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Bartholomew Fair

Bartholomew Fair



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Die kermis op Smithfield dateer uit die 12de eeu. Dit is oorspronklik gehou op die 24ste en 25ste Augustus om die Fees van St. Teen die 18de eeu was St Bartholomew Fair een van die skouspelagtigste nasionale en internasionale geleenthede van die jaar. Dit het syvertonings, prysvegters, musikante, draadwandelaars, akrobate, marionette, freaks en wilde diere.

Smithfield soos Tyburn en Newgate is ook vir teregstellings gebruik. Byna 300 protestante is hier tydens die regering van Mary Tudor in die staat verbrand.

In die 19de eeu het Smithfield homself gevestig as die grootste vleismark in Engeland. Smithfield was ook 'n belangrike perde- en beesmark tot 1855 toe vee na die Caledonian Market in Islington gestuur is. In 1868 is 'n marksaal met 'n yster- en glasdak op Smithfield gebou.

Die afdruk is 'n voorstelling van Bartholomew Fair. 'N Aantal jeugdiges, elk met die lassies wat hy liefhet, is sorgeloos besig om in die swaaie uit te ry; inderdaad so sorgeloos dat een van hulle blykbaar uitgeval het. Die omliggende natuurskoon; St. Bartholomew's Hospital, die kerk en die huise van Smithfield gee waarde aan die toneel.


 Geskiedenis van die kermis

Reisbeurse is 'die ongeskrewe deel van die verhaal van die mense, gebind aan die lewe van 'n nasie deur die bande van godsdiens, handel en plesier'. Die tradisie is lewendig en dinamies en weerspieël die invloed van die populêre kultuur waarin dit funksioneer, en dat dit in baie gevalle die geskiedenis van die stad of nedersetting waarin dit voorkom, voorafgaan.

Daar is drie hooftipes beurse, 'Prescriptive Fairs' wat gebaseer was op die beginsel van handel en wat opgestel is deur 'Charter Fairs', wat toegestaan ​​en beskerm is deur Royal Charter en 'Mop Fairs' wat hoofsaaklik in landbougebiede ontwikkel het. vir die aanstelling van arbeiders, 'n week later gevolg deur die 'Runaway Mops' wat werkgewers die kans gegee het om hul besluit te heroorweeg en indien nodig weer aan te stel. Nuwe kategorieë kermisse word steeds ontwikkel, byvoorbeeld, die afgelope paar jaar het 'City Center Fairs' herleef wat die kermis terugbring na die mense en die hart van hul stede.

Die meerderheid kermisse wat in die Verenigde Koninkryk gehou word, spoor hul afkoms terug na handves en voorregte wat in die Middeleeue verleen is. In die dertiende eeu was die skepping van skoue deur koninklike handves wydverspreid, met die kroon wat alles probeer het om nuwe kermisse te skep en bestaande onder hul jurisdiksie te bring. Teen die twaalfde en dertiende eeu het die meerderheid Engelse kermisse handveste ontvang en is dit geherorganiseer om in ooreenstemming met hul Europese eweknieë te val. Die toekenning van handveste verleen egter nie noodwendig die reg om 'n kermis te hou nie: dit was in werklikheid die beheer van die inkomste vir die Kroon in ruil vir die beheer en organisasie om by 'n spesifieke stad, abdij of dorp te bly. Tussen 1199 en 1350 is meer as vyftienhonderd handveste uitgereik wat die regte verleen om markte of beurse te hou.

Beurse kan ook deur voorskriftelike reg opgeëis word deurdat hulle nooit 'n handves toegestaan ​​is nie, maar toegelaat is om deur die koning of sy verteenwoordiger in die stad te plaas, vanweë hul langtermyn vestiging.

Die begin van die huur van kermis of dweil kan teruggevoer word na die veertiende eeu met die verloop van die Statuut van Arbeiders in 1351 deur Edward III. Hierdie statuutbeurse of Mops, soos dit in die Midlands bekend staan, het tot die einde van die negentiende eeu nog steeds in hul oorspronklike doel voortgegaan. Die beskrywing van vroueverkoop in The Mayor of Casterbridge deur Thomas Hardy het sy oorsprong as 'n voorval van vroueverkoop in die nabygeleë dorp Andover in 1817. Selfs met hierdie verhuringsbeurse is die oorspronklike doel van die geleentheid egter gou vervang. die vermaaklikheidskant, met meer as driekwart van die East Riding Hiring -beurse in Yorkshire wat tot in die twintigste eeu nie kon oorleef nie. Ondanks die mislukking van hierdie kermisse om in die twintigste eeu sterk te bly, is die mopfeeste wat in Studley, Stratford, Warwick, Burton en Loughborough gehou is, almal hul bestaan ​​en voortsetting te danke aan die oorspronklike huurbeurse van baie jare. gelede.

Teen die veertiende eeu is 'n netwerk van geoktrooieerde en voorskriftelike beurse in Engeland gevestig. Gedurende die agtiende eeu het hierdie groot skoue floreer met Bartholomew Fair, Stourbridge, St Ives, Weyhill en vele ander wat in die hele land bekend was as handelsentrums, handel en vermaak.

Tans vind meer as tweehonderd kermisse elke naweek in die Verenigde Koninkryk plaas, met die Goose Fair in Nottingham en Hull Fair wat jaarliks ​​groter en gewild word.

Baie van die tegnologiese vooruitgang van die afgelope 150 jaar is eers vir kommersiële gewin deur reisvertoners uitgebuit. Showmen was verantwoordelik vir innovasies in gewilde vermaaklikheidsaktiwiteite soos die bioskoop en die wydverspreide gebruik van elektrisiteit. Besoekers aan 'n kermis in Yorkshire in die 1900's sou die eerste keer 'n motor gesien het toe hulle 'n rit op mev Hannah Waddington's Motorcar Switchback gemaak het. Die wonderwerke van elektrisiteit is in die 1890's in Skotland met groot effek vertoon deur die towenaar dr. Walford Bodie, die self-styl Britse Edison met sy optrede met Madame Electra.

Die Victoriaanse kermis was 'n wisselvallige lot en die goue era van reisvermaak het eers in die laaste helfte van die eeu plaasgevind. Aan die begin van die negentiende eeu het besienswaardighede soos teaterhokke, wasplekke en fratshows die kermislandskap begin oorheers. In die middel van die eeu het wildvertonings verskyn, bekend as menageries, wat 'n voorrang begin aanvaar het bo hul mededingende vertonings op die beurs.

Die vertonings van die vroeë tot middel van die negentiende eeu is miskien die beste gedokumenteer van al die vermaaklikhede wat op die kermis verskyn het tot die bekendstelling van stoom aangedrewe rotonde. Hulle bloeitydperk was in die eerste vyftig jaar van die negentiende eeu, met die menagerye, sirkusse, uitstallings en waswerke wat die landskap van die skouterrein oorheers het. Die mense wat sulke shows vertoon het, het bekende persoonlikhede geword en buitensporige titels aangeneem, byvoorbeeld George Sanger wat die titel "Lord" aanneem. Sommige van die vertoners wat in hierdie tydperk uitgestal het, het ryk geword en die kermis heeltemal verlaat. Onder die wat op die kermis gebly het, was die gesinne wat die grondslag gelê het vir die groot sukses van die laat 19de eeu.

Teen die 1850's lyk dit asof die handelselement op beurse regoor die land deur vermaak vervang is en die vertonings blykbaar agteruit te gaan. Die berugte Bartholomew Fair het sy handves vir die laaste keer in 1855 afgekondig, en dit is vinnig gevolg deur die afsterwe van die gebeure in Camberwell in 1855, Greenwich in 1857 en Stepney in 1860. Selfs die groot aantal shows wat by die oorblywende feeste gevind is. dit lyk asof dit nie meer die aandag trek van 'n steeds meer gesofistikeerde gehoor nie. Gedurende daardie tydperk het baie van die beroemde name van die eerste deel van die negentiende eeu ook die reisbeurse laat vaar. Lord George Sanger het die permanente perseel van Astley's in 1871 as 'n sirkusuitstalling gekoop en opgehou reis. Alhoewel Bostock en Wombwell's Menagerie nog vyftig jaar lank met die kermisbedryf verbind sou wees, sou die dood van die stigter in 1850 en die afhandeling van sy vertoning in 1872 daarop dui dat die nasie sy behoefte aan sulke vermaak ontgroei het.

Kermisse regoor die land was in die 1860's en 1870's gevaarlik, nie net as gevolg van The Fairs Acts van 1868, 1871 en 1873 nie, maar ook as gevolg van die verlies van tradisionele plekke in middedorp. Die Kermiswet van 1871 het die plaaslike owerhede of 'eienaars' van kermisse die reg gegee om 'n petisie vir hul afskaffing te versoek, en die verdere wysigings wat in die Kermiswet van 1873 aangebring is, het die moontlikheid geskep om die dae waarop die geleentheid gehou kan word, te verander. Geskiedkundiges van die tyd het gewaarsku teen die verlies van sulke gebeurtenisse.

Skoue kan egter slegs onder afskaffing te staan ​​kom as daar geen openbare druk uitgeoefen word om te keer dat so 'n bevel uitgevoer word nie. As die kennisgewing van afskaffing met openbare verontwaardiging en druk begroet is, het die staatsekretaris die bevoegdheid gehad om die versoek van die plaaslike owerhede terug te trek. Om te voorkom dat sulke kennisgewings van krag word, moes reisbeurse hul noodsaaklikheid bewys vir die ontspanningsbehoeftes van die bevolking. Die veranderinge wat deur die Industriële Revolusie teweeggebring is, het nog nie 'n impak gehad op die tipe vermaak wat op die kermis aangebied word nie, wat onder meer meeding met musieksale, teaters en reisuitstallings, soos panoramas en lantern -vertonings wat hul aantreklikhede op plekke in die stad voorgestel het. sentrums. Thomas Frost wat in 1874 geskryf het, was van mening dat kermisse onnodig geword het en verklaar:

Watter behoefte het dit dan aan beurse en vertonings? Die nasie het hulle ontgroei, en kermisse is net so dood soos die geslagte wat hulle verheug het, en die laaste showman sal binnekort net so 'n nuuskierigheid wees soos die dodo.

Ten spyte van hierdie profesie het kermisse voortgegaan om te oorleef en te floreer. Die Wakes -kermisse wat met werkersvakansies verband hou, het bevestigings van die gemeenskapsidentiteit geword waarin mense hulself uitdruk deur onbelemmerde genot soek. Die kermisse self het begin aanpas by nuwe toestande en omhels die nuwe en die verskillende. Alhoewel die gehoor verander het en gebeure by die stedelike bourgeoisie toenemend ongewild geraak het, het die aantrekkingskrag van sulke beurse onder die werkersklas toegeneem.

In die 1860's het 'n gebeurtenis plaasgevind wat 'n rewolusie in die Victoriaanse kermis gemaak het en die grondslag gelê het vir die moderne reis-vermaaklikheidsbedryf: die bekendstelling van stoom-aangedrewe rotondes op beide Bolton New Year Fair en Midsummer Fair in Halifax. Dit is spoedig gevolg deur Frederick Savage, wat die firma van Savage in King's Lynn in Norfolk gestig het vir die bou van gemeganiseerde rotonde. 'N Verskeidenheid ritte en ontwerpe het 'n hoogtepunt bereik in 1891 toe Savage's die klassieke styl vir die Engelse "Gallopers" vervaardig het, of soos dit in Europa en Amerika bekend geword het, die Carousel. Meganisering verskuif die klem van die vertonings, wat in die verlede gewortel was, na die ritte wat die skoumanne volledige vryheid gebied het om tred te hou met die tegnologiese vooruitgang van 'n immer revolusionêre era. Die goue era van die rondryplekke op die kermis sou nog kom, maar die saad wat geplant is, het sterk gegroei.

Teen die einde van die Victoriaanse era is die landskap van die kermis bevolk deur ritte van alle soorte: stoomjagte, terugslae en natuurlik die galopende perde. Meganisering het die kermis modern en futuristies laat lyk; die nuutste aantreklikhede van die eeu, soos spookvertonings, kinematografie en röntgenfotografie, is ten volle benut deur kermisvertoners wat hul aantreklikhede geadverteer het deur alle klasse mense. Die vertoners het aansien en voorspoed behaal deur te belê in die ritte toe hulle op King's Lynn Valentine's Day Fair vertoon is. Die goue era van die kermis het aangebreek en teen die einde van die negentiende eeu het kermisse nie meer agteruitgegaan nie en 200 byeenkomste het elke naweek in die Verenigde Koninkryk plaasgevind, van Paasfees tot November.

Meganisering op die kermis het op die mees geskikte tyd in sy geskiedenis gekom, dit het die eens glorieryke kermisse laat herleef en 'n hiërargie van sakelui op die kermis geskep. Beurse het 'n kenmerk van die vakansiekalender geword, beide in die stad en op die platteland. Hierdie toename in welvaart en respek het daartoe gelei dat die Regering toenemend verdraagsaam geraak het oor die hou van kermisse, en min belangstelling getoon het in die toepassing van die wetgewing wat in die vorige dekade ingestel is.

Die moderne kermis het sy bestaan ​​te danke aan sowel die netwerk van geoktrooieerde en voorskriftelike kermisse as die aanvang van die Industriële Revolusie, wat die landskap verander het in moderniteit en beweging. In die twintigste eeu het die gejaag na nuwe en moderne sensasies die opwindende ritte aangebreek, en baie van die ou aantreklikhede is vervang deur die Whip, the Caterpillar en die moderne klassieke, die Waltzer en die dodgems, wat almal die natuurskoon van die kermis verander het.

Vandag se vertoners gebruik sowel geskiedenis as moderniteit om die beurs te bemark. Beurse het nie net die jeugkultuur weerspieël nie, maar ook deel geword van groter geleenthede wat die multi-kulturele aard van die samelewing weerspieël. Die vertoners het geleer om aan te pas en 'n kermis vir verskillende en uiteenlopende gehore te bied en, indien nodig, die ritte na die mense te neem, in teenstelling met die verwagting dat die mense na die eens tradisionele jaarlikse kermis in hul stad of omgewing sou kom.

Die beurs was en is steeds 'n plek waar alle vorme van lewende en meganiese vermaak deur alle klasse mense beskerm word. Die bestanddele van skouspel, ervaring, illusie en werklikheid is deel van 'n wonderlike smeltkroes.


Inhoud

Die terrein van Bartholomew Fair was die suidoostelike kant van die Smithfield-rotonde en was oorspronklik 'n doekskou. Oorspronklik gehandhaaf as 'n driedaagse gebeurtenis, sou dit in die 17de eeu 'n volle twee weke duur, maar in 1691 is dit tot slegs vier dae verkort. [1] Met 'n verandering in die kalender, begin die kermis op 3 September vanaf 1753. [2] 'n Handelsgeleentheid vir lap en ander goedere, sowel as 'n plesierbeurs, lok die skare uit alle klasse van die Engelse samelewing. [3] [4]

Dit was gebruiklik dat die burgemeester van Londen die kermis op St Bartholomew's Eve open. Die burgemeester sou by die Newgate -gevangenis stop om 'n beker sak (versterkte witwyn) van die goewerneur te aanvaar. [1] [2] Die Merchant Taylors Guild verwerk tot Cloth Fair om die maatstawwe met behulp van hul standaard silwer erf tot 1854 te toets. Die jaarlikse beurs het gegroei tot die belangrikste doekverkoping in die koninkryk. [2]

Teen 1641 het die beurs internasionale belang bereik. Dit het die voormalige plek langs Cloth Fair en rondom die Priory -begraafplaas ontgroei en het nou vier gemeentes beslaan: Christ Church, Great en Little St Bartholomew's en St Sepulchre's. Die beurs het byvoorstellings, prysstryders, musikante, draadwandelaars, akrobate, marionette, freaks en wilde diere. [2]

Die kermis is in 1855 onderdruk deur die stadsowerhede omdat hulle losbandigheid en openbare wanorde aangemoedig het. [2] [5] Die Newgate Kalender het die beurs beoordeel as 'n "skool van ondeugde wat meer jeugdiges in die gewoontes van boosaardigheid ingelui het as Newgate self." [6]


Bartholomew Fair - Geskiedenis

DINSDAG 29 JUNIE BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY REMC DAG
8: 30-9: 30 uur Market Lamb inweeg-Livestock Barn (Toegangskaartjie moet voor 09:30 vir alle skape ingehandig word)
10:00 4-H Barrow Show & amp; Showmanship-Pavilion
5–10 nm. Lil 'Hands on the Farm, 4-H-gemeenskapsgebou, familiekuns en kommersiële geboue open
17:00 Gemeenskapsdag in die Midway– Nag vir geblikte goedere - $ 5 afslag met geblikte goed, $ 25 polsbandjies
18:00 4-H Best Dressed Rabbit & amp Rabbit Races-Versamelpaviljoen
18:30 Horse & Pony Master Horseman Contest
19:00 Smededemonstrasie- Erfenisgebou
19:00 Padda -springwedstryd - Plaasburo -gebou, registrasie om 18:30
19:00 Chordlighters - Barbershop Quartet - David Boll Theatre
19:00 All Star Circuit of Champions TQ Midgets - Tony Stewart Foundation Race - Tribune

WOENSDAG, 30 JUNIE BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY JONG BOEREDAG
08:00 4-H Trekkerwedstryd Registrasie begin (rekordblad moet ingedien word tydens die wedstryd.)
08:30 4-H Cat & amp Caged Critter Registrasie, wys om te volg
9–11 uur Oopklas Blomme verskuldig - Family Arts Building

10:00 tot middernag Elite Cheer-David Boll-teater
Middag - 19:00 Smededemonstrasies - Erfenisgebou (sal die hele dag af wees)
Middag - 22:00 Lil 'Hands on the Farm, 4-H-gemeenskapsgebou, familiekuns en kommersiële geboue open
2 - 10 nm. Midway open - Kids Day - $ 18 polsbandjies die hele dag en nag (geen ouderdomsperk nie)
13:00 Lil 'Wrangler Skaapskou, 4-H Skaapskou-Pavilion
14:00 Pedaal trekker trek - Oos van die plaasburo Gebou se registrasie begin om 13:00 $ 2 inskrywing
15:00 - 16:00 Avontuurdag -karnaval - David Boll -teater
5 - 7 nm. Uitbreiding tuisteskeppers - hondjie kussingsessie - gebou vir gesinskunste
5 -6 uur TBD - David Boll -teater
18:00 Kids Carnival Games & Farm Trivia - Farm Bureau Building
18:30 Reëndatum vir perde en ponies of 'n oop arena
19:00 Night Owl Country Band - David Boll -teater
19:00 Indiana Truck Pulling Association - Standplaas
8–9 uur Easterling Magic Show - Farm Bureau Building

Bartholomew County, geleë in die middel van Indiana, is 'n voorbeeld van wat 'n Amerikaanse gemeenskap kan wees. Gedurende die warm somersdae vergader mense uit die omliggende omgewing vir kos, pret, familie en vriende op die Bartholomew County 4-H Fair.

Nadat die jaarlikse gebeurtenis tot 'n einde gekom het en die hutte, uitstallings en ritte weggeneem is, bly 'n versameling uiters lewensvatbare plekke beskikbaar om te huur as 'n plek vir u eie geleentheid. Gedurende die ander 11 maande is die terrein besig met geleenthede soos die Bill Rogers Classic Cattle Show, die Skotse fees en vele meer besienswaardighede. Die kermis bied ook die hele jaar deur openbare kampeerplekke, geleenthede en trou onthale aan.


Bartholomew Fair Opsomming

Hierdie aantekeninge is deur lede van die GradeSaver -gemeenskap bygedra. Ons is dankbaar vir hul bydraes en moedig u aan om u eie te maak.

Geskryf deur Timothy Sexton

Die toneelstuk speel af tydens die kermis wat dit sy naam gee, wat op St Bartholomeus se dag plaasvind. Op hierdie 24 Augustus in Smithfield sal 'n meer as redelike mate van die mees eienaardige karakters paaie kruis. In die lig van die verwarring wat kom, blyk 'n staatsbestuurder genoodsaak te wees om die gehoor toe te spreek met verskoning vir die vertraging in die vertoning. Daarna bied hy konspiratories sy eie unieke draai aan wat hulle sal aanskou wanneer die opvoering uiteindelik begin: die toneelstuk is geen literêre meesterstuk nie, wat nie regtig verbasend is in die lig van wie dit geskryf het nie. Die bestuurder onderbreek deur die geskenkman wat die lang, komplekse en verwarrende kontrak tussen die skrywer en sy gehoor voordra, en herinner die skare daaraan dat hulle beoordeel word deur 'n eie oordeel oor die meriete te bereik, en verder het dit geen sin nie selfs probeer om parallelle te trek tussen die karakters op die verhoog en enige werklike mense waarmee hulle in die teaterwêreld bekend is.

Wat hierna volg, is baie minder afhanklik van die besonderhede van enige spesifieke gebeurtenisse, maar gaan meer oor 'n humoristiese optog van kleurvolle karakter en vinnige veranderings in stel en vertelling. Hierdie gesamentlike effek van samespel ontstaan ​​uit twee primêre narratiewe stringe: die strewe deur die heiliger-as-jy-puriteinse huigelaar Ywer-van-die-land besig met die hand van Dame Purecraft en die verlies deur Cokes van sy verloofde Grace Wellborn aan Winwife . In hierdie romanses is die koms van regter Adam Overdo, vermom, ingewikkeld gebind en geknoop, sodat hy onherkenbaar kan ronddwaal sodat hy 'n volledig gedetailleerde weergawe van die "groothede" van die beurs kan kry. Onderweg verloor Cokes nie net die vrou wat sou trou nie, maar ook sy wêreldse besittings. Justice Overdo se poging tot onderduimse ondersoek laat hom in die aandele beland.

Al hierdie vermaaklike voorvalle-vermaaklik vir almal behalwe Puriteine ​​wat uitsondering op hul vertolking geneem het-lei tot die laaste daad met 'n poppespel wat gebaseer is op Marlowe's Hero and Leander en 'n debat tussen 'n marionet en Zeal-and-the-Land oor die kwessie van die moraliteit van teater en toneelstuk. Uiteindelik besef Justice Overdo dat sy besorgdheid oor die omvang van die onreg wat op die beurs plaasgevind het, baie misplaas is.

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Nadat u 'n afdeling opgeëis het wat u het 24 ure 'n konsep in te stuur. 'N Redakteur sal die voorlegging hersien en u voorlegging publiseer of terugvoer gee.


HOOFSTUK XLIII.

SMITHFIELD EN BARTHOLOMEWE REGVERDIGING.

Die Mulberry-tuin by St. Bartholomew's-Prior Bolton-The Growth of Bartholomew Fair-Smithfield verminder tot volgorde-"Ruffians 'Hall"-Ben Jonson op Bartholomew Fair-A Frenchman's Adventures there-Ned Ward's Account-The Bedelaarsopera- "John Audley" - Garrick ontmoet 'n broer Akteur - A Dangerous Neighborhood - Old Smithfield Market - Restes of the Smithfield Burnings - Discovery of Human Remains.

'N Groot deel van die klooster is herbou tydens die bewind van Henry IV., En dit het beroemd geword vir sy moerbeetuin, "een van die eerste wat in Engeland aangeplant is. Die tuin het oos van die huidige Middlesex-gang gestaan, en dit was onder sy groot blaarryke bome wat geleerdes geleer het om hul logiese geskille te hou. Binne die poorte is die noordelike deel van die voorhof beset deur 'n groot begraafplaas met 'n ruim hof, nou Bartholomew Close. Na die tyd van Henry IV. die stad het 'n vaste reg op alle billike tolgeld buite die omheining van die priory gevestig. dieselfde Prior Bolton wat die oriel in die kerk gebou het vir die sakristaan ​​om na die altarligte te kyk en hy het grootliks, soos ons reeds getoon het, op Canonbury gebou.Hy het twee gemeentes, Groot St. Bartholomew en Klein St. Bartholomew, binne sy jurisdiksie. By die disso Die priory en die hospitaal is vir ewig deur gulsige hande verskeur.

In 1537 het sir Thomas Gresham, destydse burgemeester, gebid dat die stad die St. Mary-, St.Thomas- en St. Bartholomew -hospitale sou beheer "vir die verligting, troos en hulp van die hulpelose armes en behoeftiges." In 1544 stig die koning 'n nuwe hospitaal van St. Bartholomew, onder 'n priester, as meester, en vier kapelane, maar die plek is wanbestuur, en koning Henry VIII. het dit opnuut gestig, "vir die voortdurende verligting en hulp van honderd seer en siekes."

By die ontbinding is die voorregte van die beurs gedeel deur die korporasie en Lord Rich (oorlede 1568), voorvader van die grawe van Warwick en Holland. Die Cloth Fair het in die bewind van Elizabeth afgeneem, toe die Londense draperings wyer markte vir hul wol vind, en die klere, namate die paaie beter word, na breër velde begin. Die drie dae se kermis het gou gegroei tot 'n veertien dae karnaval, waarheen alle geledere toegepas is. Ons vind die aangename en kontemplatiewe Evelyn -skrywe van sy siening van "die vierende dwaashede" van Bartholomew en die opbouende man, sir Hans Sloane, wat 'n tekenaar stuur om elke opname op te neem lusus naturæ of spesiale eienaardigheid. In 1708 (koningin Anne), omdat die oorlas van so 'n lisensie vir die buurt ondraaglik word, is die beurs weer tot drie dae beperk. Die saturnalia is altyd formeel deur die burgemeester geopen, en die afkondiging hiervoor is by die ingang van Cloth Fair gelees. Op pad na Smithfield was dit die gewoonte dat die burgemeester 'n beroep op die bewaarder van Newgate doen, en op die perd van 'n koeldrank wyn, neutmuskaat en suiker 'die flap van die deksel van die bakkie oproep, die dood van die burgemeester, sir John Shorter, in 1688, met sy perd wat begin en hom gewelddadig gooi. Die gebruik het opgehou in die tweede burgemeesterskap van Sir Matthew Wood.

"In 1615," (vn. 1) sê Howes, "het die Stad Londen die onbeskofte, uitgestrekte plek van Smithfield in 'n eerlike en eerlike orde verander, wat voorheen nooit moontlik was nie, en dit alles geplavei, en het duikers riole gemaak om die water uit die nuwe kanale wat deur die nuwe sypaadjie gemaak is, oor te dra, hulle het ook sterk ringe rondom Smithfield gemaak en die middelste deel van die genoemde Smithfield geskei tot 'n baie faire en burgerlike wandeling, en dit omring. met sterk rayles, om die plek te verdedig teen ergernis en gevaar, asook teen karre en allerhande cattell, omdat dit daarna bedoel was dat dit mettertyd 'n eerlike en vreedsame mark sou wees, omdat Newgate Market, Moorgate , Cheapside, Leadenhall en Gracechurche Street was onmeetbaar geteister deur die ondenkbare toename en veelheid van die mense in die mark. En hierdie veld, wat algemeen West Smithfield genoem word, is jare lank 'Ruffians' Hall 'genoem, omdat dit die gewone plek van fra was ja en algemene bakleiery gedurende die tyd wat swaard en bucklers gebruik is. Maar die daaropvolgende dodelike geveg van verkragter en dolk onderdruk skielik die geveg met swaard en gesp. "

Shakespeare het meer as een verwysing na die perdebeurs in Smithfield, en hiervan is die volgende die belangrikste:-

Bladsy. Hy het Smithfield binnegegaan om 'n perd vir jou aanbidding te koop.

Falstaff. Ek het hom by Paul gekoop, en hy sal vir my 'n perd in Smithfield koop, en ek kon my maar 'n vrou in die bredies kry, ek was beman, perdig en getroud. -Tweede deel van Henry IV., Wet i., Sc. 2. (vn. 2)

Dié fyn, kragtige ou satirikus, Ben Jonson, die dierbare vriend en protegé van Shakespeare, het een van sy beste komedies genoem na hierdie groot Londense kermis, en het sy Hogarthian-genie gebruik om die sakkies, eethuishouders, protesterende Puriteine ​​uit te beeld, dom burgers en poppekas-eienaars van die bewind van James I. Enkele uittreksels uit sy amusante toneelstuk, Bartholomew Fair, 1613 (geskryf in die hoogtepunt van die outeur se mag), is onontbeerlik in enige geskiedenis, hoe kort ook al, van hierdie uitbarsting van nasionale vreugde. Die volgende uittreksel uit Morley se "History of Bartholomew Fair" bevat 'n paar van die mees kenmerkende gedeeltes: -

'Nee,' sê Littlewit, 'ons sal nederig genoeg wees, ons sal die huislikste stand op die beurs soek, dit is seker eerder as om te misluk, ons eet dit op die grond.' "Ja," voeg Dame Purecroft by, "en ek sal self saamgaan. Win-the-Fight en my broer, Ywer van die Land, sal ook saam met ons gaan vir ons beter troos." Dan sê die Rabbi, "Ter vertroosting van die swakkes, sal ek gaan eet. Ek sal uitermate eet en profeteer. Daar kan ook 'n goeie gebruik daarvan wees, nou dink ek nie, deur die openbare eet van varkvleis, om ons haat en afkeer van die Judaïsme te bely, waarvan die broers belas is. Ek sal dus eet, ja, ek sal uitermate eet. " So het hierdie ook na die beurs gegaan.

In die beurs, soos ek gesê het, is Justice Overdue, wat hom plegtig as 'n dwaas vestig, ten bate van die openbare sedes. Daar is die hutte en stalletjies. Daar is welvarende Lanthorn Leatherhead, die stokperdjie man, wat roep: "Wat kort jy? Wat koop jy nie? Wat kort jy? Ratels, tromme, halberts, perde, babas van die beste, viole van die beste! " Hy is 'n te trotse pedler, eienaar ook van 'n beroemde poppespel, die bestuurder inderdaad vir wie Proctor Littlewit opgeoffer het aan die Bartholomew-muise. Joan Trash, die peperkoekvrou, hou haar stalletjie naby hom, en die mededingende handelaars het hul verskille. "Hoor u, suster asblik, dame van die mandjie! Sit daar verder met u peperkoek -nageslag, en belemmer nie die vooruitsig van my winkel nie, anders laat ek dit op die beurs verkondig op watter goed hulle gemaak word." "Waarom, op watter goed is dit gemaak, Brother Leatherhead? Niks anders as wat gesond is nie, ek verseker jou." "Ja, ou brood, vrot eiers, muwwe gemmer en dooie heuning, weet jy." "Ek trotseer jou en jou stal stokperdjies. Ek betaal vir jou grond, sowel as vir jou. Koop enige gemmerbrood, vergulde peperkoek! Sal jou aanbidding peperkoek koop? Baie goeie brood, gemaklike brood!"

Die kerm van die kermis vermeerder. "Koop enige ballades? Nuwe ballades! Haai!"
'Nou is die kermis 'n vulsel!
O, vir 'n deuntjie om op te skrik
Die voëls van die hutte hier faktuur
Jaarliks ​​saam met ou Saint Bartle! "

"Koop pere, pere, fyn, baie fyn pere!" "Wat ontbreek u, menere? Diensmaagd, sien 'n goeie hipperdjie vir u jong meester. Kos u maar 'n teken (vn. 3) 'n week sy versorger."

"Het u lemmetjies aan u voete en tone?"

"Koop 'n muisval, 'n muisval of 'n kwelaar vir 'n vlooi?"

"Wat kort jy, menere? Fyn beursies, sakkies, penne, pype? Wat kort jy nie? 'N paar smede om jou in die oggend wakker te maak, of 'n fyn fluitjie?"

"Ballades! Ballades! Fyn nuwe ballades!"

"Luister na u liefde en koop vir u geld,

'N Delikate ballade van die fret en die konys 'n Tiental goddelike punte, en die godvrugtige kousbandjies, 'n kuil van goeie raad, van 'n ell en driekwart. "

"Wat ontbreek u, wat koop u, meesteres? 'N Puik stokperdjie, om u seun 'n teer te maak?' N drom, om hom 'n soldaat te maak? 'N Viool, om hom 'n pluim te maak? Wat ontbreek u nie? ? klein hondjies vir u dogters, of babas, mannetjies of wyfies? "

"Liewe dames, die weer is warm waarheen jy loop? Pas jou fyn fluweelkappe op, die kermis is stowwerig. Neem 'n lieflike, delikate hok met takke, hier in die pad, en koel jouself af in die skaduwee, jy en jou vriende. Die beste vark en flesbier in die kermis, meneer. Ou Ursula is kok. Daar lees u miskien-'Hier is die beste varke, en sy braai hulle net so goed soos ooit' '-(daar is 'n foto van 'n varkkop oor die opskrif, en) - "die varkkop spreek dit."

'' N Delikate pronkvarkie, klein meesteres, met shweet-sous en geknetter, soos 'n lourierblaar in die vuur, jy sal die skoon kant van die tafelblokkie hê en die glas met phatersh van Dame Annesh Cleare. " (vn. 4)

In 'Wit and Drollery: Jovial Poems', 1682, het die skrywer verskeie van die belangrikste rariteite van die beurs getref: -
'Hier is 'n uitdaging vir die hele kermis.
Kom koop my neute en damsons en Burgamy -pere!
Hier is die Vrou van Babilon, die duiwel en die pous,
En hier is die dogtertjie wat net aan die tou gaan!
Hier is Duik en Lasarus, en die Wêreld se skepping
Hier is die lang Nederlander, die soortgelyke is nie in die land nie.
Hier is die hutte, waar die hoë Hollandse diensmeisie is
Hier is die bere wat dans soos enige dame
Tat, tat, tat, tat, sê pennie basuin
Hier is Jacob Hall, dit spring so, spring dit
Klank, basuin, klank, vir silwer lepel en vurk,
Kom, hier is u sierlike vark en vark. "

In die jaar 1698 sê 'n Fransman, heer Sorbière, op besoek aan Londen, "Ek was op die Bartholomew Fair. Dit bestaan ​​meestal uit speelgoedwinkels, ook kleinhandel en prente, lintwinkels-geen boeke nie, baie winkels van banketbakkers waar enige vrou kan behandel word. Knavery is hier in volmaaktheid, behoorlike snitte en sakrekenaars. Ek het die dans op die toue gaan kyk, wat bewonderenswaardig was. Toe ek uitkom, ontmoet ek 'n man wat my hoed sou afhaal, maar ek het dit verseker, en gaan my swaard trek en huil: 'Begar! U skelm! Morbleu!' & ampc., toe ek skielik honderd mense oor my skree: 'Hier, heer, sien Jefta se uitslaggelofte. ' "Hier, heer, sien die lang Nederlander." 'Sien The Tiger,' sê 'n ander. "Sien die perd en geen perd nie," wie se stert staan ​​waar sy kop moet doen. " "Sien die Duitse kunstenaar, heer." 'Sien Die beleg van Namur. ' So tussen die onbeskoftheid en beleefdheid was ek gedwing om in 'n fiacreen met 'n haas en 'n vol draf het ek by die huis tuisgekom. "

In 1702, the following advertisement appeared relative to the fair:—

"At the Great Booth over against the Hospital Gate, in Bartholomew Fair, will be seen the famous company of ropedancers, they being the greatest performers of men, women, and children that can be found beyond the seas, so that the world cannot parallel them for dancing on the low rope, vaulting on the high rope, and for walking on the slack and sloaping ropes, outdoing all others to that degree, that it has highly recommended them, both in Bartholomew Fair and May Fair last, to all the best persons of quality in England. And by all are owned to be the only amazing wonders of the world in everything they do. It is there you will see the Italian Scaramouch dancing on the rope, with a wheelbarrow before him with two children and a dog in it, and with a duck on his head, who sings to the company, and causes much laughter. The whole entertainment will be so extremely fine and diverting, as never was done by any but this company alone."

Ned Ward, as the "London Spy," went, of course, to the fair, but in a coach, to escape the dirt and the crowd, and at the entrance he says he was "saluted with Belphegor's concert, the rumbling of drums, mixed with the intolerable squeaking of catcalls and penny trumpets, made still more terrible with the shrill belches of lottery pickpockets through instruments of the same metal with their faces." The spy having been set down with his friend at the hospital gate, went into a convenient house, to smoke a pipe and drink small beer bittered with colocynth. From one of its windows he looked down on a crowd rushing, ankle-deep in filth, through an air tainted by fumes of tobacco and of singeing, over-roasted pork, to see the Merry Andrew. On their galleries strutted, in their buffoonery of stateliness, the quality of the fair, dressed in tinsel robes and golden leather buskins. "When they had taken a turn the length of their gallery, to show the gaping crowd how majestically they could tread, each ascended to a seat agreeable to the dignity of their dress, to show the multitude how imperiously they could sit."

A few years before this the fair is sketched by Sir Robert Southwell, in a letter to his son (26th August, 1685). "Here," he says, "you see the rope-dancers gett their living meerly by hazarding of their lives and why men will pay money and take pleasure to see such dangers, is of separate and philosophical consideration. You have others who are acting fools, drunkards, and madmen, but for the same wages which they might get by honest labour, and live with credit besides. Others, if born in any monstrous shape, or have children that are such, here they celebrate their misery, and, by getting of money, forget how odious they are made. When you see the toy-shops, and the strange variety of things much more impertinent than hobbyhorses of ginger-bread, you must know there are customers for all these matters and it would be a pleasing sight could you see painted a true figure of all these impertinent minds and their fantastic passions, who come trudging hither only for such things. Tis out of this credulous crowd that the ballad-singers attrackt an assembly, who listen and admire, while their confederate pickpockets are diving and fishing for their prey.

"'Tis from those of this number who are more refined that the mountebank obtains audience and credit and it were a good bargain if such customers had nothing for their money but words, but they are best content to pay for druggs and medicines, which commonly doe them hurt. There is one corner of this Elizium field devoted to the eating of pig and the surfeits that attend it. The fruits of the season are everywhere scattered about, and those who eat imprudently do but hasten to the physitian or the churchyard."

"In the year 1727-28," says Mr. Morley, "Gay's Beggar's Opera was produced, and took the foremost place among the pleasures of the town. It took a foremost place also among the pleasures of the next Bartholomew Fair, being acted during the time of the fair by the company of comedians from the new theatre in the Haymarket, at the 'George' Inn in Smithfield. William Penkethman, one of the actors who had become famous as a boothmanager, was then recently dead, and the Haymarket comedians carried the Beggar's Opera out of Bartholomew into Southwark Fair, where 'the late Mr. Penkethman's great theatrical booth' afforded them a stage. One of the managers of this specula tion was Henry Fielding, then only just of age, a young man who, with good birth, fine wit, and a liberal education, both at Eton and at Leyden University, was left to find his own way in the world. His father agreed to allow him two hundred a year in the clouds, and, as he afterwards said, his choice lay between being a hackney writer and a hackney coachman. He lived to place himself, in respect to literature, at the head of the prose writers of England, I dare even venture to think, of the world."

"A writer in the St. James's Chronicle (March 24, 1791) wished to place upon record the fact that it was Shuter, a comedian, who, in the year 1759, when master of a droll in Smithfield, invented a way, since become general at fairs, of informing players in the booth when they may drop the curtain and dismiss the company, because there are enough people waiting outside to form another audience. The man at the door pops in his head, and makes a loud inquiry for 'John Audley.'" The ingenious contriver of this device is the Shuter who finds a place in "The Rosciad" of Churchill:
"Shuter, who never cared a single pin
Whether he left out nonsense, or put in."

"There lived," says Mr. Morley, "about this time a popular Merry Andrew, who sold gingerbread nuts in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden, and because he received a guinea a day for his fun during the fair, he was at pains never to cheapen himself by laughing, or by noticing a joke, during the other 362 days of the year."

"Garrick's name," says the same writer, "is connected with the fair only by stories that regard him as a visitor out of another world. He offers his money at the entrance of a theatrical booth, and it is thought a jest worth transmitting to posterity that he is told by the checktaker, 'We never takes money of one another.' He sees one of his own sturdy Drury Lane porters installed at a booth-door, where he is pressed sorely in the crowd, and calls for help. 'It's no use,' he is told, 'I can't help you. There's very few people in Smithfield as knows Mr. Garrick off the stage.'"

In "Oliver Twist" Dickens sketches with his peculiar power the dangerous neighbourhood of Smithfield, which lay between Islington and Saffron Hill, the lurking-place of the Sykeses and Fagins of thirty years ago:—

"As John Dawkins," says Dickens, "objected to their entering London before nightfall, it was nearly eleven o'clock before they reached the turnpike at Islington. They crossed from the 'Angel' into St. John's Road, struck down the small street which terminates at Sadler's Wells Theatre, through Exmouth Street and Coppice Row, down the little court by the side of the workhouse, across the classic ground which once bore the name of Hockley-in-the-Hole, thence into Little Saffron Hill, and so into Saffron Hill the Great, along which the Dodger scudded at a rapid pace, directing Oliver to follow close at his heels.

DIE KERK VAN ST. BARTHOLOMEW-THE-GREAT, 1737.

"Although Oliver had enough to occupy his attention in keeping sight of his leader, he could not help bestowing a few hasty glances on either side of the way, as he passed along. A dirtier or more wretched place he had never seen. The street was very narrow and muddy, and the air was impregnated with filthy odours. There were a good many small shops, but the only stock-in-trade appeared to be heaps of children, who, even at that time of night, were crawling in and out at the doors, or screaming from the inside. The sole places that seemed to prosper amid the general blight of the place were the public-houses, and in them the lowest orders of Irish were wrangling with might and main. Covered ways and yards, which here and there diverged from the main street, disclosed little knots of houses where drunken men and women were positively wallowing in the filth, and from several of the doorways great, ill-looking fellows were cautiously emerging, bound, to all appearance, upon no very well-disposed or harmless errands."

The enormous sale of roast pork at Bartholomew Fair ceased, says Mr. Morley, with all the gravity of a historian, about the middle of the last century, and beef sausages then became the fashion. Thomas Rowlandson's droll but gross pictures of the shows, in 1799, show those sickening boatswings and crowds of rough and boisterous sightseers. He writes on one of the show-boards the name of Miss Biffin, that clever woman who, through the Earl of Morton's patronage, succeeded in earning a name as a miniature painter, though born without either hands or arms. In 1808 George III. paid for her more complete artistic education, and William IV. gave her a small pension, after which she married, and, at the Earl of Morton's request, left the fair caravans for good.

This great carnival, a dangerous sink for all the vices of London, was gradually growing unbearable. In 1801 a mob of thieves surrounded any respectable woman, and tore her clothes from her back. In 1802 "Lady Holland's Mob," as it used to be called, robbed visitors, beat inoffensive passersby with bludgeons, and pelted harmless persons who came to their windows with lights, alarmed at the disturbance. In 1807 the place grew even more lawless, and a virago of an actress, who was performing Belvidera in Venice Preserved, knocked down the august king's deputy-trumpeter, who applied for his fees. Richardson's shows were triumphant still, as in 1817 was Toby, "the real learned pig," who, with twenty handkerchiefs over his eyes, could tell the hour to a minute, and pick out a card from a pack. In one morning of September, 1815, there were heard at Guildhall forty-five cases of felony, misdemeanour, and assault, committed at Bartholomew Fair. Its doom was fixed. Hone, in 1825, went to sketch the dying sinner, and describes Clarke from Astley's, Wombwell's Menagerie, and the Living Skeleton. The special boast of Wombwell, who had been a cobbler in Monmouth Street, was his Elephant of Siam, who used to uncork bottles, and decide for the rightful heir, in a very brief Oriental melodrama. The shows, which were now forced to close at ten, had removed to the New North Road, Islington. Lord Kensington, in 1827, had offered to remove the fair, and in 1830 the Corporation bought of him the old priory rights. In 1839 Mr. Charles Pearson recommended more restriction, and the exclusion of theatrical shows followed. The rents were raised, and in 1840 only wild beast shows were allowed. The great fair at last sank down to a few gilt gingerbread booths. In 1849 the fair had so withered away that there were only a dozen gingerbread stalls. The ceremony of opening since 1840 had been very simple, and in 1850 Lord Mayor Musgrove, going to read the parchment proclamation at the appointed gateway, found that the fair had vanished. Five years later the ceremony entirely ceased, but the old fee of 3s. 6d. was still paid by the City to the rector of St. Bartholomew-the-Great, for a proclamation in his parish. The fair had outlived its original purpose.

Smithfield Market was condemned in 1852 by law to be moved to Islington, the noise, filth, and dangers of the place having at last become intolerable, and half a century having been spent in discussing the annoyance.

"The original extent of Smithfield," says Mr. Timbs,"was about three acres the market-place was paved, drained, and railed in, 1685 subsequently enlarged to four and a half acres, and since 1834 to six and a quarter acres. Yet this enlargement proved disproportionate to the requirements. In 1731 there were only 8,304 head of cattle sold in Smithfield in 1846, 210, 757 head of cattle, and 1,518,510 sheep. The old City laws for its regulation were called the "Statutes of Smithfield." Here might be shown 4,000 beasts and about 30,000 sheep, the latter in 1,509 pens and there were fifty pens for pigs. Altogether, Smithfield was the largest live market in the world."

The old market-days were, Monday for fat cattle and sheep Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for hay and straw Friday, cattle and sheep, and milch cows and at two o'clock for scrub-horses and asses. All sales took place by commission. The customary commission for the sale of an ox of any value was 4s., and of a sheep, 8d. The City received a toll upon every beast exposed for sale of 1d. per head, and of sheep at the rate of 1s. per score. Smithfield salesmen estimated the weight of cattle by the eye, and from constant practice they approached so near exactness that they were seldom out more than a few pounds. The sales were always for cash. No paper was passed, but when the bargain was struck the buyer and seller shook hands, and closed the sale. £7,000,000, it was said, were annually paid away in this manner in the narrow area of Smithfield Market. "The average weekly sale of beasts," said Cunningham in 1849, "is said to be about 3,000, and of sheep about 30,000, increased in the Christmas week to about 5,000 beasts, and 47,000 sheep. The following return shows the number of cattle and sheep annually sold in Smithfield during the following periods:—
Cattle. Sheep.
1841 194,298 1,435,000
1842 210,723 1,655,370
1843 207,195 1,817,360
1844 216,848 1,804,850
1845 222,822 1,539,660
1846 210,757 1,518,510

In addition to this, a quarter of a million pigs were annually sold."

The miseries of old Smithfield are described by Mr. Dickens, in "Oliver Twist," in his most powerful manner. "It was market morning," he says "the ground was covered nearly ankle-deep with filth and mire, and a thick steam perpetually rising from the reeking bodies of the cattle, and mingling with the fog which seemed to rest upon the chimney-tops, hung heavily above. All the pens in the centre of the large area, and as many temporary ones as could be crowded into the vacant space, were filled with sheep and tied up to posts by the gutter-side were long lines of oxen, three or four deep. Countrymen, butchers, drovers, hawkers, boys, thieves, idlers, and vagabonds of every low grade, were mingled together in a dense mass. The whistling of drovers, the barking of dogs, the bellowing and plunging of beasts, the bleating of sheep, and grunting and squeaking of pigs the cries of hawkers, the shouts, oaths, and quarrelling on all sides, the ringing of bells, and the roar of voices that issued from every public-house, the crowding, pushing, driving, beating, whooping, and yelling, the hideous and discordant din that resounded from every corner of the market, and the unwashed, unshaven, squalid, and dirty figures constantly running to and fro, and bursting in and out of the throng, rendered it a stunning and bewildering scene, which quite confused the senses."

Smithfield Market, on a foggy, rainy morning in November, some twenty-five years ago (says Aleph), was a sight to be remembered by any who had ventured through it. It might be called a feat of clever agility to get across Smithfield, on such a greasy, muddy day, without slipping down, or without being knocked over by one of the poor frightened and half-mad cattle toiling through it. The noise was deafening. The bellowing and lowing of cattle, bleating of sheep, squeaking of pigs, the shouts of the drovers, and often, the shrieks of some unfortunate female who had got amongst the unruly, frightened cattle, could not be forgotten. The long, narrow lanes of pavement that crossed the wider part of the market, opposite the hospital, were always lined with cattle, as close together as they could stand, their heads tied to the rails on either side of the scanty pathway, when the long horns of the Spanish breeds, sticking across towards the other side, made it far from a pleasant experience for a nervous man to venture along one of these narrow lanes, albeit it was the nearest and most direct way across the open market. If the day was foggy (and there were more foggy days then than now), then the glaring lights of the drover-boys' torches added to the wild confusion, whilst it did not dispel much of the gloom. It was indeed a very great change for the better when at last the City authorities removed the market into the suburbs.

In March, 1849, during excavations necessary for a new sewer, and at a depth of three feet below the surface, immediately opposite the entrance to the church of St. Bartholomew-the-Great, the workmen laid open a mass of unhewn stones, blackened as if by fire, and covered with ashes and human bones, charred and partially consumed. This was believed to have been the spot generally used for the Smithfield burnings, the face of the victim being turned to the east and to the great gate of St. Bartholomew, the prior of which was generally present on such occasions. Many bones were carried away as relics. Some strong oak posts were also dug up they had evidently been charred by fire, and in one of them was a staple with a ring attached to it. The place and its former history were too significant for any doubt to exist as to how they had been once used. Gazing upon them thoughtfully, one was forcibly reminded of the last words of Bishop Latimer to his friend Ridley, as they stood bound to the stake at Oxford: "Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." And the good Latimer's words have come true.

Some years ago, on removing the foundations of some old houses, on the south side of Long Lane, a considerable quantity of human remains were discovered—skulls and other portions of the skeletons. This spot was understood to be the north-west corner of the burying-ground of the ancient priory of St. Bartholomew. The skulls were thick and grim-looking, with heavy, massive jaws, just as one would expect to find in those sturdy old monks, who were the schoolmen, artists, and sages of their time.


1859 Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair

Illustrated with a vignette title page, and eighty in-text engravings.

A history on the Bartholomew Fair, a summer Charter fair that was eminent in London, with the charter for the first fair granted by Henry I to fund the Priory of St Bartholomew.

The fair took place on the 24th August from 1133 to 1855.

Illustrated by the Brothers Dalziel.

Written by Henry Morley, an academic, who is known for being one of the earliest professors of English literature in Britain.

Prior owner's ink inscription to the recto to the front endpaper, 'Cole, from his friend, Robert A. Kinglake, on his leaving Eton, Easter 1860'. Kinglake was an English rower and barrister who was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was the president of Cambridge University Boat Club, and was admitted at the inner Temple in 1865.

Bookplate to the front pastedown.

Condition

In a full panelled calf fine binding. Externally, smart. Just a touch of rubbing to the extremities, and a few very minor marks to the boards and spine. Rear hinge is starting a little but remains firm. Bookplate to the front pastedown. Prior owner's ink inscription to the recto to the front endpaper. Internally, firmly bound. Pages are bright and clean, with just a few light spots to the first and last few pages.

Overall: Near Fine

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Bartholomew Fair

This is exactly as I remember Mary Stolz&aposs writing from reading when I was young. She writes very human stories with such a delicate and superior touch. The language in this novel is excellent.

This is a simple story of going to the fair, set in London in 1597. Several inhabitants of the city find themselves headed for the fair and what joins their stories is the want of a few hours&apos adventure, escape from the toils of their lives, and a nagging for completeness that they can&apost quite identify. T This is exactly as I remember Mary Stolz's writing from reading when I was young. She writes very human stories with such a delicate and superior touch. The language in this novel is excellent.

This is a simple story of going to the fair, set in London in 1597. Several inhabitants of the city find themselves headed for the fair and what joins their stories is the want of a few hours' adventure, escape from the toils of their lives, and a nagging for completeness that they can't quite identify. The crowd headed for the fair includes two boy scholars, an maltreated young mason's servant, a young vegetable maid of the royal palace, a puppeteer, a strangely charitable merchant, and the elegant, glittering, but aging, Queen Elizabeth.

I enjoyed the novel so much and really recommend it as a historical fiction tale to provide a little taste of Elizabethan times for elementary readers on up. The individual stories of the characters are thoughtful and full of feeling. Very nice book. . meer


Fair History

The Western Alaska Fair was started in Anchorage in 1924 and lasted until the 1929. M.D. Snodgrass of the Matanuska Valley was one of the organizers of that fair. Snodgrass, a retired experiment station employee, spent most of the last part of the 1920s recruiting settlers in the Matanuska Valley for the Alaska Railroad. He was also a founding member of the Northland Pioneer Grange No. 1 in Palmer. The Grange was established on April 26, 1935. Most of the 54 charter members were settlers who had been brought to Alaska by the Alaska Railroad.

Also in 1935, the U.S. government made the final, and successful, effort to populate the Matanuska Valley. A farming colony was established in the Valley, with the intent of opening up Alaska, providing food to the military in case of war, and giving families new opportunities in a new state full of potential – in other words, a fresh, new start. A total of 203 families from Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin and Oklahoma were selected. They arrived in the Valley in May 1935. (Four years later, 40 percent of the original colonists still remained.) During their first year, the colonists constructed their homes, cleared fields and built a community.

In March 1936, the Grange decided to attempt to establish a fair in Palmer. Snodgrass organized the Grange committees that planned the first fair, which was regarded by some as replacement for the recently defunct Western Alaska Fair in Anchorage.

The Northland Pioneer Grange No. 1 formed the Matanuska Valley Agricultural and Industrial Fair Assn., Inc. Newly arrived colonists soon were joining both the Grange and newly formed Fair. The group decided to hold a four-day Fair from September 4 through September 7. The Fair celebrated the 80 th anniversary of that original event in 2016.

The Grange raised money for the original Fair by selling stock within a few days, $1,200 had been raised. Admission was set at $1 for adults or $2 for a season pass admission was free for children under 8.

The first Fair was held in and around what is now the Matanuska-Susitna Borough building. The inaugural event coincided with the opening of the Knik River Bridge, which linked the city of Anchorage and the Valley by road for the first time. This, combined with the railroad, meant that people from all over the state could attend. That year’s events included the crowning of the Fair queen, a baby show, boxing matches, horse races, dances, a rodeo and baseball games. There were also hundreds of agricultural entries, including giant cabbages, grain, carrots, onions, celery, peas and other vegetables.

That same year, the Fair acquired a more permanent site from the Alaska Rural Rehabilitation Corporation (ARRC), where the Alaska Veterans and Pioneers Home is now located. In 1939, a then-record 1,600 visitors attended the Fair.

The giant cabbage contest tradition began in 1941, when the manager of the Alaska Railroad offered a $25 prize for the largest cabbage. Max Sherrod of the Valley took the prize with a 23 pounder.

The following year, “war jitters” contributed to a hiatus of the Fair, which lasted from 1942 to 1946. But the Fair was back in full swing in 1947, with 160 exhibitors. That number grew to 205 in 1948.

Due to expensive physical improvements, the Fair Association treasury dipped to $35 in 1949. The Fair needed some new attractions to draw crowds, and 1950 saw the first carnival rides at the Fair. An air show was added in 1951.

The new attractions worked and, by 1956, attendance had grown enough to justify the Fair Board’s petition to the Alaska Legislature for official designation as the Alaska State Fair. That year, Sen. Jalmar Kerttula presented a bill in the Legislature to designate the Alaska State Fair as the “official” state fair. Tanana Valley Fair in Fairbanks had also made the same request, so the Legislature decided to alternate between the two fairs. Tanana Valley Fair is the “official” state fair on even years and Alaska State Fair, Inc. is the “official” state fair on odd years.

On February 25, 1959, the Alaska State Fair, Inc. was incorporated as a private nonprofit corporation, replacing the Matanuska Valley Agricultural and Industrial Fair Association.

In 1960, the Fair celebrated its 25th anniversary. The crowds came out to celebrate and attendance reached 30,000. Attendees included presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, who came to the Fair to kick off his “New Frontiers” campaign.

In 1966, the Fair purchased 221 acres from Palmer Raceways Assn. and 1967 was the Fair’s first year in its present location. The total attendance that year reached 72,000.

The first 11-day Fair took place in 1968. In 1969, two years after moving to its new location, the Fair donated its land in Palmer for the Alaska Veterans and Pioneers Home.

The Fair’s long-standing relationship with the Mat-Su Miners baseball team (formerly the Valley Green Giants) began in 1975, when the Fair board was approached with a proposal to host a baseball team and field on the fairgrounds. In 1976, the Fair board made land available for the baseball field. Many people were involved in the field construction, but none more so than the Hermon brothers, who used personal time and equipment from their construction company to build the ball field. Therefore, the name Hermon Field was designated by the Fair board. In 2012, the Fair extended the agreement with the Mat-Su Miners baseball team for continued use through April 30, 2025.

The Fair’s log food booths were built in the early 1970s by local logsmith Jimmy Hitchcock. Some of the buildings from Palmer’s early days were moved to the fairgrounds starting in 1975 as part of a bicentennial project. The buildings included Colony Church/Theatre, which was built in 1936 – 1937, and served as one of the three original colony churches the Hesse-Smith House, which was built in 1935, and was one of five house plans offered to the colonists the MacNevin House, built in 1935 Wineck Barn, which represents the dominant style of barn built for the colonists and the Evan Jones House, built circa 1917 by the Jones family of the Jonesville Coal Mine. These buildings are still being utilized as Fair offices and for events year-round.

In 1976, three acres of the southwest corner of the fairgrounds became the temporary home for the Transportation Museum of Alaska. The museum, now named the Museum of Alaska Transportation and Industry, moved to its current location in Wasilla in 1992.

In the early 1980s, major upgrades to the Fair’s electrical, sewer and water systems were made. That same year, construction of the Farm Exhibits building began, and the earth that was removed for the building’s foundation was used to build the Borealis Theatre bowl, which hosts the annual Fair concert series. In 2016, concert-goers purchased a total of 26,294 tickets to the concert series.

Originally, the Farm Exhibits structure was designed to be a multi-purpose arena for Fair-time activities, as well as year-round, non-Fair use. Funding for the construction was requested from the state, and completion of the building was to be done in phases. However, after the phase one funding was received, the state had no available monies to complete the project, leaving just the skeleton of a building. In 2012, the Fair was awarded an $800,000 grant from the State of Alaska for much-needed Farm Exhibits roof improvements. The project, which included replacement of the entire 96,000-square-foot roof, as well as necessary structural upgrades for 110 MPH wind load, were completed in fall 2013.

Another significant change in the look of the fairgrounds occurred in 1997, when the construction of Pioneer Plaza and Raven Hall was completed. The Fair borrowed $2.1 million for this project, which was to be paid off in 2012. Due to frugal fiscal practices and additional revenue provided by sponsorships and concerts, the project was paid off ahead of schedule in 2009. Today, Pioneer Plaza offers ample room for displays and attractions during the Fair. Meanwhile, Raven Hall, originally built as a venue for commercial exhibits during the Fair, now provides an important venue for numerous year-round public and private events.

In 1998, the Fair was extended to three weeks for a 17-day event in recognition of the 1898 Gold Rush Centennial. It also briefly labeled itself “Expo 98” in recognition of the event. In 1999, the Fair reverted to its traditional 11-day schedule.

The Fair marked the first year of the new century by filling and burying a time capsule, which will be opened in 2036 in commemoration of the Fair’s 100 th anniversary.

Also in 2000, the Fair and the Alaska agricultural community established the Farm Family of the Year award to honor the work and contributions of hard-working farming families in Alaska. In 2016, the award went to the Plagerman family of Delta Junction.

A major development in the physical evolution of the fairgrounds took place in 2001, when the Fair purchased 40 acres of land containing the Rebarchek gravel pit. In 2002, the Fair also purchased the Rebarchek farmhouse and five additional acres of land. In 2003, the Fair traded the Rebarchek gravel pit for 40 acres of the adjacent Hamilton farm, through an agreement with Alaska Demolition. The swap was a way to buffer the fairgrounds from non-compatible land uses, such as residential and commercial development.

In 2004, after two years of construction, the Fair opened its new Green Gate and Railroad Depot on the south end of the fairgrounds. The development included new restrooms, covered areas, an electronic sign, and Glenn Highway Scenic Byway interpretive panels.

Changes to the fairgrounds continued in 2007, when the title to the Don Sheldon Events Center was transferred from the Mat-Su Borough to the Fair. A new roof, funded by a gracious grant from the Rasmuson Foundation, was put on the Events Center in 2011, allowing the upgraded facility to attract higher quality exhibits.
The beautiful gardens and colorful flowers that decorate the grounds have long been a mainstay of the Fair and a favorite amongst fairgoers, thanks in large part to the Fair’s long-time head gardener Becky Myrvold and her team. In 2007, the Fair’s handiwork received some well-deserved national recognition, when the makers of the Public Broadcasting Service program GardenSMART visited the Fair to film a 30-minute segment featuring the Fair’s herb, perennial and annual gardens, as well as highlighting the Fair’s famous giant vegetables. The segment also included a history of the Fair and its significance to the state.

The 2008 Fair coincided with Alaska’s 50th anniversary of statehood, and many events were designed to celebrate that momentous milestone. Among them was the unveiling of the official Alaska state quarter. On August 29 – the same day Alaska’s former Gov. Sarah Palin was named a U.S. vice presidential candidate – thousands of fairgoers gathered to witness the introduction of the State of Alaska quarter by Sen. Lisa Murkowski, Lt. Gov. Sean Parnell and officials from the United State Mint.

The Fair’s 2008 efforts earned it an award from the American Bus Association, which named the Fair one of the top 100 events in North America. This annual award recognizes 100 of the best events for group travel in the U.S. and Canada. Continuing its tradition of excellence, the Fair was named one of the best state fairs in America by Country Living magazine in 2012. The Alaska State Fair, which came in second behind only the Iowa State Fair, was touted for “most jaw-dropping produce.” The Fair continued its winning tradition, being named among the top 20 events and festivals by Top Events USA in 2014. The Fair was also a contender for “best state fair” in USA TODAY’s 2015 10Best Readers’ Choice travel award contest. And the Fair brought home a number of awards from the 2016 International Association of Fairs and Expositions convention, including first place in the commemorative poster category.

2010 marked the first year of the Fair’s scholarship program. Three $1,000 scholarships were awarded to Mat-Su Valley students that year. In 2016, the Fair awarded $4,250 in scholarships to five Alaska high school students. The Fair continues to seek opportunities to increase scholarship funding. In 2012, in partnership with the Palmer Rotary, the Fair supported the first-ever Cabbage Classic Lottery, which gave fairgoers the chance to guess the weight of the winning entry in the Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off while raising money for Rotary and Fair scholarship programs. The Cabbage Classic continued in 2016, bringing in $390 for Fair scholarships.

In 2016, the Fair undertook several additional creative fundraising efforts benefiting the Fair scholarship fund. These efforts included the raffle of an 80 th birthday commemorative Fair quilt, which featured artwork designed by Alaska artist Ruth Hulbert and was sewn by local quilter Kathy Rockey. The raffle, won by Lorraine Stotts, brought in $3,990 for Fair scholarships. The Concert Kick-Off Party, a fundraising event held in April, raised another $4,000 for Fair scholarships.

In 2011, the Fair’s Flower Exhibits building (previously the Livestock Barn and then the Fair Exchange) became the Kid Zone, offering fun, educational children’s activities as well as the Children’s Maze, a spectacular garden maze for young children featuring different themes every year. Meanwhile, the Flowers Exhibits department moved to a new area created especially for them in the Farm Exhibits building.

In 2012, Palmer farmer Scott Robb set a new record for the world’s heaviest cabbage with his 138.25-pound entry into the Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off, besting Wasilla grower Steve Hubacek’s 2009 world-record cabbage, which weighed in at 127 pounds. At the 21 st annual Giant Cabbage Weigh-Off in 2016, repeat champion Steve Hubacek took first place with his 83.4-pound entry.

The 2014 Fair featured several significant expansions/improvements, including new paved walkways in the carnival area, upgraded and expanded sewer system, new Farm Exhibits roof, and the opening of The Gathering Place, a new area of the fairgrounds dedicated to experiencing Alaska’s rich Native cultures and traditions. In 2015, all regions of Alaska were represented at The Gathering Place, which featured 38 Alaska Native dance group performances, 23 Alaska Native artisans, 13 storytelling concerts, 10 Alaska Native games demonstrations, and nine music concerts. Dena’ – People’s Stage, the latest feature of The Gathering Place, opened at the 2016 Fair. The 1,000-square-foot permanent stage now offers a dedicated performance area for Alaska Native entertainment at the Fair.

To better understand and share the value the Fair provides to the state, the Fair undertook an economic impact study with assistance from the McDowell Group in 2014. The final report showed a total economic impact of $23 million.

Part of the Fair’s economic impact on the state stems from its growth from a once-a-year event to a year-round hub for the community to gather, learn and enjoy. In 2014, the Scottish Highland Games moved their annual summertime event to the fairgrounds. The Fair was honored to host the International Highland Games Foundation World Heavy Events Championships in 2016. The popular Mighty Matanuska Brewfest has been held at the fairgrounds each fall for the past nine years. And in 2015 and 2016, the Fair hosted “Bright up the Night,” a free, drive-through light display celebrating the holiday season.

In November 2014, the Fair and Alaska Farmland Trust signed an agreement permanently protecting 36.5 acres of Fair-owned property as farmland. The Fair supported the agreement with a contribution valued at $250,000. Farmland Palooza, an event celebrating the agreement, took place May 16, 2015 at the property, located next to the former Hamilton Dairy Farm across South Inner Springer Loop from the fairgrounds.

The 4-H Junior Market Livestock Auction marked its 41 st year at the Fair in 2016, bringing in $214,312.50 and setting a new record for the event. The 4-H youth participants, many of whom raised their animals from birth, receive the majority of the proceeds, which they often pour back into raising an animal for the next year’s auction.

In 2016, a total of 8,719 exhibit entries came in from across the state, as well as 33 from outside Alaska. The entries resulted in six new state records, including the one set by Dale Marshall at the 2016 Midnight Sun Great Pumpkin Weigh-Off. After pursuing the state record for five years, Dale finally broke it with his 1,469-pound entry, beating the previous state pumpkin record by 180 pounds.

In late 2015, the Fair signed a long-term agreement with Golden Wheel Amusements. The agreement, which coincided with the Fair’s 80 th birthday and Golden Wheel Amusements 50 th anniversary in Alaska, underscored the organizations’ continuing commitment to introducing new rides and capital improvements in the carnival area at the fairgrounds. Fairgoers enjoyed four new rides at the 2016 carnival, including Zombie Mansion, Warhawk, Kiddie Swing, and The Rock.

Over the years, Fair attendance has continued its upward trend. During the 18-day Fair in 1998, a record 361,804 people enjoyed the festivities. The Fair set another record in 2003, with 312,419 visitors attending the Fair over a 12-day period. Estimated attendance at the 2016 Fair was 293,424.

Throughout its history, the Fair has demonstrated a commitment to the health and wellbeing of the community. For example, in 2016, the Fair became the very first state fair in the United States to go smoke-free for the entire run of the event. The Fair was honored with the American Lung Association’s 2016 Breathe Easy Champion Award for this landmark move. And through its award-winning recycling program, established in 2002, Fair volunteers diverted 34,829 pounds of recyclables from the landfill last year alone!

While the Fair has certainly come a long way since the first event in 1936, the spirit of the Fair remains relatively constant. Visitors do enjoy a wider range of events, such as diverse, big-name entertainers and carnival rides, but the heart of the Fair still centers on the things the original colonists started with – agriculture, produce, lots of food, flowers, friends and family, and an old-fashioned, good time.


Bartholomew Fair Background

These notes were contributed by members of the GradeSaver community. We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own.

Written by Timothy Sexton

Interestingly, the very first performance of Ben Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair was on Halloween. Of course, it is imperative to realize that Halloween wasn’t the same in 1614 as it is today. Even so, Ben Jonson—who briefly enjoyed stature as a playwright exceeding his contemporary Shakespeare—might well have spent the rest of his life haunted by the mounting of his Altmanesque comedy following the misadventures and assorted complications of a variety of idiosyncratic characters during the celebrated Smithfield Fair commemorating St. Bartholomew’s Day? What was so potentially frightful about this performance?

Well, it wasn’t the performance so much as it was the play itself. The conventional wisdom of most scholars, academics and assorted other experts on these type of things is that Jonson never again attained the heights of artistry of this or any other of his most highly regarded works. From October 31, 1614 onward, in other things, it was all downhill.

The comparison of Bartholomew Fair to a Robert Altman film like MASH, A Wedding or—especially—Nashville is apt. What Ben Jonson does in this play is situate a memorable cast of characters that includes a Barney Fife-esque justice of the peace, balladeers, pickpockets, fortune-hunting bounders, pious Puritans and pretty much every other type of con artist and carny scammer that usually show up where such oblivious crowds congregate. The fair becomes a microcosm, in other words, and in that respect truly can be said to be not at all far removed from the 4077th mobile army surgical hospital or the commingling of the various arms of the political and entertainment scene in Nashville during a specific time and place in the American election cycle. All those exaggerated character types come together as a representatives of something much bigger: they are the inhabitants of the city of London during the Renaissance the manner in which they interact with each other and their stories become intertwined all exist to serve the very specific purpose of allowing Ben Jonson to indulge his talent for satirically stripping away the pretenses of all their moral and ethical shortcomings.

Sedert Bartholomew Fair is a comedy, of course, the fair winds down with nobody suffering particularly because they all share collectively in the folly of being human.

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Kyk die video: Taylor, Rigadoon and Bartholomew Fair from Three Century Suite (Augustus 2022).