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Geheime kamers, graansilo's en die lang, lang geskiedenis van samesweringsteorieë van piramides

In 867 nC het 'n Europese monnik met die naam Bernard 'n rit op 'n slaweskip uit die suidelike Italiaanse stad Taranto geneem. Hy was op pad na die Heilige Land, op 'n pelgrimstog met twee mede -monnike. Iewers het hulle egter besluit om 'n draai deur Egipte te maak. Dit was destyds 'n redelik normale reisplan. Trouens, in sy boek,  Wonderlike dinge: 'n geskiedenis van die egiptologie van die oudheid tot 1881, skrywer Jason Thompson skryf dat selfs baie van die kruistogte vir die Heilige Land uiteindelik Egipte afgedank het. En hierdie feit kan baie help om te verduidelik waarom Bernard en sy vriende onmiddellik in 'n gevangenis in Kaïro gestort is en moes terugkoop.

Uit hierdie taamlik onaangename toergids kom waarskynlik die eerste persoon in die Westerse literatuur oor die piramides van Giza.

Bernard, wat die tradisionele verhale van mense vertel wat vertel is deur mense wat die piramides nie eerstehands gesien het nie, noem hulle Josef se graanskure ”. Hy laat 'n held uit die Bybelse boek Genesis, 'n seun van Jakob, wat deur sy broers in slawerny verkoop word, dan opstaan ​​tot politieke mag as raadgewer vir die Egiptiese farao. (U ken hom waarskynlik die beste as die eienaar van die wonderlike Technicolor -droomjas.)  In een verhaal red Joseph Egipte deur 'n hongersnood te voorspel en die farao te oortuig om vooraf sewe jaar graan op te slaan.

Illustrasie van Joseph met sy graan (en jas)), uit die boek uit 1869 Die geskiedenis van Josef en sy broers. (Foto: Public Domain/WikiCommons)  

Piramides was onlangs in die nuus: termiese skanderings het pas die bestaan ​​van gedenkwaardighede in Giza getoon, wat dui op leë ruimtes, warmer interne lugstrome of verskillende boumateriaal. Reeds word aanlyn-geselsies bespiegelings dat dit 'n geheime kamer is wat god-weet-watter skatte verberg. Verlede week, Buzzfeed 'n ou video van 1998 geplaas waarin die presidentskandidaat Ben Carson praat oor hoe hy in wese dieselfde ding glo wat Bernard die monnik amper 1500 jaar gelede geglo het. My eie persoonlike teorie is dat Joseph die piramides gebou het om graan te stoor, het Carson gesê. Nou dink al die argeoloë dat hulle gemaak is vir die farao's en grafte. Maar, jy weet, dit sal iets vreesliks moet wees as jy stilstaan ​​en daaroor nadink. En ek dink nie dit sal mettertyd net verdwyn om soveel graan te stoor nie. ”

Carson het hierdie idee voorgestel as 'n Bybelse geskiedenisbeskouing. Dit sou Bernard waarskynlik ook gedoen het. Maar in werklikheid noem Genesis nooit die piramides of iets dergeliks nie. In plaas daarvan maak Bernard en Carson albei deel uit van 'n ander en ewe kragtige Westerse tradisie: om wonderlik en winsgewend oor die wonderwerke van antieke Egipte te spekuleer.

Dit is 'n instelling met 'n groot tent, wat die sekulêre en die godsdienstige, die Atlantiërs en die vreemdelinge en die mense wat glo dat Engeland die tuiste van die verlore stamme van Israel is, omvat. Trouens, dit dateer al die pad terug na die vader van die geskiedenis self, Herodotus, die antieke Griek wat 'n geskiedenis van nege volumes van die wêreld iewers omstreeks 450 vC geskryf het. Herodotus bied sy werk oor Egipte aan as eerstehandse inligting, en vir baie lank, tot in die vyftigerjare, het #skoliere hom in die algemeen onder die loep geneem. Uiteindelik het mense begin agterkom dat nie alles wat Herodotus te sê het nie, sinvol is, sê Ethan Watrall, 'n professor in antropologie aan die Michigan State University, wat spesialiseer in egyptologie en pseudo -argeologie.

Ignatius Donelly se kaart van die Atlantiese Ryk, uit sy boek Atlantis: die Antediluviaanse wêreld, 1882. (Foto: Public Domain/WikiCommons)

Herodotus beskryf byvoorbeeld hoe hy na die mummifikasie kyk en sê dat dit 'n lyk in 'n bad natgemaakte natronsout geweek het, wat dit uitgedroog het. Maar hoe kon u iets in vloeistof uitdroog? Sê Watrall. Dit is onlogies. ” Vandag weet ons dat mummies in plaas daarvan uitgedroog is deur dit te bedek in sakke vol natron- — groter weergawes van die pakkies wat u in u gedroogde vrugte kan vind. Herodotus het die idee oor natron reggekry. Maar dit is ook duidelik dat hy nooit self na die mummifikasieproses gekyk het nie.

Herodotus geringe oordrywings bleek in vergelyking met byvoorbeeld die werk van Ignatius Donnelly, die tweede luitenant -goewerneur van Minnesota, 'n 19de -eeuse staatsverteenwoordiger, en 'n Atlantiese letterkundige. Donnelly kry die eer dat hy die idee gewild gemaak het dat Plato se waarskynlik allegoriese verlore stad eintlik heeltemal werklik was en ook baie gevorderd was. Toe Atlantis val, skryf Donnelly, het sy vlugtelinge die heersers en/of gode en godinne geword van die wêreld se groot antieke beskawings, insluitend Egipte. Antieke Egiptiese kultuur het die van verlore Atlantis naboots. Dit was die Atlantiërs wat die piramides ontwerp en gebou het.

Fragment van Herodotus ’ Geskiedenis, Boek VIII oor papirus, gedateer tot vroeg in die 2de eeu nC. (Foto: Public Domain/WikiCommons)

U hoef slegs die History Channel aan te skakel om te sien hoe hierdie draad in ons eie tydperk strek, ondanks die feit dat die werklike ou Egiptenare ons vertel het hoekom en hoe die piramides gebou is.

Hulle was vrugbare burokrate. Die bou daarvan was 'n massiewe staatsonderneming, 'n openbare werke -projek, ” Watrall sê. Die logistiek en ideologie is duidelik gedokumenteer in duisende en duisende tekste. ”

Waarom sou iemand in die Atlantiërs glo of dink die Egiptenare het graan in piramides geberg? Ons praat immers van een van die mees self-gedokumenteerde antieke beskawings ter wêreld. Waarom nie luister na wat hulle oor hulself sê nie?

Volgens Watrall is daar twee groot redes dat antieke Egipte grootse aantygings, bewyse sonder bespiegeling en insinuasies van sameswering lok.   Eerstens het u mense, soos Carson, wat glo dat elke woord in die Bybel 'n letterlike geskiedenisboek/ensiklopedie is. As hulle na 'n plek soos Egipte kyk, wat prominent in die Ou Testament verskyn, wil hulle bewyse sien dat hul godsdienstige teks werklik waar is. En dit lei hulle van punt A tot punt Z —Joseph het stoorkamers van graan vir die farao gebou, graansilo's is dikwels groot geboue, piramides is groot geboue, so miskien is die piramides graansilo's. Dit is miskien nie 'n letterlike interpretasie van die Bybel nie om te sê dat Josef graan in die piramides gebêre het, maar die begeerte na Bybelse letterlikheid dryf mense daartoe om daardie logiese spronge te maak.

Binne die Groot Piramide van Giza: Die King's Chamber, met  sarcophagus. (Foto:  Public Domain/WikiCommons)

Die ander bron van Egiptiese pseudowetenskap is meer universeel, maar ook meer kwaadaardig. Die piramides, wat u moontlik opgemerk het, is groot, regtig, ongelooflik groot. Om in hul skaduwee te staan, is om ontsag te wees vir die vlak van ingenieurswese en koördinasie wat min van ons ons kan voorstel om suksesvol te onderneem. En daarom kies ons om te glo dat geen mense daartoe in staat was nie, en beslis nie mense wat lank gelede gelewe het nie, en wat so anders as ons was, en duidelik baie agterlik .. “ En die probleem daarmee, &# 8221 Watrall sê dat die onderliggende skoolhoof hoogstens hoogs etnosentries en in die ergste rassisme rassisme is.

As Bernard (en Ben Carson) die streek van nader bekyk het, het hulle buitengewone duidelike bewyse gesien dat die piramides nie reuse graansilo's is nie. Naby die Piramides van Giza het argeoloë Gebel Qibli ontdek, 'n stad wat basies gedien het as die besigheidsdorp vir die werkers wat die piramides gebou het. Die werkers is in graan betaal, wat as belasting op edele grondeienaars ingevorder is, sê Watrall. Dit is sirkelvormige moddersteenstrukture wat met meer modder teen goggas verseël is, maar nie so verseël dat swam in die stilstaande lug kan groei. Ek kon in die middel van een van hulle staan, my arms uitsteek en dit sou die deursnee wees, ” sê Watrall. Ek kon nie opstaan ​​nie. Dit is minder as my lengte en ek ’m 6 𔃿 ”.


Vroeë lewe van koning Henry VIII

Henry VIII is gebore op 28 Junie 1491 in Greenwich, naby Londen. Hy was die tweede seun van Henry VII en Elizabeth van York. Sy vader was die eerste Tudor -koning van Engeland, terwyl sy ma die dogter was van Edward IV, die eerste Yorkistiese koning van Engeland. Henry het 'n ouer broer, Arthur, gebore in 1486.

Op driejarige ouderdom is Henry se ouer broer prins van Wallis. Met ander woorde, Arthur is aangewys as die erfgenaam van die Engelse troon en is dus versorg as koning. Henry, aan die ander kant, is gestuur na 'n loopbaan in die kerk, en sy opleiding het lesse in teologie, musiek en poësie ingesluit.

In 1502 het Arthur die sweet gekry (sommige moderne geleerdes glo dat dit 'n hantavirus is) en sterf. As gevolg hiervan het Henry die nuwe erfgenaam geword van die Engelse troon.

In 1509 sterf Henry VII en Henry VIII word die nuwe koning van Engeland. Ses weke na sy kroning trou Henry met Catherine van Aragon, die weduwee van sy broer. Catherine was die dogter van Ferdinand II van Aragon en Isabella I van Kastilië en was verloof aan Arthur toe hy net twee jaar oud was.

18-jarige Henry VIII na sy kroning in 1509. (P. S. Burton / Publieke domein )

Hierdie reëling sou die nuutgestigte Tudor -dinastie bevoordeel. Die huwelik van Arthur met 'n prinses van die gevestigde Trastámara-dinastie sou die prestige van die Tudors in Europa verhoog. 'N Huweliksverdrag tussen die Engelse en Spaanse kant is in 1496 bereik, en 'n gevolmagtigde huwelik tussen Arthur en Catherine het plaasgevind.

Die egpaar trou later in 1501. Na Arthur se dood word Catherine die Dowager-prinses van Wallis en word in die huishouding van haar skoonmoeder, Elizabeth van York, opgeneem. Catherine is later verloof aan Henry en trou met hom toe hy koning word.


Ou Rein- en Bit Keepers - Geskiedenis

Romeinse Centurion

Illustrasie van 'n Romeinse Centurion

In antieke Rome het die 'centurion' beteken 'kaptein van 100', en die Romeinse hoofman oor honderd was kaptein van meer as 100 voet soldate in 'n legioen. Die hoofman oor honderd was lojaal en moedig, begin as soldaat in die weermag en werk op in die geledere. Hulle is opgemerk deur die generaal vir hul vaardigheid en moed in die geveg, en is as offisiere aangestel.

Die Army of Rome het uit drie soorte soldate bestaan: die Praetorian Guard (Caesar's bodyguard), The Legionaries (infanteriesoldate en offisiere wat uit burgers bestaan) en The Auxiliaries (nie-burgerlike troepe).

Die ruggraat van die Romeinse leër was die hoofmanne. Die hoofmanne was legioenen en hulle is duidelik opgemerk omdat hulle 'n spesiale helm en 'n meer versierde tuig van baie beter gehalte gedra het. Hulle het 'n kort wingerdstok gedra as 'n simbool van rang. Hulle het hulself as soldate opgetel en is bevorder vir hul toewyding en moed. Dit was die veteraan -soldate wat elk 100 mans bevel gegee het, binne 'n legioen van 6 000. Daar was dus 60 eeue in 'n legioen, elk onder bevel van 'n hoofman oor honderd. Gedurende die tyd van Augustus was daar 28 legioene.

Die hoofman oor honderd ontvang 'n salaris van meer as 20 keer die gewone soldate, ongeveer 5000 denarii per jaar. Daar was eintlik vyf senior hoofmanne in 'n legioen wat 10.000 denarii per jaar ontvang het, en die hoofhoofman (die eerste spies) het jaarliks ​​20.000 denarii se loon ontvang. Die gewone soldaat ontvang ongeveer 200-300 denarii per jaar.

Gedurende die tyd van Jesus was die hoofkwartier van die Romeinse leër in Judea geleë in Cesarea, aan die Middellandse See -kus.

Centurion in die Bybel -ensiklopedie - ISBE
sen-tu'-ri-un: Soos die naam aandui, was hekatontarches of hekatontarchos, kenturion, Latyn centurio, die bevelvoerder van honderd man, min of meer, in 'n Romeinse legioen. Matteus en Lukas gebruik die Griekse woord terwyl Markus die Latynse vorm verkies, soos met ander woorde, aangesien hy hoofsaaklik vir Romeinse lesers geskryf het. Die aantal hoofmanne in 'n legioen was 60, dit is in alle tye die aantal eeue, hoewel die aantal in die groep of speira verskil. Die gewone hoof van die hoofman oor honderd was om sy manne te boor, hul arms, kos en klere te ondersoek en hulle in die kamp en in die veld te beveel. Centurions is soms in diens van losstaande diens gebruik, waarvan die toestande in die provinsies ietwat onduidelik is. Mans soos Cornelius en Julius (Handelinge 10: 1 27: 1) is moontlik geskei van die legioen waartoe hulle behoorlik behoort het vir die uitvoering van spesiale pligte. Hulle en ander hoofmanne wat in die Evangelies en die Handelinge genoem word (Mt 8: 5 Mk 15:39, 44, 45 Lk 23:47) word in 'n gunstige lig deur die heilige skrywers voorgestel. Lees die volledige artikel

Centurion in Easton's Bible Dictionary
'N Romeinse offisier onder bevel van honderd man (Mark 15:39, 44, 45). Cornelius, die eerste nie -Joodse bekeerling, was 'n hoofman oor honderd (Handelinge 10: 1, 22). Ander hoofmanne word in Matt. 8: 5, 8, 13 Lukas 7: 2, 6 Handelinge 21:32 22:25, 26 23:17, 23 24:23 27: 1, 6, 11, 31, 43 28:16. 'N Honderdman oor honderd het na die kruisiging van ons Here gekyk (Matt. 27:54 Luk. 23:47), en toe hy die wonders sien wat dit bywoon, het hy uitgeroep: "Hierdie man was inderdaad die Seun van God." in lofprysing gepraat, hetsy in die Evangelies of in die Handelinge. Dit is interessant om dit te vergelyk met die verklaring van Polybius (vi. 24), dat die hoofmanne oor verdienste gekies is, en mans was nie net so merkwaardig vanweë hul gewaagde moed as van hul beraadslaging, standvastigheid en gemoedskrag nie. & Quot , Dr Maclear se NT Hist. Lees die volledige artikel

Bybelse definisie van Centurion in Fausset se Bybelwoordeboek
Dit is gepas in die Nuwe Testament dat eeuehoofde so gereeld gunstig opgemerk word. Goeie gedrag was oor die algemeen die oorsaak van hul bevordering tot die bevel van 'n eeu (behoorlik 100 man). Eerlike eerlikheid sou hulle oopmaak vir oortuiging. Byvoorbeeld, die een wie se geloof Jesus so prys in Matteus 8 Cornelius, na wie Petrus per visie gestuur is, en wat beskryf word as & quotdevout, God vrees met sy hele huis, baie aalmoese vir die mense gee en altyd tot God bid & quot ( Handelinge 10) Julius, die hoofman oor honderd van die orkes van Augustus, wat Paulus hoflik gesmeek het en sy lewe gered het toe hy deur die soldate bedreig is (Handelinge 27: 1 Handelinge 27: 3-42 Handelinge 27:43). Vertaal in Handelinge 24:23 die hoofman oor honderd, naamlik die bevelvoerder van die perd wat Paulus na Cesarea vervoer het nadat die ander van die twee hoofmanne met die infanterie teruggekeer het (vergelyk Handelinge 23:23 Handelinge 23:32). Die hoofman oor honderd by die kruisiging van die Here het die getuienis so merkwaardig van 'n heiden uitgespreek: & quot; dit was beslis 'n regverdige man & quot; Lukas se verduideliking (Luk. 23:47) van wat 'n nie -Jood sou bedoel deur te sê: & quot; Waarlik, dit was die Seun van God & quot (Matteus 27:54) ). Lees die volledige artikel

Romeinse leër in Smith's Bible Dictionary
Die Romeinse leër was verdeel in legioene, waarvan die aantal aansienlik verskil (van 3000 tot 6000), elk onder ses tribuni's (& quotchief captains, & quot)
Hand 21:31 wat beurte beveel het. Die legioen is onderverdeel in tien groepe (& quotband, & quot) Ac 10: 1 die groep in drie manipulasies, en die manipel in twee eeue, wat oorspronklik 100 man bevat, soos die naam aandui, maar daarna van 50 tot 100 man, volgens die sterkte van die legioen. Daar was dus 60 eeue in 'n legioen, elk onder bevel van 'n hoofman oor honderd. Ac 10: 1,22 Mt 8: 5 27:54 Benewens die legionêre kohorte het onafhanklike groepe vrywilligers onder die Romeinse standaarde gedien. Een van hierdie groepe is die Italiaanse genoem, Ac 10: 1, bestaande uit vrywilligers uit Italië. Die hoofkwartier van die Romeinse magte in Judea was in Sesarea. Lees die volledige artikel


Cuirass Of A Roman Centurion Versier met 9 silwer phalerae (medaljes of dapper dade)

Dit is nie maklik om 'n Centurion te skud nie

En toe Jesus weer hard uitgeroep het, het hy sy gees opgegee. Op daardie oomblik is die voorhangsel van die tempel van bo na onder in twee geskeur. Die aarde het geskud en die rotse het geskeur. Die grafte het oopgebreek en die lyke van baie heilige mense wat gesterf het, is opgewek. Hulle het uit die grafte gekom, en na Jesus se opstanding het hulle die heilige stad ingegaan en aan baie mense verskyn. Toe die hoofman oor honderd en die wat saam met hom was wat Jesus bewaak het, die aardbewing en alles wat gebeur het, sien, was hulle verskrik en het uitgeroep: & quot; Sekerlik, Hy was die Seun van God! & Quot; Matteus 27: 50-54

Stel jou die vrees voor wat geïnspireer is deur 'n afdeling van Romeinse legioenen wat in jou dorp instap. Die grond dreun onder honderd soldate gewapen met swaard, skild en wapenrusting terwyl hulle in jou straat afbeweeg. Die hele eenheid beweeg as een. Nie een solider dink aan sy eie keuses nie, maar beweeg as 'n enkele entiteit. Die hoofman oor honderd ry langs 'n trotse paard. Onderskei in kleredrag en karakter. Hy is een wat op verdienste deur die geledere gewerk het tot 'n posisie van vertroude gesag. Gekruis deur stryd en wetstoepassing in honderde dorpe in die hele Ryk, is sy oë vol kennis. Hy het 'n opdrag en 'n plig om uit te voer en word nie geraak deur die mening van enige menslike gees nie.

Een Centurion oor wat 'n gewone dag van orde sou wees, was getuie van die dag wat die stad en die wêreld geskud het. Miskien het hy van Jesus van Nasaret gehoor of selfs die skare wat hom gevolg het, gesien. Hy was moontlik selfs 'n kennis van die hoofman oor honderd, wie se dienskneg deur Christus genees is. (Matt 8) Hy het beslis gesien hoe die groot menigtes na hierdie kruisiging kyk. Hy sien hoe sommige huil en ander spot. Hy het die teken oor sy kop gesien, en dit is Jesus. Die Koning van die Jode & quot Hy het selfs gehoor dat Christus een van die ander gekruisigde diewe langs hom die belofte van die paradys beloof! Daar moes baie gedink en besin gewees het agter sy stieloog, terwyl hy saam met sy soldate wag gehou het oor hierdie onheilspellende gebeurtenis.

Wat het hierdie Jesus so spesiaal gemaak? Nog 'n oproerige Joodse ekstremis? Maar op een of ander manier pas hy nie by die profiel nie. En waarom haat die priesters en godsdienstiges hom so? Waarom word hulle so bedreig? Te midde van die gedagte maak Jesus skielik keel skoon en skree: "Dit is volbring!" En gee sy gees op asof hy uit keuse en doel was. (Johannes 19:30) Dan 'n gewelddadige aardbewing! Alles bewe! Die harde en dramatiese golwe van aardbewegende krag dreun deur elke siel en veroorsaak angs, gille naby en ver. die paniek van mense wat hardloop, perde wat bok, voëls vlug en rotse val.

Die hoofman oor honderd neem 'n gesaghebbende besluit. & quot; Hy was beslis die Seun van God! Op hierdie dag het beide die rotse en die geskiedenis in twee verdeel en God het die vraag en keuse aan elke mens begin voorhou: & quot Maar wat van jou. Wie sê jy is ek? & Quot (Matt. 16:15)

Hy spot met trotse spotters, maar gee die nederiges genade. Spreuke 3:34


Die Bybel noem die & quotcenturion & quot:

Handelinge 10: 1 - Daar was 'n sekere man in Cesarea met die naam Cornelius, a hoofman oor honderd van die orkes wat die Italiaanse [band] genoem word,

Handelinge 10:22 - En hulle sê: Cornelius die hoofman oor honderd, 'n regverdige man, en een wat God vrees, en van goeie berig onder die hele volk van die Jode, is deur 'n heilige engel van God gewaarsku om jou na sy huis te stuur en na jou te luister.

Markus 15:44 - En Pilatus was verwonderd as hy al dood was; en hy roep die hoofman oor honderd, het hy hom gevra of hy al 'n tyd dood was.

Lukas 7: 6 - Toe gaan Jesus saam met hulle. En toe hy nou nie ver van die huis af was nie, het die hoofman oor honderd het vriende na hom gestuur en vir hom gesê: Here, moenie uself bekommer nie, want ek is nie werd dat u onder my dak ingaan nie.

Matteus 8: 8 - Die hoofman oor honderd antwoord en sê: Here, ek is nie werd dat u onder my dak kom nie; maar spreek slegs die woord, en my kneg sal gesond word.

Handelinge 27: 1 - En toe daar vasgestel is dat ons na Italië moet vaar, het hulle Paulus en sekere ander gevangenes oorgegee aan [een] genaamd Julius, 'n hoofman oor honderd van Augustus se orkes.

Matteus 8:13 - En Jesus sê vir die hoofman oor honderd, Gaan, en soos u geglo het, laat u dit toe doen. En sy dienskneg is in dieselfde uur genees.

Handelinge 28:16 - En toe ons in Rome kom, het die hoofman oor honderd het die gevangenes aan die kaptein van die wag oorgegee; maar Paulus moes self by 'n soldaat bly wat hom bewaar het.

Handelinge 22:25 - En toe hulle hom met stringe vasbind, sê Paulus vir die hoofman oor honderd wat bygestaan ​​het: Is dit geoorloof om 'n Romeinse en onberispelike man te gésel?

Handelinge 22:26 - Wanneer die hoofman oor honderd toe hy dit hoor, gaan hy en sê dit aan die owerste en sê: Pas op wat u doen, want hierdie man is 'n Romein.

Handelinge 27:11 - Tog het die hoofman oor honderd het die meester en die eienaar van die skip meer geglo as die dinge wat Paulus gesê het.

Handelinge 27:43 - Maar die hoofman oor honderd, bereid om Paulus te red, het hulle van hul voorneme afgehou en beveel dat diegene wat kon swem [hulleself] eers [in die see] moes gooi en aan land moes kom:

Matthéüs 27:54 - Nou wanneer die hoofman oor honderden die wat saam met hom was, wat Jesus sien, sien die aardbewing en die dinge wat gebeur het, het baie gevrees en gesê: Waarlik, dit was die Seun van God.

Handelinge 24:23 - En hy beveel a hoofman oor honderd om Paulus te behou en [hom] vry ​​te laat, en dat hy nie een van sy kennisse moet verbied om hom te bedien of na hom toe te kom nie.

Handelinge 27: 6 - En daar die hoofman oor honderd 'n skip van Alexandrië gevind wat na Italië vaar en hy het ons daarin gesit.

Handelinge 27:31 - sê Paulus vir die hoofman oor honderd en vir die soldate: As julle nie in die skip bly nie, kan julle nie gered word nie.

Matteus 8: 5 - En toe Jesus in Kapernaum kom, kom daar tot hom a hoofman oor honderdsmeek hom,

Markus 15:39 - En wanneer die hoofman oor honderdwat teen hom gestaan ​​het, sien dat hy so skreeu en die gees prysgee, sê hy: Waarlik, hierdie man was die Seun van God.

Markus 15:45 - En toe hy dit weet van die hoofman oor honderd, het hy die lyk aan Josef gegee.

Lukas 23:47 - Nou wanneer die hoofman oor honderd sien wat gedoen is, verheerlik hy God en sê: Dit was beslis 'n regverdige man.

Die Bybel noem ook baie oor & quot; soldate & quot;

Johannes 19:23 - Dan die soldaatToe hulle Jesus gekruisig het, neem Hy sy klere en maak elkeen vier dele soldaat 'n deel en ook [sy] jas: nou was die jas sonder naat, deurgaans aan die bokant geweef.

Handelinge 10: 7 En toe die engel wat met Cornelius gespreek het, weggaan, roep hy twee van sy huisknegte en 'n gelowige soldaat van hulle wat voortdurend op hom gewag het

Handelinge 28:16 - En toe ons in Rome kom, het die hoofman oor honderd die gevangenes aan die kaptein van die wag oorgegee; maar Paulus moes self alleen woon met 'n soldaat wat hom behou het.

2 Timoteus 2: 3 - U verdra dus die hardheid as 'n goeie soldaat van Jesus Christus.

2 Timoteus 2: 4 - Niemand wat dit waarborg, verstrengel hom met die aangeleenthede van hierdie lewe om hom te behaag wat hom gekies het om 'n soldaat.

Johannes 19:24 En hulle het onder mekaar gesê: Laat ons dit nie skeur nie, maar die lot werp vir wie dit sal wees, sodat die Skrif vervul sou word wat sê: Hulle het my klere onder hulle verdeel, en vir my gewaad het hulle die lot gewerp. Hierdie dinge dus die soldate het gedoen.

Esra 8:22 - Want ek was skaam om van die koning 'n groep te eis soldate en ruiters om ons te help teen die vyand op die pad; omdat ons met die koning gespreek het: Die hand van onse God is oor almal ten goede wat Hom soek, maar sy krag en sy toorn is teen almal wat hom verlaat het.

Handelinge 23:23 - En hy het twee honderdhoofde na hom geroep en gesê: Maak twee honderd gereed soldate om na Cesarea te gaan, en ruiters sewentig en tweehonderd spies op die derde uur van die nag

Johannes 19:23 - Dan die soldatetoe hulle Jesus gekruisig het, neem hy sy klere en maak vier dele, vir elke soldaat 'n onderdeel en ook [sy] jas;

Handelinge 23:10 En toe daar 'n groot meningsverskil ontstaan ​​het, beveel die hoofkaptein, uit vrees dat Paulus nie in stukke daarvan getrek sou word nie, soldate om af te gaan en hom met geweld uit hulle midde te neem en hom in die kasteel te bring.

2 Kronieke 25:13 - Maar die soldate van die leër wat Amásia teruggestuur het om nie saam met hom te gaan veg nie, val op die stede van Juda, van Samaría af tot by Bet -Horon, en verslaan hulle drie duisend, en neem baie buit.

1 Kronieke 7:11 Al hierdie seuns van Jediael, hoofde van hulle vaders, dapper helde, was sewentien duisend twee honderdsoldate], geskik om uit te gaan vir oorlog [en] geveg.

Handelinge 12: 6 - En toe Herodes hom sou voortbring, het Petrus dieselfde nag tussen twee geslaap soldate, vasgemaak met twee kettings: en die wagte voor die deur het die gevangenis bewaar.

Jesaja 15: 4 - En Hesbon sal huil, en Eleäle; hulle stem sal tot Jahas gehoor word; soldate van Moab sal uitroep sy lewe sal vir hom swaar wees.

1 Kronieke 7: 4 En saam met hulle, volgens hulle geslagte, na die huis van hulle vaders, was groepe van soldate vir oorlog, ses en dertig duisend man, want hulle het baie vroue en seuns gehad.

Handelinge 12: 4 - En toe hy hom aangekeer het, het hy hom in die gevangenis gesit en hom aan vier kwartiere oorgegee soldate om hom na Paasfees van plan te hou om hom na die mense te bring.

Lukas 3:14 - En die soldate het ook van hom geëis en gesê: En wat moet ons doen? En Hy sê vir hulle: Moet niemand geweld aandoen nie, en niemand moet valslik beskuldig nie en tevrede wees met julle loon.

Matteus 28:12 - En toe hulle saam met die ouderlinge vergader en raad beraadslaag het, het hulle groot geld aan die soldate,

Johannes 19: 2 - En die soldate trek 'n doringkroon en trek dit op sy kop, en hulle trek 'n pers kleed aan,

Johannes 19:34 - Maar een van die soldate met 'n spies deurboor sy sy, en dadelik kom daar bloed en water uit.

Matteus 8: 9 - Want ek is 'n man onder gesag soldate onder my: en ek sê vir hierdie man: Gaan, en hy gaan en na 'n ander een: Kom, en hy kom en aan my dienaar: Doen dit, en hy doen dit.

Markus 15:16 - En die soldate het hom weggelei na die gang, genaamd Praetorium, en hulle roep die hele groep bymekaar.

Lukas 7: 8 - Want ek is ook 'n man onder gesag, onder my soldateen ek sê vir die een: Gaan, en hy gaan en vir die ander een: Kom, en hy kom en vir my dienaar: Doen dit, en hy doen dit.

Handelinge 23:31 - Dan die soldatesoos dit hulle beveel is, neem Paulus en bring hom in die nag na Antipatris.

Handelinge 27:31 - sê Paulus vir die hoofman oor honderd en vir die soldate, Behalwe dat hulle in die skip bly, kan julle nie gered word nie.

Handelinge 27:42 - En die soldate'raad was om die gevangenes dood te maak, sodat niemand van hulle sou swem en ontsnap nie.

Lukas 23:36 - En die soldate het hom ook bespot en na hom gekom en vir hom asyn gebring,

Handelinge 21:35 - En toe hy op die trap kom, was dit so dat hy van die soldate vir die geweld van die mense.

Johannes 19:32 - Toe kom die soldate, en rem die bene van die eerste, en van die ander wat saam met hom gekruisig is.

Handelinge 12:18 - Nou, sodra dit dag was, was daar geen klein opskudding onder die soldate, wat van Petrus geword het.

Handelinge 27:32 - Dan die soldate sny die toue van die boot af en laat haar val.

Matteus 27:27 - Dan die soldate van die goewerneur het Jesus na die gemeenskaplike saal geneem en die hele groep [van soldate].

Handelinge 21:32 - Wie het dadelik geneem soldate en hoofmanne oor honderd en hardloop na hulle toe; en toe hulle die hoofkaptein en die sien soldate, hulle het die slae van Paulus verlaat.


Bewaarders van die geskiedenis


Griots bewaar die herinnering aan Wes -Afrika. By die fees wat die instelling van 'n streekhoof in Faraba Banta in Oktober 1991 plaas, sing griotte Adama Suso en Ma Lamini Jobareth speel die kora.

In Wes -Afrika is geskrewe geskiedenis iets nuuts. Die Afrikaanse geskiedenis is in die koloniale era in die laat 1800's in Europese tale geskryf, en bestaan ​​al eeue lank in Arabies. Maar samelewings in die Sahel- en Savanna -streke van Wes -Afrika hou lank hul eie geskiedenis, in hul eie tale, mondelings, in die vorm van epos.

Stel jou voor dat jy op iemand se geheue staatmaak om die geskiedenis van jou mense te hou. In baie dele van Wes -Afrika word hierdie taak deur die griot uitgevoer.

Griots - meesters in woorde en musiek, noem Tom Hale dit in sy boek, Griots en Griottes- bestaan ​​al 'n millennium. Met verloop van tyd het die funksie van die griots verander namate die samelewing ontwikkel het. Eens was die manlike griots en die vroulike griotts historici, genealoë, adeladviseurs, entertainers, boodskappers, lofsangers - die lys gaan voort. Vandag tree hulle op televisie en radio op en neem CD's op. Baie is gewilde sangers wat tradisionele liedjies herinterpreteer en ou woorde nuwe betekenis gee - 'tydsbinding', noem Hale dit. As kunstenaars is griots en griottes baie gewild, nie net vir seremonies en partytjies in Wes -Afrika, waar dit tradisioneel verskyn het nie, maar oor die hele wêreld. Hier in die Verenigde State besoek hulle universiteite om insig te gee in die Wes -Afrikaanse kultuur. In 'n optrede in Penn State in 1978, het griotte Dionton Tounkara en haar man, Sekou Kouyaté 'n loflied uitgevoer waarin sommige van die mense in die gehoor genoem is, waaronder Hale, wat die groep genooi het.

Vader van die arm mense
Man van pragtige dames
By wie se afwesigheid die stad nie interessant is nie
By wie se afwesigheid die mense nie gelukkig is nie


Wees ons ma
Wees ons vader
Gee ons klere
Wees die sout wat ons nodig het vir ons sous
Wees die olie wat ons nodig het vir ons pap

Julle is ons oë
U is ons spieël
Julle is ons hande en bene
Dit wat ons gebruik om te loop.

Hale se loopbaan as geleerde in Afrikaanse letterkunde het begin met 'n loflied soos hierdie. Van 1964 tot 1966, na voltooiing van sy B.A. in Frans aan die Tufts -universiteit, het Hale as vrywilliger by die United States Peace Corps gewerk en is hy na Niger, Wes -Afrika, gestuur om saam met landboukoöperasies te werk wat Franssprekendes nodig het. Vroeg op 'n oggend het vreemde geluide uit die buurland hom uit die slaap geruk. Hy het opgestaan ​​om ondersoek in te stel en gevind dat 'n man hard sing vir sy buurman. 'Ek het nie geweet wat hy doen nie, so ek het hom gevra om stil te bly,' sê Hale. Die sanger ignoreer Hale en gaan voort met sy liedjie. 'So ek het teruggegaan en weer gekyk, en daar was my buurman wat die man 'n groot, geweefde kombers gegee het.' Die geskenk van die kombers was 'n vorm van dank - beloning vir die lied van Griot. Die voorval sal Hale se lewe nog jare beïnvloed.

Hy het in 1973 in Penn State Afrikaanse letterkunde begin leer. In 1980, toe hy besef dat baie min instrukteurs letterkunde van voor die koloniale era onderrig het, keer hy terug na Niger om griot -liedjies te bestudeer en op te neem. "Dit lyk asof min mense in die weste baie weet van die vele funksies van die griot, en ek het gedink dit kan 'n manier wees om die begrip van Afrikaanse letterkunde te verdiep."

Hale, now holder of the Liberal Arts professorship in African, French, and Comparative Literature, and head of the French department at Penn State, has been studying the epics of West Africa ever since. He returned to Niger yet again in 1987 and then again in 1989 to interview griots and griottes and research the texts of these long poetic narratives. He believes that by studying these epics, we can learn much about the way people view their past and achieve an understanding of their society today.

Who holds your history? Who tells your story?

The griot profession is inherited, passed on from one generation to the next. "Griots are very different from the rest of society—almost a different ethnic group," says Hale. They are both feared and respected by people in West Africa for their wisdom and talent with words. They can sing your praises, but they can also sing your doom.

My master has requested that I ask you the exact meaning of your name Da.
Is it Da Guinea hemp?
Is it Da clay pot?
Is it Da the syphilis?
Is it Da the mouth?
Is it Da the door?
Is it Da do you sleep there?
If you are a pot, Kaarta Tiema will break you.
If you are Guinea worms he will harvest you in order to give you to his fishermen who will make nets of you.
If you are syphilis, he will treat you with a red hot iron.
If you are a mouth, he will rip you open to your ears.
If you are a door, he will close you for good and you will never serve for any pathway.
If you are sleeping there, he will stand you up like a house at the top of a hill.
That's what my master put in my mouth with the order to spit right into your face.

In return for their services, griots receive gifts. There is no set fee. They never know what they will get. Sometimes a few coins, sometimes a blanket, sometimes much more. In one reported case, a wealthy admirer gave the Malian griotte Kandia Kouyaté a small airplane so that she could fly directly to his airstrip whenever he wanted to hear the praise song she had written for him.


Griots hold the memory of West Africa. At the festival marking the installation of a regional chief in Faraba Banta on October 1991 (previous page), griotte Adama Suso sings and Ma Lamini Jobarth plays the kora. Above, Tom Hale interviews griot Ayouba Tessa in 1981.

Good griots must have remarkable memories and be ever ready to recite or sing long histories, genealogies, and praise songs. They must also be musically talented. Hale describes their training as comparable to that of receiving a doctoral degree. To become a griot you must learn genealogies and histories, but not just the words, also the music. You can't separate the musical art from the vocal art without losing the overall effect. Griots often play a 21-stringed instrument called a kora. Die kora is described as a bridge-harp with two rows of strings, one on either side of the meter-long neck, and a body made of a calabash. The sound of the kora has no American equivalent, and is as unusual as its structure. Hale describes it as sounding "a little bit like flamenco guitar," and in fact griot Keba Cissoko played the kora in this January's New York Guitar Festival's Guitar Marathon.

Training for a griot begins within the family unit, with boys and girls learning from their griot parents, and then moves on to a formal griot school, and then to an apprenticeship with a master griot. Both boys and girls can train to be griots, although griottes may have less freedom to travel and train because of family obligations.

Who holds your history? Who tells your story? Who is your voice?

Until Hale began researching the songs of the griotte in 1991, most research focused on the male griot, the assumption being that in patriarchal West Africa, the griotte played a lesser role, standing by while the griot recited, or perhaps singing only short choruses throughout a song.

It appeared that the women of West Africa had no voice. Hale and his former student, now colleague, Aissata Sidikou-Morton, believe that the reason we did not hear these female voices was that we weren't listening.

Sidikou-Morton, a native of Niger, came to Penn State to do her doctoral thesis on women singers in Niger, Senegal, and Gambia. "The West has said that African women never had a voice. They think that African women never had a voice because they never wrote it down," says Sidikou-Morton. She has been working to write down the songs of griottes and other female singers of West Africa because the people who know these songs are disappearing. "I want my children to know," she says. And she wants to show to the world the voice of African women.

"In African literature, orality is still the most important form of literature on the continent," Sidikou-Morton says, "because it is not everyone who can understand and read French and English. If you compare the oral literature here to the literature of other women in other cultures, you will see similarities. They are saying the same things about what it is like to be a woman, to be a human being.

"And the songs are beautiful and challenging—challenging to society, and challenging as a form of literature. With orality there is a lot women are saying. It is comparable to any written literature. It is expression, communication, and exchange."

Hale agrees. "The reality is that women do have voices in this region. If you study the texts of the songs women in these regions sing, you find that the songs reveal much about the women singing them. These women are empowered in what appears to be a male-dominated society. These songs are not simply entertainment," says Hale. "Women are saying something in these songs."

Griottes traditionally sing at ceremonies, celebrations, and special occasions. When a woman is to be married, griottes sing to her to prepare her for her new life. They sing to prepare her for the trouble she may encounter in the new marriage, and to reassure her that if it gets too bad, she can come home.

Stop crying, bride.
Stop crying and listen to me.
If your mother-in-law abuses you,
Just cry, but don't say anything.
If your sisters or brothers-in-law abuse you,
Just cry but don't say anything.
If your husband's mother abuses you,
Just cry, but don't say anything,
But leaving your house is not a crime.

Do griottes sing epics? It is widely believed that the African epic, a long (sometimes hours, even days long) narrative of history and genealogy, battles and political uprisings, is sung only by griots, by the men. Women joined in only to sing certain parts or to play musical accompaniment. But Sidikou-Morton has recorded a griotte performing an epic, and both Hale and Sidikou-Morton have found that modern griottes are composing their own epics for African women.


Tom Hale met with griot Ayouba Tessa again in Niger in 1987. Modern griots give new meaning to old words, a function Hale calls "time binding."

Another long poetic narrative form that West African women sing is called the saabi. Die saabi reveals the nature of relationships between men and women. Sidikou-Morton describes the saabi as a "subversive epic," because it challenges male superiority.

In one saabi, called "The Wicked Man," a new bride, suspicious of her husband's intentions because he has divorced many women in the past, gets the jump on him before he can divorce her. She goes out to plant millet with him and as he walks in front of her digging holes for the seeds, she secretly throws the seeds away. When he believes the planting is done, he has no more use for his wife and so divorces her. But when he tells her to go, she tells him that she divorced him already.

She laughed and said,
"You did not divorce me first
"I first divorced you."
She said, "as for a woman, if a man can think of ten tricks,"
She said, "one trick from a woman will trump his."

She tells him to go to his farm in four days, and then he will know that she was the one who divorced him first. When he goes to his farm, he finds that, while all around him his neighbors have sprouts, he has none. The narrator explains the meaning:

It is said by Allah that whatever a man can do
A woman knows how to trick better
A deceiving and nasty man,
And whatever you do out of wickedness
A woman can definitely outdo you

Hale and Sidikou-Morton, now assistant professor of French at Princeton University, are working together on a project called "Women's Voices from West Africa" to collect and analyze praise songs, epics, and other poetic forms sung by women, not just griottes, but all women, in the West African Sahel and Savanna regions. West African women sing songs to give comfort, encouragement, and empowerment to other women, says Sidikou-Morton. They sing about independence and self-reliance. They sing about what it is like to be a woman in this society. They sing about relationships with husbands and with in-laws.

Many of the researchers involved in this project have come across women's songs in West Africa as a by-product of research on other features of the society. Others, like Sidikou-Morton, have studied the songs extensively. Out of their collaboration will come a volume of edited papers, a synthesis of all current research, an anthology of selected songs in English, Wolof, Bamana, and Hausa (languages of West Africa), and a Web site with the text of the songs, as well as video and audio snippets of griottes performing.

Hale believes that studying the texts of these songs, most of which are thus far untranslated and unpublished, could offer an understanding of what West African women are saying, and of how that reflects their role in society. "Women have always had power in society through singing. What we don't understand is the nature of that power. As we study all of the wedding songs across different regions, and if we find that they say the same thing, we may find that women collectively have far more power then anyone imagined."


The Curious Acambaro Figurines: Did Dinosaurs Live Among Us?

A famous Acámbaro figurine depicting a human apparently riding a dinosaur. ( Creative Commons)

In 1944, the German shopkeeper Valdemar Julsrud claimed to have stumbled upon mysterious figurines while on horseback near Acámbaro in Guanajuato, Mexico. He said that he found over 30,000 of them with the help of a farmer. The figurines depict dinosaurs and humans living together and strange figurines that many people say resemble flying saucers and even aliens. Their authenticity has been debated ever since.

Those who believe that the artifacts are genuine are: cryptozoologists who say that the figurines are evidence of a relict population of dinosaurs in the region who happened to come into contact with humans, those who believe that the figurines were left behind by interdimensional aliens who could travel back to the time of the dinosaurs and bring knowledge of them to Central American peoples, and young earth creationists who claim that humans and dinosaurs had to coexist to fit in with their interpretation of Genesis chapters 1-11 in the Bible.

Thermoluminescence dating was used on some figurines between 1969 and 1972 and produced a date of about 4500 years BP (Before Present), placing the age of the artifacts around 2500 BC. However, studies in 1976 and 1978 revealed that the figurines did not meet the temperature conditions required for reliable thermoluminescence dating. The dates that could be attained revealed that the objects were from the late 1930s or early 1940s - shortly before they were “discovered”.


Ancient Time Keepers

Do you often wish you could throttle the folks who invented time and time keeping devices? These contraptions cut into your leisure time by making it almost impossible to enjoy &ldquoa nice relaxing day&rdquo! Well, here are some of the sparse historical facts, and now you can know whom to blame for your lack of leisure - The ancient astronomers! Your very own astronomical kin.

Early on, humans started keeping time in one way or another for a variety of reasons. They must have noticed the regularity of the rising and setting of the sun and needed to have accurate measurements of such events. Notches which were carved on the discovered artifacts of early humans have been interpreted as being tally marks or counters, as a means of keeping track of the seasons and times of the year, and, importantly, as records of the lunar cycle. Early humans were keeping records early on. A marked bone which was probably used as a record of months and lunar phases and which was from approximately 9000 to 8001 BC or as late as 6500 BC was found in Ishango, which is now Zaire. Primitive hunter-gatherers had already detected patterns in the apparent motions of the stars and possibly even in the real motions of the planets through the night sky. These same traditions appeared later in Egypt and in Central America and are thought to have been associated with specific apparent motions of Sirius and Venus.

Of first importance to early people, and upon which all people could agree, with any degree of accuracy, was the measurement of time using fairly large amounts of time. Large amounts of time are easily measured because the &ldquoclockwork&rdquo is supplied by the universe, itself, as seen in the daily and annual motion of Earth and the Moon. Even so, the more careful measurements of time were not easy to come by. One revolution of Earth constitutes a day and a &ldquomoon&rdquo is from one new moon to the next but yearly measurements were not very simple to measure. In addition, a day is not very easy to measure accurately. It took some time before humans learned to measure the day from one noon (when the Sun is at its highest point in the sky) to the next.

A good length for the year was first established by the ancient Egyptians, probably because the Nile floods annually about the same time. This flooding generally occurs when Sirius rises at approximately the same time as the sun (helical rising). A year is approximately 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds, approximately one quarter of a day longer than 365 days. Between 5000 to 4001 BC, the Egyptian calendar appeared, being the first known calendar to be based on 365 days (indicating 12 months of 30 days and 5 days of festival, beginning with the day that Sirius, the Dog Star, rises in line with the Sun in the morning, which coincides with the annual flood of the Nile). From astronomical evidence only, it was possibly instituted as early as 4241 BC or perhaps about 1500 years later. Because the Egyptian calendar is known to have accurately matched the seasons with dates in 139 AD and gradually went into and out of alignment with the seasons with a period of about 1455 years, astronomers have deduced that the year of 365 days began about 4228 BC or 2773 BC.

Hellenic astronomers added the missing 1/4 day to the Egyptian calendar by adding an extra (leap) day every four years, but most people ignored it. The calendar with a leap day was finally adopted by the Romans under Gaius Julius Caesar in 4 BC. Since then, the calendar has had one major modification, when Pope Gregory, in 1582, on the advice of astronomers, dropped the leap day in years that end in two zeros.

Later, sometime between 2600 and 2501 BC, the Chinese used a vertical pole to project the shadow of the sun for the purpose of estimating time. Sometime, between 2200 and 2101 BC, the Sumerians began to use a 360-day year, 12-month solar calendar along with a 354-day lunar calendar. This calendar included an extra month every eight years in order to keep it in step with the seasons. From 1500 to 1451 BC, the gnomon, which is the L-shaped indicator on a sundial, was regularly used by the Egyptians. Thutmose III erected the &ldquoNeedle of Cleopatra&rdquo in Heliopolis. Its shadow was used to calculate the time, the seasons, and the solstices.

The earliest history of humanity has no known dates. After writing began to be used, people started dating events, but these were usually in relation to other events that we can no longer date. The long histories of the Egyptian and the Chinese dynasties, however, provided fairly good year dates for those cultures back to 3000 BC.

The Mayans recorded specific day dates that go back in time tens of thousands of years. Since many of the events dated in this system occurred before the most optimistic early date for humans in North America, it is assumed that these very early dates are for mythical events that were invented much later. Very early Chinese dates also are thought to have been late inventions.

A strong candidate for the first real date in history, that is, the first specific day on which an event can be pinpointed as having occurred, is May 28, 585 BC. The event was a battle between the Medes and the Lydians that was suddenly called off when an eclipse of the Sun frightened both armies. This eclipse, supposed to have been forecast correctly by Thales (although at best he would have had the year right, not the date), could only have been the one observable in the Middle East on May 28, 585. No other solar eclipse would have been visible in that region for many years on either side of 585.

A similar candidate for the first date, September 6, 775 BC, comes from Chinese astronomical records. It is the earliest date that records an astronomical event that we can say occurred at a particular time. However, it is not connected with any other event such as the war of the Medes and Lydians.

Dates were not rigorously kept during the Greek and Hellenistic period, although Chinese dates at this time were more certain. To make matters complicated for us, most dates were given in &ldquoOlympiads&rdquo which could only be localized to within a four-year period. Approximate dates for the lives of many of the well-known scientists and philosophers in that era have been worked out by historians from bits and pieces of evidence. For instance, if you read in some sources that Thales was born in 624 BC and died in 546 BC you can assume that such dates are indefinite as to source. Instead, historians have been clever and, when only one date in a person&rsquos life is known, the historians assumed that the person must have been around 40 when the event occurred. For instance, historians know the year that Thales is said to have predicted an eclipse, which astronomical calculations put at 585 BC. Therefore, it is assumed that Thales may have been born around 623 BC. Because there is a tradition that Thales lived to be about 70, historians think he may have died in 546 BC. Therefore, because of the uncertainty of the dates during this period, consider all dates as occurring within the decade surrounding that date, or even, possibly, in an adjacent decade. Sometimes it had to be assumed that events listed only in the first decade of a century should be considered as having occurred at some date during that century. Often, the century is uncertain, as well. An early astronomer, Kiddinu, who was born in Babylon between 340 and 331 BC, devised an early version of the precession of the equinoxes which was somewhat inaccurate. The precession of the equinoxes refers to the apparent change over a period of 26,700 years in the position of the fixed stars which is caused by Earth&rsquos wobbling in its orbit. Later, from 160 to 141 BC, Hipparchus of Nicea (in Turkey), who was born around 190 BC, listed the fixed stars and more accurately discovered the precession of the equinoxes.

Andronikos of Kyrrhestes, from 50 to 41 BC, built in Athens the Tower of Winds, which was a water clock combined with solar clocks positioned in the eight principal directions. It is the most accurate device that the Greeks had devised by then for keeping time. In 132 Zhang Heng in China combines a water clock with an armillary to produce a device, somewhat like the modern planetarium, to keep track of where stars are expected to be in the sky.

Often misguided writers will believe that there was some coordination between the early peoples and that they corresponded with each other to produce these devices. Verkeerde! While at rare instances there might have been some correspondence between the members of various civilizations (particularly as one civilization conquered another more scientifically or technically advanced civilization), most of this invention was begun with the single fact of the night sky to lead them. All of these astronomers were able to devise means of keeping time, first generally, but becoming more and more specific as their methods improved, simply because of the improvement of astronomical techniques.

Let us hear a cheer for the ancient astronomers! Where would we have been without them? Next time you visit Peach Mountain (or any dark site) observe a moment of silence, contemplating their brilliance in achievement over the millennia. Your excellent observing powers of today began with their humble first efforts.


Mesopotamia

In the 1920s Sir Leonard Woolley excavated at the site of Ur in southern Iraq and discovered a cemetery of unlooted graves from around 2,600 BC this enigmatic object was found in one of them.

Its sides consist of two rectangular panels (height 20.3cm), decorated with scenes made from a mosaic of white shell, red limestone and blue lapis-lazuli (imported from Afghanistan) set in bitumen.

The 'War' side shows chariots charging over fallen enemies, spearmen in helmets and cloaks seizing prisoners, and prisoners escorted before the general. The chariots have solid wheels, and are drawn by donkeys whose reins go through nose-rings (spokes and bits were later inventions).

A banquet is celebrated on the 'Peace' side a musician is shown playing the lyre, and attendants bring booty, donkeys, bulls, sheep, goats and fish.


THINGS TO DO IN PENSACOLA FLORIDA

The National Museum of Naval Aviation is a great place to visit on the base, and is free to the public. The museum is home to hundreds of historic and modern aircraft.

National Museum of Naval Aviation

Other interesting places to visit include Fort Barrancas en Fort Pickens where poor old Geronimo was held as a prisoner many years ago.

In addition to the military presence, Pensacola Florida has many annual art and music festivals, historic tours and ancient restored neighborhoods from the earliest days of its settlement.

Pensacola New World Inn

The Fiesta of Five Flags is held the first two weeks of June, and is a ten day event.  Each year the celebrations in a bit different.

The Pensacola Seafood Festivalਊnd the Pensacola Crawfish Festivalਊre held each year at Seville Square in the heart of downtown.

The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival is also held each year in November and attracts more than 200 artists.

Pensacola and St. Augustine continually compete for the title of most ancient city in America. Pensacola is actually a tad older, but St. Augustine touts itself as being the oldest "continuously occupied" city in America.


The Story Of Elongated Skulls And The Denied History Of Ancient People: An Interview With Mark Laplume

Mark Laplume is an artist and independent researcher who has been engaged in making reconstruction drawings of ancient people with elongated skulls. I have already had the pleasure of showcasing his remarkable work in a gallery on fetuses and children with elongated heads , and in a post on the visualization of ancient populations . Mark’s reconstructions were also illustrated in an article on suppressed evidence challenging the Artificial Cranial Deformation paradigm as the only way of explaining elongated skulls . Mark now shares some of his insights into the mystery of elongated skulls with the readers of Ancient Origins.

IG: Mark, how did you become interested in elongated skulls and why did you decide to start reconstructing the appearance of these people?

In 2006, when I first downloaded Google Earth, I looked around at places I knew and then made a bee line to the south end of Lake Titicaca. I was blown away by what I saw. The ruins of something vast covered every hilltop for miles in all directions. Ek knew something incredible had gone on there, but put it out of my mind after finding no interest by anyone I tried to share it with.

Evidence of ancient civilization in Bolivia. Credit: Google Maps

About six years later, I saw one of Brien Foerster’s posts showing elongated skulls . I was lucky enough to reach him and talk a little bit about what I was looking at.

Looking at the images of the skulls made me curious as to who these people were and how they looked. There were almost no interpretations of their appearance and almost nothing about their history. My momentary sense of inclusion made me wonder what I could do to help him to advance our understanding of these people. Although I had not picked up a pencil in 14 years, I felt sure I could draw them to recreate their faces, to see what they looked like. I'd quit art school, but continued to pursue art in various ways for 18 years, culminating in working on large sculptural projects in the mid-nineties, at which point I stopped drawing and making art.

Brien Foerster with an elongated skull. Image from his Facebook -blad

Meanwhile, back to the skulls, I started doing online and archival research, collecting the images of elongated skulls, and drawing. To date, I have done over 5,000 drawings and collected more than 18,000 photos of skulls, mummies and related artifacts. While working with this incredible data and making drawings, the lack of understanding, history and myth of what these people were and how they looked did not lend a sense of legitimacy to the attempt. There were so many unanswered questions I wondered if perhaps this is why so few people could involve themselves with this kind of project. It’s like a wall so big, you don’t notice it or don’t want to admit it is there.

Mark Laplume’s artistic interpretations of elongated skulls from Bolivia (top) and Paracas, Peru

When I began this study in 2011, the count of skulls was known by very few people, who were actually aware of this. They estimated that there were a few hundreds of skulls. But through web searches, I’ve found literally thousands of skulls! There are also about one thousand skulls in Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Chile which are not yet accessible to the public. Even more skulls remain unknown, as they have not been photographed (or at least are not publicly accessible) and therefore, not available for public viewing in Chile and Peru.

Elongated skulls in a museum in Romania

IG: Academic researchers are generally dismissive of elongated skulls. They see them as nothing but artificially deformed human skulls - a result of deliberate head-binding to achieve a flattened shape. In addition to this 'artificial head-modification' thesis, they sometimes also cite a medical problem called Hydrocephaly. Why, do you think, academics maintain this view? What is their evidence?

Elongated skulls are never spoken about without terms of head-binding. It’s the hole in the bucket refrain from which there is no escape. But now there are also those, and I mean not only researchers but obviously people, who’ve woken up to the layers of lies we’ve been fed since the get-go. Many who look at the evidence of anomalies in the skulls, are not satisfied with believing in the cranial modification dogma. People like Brien Foerster , Lloyd Pye , Graham Hancock , not to forget Michael Cremo , examine and record evidence, rather than the stories made by earlier researchers, textbooks, and other gate keepers of conventional perspectives. The point is to keep asking questions.

The verbal portrayal of "binding" is a collective projection. The reality is that 99% of those who speak about it have never examined an elongated skull first-hand. I don't know how it's so prevalent except that it's repeated all the time. The usual approach to elongated skulls is dominated by concepts, but the skulls’ shapes are not linguistic, they are morphologic. My work has been an attempt at making a soft rebuttal by making public my process of looking-and-drawing, which involves seeing.

I don’t rely on classical authorities. In my work, the skulls are doing the talking. Talking is a projection, while seeing is receiving. And no one can answer questions which you alone can actually experience at the level of seeing. This is why my approach to elongated skulls is not conditioned by the dogma “elongated = deformed”.

Left: Mark Laplume’s interpretation of ‘Detmold Child’. Right: Detmold Child on display (public domain)

IG: Are there any significant skulls that leave no doubt the 'artificial deformation' paradigm is wrong? How are these skulls different? Are there differences among elongated skulls themselves? Is it possible to group them according to shape and other features?

To your first question - take a look at these skulls exhibited at the Ica Museum in Peru.

Elongated skulls from the Ica Museum in Peru

There are problems with the official story, which dates back to Hippocrates, defining Huns as having been bound. It claims that all skulls are merely artificially modified skulls of the modern looking humans. The fact is, many had larger eyes as well as a 25% larger brain case than modern humans. Also, they had higher ears, up to ½ an inch higher than normal.

Paracas skulls (left) and modern human skulls (right)

Cranial sutures are different. There are mysterious holes at the back of the skull. An extra plate above the Occipital, known as the “Inca bone”.

The Paracas skulls have variations in the occipital bone compared to modern-day human skulls. Images by Lainie Liberti

There is a problem with infants too, which have been found in Peru and the Andes with a tooth-set of a three year old modern human child. Most parents will know that molar teeth in an infant sized toddler is unheard of.

Infant skull from Cusco, Peru, and Infant/Child skull from Tiwanaku, Bolivia

In South America, there are different categories or types. It does seem so, but I don’t get into (Spanish) terminology. For me, it’s just another way to separate from seeing the skull’s individual characteristics. I tend to say that “they had range”, like the unexplained red head that appears randomly in a family line. Similarly, the Elongated, the Huns. were wild in this way. They had a greater range, it seems, of morphological expression.

Image illustrating one of the "types" of elongated skulls

In terms of the connections between the Americas and Eurasia, elongated skulls from these areas are so similar that sometimes the only way to distinguish them from one another is by the background, or patina, on the skulls.

IG: Are you relying on any anthropological or forensic methods of facial reconstruction? Or more generally – how do you visualize the appearance of these people?

Organs come together to form the overall “body” of a head. Drawing the same skull from different directions tends to smooth out mistakes. The form arises in unison with the elements of bone, muscle and skin. Mainly, bones define much of a person’s face, so accuracy, we would hope, is inevitable.

IG: How do you fund your research? What are your future plans?

There’s a definite need for funding. When and if funding becomes available, it will greatly facilitate research and presentation of elongated skulls and it would increase our understanding of the historical significance of these people.

This has been somewhat of a slow awakening, but I think my drawings have gotten better. They were not good at all at first, although they were iets at a time when we had almost nothing at all to look at.

My drawing work continues. Now I hope to gain research access to the archives of museums in Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago. To look at skulls from Peru firsthand and, hopefully, photograph their collections of Peruvian skulls. I am also working to produce a book of illustrations, presenting images of skulls and reconstruction drawings. In order to get a more definite understanding, studies done in Eastern Europe as well as the Andean region will be required.

IG: Thank you for sharing your story and your work. We look forward to seeing more of them on RootRaceResearch and hope to continue our conversation soon.

Mark Laplume’s reconstructions can be seen on his facebook page “Root Race Research” . Die albums offer an excellent overview of the elongated skulls from various regions of the globe. Mark can also be reached via his personal Facebook Page .


Kyk die video: Почему эти чуваши не православные (Augustus 2022).