Williams gesê. 'Wat hier gebeur het, was die hoogtepunt van die tien belangrike dae wat die sielkundige toestande van die' tye wat manne se siele beproef het, omgekeer het. '

Die sogenaamde "Ten Crucial Days" is die tydperk tussen 25 Desember 1776, toe Washington en sy leër die Delaware-rivier oorgesteek het om die Hessiese troepe in die Eerste Slag van Trenton te verras, tot die Tweede Slag van Trenton op 2 Januarie. , 1777, en die Slag van Princeton die volgende dag.

Die tydperk van tien dae, waarin Washington en die Amerikaners geveg het en drie beslissende gevegte gewen het, het die soldate krag gegee en bewys dat die Amerikaners nog lank nie geslaan is nie, het Williams gesê. Dit het ook die afnemende reputasie van Washington as 'n militêre bevelvoerder omgekeer "in die gedagtes van beide politici en militêre leiers," het hy gesê.

Britse moraal, selfvertroue en aansien het gedaal in die nadraai van die gevegte, het Williams gesê. Die Britse en Hessiese reputasie vir onoorwinlikheid is verpletter as gevolg van die Amerikaners se reeks oorwinnings, het hy gesê.

'Ons is Amerikaners vanweë wat hier gebeur het,' het Williams gesê.

In 'n knipoog na die COVID-19-pandemie, wat die aantal deelnemers aan die herdenking beperk het, het Williams gesê dat 2020 'n jaar was wat 'ons siel probeer het'. Dit was 'n jaar van pyn en vir baie Amerikaners 'n jaar vol terreur en dood in 'n stryd teen 'n onsigbare vyand.

'Laat ons die vasberadenheid onthou van ons mede -Amerikaners - diegene wat vandag veg, en van ons voorouers wat hier op hierdie landbougrond geveg het. Hulle veg sodat ons afstammelinge trots kan wees op ons geskiedenis se helde, ”het Williams gesê. 'Laat die gees van Amerika seëvier.'

Toe die seremonie afgesluit het, het Rosemary Kelly, regent van die Princeton Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, tesourier van Princeton Battlefield Society, Thomas Pyle, burgemeester van Princeton, Mark Freda, en staatsraadslid Roy Freiman (D-Mercer/Somerset/Middlesex/Hunterdon) 'n krans by die Mercer Oak, waar gesê word dat Mercer geval het.


Klante resensies

Top resensies uit die Verenigde State

Kon nie resensies filtreer nie. Probeer asseblief weer later.

Een van die klassieke oor die geveg. Die enigste ding waarvan ek nie gehou het nie, was die manier waarop die oorspronklike prent van die bladsye horisontaal gestrek is om die
bladsye van hierdie druk van die boek. Dit het dit 'n bietjie moeilik gemaak om te lees.

Daar was 'n paar bladsye van die oorspronklike weergawe wat op die een of ander manier in my kopie ingesluip het, maar dit was makliker om te lees, hoewel dit nie die bladsy vol was nie.

Die gevegte van Trenton en Princeton. Skrywer, William S Stryker. 514 bladsye. 2001.

Hierdie boek is oorspronklik in 1898 gepubliseer en is eers herdruk in 'n beperkte produksieloop in 2001. Ek het myne in 2008 gekoop by die heropstelling van die Slag van Trenton by die geskenkwinkel in die Old Barracks Museum. Hulle is die uitgewers van die herdruk en daar was destyds miskien 20 oor. Die boek was een van die eerstes wat die aksie van alle kante uiteengesit het. Die skrywer het uitgebreide gebruik gemaak van openbare en private koerante aan weerskante van die oseaan, rekords, herinnerings aan inwoners en ander.

Die aandag van die skrywers maak hierdie een van die boeke wat die meeste verwys word oor die gevegte by Trenton en Princeton. Kry die meeste boek wat handel oor hierdie gebeure wat sedert 1900 gepubliseer is, en hierdie boek sal in die bibliografie verskyn. Selfs met die bykomende bronne wat sedert die skryf daarvan ontbloot is, is dit steeds 'n waardevolle boek, veral as u 'n paar van die oorspronklike brondokumente wil lees.

Die aanbieding of opmaak van die vertelling is nie so glad soos baie moderne boeke nie. Die vertelling spring van vyf tot tien bladsye van die een kant af en hul siening en optrede en dan terug na die ander kant vir hul sienings en optrede. Hierdie gebrek aan gladde objektiewe kontinuïteit wat alle kante in 'n enkele verhaal verweef, kan vir baie moderne lesers 'n probleem wees. Die konstante naasstelling kan lesers wat nie daaraan gewoond is nie, ontstel. Omdat die skrywer dikwels die akteurs vir hulself laat spreek, is die standpunt vanuit die perspektief van die akteur destyds en nie uit die verafgeleë historikus nie. Hierdie subjektiewe geskiedenis is ook in stryd met die meeste normale historiese geskrifte van ons era.

Soos dit geskryf is, word dit baie goed geskryf. Dit is geneig om bewegings van eenhede, aksies en reaksies van eenhede te gee, maar nie veel in terme van die ervaring van die mense in die eenhede nie. U kry 'n bietjie uit die letters, maar daar is 'n verbinding met die mense in die teks.

By die lees van die boek het ek gevoel dat die eerste slag van Trenton anti-klimaks lyk. Die geveg het ongeveer 1/3 van die ingang in die teks plaasgevind en pas by die teks ingeskakel. Voordat ek dit besef het ek gelees na aksieverslae van die geveg. Die tweede slag van Trenton en die daaropvolgende slag by Princeton het meer opbou en skeiding in die vertelling gehad, maar nie veel nie. Die bylaes bevat baie briewe en dokumente wat verband hou met die gevegte en die gebeure rondom hulle. Hierdie dokumente is interessant. Ek dink die skrywer was moontlik 'n bietjie te deeglik in sy aanbieding en die storievertelling het 'n bietjie verloor.

Dit is 'n goeie boek. Dit dien as verwysing vir die meeste boeke oor hierdie onderwerpe, maar die metode van aanbieding voel verouderd.


Slae van Trenton en Princeton - GESKIEDENIS

Plek: N.J. 583, suidelike rand van Princeton, Mercer County.

Eienaarskap en Administrasie (1961). Departement van Bewaring en Ekonomiese Ontwikkeling, Afdeling Bosse en Parke, staat New Jersey.

Betekenis. Die oorwinning van Washington op Princeton op 3 Januarie 1777, net soos in Trenton 'n week vroeër, het die moraal van die Amerikaanse weermag sowel as die van die burgers verhoog en die reputasie en gesag van Washington self versterk. Die tweelingoorwinnings van Trenton en Princeton het gekom op 'n tydstip toe die gees van die Amerikaanse volk 'n gevaarlike laagtepunt bereik het, toe 'n ander nederlaag noodlottig kon wees vir die oorsaak van onafhanklikheid. Die situasie het opgehelder met hierdie suksesse aan die einde van die jaar, en uit elke hoek het milisies na die kleure gestroom. 'N Nuwe kontinentale leër het ontstaan.

Na sy nederlaag van die Hessians by Trenton op 26 Desember 1776, keer Washington terug na die Pennsylvania -kant van die Delaware -rivier. Veilig oorkant het hy vasbeslote om die vyand weer te slaan en het die aand van 30 tot 31 Desember na New Jersey teruggekeer. Lord Charles Cornwallis, Britse bevelvoerder in New Jersey, neem 'n standpunt in teen Washington, wat met sy rug na die Delaware gestaan ​​het. In die vertroue dat die rebelle nie kon ontsnap nie, het Cornwallis besluit om tot die oggend te wag om die Amerikaners te tref. In 'n gewaagde maneuver het Washington in die nag weggeglip, agter in die Britse magte gekom, en vroeg op 3 Januarie twee Britse regimente getref, net uit Princeton verlaat om by Cornwallis aan te sluit. In die skerp geveg wat gevolg het, is verskeie Amerikaanse aanrandings in verwarring teruggegooi. 'N Tyd lank verskyn die weermag op die punt om te verslaan, maar Washington het sy magte bymekaargemaak en uiteindelik die vyand uit die veld verdryf. Een deel van die vyand het skuiling gesoek in Princeton se Nassau -saal, waar dit maklik gevang is. Die geveg van 15 minute by Princeton kos die Amerikaners 40 dood en gewond, insluitend genl Hugh Mercer, wat kort na die geveg aan wonde gesterf het.

Die "Mercer Oak" is die tradisionele plek waar genl Hugh Mercer dodelik gewond is in die Slag van Princeton, 3 Januarie 1777. (Met vergunning van die departement van bewaring en ekonomiese ontwikkeling in New Jersey.)

Huidige voorkoms (1961). Die toneel van die swaarste gevegte in die geveg word bewaar in 'n staatspark van 40 hektaar aan die suidelike rand van Princeton. 'N Pragtige eikeboom is die plek wat tradisie identifiseer as die plek waar generaal Mercer sy doodswond opgedoen het. Die Clarke -huis aan die rand van die slagveld was die toneel van Mercer se dood. 'N Gedenkboog aan die westelike rand van die veld dui die plek aan waar onbekende Amerikaanse dooies in ongemerkte grafte begrawe is. Die slagveld is omring deur stedelike behuising, maar vanweë die kleinskaalse aard van die aksie is die 40 hektaar groot veld wat nou bewaar word, voldoende om die toneel te beskerm. Die park is onontwikkeld en daar is nog geen poging om die aksie wat daar plaasgevind het op die veld te interpreteer nie. Van die plekke van die twee belangrike veldslae tussen Trenton en Princeton, bly slegs Princeton oor. Die toneel van die gevegte by Trenton is uitgewis deur die groei van die stad, hoewel 'n uitgebreide gerestoureerde en gewysigde kasernegebou uit 1759 nog steeds staan. [36]


10 feite oor die Slag van Princeton

Die Amerikaanse oorwinning in die Slag van Princeton (3 Januarie 1777) was een van die belangrikste gevolge van die Amerikaanse Revolusie. George Washington en sy soldate het noord van Trenton opgeruk en 'n Britse mag suid van die stad aangeval. Washington se oorwinning versterk die Amerikaanse moraal en bied groot vertroue aan sy soldate.

1. Washington het van die een vyand ontsnap om 'n ander in Princeton aan te val

Ondanks hul sukses om verskeie frontaanvalle by die Slag van Assunpink Creek (Slag van Tweede Trenton) op 2 Januarie 1777 af te weer, was genl George Washington en sy senior offisiere vervul met 'n gevoel van angs. Genl Charles Cornwallis en die leër van 8 000 veterane soldate was gereed om die volgende oggend 'n strafhou te gee. Die feit dat die Britte 'n waad ontdek het wat gelei het tot die kwesbare Amerikaanse regterflank, het die Amerikaanse posisie op die Assunpink Creek naby Trenton nog gevaarliker gemaak.

In plaas van om 'n nederlaag in Trenton te loop, het Washington in samewerking met sy senior offisiere ooreengekom op 'n gewaagde en gevaarlike plan. Daardie aand sou die kontinentale leër stilweg sy posisies langs die spruit verlaat en ooswaarts marsjeer, dan noordwaarts na Princeton. Met bedrieglike kampvure wat steeds langs die spruit brand, begin onbevreesde soldate in Washington met hul opmars van 18 myl deur die donker en bitter koue nag. Deur 'n optog op Cornwallis te steel, behou Washington die allerbelangrikste inisiatief en vermy elke beweging wat na terugtrek was. Die suksesvolle nagmars van Washington en rsquos op 2 en 3 Januarie 1777 word onthou as een van die groot flankoptogte in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

2. & ldquo 'n Baie intelligente jong heer & rdquo het Washington waardevolle intelligensie verskaf

Altyd honger na goeie intelligensie oor Britse posisies noord van die Delaware-rivier, het Washington op 12 Desember 1776 die militêre kolonel John Cadwalader beveel om inligting oor Britse magte en voornemens in te win. & ldquoSpaar geen moeite om die intelligensie van die vyand se bewegings en voornemens en hellip te bekom nie. Stuur elke stukkie intelligensie wat u opgemerk het, onmiddellik deur. & rdquo

Cadwalader & rsquos se intelligensiepogings het vrugte afgewerp in die vorm van 'n gedetailleerde, handgeskrewe kaart van die Britse posisies rondom Princeton, New Jersey. Cadwalader het hierdie gedetailleerde inligting ontvang van & ldquoa baie intelligente jong heer & rdquo wat pas uit die omgewing teruggekeer het. Cadwalader & rsquos -kaart bevat gedetailleerde inligting oor Britse werke, kanonne en magte. Die kaart bevat ook waardevolle inligting oor die padnetwerk rondom Princeton en bevat alle inligting wat Washington op 3 Januarie 1777 baie gebruik het.

3. Opponerende magte het mekaar amper gemis

Luitenant -kolonel Charles Mawhood, die Britse offisier in Princeton, is deur Cornwallis beveel om versterkings na sy posisie in Trenton te bring. Mawhood het 'n klein garnisoen in Princeton gelaat en het net na dagbreek met sy opmars langs die Postweg na Trenton begin. Washington en rsquos se noordelike marserende weermag het hoofsaaklik op 'n parallelle en minder bekende pad gery wat die Thomas Clark Farm oorgesteek het, en 'n pad wat grootliks buite die Postweg buite sig was. Agter die skedule het Washington 'n klein eenheid onder bevel van Hugh Mercer gestuur om die Stony Brook -brug langs die Postweg te gryp en te vernietig. Dit was hierdie afsondering wat die verkenners gesien het wat aan die kolom Mawhood en rsquos verbonde was. Mawhood, wat nou bewus was van 'n nuwe bedreiging naby Princeton, het sy mag omgedraai en Mercer op die Clarke Farm genader.

'N Mens kan jou voorstel wat sou gebeur het as hierdie toevallige ontmoeting nie plaasgevind het nie. Mawhood sou goed op pad na Trenton gewees het en Washington sou net 'n klein, kwesbare garnisoen by Princeton gevind het.

4. Lt. -kolonel Charles Mawhood het geveg met springer spaniels aan sy sy

Mercer & rsquos Amerikaanse mag het gou die opmars van soldate van twee Britse regimente gesien en die 17de en 55ste voet gevoer. Mawhood self kan binnekort bo -op sy & ldquobrown ponie & rdquo gesien word en met 'n paar van sy gunsteling spaniels langs hom. Soos David Hackett Fischer skryf, was & ldquo [Mawhood] verheug oor die vertoon van 'n hoogs ontwikkelde lug van nonchalansie, veral op die slagveld. matig op die velde by Princeton.

5. Baie Britse soldate het geglo dat hulle genl Washington tydens die geveg vermoor het

Tydens die openingsfases van die geveg het 'n bajonetvraging deur die Britse magte Hugh Mercer & rsquos Amerikaanse lyn naby 'n boordheininglyn op die Clarke Farm gebreek. Brig. Genl Hugh Mercer, 'n vriend van die Washingtons en 'n inwoner van Fredericksburg, Virginia, het probeer om sy bevel te hervorm, maar was gou omring deur woedende Britse stamgaste wat skreeu & ldquoSurrender you damn rebel! & Rdquo Mercer, 'n veteraan van Europese oorloë en 'n kwaai patriot , geweier om sy arms neer te lê. Na 'n kort gesukkel is Mercer herhaaldelik in bajonet gelaat en vir dood agtergelaat. Aangesien Mercer goed aangetrek was (in teenstelling met die lappe wat die meeste Amerikaanse soldate dra), 'n hooggeplaaste offisier, en geweier het om oor te gee, het baie Britse soldate geglo dat hulle Washington self doodgemaak het.

6. Washington was op 'n stadium net 30 meter van die Britse lyn af

Verhuis na versterking van Mercer & rsquos gebroke lyn Cadwalader & rsquos brigade van Pennsylvania milisie, Delaware en Philadelphia ligte infanterie, en 'n klein eenheid van mariniers en ndash het alles vertel oor 1 500 man - het na die Britte beweeg. Ondanks hul numeriese meerderwaardigheid, het die onervare Amerikaners onder die bestendige vuur van die Britse stamgaste begin terugval. Terwyl Cadwalader sy lyn hervorm, ry Washington langs 'n pragtige wit perd. Te midde van die vlieënde musketballetjies het Washington sy soldate koel verseker, en saam met ons, my dapper manne! Daar is maar 'n handjievol van die vyand en ons sal hulle direk hê! & Rdquo Washington het toe voortgegaan om die milisies van voor af te lei. Hy was op 'n stadium slegs 30 meter van die Britse line & ndash easy musket -reeks af. Na verneem word, het John Fitzgerald, een van die Washington & rsquos -beamptes, sy hoed oor sy oë getrek en verwag dat hy die generaal op enige oomblik uit die saal sou skiet. Despite his proximity, Washington remained uninjured and his galvanizing presence stabilized the American line at a critical moment in the battle. Soon Washington, along with fresh reinforcements, were chasing the remnants of Mawhood&rsquos broken force through the fields and woods.

Battle Map: Battle of Princeton, 8:20 am to 8:45 am

7. Marines fought alongside Washington at Princeton

After his arrival upon the Pennsylvania shore of the Delaware River, Washington sent out an urgent plea for reinforcement. One of the first contingents of soldiers to respond to this request were roughly 600 marines from the Philadelphia area. This force of marines had been recruited for duty aboard the various Continental warships now anchored near Philadelphia and were generally considered to be excellent fighters. The marine officers had seen active duty against the British onboard various vessels and their men had been occupied in daily drill and frequent skirmishes with British forces operating in the area.

Three companies of marines accompanied Washington&rsquos army on its nighttime march to Princeton. Moving with Cadwalader&rsquos Brigade into the fight, a few marines under the command of Major Samuel Nicholas, engaged Manhood&rsquos troops on the Clarke Farm. During the fierce fighting the Regulars several of the marines were killed in battle, including Captain William Shippin. These casualties were some of the first to be suffered by marines on any battlefield.

8. The final actions of the battle occurred on the Princeton campus

After the American victory on the Clarke Farm, the final military actions of the Battle of Princeton shifted towards the town itself. Roughly 200 British Regulars had fortified Nassau Hall at the center of what is Princeton University today. From this stout building, the British intended to use firing positions to hold off the Americans until a relief party arrived. The Americans positioned cannon around the building and soon began firing on the building and its occupants. Legend has it that one of the American cannonballs decapitated the portrait of King George II hanging inside the building &ndash a fearful omen that further spurred the British garrison to surrender.

Nassau Hall still stands at the center of Princeton University and one can still see upon its surface damage caused by the American fire. As for the portrait of King George? The original portrait was destroyed, but a different painting of King George II now hangs in the historic building opposite Peale's portrait of George Washington at Princeton.

Washington's World: Locate Nassau Hall and other Washington related sites in our Washington's World Interactive Map

9. The victory at Princeton rescued the Patriot cause from one of its darkest hours

The disastrous defeats in the 1776 New York Campaign and the precipitous retreat across the Delaware River had left the prospects for American independence in tatters. Rather than retreat to winter quarters as most on both sides of the Delaware River expected, Washington chose to attack in the dead of winter. Washington&rsquos victories at Trenton, the Assunpink Creek, and at Princeton completely reversed the fortunes of the Continental Army and the prospects for the young United States. Washington&rsquos victories and the effective guerrilla war waged in the New Jersey countryside forced Sir William Howe to retract the British lines back towards New York City - giving up much of the Jersey countryside that had been captured earlier.

Many look at the battles of Trenton and Princeton as small affairs, but these battles, combined with the tough winter campaigning sliced Howe&rsquos once mighty army in half. Howe&rsquos further requests for reinforcement left many in London aghast.

Washington&rsquos bold gambles and effective leadership had delivered the very sort of public confidence that Washington was keen to produce. Not only were the British and the Loyalists discouraged, but his own soldiers found newfound confidence that they could beat the very best that the British could put into the field.

Video: Rick Atkinson discusses the historical significance of the Battles of Second Trenton and Princeton (2:48)

10. George Washington at Princeton was wildly popular after its debut

Given how the news of Washington&rsquos victory at Princeton had electrified the nation, it&rsquos not surprising that the leading artists of the day hoped to capture Gen. Washington on canvas. Charles Willson Peale , Washington&rsquos most frequent portraitist and a Continental Army veteran who was at Princeton, finished his George Washington at Princeton painting in early 1779. The painting had been commissioned by the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania for its council chambers in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. After the painting&rsquos debut, there was a great clamor for replicas. It is estimated that Peale created 18 or more different replicas of the painting for clients as varied as King Louis XVI, the Spanish Court, and the island of Cuba. Today replicas can be found at Princeton University, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Colonial Williamsburg, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the US Senate. Each of these copies employs different sized canvases, updated uniforms, varied backgrounds, and other modifications.

In the original painting, now a part of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts collection, Washington leans upon the barrel of a captured cannon while Hessian and British flags lie at his feet. Washington is his blue and buff uniform with commander&rsquos sash looks confidently at the viewer while in the background one can make out Nassau Hall - the scene of the final moments of the battle.

Other Facts:

  • Weather: 21 degrees at 8am - "Fair & frosty." Some reported "shin deep snow" on the Clarke Farm battlefield.
  • Troop Strengths: American - 4,500 est. with 35 artillery pieces. British - 1,200 est. with 6 to 9 artillery pieces.
  • Casualties: Exact numbers are not known and estimates vary. Fischer reports 232 killed and wounded for the British with maybe another 200 to 300 captured. American losses were likely 31-37 killed, upwards of 37 wounded, and 1 captured.
  • At the time of the battle, Princeton University was known as the College of New Jersey. The name was changed to Princeton University in 1896.
  • The Continental Congress convened in Nassau Hall from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. Congress moved here from Philadelphia to avoid the risk of mutinous Continental army officers in and near Philadelphia.

Fischer, David Hackett. Washington's Crossing. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Lengel, Edward G. General George Washington: A Military Life. New York: Random House, 2005.

Edwin N. McClellan and John H. Craige. Marines in the Battles of Trenton and Princeton, 1921.


Inhoud

Victories at Trenton Edit

On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, led 2,400 men across the Delaware River. [10] After a nine-mile march, they seized the town of Trenton on the morning of December 26, killing or wounding over 100 Hessians and capturing 900 more. Soon after capturing the town, Washington led the army back across the Delaware into Pennsylvania. [11] On December 29, Washington once again led the army across the river and established a defensive position at Trenton. On December 31, Washington appealed to his men, whose enlistments expired at the end of the year, "Stay for just six more weeks for an extra bounty of ten dollars." His appeal worked, and most of the men agreed to stay. [12] Also that day, Washington learned that Congress had voted to give him wide-ranging powers for six months that are often described as dictatorial. [13]

In response to the loss at Trenton, General Cornwallis left New York City and reassembled a British force of more than 9,000 at Princeton to oppose Washington. Leaving 1,200 men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Mawhood at Princeton, Cornwallis left Princeton on January 2 in command of 8,000 men to attack Washington's army of 6,000 troops. [14] Washington sent troops to skirmish with the approaching British to delay their advance. It was almost nightfall by the time the British reached Trenton. After three failed attempts to cross the bridge over the Assunpink Creek, beyond which were the primary American defenses, Cornwallis called off the attack until the next day. [15]

Evacuation Edit

During the night, Washington called a council of war and asked his officers whether they should stand and fight, attempt to cross the river somewhere, or take the back roads to attack Princeton. Although the idea had already occurred to Washington, he learned from Arthur St. Clair and John Cadwalader that his plan to attack Princeton was indeed possible. Two intelligence collection efforts, both of which came to fruition at the end of December 1776, supported such a surprise attack. After consulting with his officers, they agreed that the best option was to attack Princeton. [16]

Washington ordered that the excess baggage be taken to Burlington where it could be sent to Pennsylvania. The ground had frozen, making it possible to move the artillery without it sinking into the ground. By midnight, the plan was complete, with the baggage on its way to Burlington and the guns wrapped in heavy cloth to stifle noise and prevent the British from learning of the evacuation. Washington left 500 men behind with two cannon to patrol, keep the fires burning, and to work with picks and shovels to make the British think that they were digging in. Before dawn, these men were to join up with the main army. [17]

By 2:00 am, the entire army was in motion roughly along Quaker Bridge Road through what is now Hamilton Township. The men were ordered to march with silence. Along the way, a rumor was spread that they were surrounded, and some frightened militiamen fled for Philadelphia. The march was difficult, as some of the route ran through thick woods and it was icy, causing horses to slip and men to break through ice on ponds. [18]

Plan of attack Edit

As dawn came, the army approached a stream called Stony Brook. The road the army took followed Stony Brook for a mile farther until it intersected the Post Road from Trenton to Princeton. However, off to the right of this road, there was an unused road which crossed the farmland of Thomas Clark. The road was not visible from the Post Road and ran through cleared land to a stretch from which the town could be entered at any point because the British had left it undefended. [19]

However, Washington was running behind schedule as he had planned to attack and capture the British outposts before dawn and capture the garrison shortly afterward. By the time dawn broke he was still two miles from the town. Washington sent 350 men under the command of Brigadier General Hugh Mercer to destroy the bridge over Stony Brook in order to delay Cornwallis's army when he found out that Washington had escaped. Shortly before 8:00 am, Washington wheeled the rest of the army to the right down the unused road. First in the column went General John Sullivan's division consisting of Arthur St. Clair's and Isaac Sherman's brigades. Following them were John Cadwalader's brigade and then Daniel Hitchcock's. [20]

Mawhood's reaction Edit

Cornwallis had sent orders to Mawhood to bring the 17th and 55th British regiments to join his army in the morning. Mawhood had moved out from Princeton to fulfill these orders when his troops climbed the hill south of Stony Brook and sighted the main American army. Unable to figure out the size of the American army because of the wooded hills, he sent a rider to warn the 40th British Regiment, which he had left in Princeton, then wheeled the 17th and 55th Regiments around and headed back to Princeton. That day, Mawhood had called off the patrol which was to reconnoiter the area from which Washington was approaching. [21]

Mercer received word that Mawhood was leading his troops back to Princeton. [22] Mercer, on orders from Washington, moved his column to the right in order to hit the British before they could confront Washington's main army. [23] Mercer moved towards Mawhood's rear, but when he realized he would not be able to cut off Mawhood in time, he decided to join Sullivan. When Mawhood learned that Mercer was in his rear and moving to join Sullivan, Mawhood detached part of the 55th Regiment to join the 40th Regiment in the town and then moved the rest of the 55th, the 17th, fifty cavalry, and two artillery pieces to attack Mercer. [24]

Mawhood overruns Mercer Edit

Mawhood ordered his light troops to delay Mercer, while he brought up the other detachments. Mercer was walking through William Clark's orchard when the British light troops appeared. The British light troops' volley went high, which gave time for Mercer to wheel his troops around into battle line. Mercer's troops advanced, pushing back the British light troops. The Americans took up a position behind a fence at the upper end of the orchard. However, Mawhood had brought up his troops and his artillery. [25] The American gunners opened fire first, and for about ten minutes, the outnumbered American infantry exchanged fire with the British. However, many of the Americans had rifles which took longer to load than muskets. Mawhood ordered a bayonet charge, and because many of the Americans had rifles, which could not be equipped with bayonets, they were overrun. [26] Both of the Americans' cannon were captured, and the British turned them on the fleeing troops. Mercer was surrounded by British soldiers, and they shouted at him "Surrender, you damn rebel!" Declining to ask for quarter, Mercer chose to resist instead. The British, thinking they had caught Washington, bayoneted him and then left him for dead. Mercer's second in command, Colonel John Haslet, was shot through the head and killed. [27]

Cadwalader's arrival Edit

Fifty light infantrymen were in pursuit of Mercer's men when a fresh brigade of 1,100 militiamen under the command of Cadwalader appeared. [28] Mawhood gathered his men who were all over the battlefield and put them into battle line formation. Meanwhile, Sullivan was at a standoff with the detachment of the 55th Regiment that had come to assist the 40th Regiment, neither daring to move towards the main battle for risk of exposing its flank. Cadwalader attempted to move his men into a battle line, but they had no combat experience and did not know even the most basic military maneuvers. When his men reached the top of the hill and saw Mercer's men fleeing from the British, most of the militia turned around and ran back down the hill. [29]

Washington's arrival Edit

As Cadwalader's men began to flee, the American guns opened fire onto the British, who were preparing to attack, and the guns were able to hold them off for several minutes. Cadwalader was able to get one company to fire a volley but it fled immediately afterwards. At this point, Washington arrived with the Virginia Continentals and Edward Hand's riflemen. [30] Washington ordered the riflemen and the Virginians to take up a position on the right hand side of the hill, and then Washington quickly rode over to Cadwalader's fleeing men. Washington shouted, "Parade with us my brave fellows! There is but a handful of the enemy and we shall have them directly!". [31] Cadwalader's men formed into battle formation at Washington's direction. When Daniel Hitchcock's New England Continentals arrived, Washington sent them to the right, where he had put the riflemen and the Virginians. [32]

Washington, with his hat in his hand, rode forward and waved the Americans forward, while he rode ahead on his horse. At this point, Mawhood had moved his troops slightly to the left to get out of the range of the American artillery fire. Washington gave orders not to fire until he gave them the signal, and when they were thirty yards away, he turned around on his horse, facing his men and said "Halt!" and then "Fire!". [33] At this moment, the British also fired, obscuring the field in a cloud of smoke. One of Washington's officers, John Fitzgerald, pulled his hat over his eyes to avoid seeing Washington killed, but when the smoke cleared, Washington appeared, unharmed, waving his men forward. [34]

British collapse Edit

On the right, Hitchcock's New Englanders fired a volley and then advanced again, threatening to turn the British flank. [35] The riflemen were slowly picking off British soldiers while the American artillery was firing grapeshot at the British lines. At this point, Hitchcock ordered his men to charge, and the British began to flee. The British attempted to save their artillery, but the militia also charged, and Mawhood gave the order to retreat. The British fled towards the Post Road followed by the Americans. Washington reportedly shouted, "It's a fine fox chase my boys!" Some Americans had swarmed onto the Post Road in order to block a British retreat across the bridge, but Mawhood ordered a bayonet charge and broke through the American lines, escaping across the bridge. Some of the Americans, Hand's riflemen among them, continued to pursue the British, and Mawhood ordered his dragoons to buy them some time to retreat however, the dragoons were pushed back. Some Americans continued to pursue the fleeing British until nightfall, killing some and taking some prisoners. [36] After some time, Washington turned around and rode back to Princeton. [37]

At the edge of town, the 55th Regiment received orders from Mawhood to fall back and join the 40th Regiment in town. The 40th had taken up a position just outside town, on the north side of a ravine. The 55th formed up to the left of the 40th. The 55th sent a platoon to flank the oncoming Americans, but it was cut to pieces. When Sullivan sent several regiments to scale the ravine, they fell back to a breastwork. After making a brief stand, the British fell back again, some leaving Princeton and others taking up refuge in Nassau Hall. [38] Alexander Hamilton brought three cannons up and had them blast away at the building. Then some Americans rushed the front door, broke it down, and the British put a white flag outside one of the windows. 194 British soldiers walked out of the building and laid down their arms. [39]

After entering Princeton, the Americans began to loot the abandoned British supply wagons and the town. [40] With news that Cornwallis was approaching, Washington knew he had to leave Princeton. Washington wanted to push on to New Brunswick and capture a British pay chest of 70,000 pounds, but Major Generals Henry Knox and Nathanael Greene talked him out of it. [41] Instead, Washington moved his army to Somerset Courthouse on the night of January 3, then marched to Pluckemin by January 5, and arrived at Morristown by sunset the next day for winter encampment. [42] [43] After the battle, Cornwallis abandoned many of his posts in New Jersey and ordered his army to retreat to New Brunswick. The next several months of the war consisted of a series of small scale skirmishes known as the Forage War.

General Howe's official casualty report for the battle stated 18 killed, 58 wounded and 200 missing. [44] Mark Boatner says that the Americans took 194 prisoners during the battle, while the remaining 6 "missing" men may have been killed. [45] A civilian eyewitness (the anonymous writer of A Brief Narrative of the Ravages of the British and Hessians at Princeton in 1776–1777) wrote that 24 British soldiers were found dead on the field. Washington claimed that the British had more than 100 killed and 300 captured. [46] William S. Stryker follows Washington in stating that the British loss was 100 men killed, 70 wounded and 280 captured. [47]

Washington reported his own army's casualties as 6 or 7 officers and 25 to 30 enlisted men killed, giving no figures for the wounded. [48] Richard M. Ketchum states that the Americans had "30 enlisted men and 14 officers killed" [49] Henry B. Dawson gives 10 officers and 30 enlisted men killed [50] while Edward G. Lengel gives total casualties as 25 killed and 40 wounded. [51] The Loyalist newspaper, New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, reported on January 17, 1777, that the American losses at Princeton had been 400 killed and wounded. [52]

The colonnade on the Princetown Battlefield Monument marks the common grave of 15 Americans and 21 British killed. [53] In addition, one British officer, Captain William Leslie, died of his wounds and was buried at Pluckemin, New Jersey. [54] [55]

The British viewed Trenton and Princeton as minor American victories, but with these victories, the Americans believed that they could win the war. [56] American historians often consider the Battle of Princeton a great victory, on par with the battle of Trenton, because of the subsequent loss of control of most of New Jersey by the Crown forces. Some other historians, such as Edward Lengel, consider it to be even more impressive than Trenton. [57] A century later, British historian Sir George Otto Trevelyan wrote in a study of the American Revolution, when talking about the impact of the victories at Trenton and Princeton, that "It may be doubted whether so small a number of men ever employed so short a space of time with greater and more lasting effects upon the history of the world." [58]

Part of the battlefield is now preserved in Princeton Battlefield State Park, which was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961. [59] Another section of the battlefield adjacent to the state park was embroiled in a development controversy. The Institute for Advanced Study, which owns the property, had planned a housing project on land where George Washington charged with his men during the battle. [60] Historians, the Department of the Interior and archaeological evidence confirm the land's significance. [61] Several national and local preservation organizations worked to prevent construction on the property, and the Princeton Battlefield Society had legal action pending as of summer 2016. [62] On December 12, 2016, the Civil War Trust (now a division of the American Battlefield Trust) announced that through its Campaign 1776 project to preserve land at battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, it had reached an agreement to purchase almost 15 acres of land from the Institute for Advanced Study valued at $4.1 million. This purchase would increase the size of the state park by 16%. Seven of the planned single family dwellings would be replaced with townhouses and a total of 16 housing units would be constructed. The compromise arrangement was subject to approval by the Princeton Planning Board and Delaware and Raritan Canal Commission. [63] The Trust had already acquired and preserved nine other acres of the Princeton battlefield. [64] On May 30, 2018, the Trust announced that it had finalized the purchase after raising almost $3.2 million from private donors, which was matched by an $837,000 grant from the National Park Service and the Mercer County Open Space Assistance Program. The completed purchase ended the long dispute over how and whether the battlefield land would be developed. [65]

The equestrian statue of George Washington at Washington Circle in Washington, D.C. depicts him at the Battle of Princeton. Sculptor Clark Mills said in his speech at the statue's dedication ceremony on February 22, 1860, "The incident selected for representation of this statue was at the battle of Princeton where Washington, after several ineffectual attempts to rally his troops, advanced so near the enemy's lines that his horse refused to go further, but stood and trembled while the brave rider sat undaunted with reins in hand. But while his noble horse is represented thus terror stricken, the dauntless hero is calm and dignified, ever believing himself the instrument in the hand of Providence to work out the great problem of liberty." [66]

Eight current Army National Guard units (101st Eng Bn, [67] 103rd Eng Bn, [68] A/1-104th Cav, [69] 111th Inf, [70] 125th QM Co, [71] 175th Inf, [72] 181st Inf [73] and 198th Sig Bn [74] ) and one currently-active Regular Army Artillery battalion (1–5th FA [75] ) are derived from American units that participated in the Battle of Princeton. There are thirty current units of the U.S. Army with colonial roots. [ aanhaling nodig ]

A famous story, possibly apocryphal, states that during the Battle of Princeton, Alexander Hamilton ordered his cannon to fire upon the British soldiers taking refuge in Nassau Hall. As a result, one of the cannonballs was shot through the head of the portrait of King George II that hung in the chapel, which was subsequently replaced with a portrait of George Washington. [76] Tangentially, a few years earlier Hamilton had been refused accelerated study at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) housed in Nassau Hall. He attended King's College (now Columbia University) in New York, instead. [ aanhaling nodig ]


The Trenton-Princeton Campaign

With the Continental Army threatening to dissolve around him, General George Washington led the remnants of his army across the icy Delaware River on Christmas night 1776 and routed a Hessian garrison at Trenton. The subsequent victories at the Battles of Second Trenton and Princeton secured Washington's place as one of the greatest generals in world history.

The Winter Patriots

Watch our new presentation on Washington's great victories at the Battles of Trenton and Princeton.

Crossing the Delaware River

Learn more about how and why Gen. George Washington decided to cross the icy Delaware River on the evening of December 25, 1776.

The Battle of Trenton

After crossing the Delaware, Gen. George Washington attacked the Hessian garrison at the Battle of Trenton.

10 Facts about the Battle of Princeton

Learn more about the remarkable Battle of Princeton - Gen. George Washington's great victory over the British on January 3, 1777.

The Hessians

Who were the Hessians and why were they fighting against Gen. George Washington's army?

Lessons in Leadership

Act Boldly

Learn how Washington's leadership during the darkest moments of the Revolution changed history.

Animated Presentation

Now or Never: The Yorktown Campaign

Learn more about Washington's 1781 Yorktown Campaign - the last major battle of the American Revolution.

Revolutionary War Theater 4D Experience

This immersive movie experience traces General Washington's important military victories at Boston, Trenton, and Yorktown. See it in the 4-D theater in the Donald W. Reynolds Museum & Education Center at Mount Vernon.

Did the battles of Second Trenton and Princeton matter?


12 thoughts on &ldquoBattle Tour&rdquo

Is there anywhere to buy a printed copy? Thanks!!

Thanks for your interest. Unfortunately, given the large number of color illustrations, it’s an expensive document to print. I might be able to print a few on a high quality laser printer, but the cost in paper and toner will probably be $20+. Then I’ve got to figure out how to bind it. Is it worth $30+ to you? If so, reply here and I’ll see what I can do.

Okay…great…got the KMZ files into Google Earth. Nicely done. Looking forward to the tour.

For anyone interested or curious I have just finished a narration of John S. Pancake’s excellent �, the Year of the Hangman” in which both the battles of Trenton and Princeton are covered in relative detail.

The audio book was just released last week on Audible.com,Amazon.com and at I-Tunes. Washington’s crossing of the Delaware is represented in the sample track. Pancake wrote extensively about the campaigns and the politics of the American Revolution. best to all, R.

Thanks Robert, I just ordered this book.

I was born and raised in Philly, son of a history buff. Now as Mercer Co. resident, I’ve taken an affinity for local history, especially of the Revolutionary War. I missed the last reenactment of the Crossing and Battle(s) of Trent’s town. I was hoping they’d have an reenactment of the battle of Assunpink crick.

I hope this book/downloads expand my understanding the battles and the turning point of the first real World War.

Wonderful site with much great information for this old Jersey boy. But a query. I can’t find a way to open any of the KMZ files. Maybe I’m not enough of a computer guy. I’ve tried other programs. Enige voorstelle? Dankie.

Have you tried Google Earth? Based on your comment, I tried downloading the tour stops KMZ just to make sure it hadn’t gotten corrupted in the transition. It hadn’t. However, I did notice that the KMZ opened “invisibly”. I needed to go to the Temporary Places folder of Google Earth and click on the check boxes for the icons to appear. Could that be the issue?

Got them, although I’m not sure how. Dankie.

Who is the author of this handy, helpful guide?
*****************
Editor’s comment: Why, Millman, your friendly Hidden Trenton webmaster, that’s who.

An awesome book. Concise, well-written, easy to follow, and a great tour guide if you are in the Trenton/Princeton area. With a Hessian 5th great grandfather (Johann Christoph Reiss) who fought on the British side in this battle, the story is especially relevant.

Interested in the stories and sites of the battles. Have lived in the area a long time and would like to know more. Looking forward to driving a self-guided tour using your information.


Kyk die video: Trenton High School vs. Princeton Varsity Mens Football (Augustus 2022).