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Woestyn

Woestyn



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Op 27 April 1939 het die Parlement die Wet op Militêre Opleiding goedgekeur. Hierdie wet het diensplig ingebring vir mans van 20 en 21 jaar wat nou ses maande militêre opleiding moes onderneem. By die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Parlement die Wet op die Nasionale Diens (gewapende magte) goedgekeur, waarvolgens alle mans tussen 18 en 41 vir diensplig aanspreeklik gehou is. Daar is ook aangekondig dat enkellopende mans voor getroude mans opgeroep is. Die registrasie van alle mans in elke ouderdomsgroep het weer op 21 Oktober begin vir diegene tussen die ouderdomme van 20 en 23. Teen Mei 1940 het die registrasie net tot mans van 27 jaar gestrek en die pasiënte tot 40 jaar eers in Junie 1941 bereik.

Daar is in die wetgewing voorsiening gemaak dat mense beswaar maak teen militêre diens op morele gronde. Van die eerste groep mans tussen 20 en 23 jaar en na raming 22 uit elke 1000 het besware aangeteken en voor die plaaslike militêre tribunale gegaan. Die tribunale het baie verskil in hul houding teenoor gewetensbeswaar teen militêre diens en die verhoudings wat heeltemal verwerp is, wissel van 6 persent tot 41 persent.

Teen die einde van 1939 is meer as anderhalf miljoen mans in die weermag gewerf. Hiervan het 1,128,000 by die Britse leër aangesluit en die res is ewe verdeel tussen die Royal Navy en die Royal Air Force.

Die maklikste manier om diensplig te vermy, was om die dagvaarding om vir die nasionale diens te registreer, te ignoreer. As gevolg van 'n tekort aan mense om bywoning af te dwing, was hierdie metode om die aansluiting van die gewapende magte te vermy baie effektief. 'N Ander metode was om 'n man in diens te neem wat reeds sy medies misluk het, om u voor die mediese raad te verpersoonlik. Jack Brack is weens 'n vergrote hart as ongeskik vir diens verwerp. 'N Paar maande later is dit gearresteer en aangekla van die verpersoonliking van agt verskillende mans by militêre mediese rade. Daar is in die hof ontdek dat een man, 'n meester -kleermaker, £ 200 vir hierdie werk £ 200 (£ 8000 in vandag se geld) betaal het.

Daar was ook 'n goeie mark om vervalste mediese ontslagsertifikate te koop. In Mei 1940 ondersoek die polisie in Londen vier bendes wat hierdie sertifikate verkoop. Sommige dokters was bereid om vals mediese sertifikate aan vriende en familie uit te reik. 'N Ondersoek wat deur die Algemene Mediese Raad gedoen is, het daartoe gelei dat verskeie dokters weens' berugte gedrag 'gestaak is. Ander het dit vir wins gedoen. Een dokter uit Londen is skuldig bevind aan die heffing van 'n man van £ 367,10. (£ 14,700) vir sy sertifikaat. Dr William St. John Sutton van Stepney, het 'n skema ontwikkel vir die verkoop van sertifikate wat mans vrystel van diens. Toe hy gearresteer is, is hy gevind met 700 vervalste sertifikate.

Woestyn se woestyn was 'n algemene probleem. In 'n stadium in die oorlog was daar meer as 24,500 mans wat vir verlating gesoek is. Aan die einde van 1941 het die regering 'n "afronding" van woestyne beveel. Toe die polisie op 'n kermis in Plymouth toeslaan, het hulle ontdek dat byna twee derdes van die volwasse mans wat nie gekyk is nie, nie 'n identiteitskaart het nie. Voordat die mans gearresteer kon word, het iemand egter 'n rookbom laat los en almal het ontsnap.

Woestyne het dikwels tot misdaad gewend om sonder identiteitskaarte of rantsoenboeke te kan voortbestaan. Een van die mees skokkende misdade wat tydens die oorlog as 'n woestyn gepleeg is, was plundery uit gebombardeerde huise. In die eerste agt weke van die London Blitz is altesaam 390 gevalle van plundering by die polisie aangemeld.

Die burgemeester van Londen stel voor dat kennisgewings dwarsdeur die stad geplaas moet word, wat die bevolking daaraan herinner dat plundering strafbaar is deur op te hang of te skiet. Die howe het egter voortgegaan om hierdie misdaad saggies te hanteer. Toe 'n bende weermagwoestyne in Kent skuldig bevind is aan plundering, het die regter vonnisse opgelê wat wissel van vyf jaar straf tot agt jaar se harde arbeid. Sommige kritici het daarop gewys dat Nazi -Duitsland minder onder hierdie misdaad gely het, aangesien plunderaars gereeld vir hierdie oortreding tereggestel is.

Die probleem van verlatenheid het vererger toe soldate weet dat hulle op die punt staan ​​om na die buiteland gestuur te word. Amptelike syfers toon dat 'n groot aantal mans wat aan die D-Day-inval sou deelneem, verlate was. Tussen 6 Junie 1944 en 31 Maart 1945 is 36 366 van hierdie soldate deur die Militêre Polisie gearresteer, waarvan 10 363 van woestyn aangekla is.

Die probleem van verlatenheid het na die oorlog voortgeduur. Op 29 Maart 1950 kondig Emanuel Shinwell, die minister van verdediging, in die Laerhuis aan dat daar nog 19 477 afwesiges was: 1 267 was van die Royal Navy, 13 884 van die Britse weermag en 4 366 van die Royal Air Force.


Woestyn - Geskiedenis

Woestyn: 'n Lang, trotse geskiedenis

Uittreksel uit Free Radicals: War Resisters in Prison deur CJ Hinke, komende van Trine-Day in 2016.

20 Julie 2015 & quot; Information Clearing House & quot - & quot; World Beyond War & quot; - Daar is soveel redes om militêre diens te verlaat as wat daar woestyne is. Alle lande se militêre groepe hou daarvan om jong mans te gryp as hulle onopgevoed, onervare en werkloos is. Dit verg 'n soldaat veel groter moed om sy wapen neer te gooi as om 'n vreemdeling dood te maak.

Daar is woestyne in elke land met 'n gewapende mag. Weermagte eis blinde gehoorsaamheid en mense smag na vryheid.

Waarom verlaat mans? Beslis nie van lafhartigheid nie. Dit verg veel meer moed om uit die groep te kom en die vertroue op hondsdol nasionalisme. 36% van die mans wat die eerste keer in die stryd was, was meer bang om as 'n lafaard bestempel te word as om gewond of vermoor te word.

Oorlogsiek is deur baie name deur sielkundiges genoem. In die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, die siekte van DaCosta of die hart van 'n soldaat in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, dopskok, omskakelingsversteuring of fuga-toestand, vlugreaksie in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, strydvermoeidheid, gevegsuitputting in Viëtnam, bestrydingsmoeidheid, uitputting , bestry stresreaksie op die o-so-moderne post-traumatiese stresversteuring wat deur Golfsoldate en hommeltuigvlieëniers gedeel word.

Al hierdie diagnoses is op 'n stadium verbied en genoem, selfs in mediese tydskrifte. Die doel van behandeling is natuurlik om soldate terug te stuur na die oorlog. 600 000 is alleen uit die Amerikaanse weermag ontslaan weens neuropsigiatriese klagtes. Soos opgemerk deur Fortuin tydskrif, aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, 25 jaar na die einde van die 'Groot'-oorlog, word byna die helfte van die 67 000 beddens in Veterans Administration-hospitale steeds deur die neuropsigiatriese slagoffers van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog beset . Meer as een- 'n kwart van alle slagoffers van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was psigiatriese.

Woestyne is skaars lafaards. Baie was eenvoudig nie bereid om dood te maak nadat hulle by die weermag aangesluit het nie. Ander het 'n ideologiese krisis beleef. Sommige het behoeftige gesinne tuis gehad. Land reg of verkeerd? Wat nonsens!

'Woestyn' is 'n pejoratiewe term in die menslike samelewing. Ons beskou hulle as 'terugkeer' van die waansin van alle oorlog. Ons wag vir hulle om huis toe te kom, trots dat hulle nooit iemand hoef doodgemaak het nie.

Alhoewel die Amerikaanse straf vir verlatenheid tydens oorlog nog steeds die dood is, het geen Amerikaanse woestyn sedert 11 September 2001 meer as 24 maande gedien nie. (En wat is nog oorlog!)

Oorlog van 1812 (1812-1815)
12,7% van alle Amerikaanse troepe het in vredestyd verlaat in vergelyking met 14,8%. Dit was grootliks te wyte aan die doodstraf vir sulke 'verraad'. Baie het summiere uitvoering onder oë gehad.

Meksikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog (1846-1848)
8,3%, 9 200 Amerikaanse soldate het verlate gegaan.

Amerikaanse burgeroorlog (1861-1865)
Die leër van die noorde van die Unie het 'n baie groter verlatenheid in die gesig gestaar as die konfederasie van die suide. Uit slegs drie noordelike state is meer as 87 000 woestyne aangeteken, in totaal 180 000 verlate persone teen die einde van die oorlog. Daar word gesê dat die suide deur die oorlog 103 400 verloor het weens verlatenheid, insluitend hele eenhede soldate. Tot 278 000 van 500 000 troepe was egter teen die einde van die oorlog vermis. Mark Twain verlate van beide kante. William Smitz van die Noordelike Pennylvania Volunteers was die laaste woestyn wat in 1865 deur die vuurpeloton geskiet is.

Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914-1918)
240 000 Britse en Statebond-soldate is in die hof geveg en 346 is tereggestel vir verlatenheid, lafhartigheid, 'n pos verlaat, 'n bevel weier of die wapens uit 3080 doodsvonnisse weggooi tydens die 'Oorlog tot einde van alle oorloë', waaronder 25 Kanadese en 22 Iere. Hulle word herdenk deur die Shot at Dawn Memorial in Staffordshire. Die gedenkteken is geskoei op die 17-jarige privaat Herbert Burden, geblinddoek en vasgemaak aan 'n paal. Byna al hierdie deserters se name is nie by oorlogsgedenktekens gevoeg nie. Sommige, hoewel nie byna almal nie, is deur die Britse regering postuum begenadig. 'N Paar het 'n blinddoek geweier toe hulle na 'n vuurpeloton gekyk het en besluit om hulle in die oë te kyk. (En dit is lafaards.)

Meer as 600 Franse soldate is tereggestel weens verlating.

15 Duitse soldate is tereggestel weens verlating.

28 Nieu -Seelandse woestyne is ter dood veroordeel en vyf is tereggestel. Hierdie soldate is in 2000 postuum begenadig.

Die Amerikaanse weermag het 21 282 woestyne aangeteken en president Woodrow Wilson het al 24 doodsvonnisse vir woestyne verander.

Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945)
Meer as 21 000 Amerikaanse woestyne is tydens 'The Good War' verhoor en skuldig bevind aan verlating. Alhoewel 49 ter dood veroordeel is, is slegs een, privaat Eddie Slovik, 'n soldaat wat vrywillig was om mynvelde skoon te maak, op 31 Januarie 1945 in Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines in Frankryk deur muskiet tereggestel. Sy laaste verklaring was: 'Ek sal weer weghardloop as ek daarheen moet gaan'

Die opperste geallieerde bevelvoerder en later die Amerikaanse president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, het Sloviks doodsvonnis bevestig en beweer dat dit nodig was om verdere verlatenheid te ontmoedig. Slovik het gesê: 'Hulle skiet my vir die brood en kougom wat ek gesteel het toe ek 12 was.'

Die teregstelling van Slovik was verborge vir Franse burgers. Hy was aan arms en bolyf, knieë en enkels vasgemaak en aan 'n spyk gehang op 'n ses-vir-ses paal teen die klipmuur van 'n Franse plaashuis. Aan 12 soldate is M-1 gewere uitgereik, waarvan slegs een 'n leë ronde bevat. Na die eerste vlug, het Private Slovik nie gesterf nie, hy is dood toe die soldate herlaai. Eddie Slovik was die eerste Amerikaanse woestyn wat tereggestel is sedert Lincoln president was. Hy was 24.

Slovik is begrawe in 'n genommerde graf in ry 3, graf 65 van plot EE, saam met 95 Amerikaanse soldate wat tereggestel is vir verkragting en moord, tot 1987 toe president Ronald Reagan beveel om sy oorskot terug te gee. Hy word begrawe in Detroit, langs sy vrou, Antoinette. Sy het sewe Amerikaanse presidente versoek om terug te keer totdat sy in 1979 gesterf het, sonder dat sy mediese voordele ontvang het.

In die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was 1,7 miljoen Amerikaanse krygshowe, 'n derde van alle Amerikaanse vervolgings. Alleen in Mei 1942 was daar 2 822 afvalliges van diens.

Meer as 1500 Oostenrykse soldate het die Duitse Wehrmacht verlaat. 'N Veldtog om hulle te onthou, is in 1988 begin met die tema' Woestyn is nie laakbaar nie, oorlog is '. In 2014 is hulle vereer deur 'n monument, die Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice. Die beeldhouwerk sit in Wene oorkant die kantoor van die Oostenrykse kanselier en die president. Dit is eenvoudig ingeskryf met slegs twee woorde, 'alleen'.

In Duitsland is meer as 15 000 soldate ter wille van verlatenheid deur die Nazi -regime tereggestel. Hulle is in 2007 herdenk deur die Deserteur Denkmal in Stuttgart. Dit is opgedra 'aan die verlate persone uit alle oorloë'.

Oorlog teen Viëtnam (1955-1975)
Minstens 50 000 Amerikaanse soldate het vertrek, waaronder baie wat na Kanada, Frankryk en Swede gevlug het.

Die Sowjetunie het gedurende sy geskiedenis 1917-1991 158,000 deserters doodgemaak en 135,000 Rooi Leër-offisiere in die tronk gestop. 'N Verdere 1,5 miljoen Sowjet -krygsgevangenes onder die Nazi's is tydens hul repatriasie na Siberiese gulags gestuur weens ontevredenheid in die geledere.

60,000-80,000 etniese Sowjet-grenstroepe uit die Moslem-Sentraal-Asiatiese streke het tydens die Afghaanse burgeroorlog 1979-1989. 85 000 Afghaanse troepe het ook gedurende hierdie tydperk verlate gegaan.

Oorloë oor Afghanistan, Irak en vele meer (2001-hede)
Sedert 2000 beraam die Pentagon dat meer as 40 000 troepe uit alle takke van militêre diens verlaat het. Net in 2001 het 7 978 verlate geraak.

Meer as 5.500 Amerikaanse troepe het in 2003-2004 verlaat. In 2005 het 3,456 soldate vertrek. Teen 2006 het die getal 8 000 bereik.

In 2006 het die Britse weermag meer as 1 000 woestyne aangemeld.

Sersant Bowe Bergdahl van die Amerikaanse weermag is aangekla van verlatenheid en 'misgedrag' voor die vyand nadat hy sy pos in Afghanistan in 2009. Hy is vyf jaar gevange gehou deur die Taliban voordat hy in 2014 verruil is vir ses hooggeplaaste Afghanen wat deur die VSA gehou word. in hul buite -geregtelike gevangenisbasis in Guantnamobaai, Kuba. Een is dood voor die uitruil, sodat vyf Taliban vrygelaat is deur die VSA, die weermaghoof van personeel, adjunkminister van intelligensie, 'n voormalige minister van binnelandse sake en twee senior bevelvoerders. Die Taliban eis oorspronklik $ 1 miljoen en die vrylating van 21 Afgaanse gevangenes saam met 'n Pakistaanse wetenskaplike wat Amerikaanse soldate vermoor het. (President Obama onderhandel eintlik met terroriste. Die opperbevelhebber het 'n publisiteitsfoto saam met Bergdahl se ouers in die Roostuin geneem.)

Dit blyk dat die jong sersant vervolg word, want as hy nie so was nie, kon hy vergoeding van die Amerikaanse regering eis weens 'n krygsgevangene. (Die VSA kan triljoene bestee aan oorloë en betaal vir 'n krygsraad, maar weier om een ​​soldaat te vergoed!) Bergdahl moet lewenslange tronkstraf opgelê word.

So, wat was hierdie tuisgemaakte Idaho-seun wat omheining en ballet bestudeer het, nooit 'n motor gehad het nie en in elk geval met die fiets oral rondgery het? Wenk: die militêre maw sal enige kanonvoer neem wat dit kan kry! Bowe het van 'n jaar lange terugtog by 'n Boeddhistiese klooster direk na die infanterieskool in Fort Benning gegaan. Soos Pvt. Slovik, Sers. Bergdahl, het sy voorneme aangekondig om 'weg te stap in die berge van Pakistan'. Hy het net sy kompas geneem. Hy het aan sy ouers geskryf dat hy 'n Amerikaanse skande was en dit oorweeg om afstand te doen van sy Amerikaanse burgerskap, 'n klein detail wat deur die Withuis begrawe is. Sy ouers het teruggeskryf: 'GEHOORSAAM JOU GEWETENHEID!'

64% van die Kanadese is ondervra om hul regering te vra om Amerikaanse militêre vlugtelinge te aanvaar nadat twee mosies van medelye in die parlement in 2008 en 2009. Honderde Amerikaanse woestyne gevlug het na Kanada.

Hierdie wetgewende pogings was egter nie-bindend. Die Kanadese regering het 'n streng beleid aangeneem om woestyne na die VSA te deporteer, in teenstelling met die Viëtnam -tydperk, en baie jong Amerikaners gaan eenvoudig ondergronds in Kanada.

Die BBC het kommentaar gelewer op die presedensiemodel van die oorlogsbestrede Irak in 2004 in Irak: 'Amerikaners in die moeilikheid hardloop al eeue lank Kanada' in die nasleep van die Amerikaanse rewolusie '[en in die] Underground Railroad wat opgewonde geraak het aan Amerikaanse slawe tot vryheid .

Alhoewel ek deur die loop van die 1960's as deel van die Studentevredesunie, The Resistance en die Sentrale Komitee vir Gewetensbeswaardes honderde Vietnam -ontkenningsweierpersoneel adviseer, ondersteun en ondersteun het, het ek min kontak gehad met Amerikaanse woestyne. Ek het die eerste keer pleit vir verlatenheid tydens 'n groot, openbare Gensuikin -demonstrasie voor die groot Amerikaanse militêre basis wat troepe na Vietnam in Naha, Okinawa, in 1969 gestuur het. Ek het per skip aangekom en in 'n privaat vliegtuig vertrek.

Ek pleit nog steeds, pleit vir raad, help en verlaat woestyn deur enigeen in militêre diens. Woestyne is nie net nasionale helde nie. Dit is wêreldhelde wat geweier het om burgerlikes en soldate op vreemde bodem dood te maak.

U kan niks beter doen as om te weier om dood te maak nie. As u in die weermag is, enigiemand se weermag, doen die regte ding: WEGRING!

Verwysings
Wikipedia, 'Woestyn'
Charles Glass, Deserters: The Last Untold Story of the Second World War, 2013.
William Bradford Huie, The Execution of Private Slovik, 1954. 'n Gelyknamige film uit 1974 gebaseer op die boek en met Martin Sheen in die hoofrol.
Benedict B. Kimmelman, 'The Example of Private Slovik', Amerikaanse erfenis, September/Oktober 1987. http: /www.americanheritage.com/node/55767
Joseph Heller, Catch-22, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961.
Ray Rigby, The Hill, New York: John Day, 1965.

Klik vir Spaans, Duits, Nederlands, Deens, Frans, vertaling- Opmerking- Die vertaling kan 'n rukkie neem om te laai.

Wat is jou reaksie? - Rol af om opmerkings by te voeg / te lees


Woestyn?

nuut

Plasing om tweeuur op 23 Maart 2005 21:36:16 GMT -5

Dankie Jim , Markland, Walt.

Wel, dit werp beslis 'n bietjie lig op die onderwerp. Nou laat ons sien.

Dit laat nog 30 tot 31 mans sonder rekening!
Enige idees? Kon hulle almal agtergebly het, perde het uitgegee, ens.

Plasing deur Walt Cross op 24 Maart 2005 0:12:31 GMT -5

Markland
Jy het reg, Powder River was eerste, Tongue River Cantonement het later gekom.

Plasing deur Walt Cross op 24 Maart 2005 0:24:03 GMT -5

Co B, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes:
Kapt Thomas McDougal
2Lt Benjamin Hodgson - Losgemaak as Reno se adjudant - Gedood in aksie

KIA: 3 insluitend Lt. Hodgson
WIA: 1
By Powder River: 19
By Ft. Lincoln of elders: 4
Andersins teenwoordig: 42 - Sonder McDougal ingesluit

Bron: & quotOfficial Documents of the Little Big Horn & quot; 1971 Arthur H. Clark Co., Glendale, CA.

Plasing voor twee uur op 25 Maart 2005 10:35:50 GMT -5

Plasing deur Walt Cross op 25 Maart 2005 19:09:11 GMT -5

Sekerlik, ek wou net seker maak dat u steeds belangstel.

Aangesien ek A - C gedoen het, sal ek in volgorde aangaan. Die bron is & quotOfficial Documents of the Little Big Horn & quot deur Loyd J. Overfield II, uitgegee deur Arthur H. Clark Co. 1971.

Co D, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes
Kapt Thomas B. Weir
2de Lt Winfield S. Edgerly

KIA: 3
WIA: 1
By Powder River Camp: 8
By Ft. Lincoln: 5
Andersins teenwoordig: 47 (amptenare nie ingesluit nie.

Co E, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes:
1ste Lt. Algernon E. Smith - Aangeheg van Co A en in bevel van kompanie E. KIA
2de Lt. James G. Sturgis - Aangeheg van Co M en KIA.

KIA: 36 (amptenare ingesluit)
WIA: 1
Met Pack Train: 7
By Powder River Camp: 7 Let op, na elke inskrywing van & quotAt Powder River Camp & quot is daar 'n vraagteken.
By Fort Lincoln: 5
Met Reno as hospitaalbediende (rommeldraer): 2
Op Steamer "Far West": 1 (siek)
Andersins weg: 1 (waansinnige asiel)

Geplaas om tweeuur op 25 Maart 2005 23:15:27 GMT -5

Ek waardeer die moeite Walt. D As ons ooit in 'n behoorlike lig die ware aard van hierdie geveg gaan verstaan, behoort ons die ware slagveldsterktes van al die betrokke troepe daardie dag te ken! Nie hoeveel was op die ekspedisie nie, wat, soos ons gesien het, baie meer was as wat eintlik op die werklike slagveld verantwoord is. Ek onthou nooit dat dit ooit ondersoek en vertel is nie. Ek sien uit na die res. Weereens dankie. Twee maan

Plasing deur Walt Cross op 26 Maart 2005 11:25:51 GMT -5

Ja jy is reg. Hier is meer.

Co F, 7de Verenigde State van Amerika Cavarly

Beamptes:
Kapt. George W. Yates KIA
2de Lt. William Reily - aangeheg van Co E, KIA

KIA: 35 (nie amptenare ingesluit nie)
WIA: 0
By Powder River Camp: 10 (met?)
By voet Lincoln: 5
Met Pack Train: 13
Met Reno: 2 (ordelik/rommeldraer)
Beperk: 2

Co G, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes:
1LT Donald McIntosh KIA
2de Lt. George D. Wallace

KIA: 13
WIA: 4
Met Pack Train: 0 (vreemd, ek het gedink dat alle maatskappye 'n paar mans na die pak trein gestuur het).
By Powder River Camp: 16
By Fort Lincoln of andersins afwesig: 6
Andersins teenwoordig: 18 (nie 2LT Wallace ingesluit nie)

Co H, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes:
Kapt Frederick W. Benteen
1LT Francis M. Gibson

KIA: 3
WIA: 17
Poeierrivier: 2
Fort Lincoln of andersins afwesig: 9
Andersins teenwoordig: 24 (nie amptenare ingesluit nie)

Co I, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes:
Kapt. Myles Keogh KIA
1LT James E. Porter KIA
2de Lt. Andrew H. Nave met verlof.

KIA: 37 (nie beamptes ingesluit nie)
WIA: 1
Met Pack Train: 8
Poeierrivier: 4
Fort Lincoln of andersins afwesig: 14
Op Steamer & quotFer West & quot 1
Met Reno: 1 (klerk)

Co K, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie (daar is geen Co J)
Beamptes:
1Lt Edward S. Godfrey
2de Lt. Luther R. Hare (met Indiese Verkenners)

KIA: 4
WIA: 3
By Powder River: 20
Fort Lincoln of andersins afwesig: 8
Andersins teenwoordig: 30 (nie amptenare ingesluit nie)

Geplaas om tweeuur op 26 Maart 2005 12:46:35 GMT -5

Baie dankie Walt. Kom ons kyk of ek dit kan verteer tot iets wat konstruktief is.

Plasing deur Walt Cross op 26 Maart 2005 23:27:36 GMT -5

U is welkom Twomoons, ek hoop dit is nuttig.

Co L, 7de Amerikaanse weermag
Beamptes:
1Lt James Calhoun - Aangeheg van Co C KIA
2de Lt. John J. Crittenden - Aangeheg van Co G KIA

KIA: 44 (nie amptenare ingesluit nie)
WIA: 1
Poeierrivier: 6
Met Pack Train: 9
Ft Lincoln of andersins afwesig: 4
Beskikking onbekend: 3

Co M, 7de Amerikaanse kavallerie
Beamptes:
Kapt Thomas H. French
1LT Edward G. Mathey - losstaande - Cmdg Pack Train

KIA: 12
WIA: 9
Poeierrivier: 5
Met Pack Train: 0
Ft Lincoln of andersins afwesig: 2
Andersins teenwoordig: 33

Dis dit. Daar is spesifieke aantekeninge oor sommige soldate, so as u 'n vraag het oor 'n man by die naam, sal ek hom opsoek. Sterkte.

Plasing om twee uur op 27 Maart 2005 0:19:43 GMT -5

Weereens dankie. Sê jy, weet jy iets oor die loopvlak van "Cooke, Keough, Reno" wat ek geplaas het?

grootdam
Volle lid

Plasing deur grootdam op 27 Maart 2005 10:16:10 GMT -5

Plasing om twee uur op 27 Maart 2005 13:08:13 GMT -5

U is welkom, van my kant. Walt, Markland en ander verdien egter al die eer.

grootdam
Volle lid

Plasing deur grootdam op 27 Maart 2005 17:15:39 GMT -5

Plasing deur markland op 30 Maart 2005 20:03:18 GMT -5

BP, dit het vandag aangekom. Ek het dit nog nie oopgemaak nie, maar het dit in die woestyn gebêre na die gebraaide varktjops wat ons vanaand eet. Waarskynlik, ek sal u 'n kort stuk maak om Hiley/Forbes as agtergrond voor te stel. U hoef dit egter nie in die pos te stuur nie.

Plasing om twee uur op 7 April 2005 12:16:04 GMT -5

'N Interessante voorreg om aan te kou. hmmmm.

Byna onmiddellik nadat dit geaktiveer is, het die Sewende Kavalerieregiment die Kansas -vlaktes gepatrolleer om inheemse Amerikaners te aanval en om die beweging van pioniers na die weste te beskerm. Van 1866 tot 1881 het die regiment 'n totaal van 181,692 myl oor Kansas, Montana en die Dakota -gebiede opgeruk. Intussen was die grootste deel van die regiment se bedrywighede begeleidingsplig, beide vir setlaars en Indiese agente.

Tesame met lae salarisse, alkoholisme, swak lewensonderhoud en oor die algemeen swak toestande, het die regiment tien selfmoorde en 160 verlate gely. Om die slegte lewensomstandighede te vererger, was die maandelikse salaris van 'n privaat $ 16,00. Een dollar het outomaties uit sy spaargeld gekom, en daar was 'n outomatiese aftrekking van twaalf en 'n half sent vir die Soldiers Home. Dit het die basiese privaat soldaat 'n totaal van $ 14,87 en 'n halwe sent per maand gelaat.

In 1867 word Custer onthef van sy bevel en krygsgerig op aanklagte dat hy tydens 'n agtervolging van Sioux- en Cheyenne-krygers so 'n doodsnel vasgestel het dat mans verlaat het en hy die bevel gegee het om op sig te skiet, drie gewond en dood te maak een. Boonop is hy aangekla van 'n ongemagtigde afwesigheid van sy bevel om sy vrou Elizabeth in Fort Riley, Kansas, te besoek. Custer is skuldig bevind aan hierdie aanklagte en is gedurende die tyd vir 'n jaar uit rang en kommando geskors sonder betaling. Generaal Ulysses S. Grant het die krygsbevel persoonlik onderteken, en die relatief ligte vonnis van Custer was waarskynlik te danke aan sy uitstekende diens in die burgeroorlog.


Woestyn: 'n Lang, trotse geskiedenis

Hierdie artikel oorspronklik gepubliseer on Portside deur CJ Hinkle.

Dit is nie 'n werk nie, dit is 'n avontuur, of die dra van jou eie klere is die nuwe camo. ”
Uittreksel uit Free Radicals: War Resisters in Prison deur CJ Hinke, komende van Trine-Day in 2016.

Dit verg baie meer moed om uit die pak te breek en die vertroue op hondsdol nasionalisme. 36% van die mans wat die eerste keer in die stryd was, was meer bang om as 'n lafaard bestempel te word as om gewond of vermoor te word.

Oorlogsiek is deur baie name deur sielkundiges genoem. In die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, die siekte van DaCosta of die hart van 'n soldaat in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, skokskok, omskakelingsversteuring of fuga-toestand, vlugreaksie in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, strydvermoeidheid, gevegsuitputting in Viëtnam, bestrydingsvermoeidheid, uitputting, bestryding van stresreaksie na die o-so-moderne post-traumatiese stresversteuring wat deur Golfsoldate en hommeltuigvlieëniers gedeel word.

Al hierdie diagnoses is op 'n stadium verbied en genoem, selfs in mediese tydskrifte. Die doel van behandeling is natuurlik om soldate terug te stuur na die oorlog. 600 000 is alleen uit die Amerikaanse weermag ontslaan weens neuropsigiatriese klagtes. Soos opgemerk deur die tydskrif Fortune, aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, "25 jaar na die einde van die 'Groot' Oorlog, is byna die helfte van die 67 000 beddens in Veterans Administration -hospitale steeds besig met die neuropsigiatriese slagoffers van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog." Meer as 'n kwart van alle slagoffers van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was psigiatriese.

Woestyne is skaars lafaards. Baie was eenvoudig nie bereid om dood te maak nadat hulle by die weermag aangesluit het nie. Ander het 'n ideologiese krisis beleef. Sommige het behoeftige gesinne tuis gehad. Land reg of verkeerd? Wat nonsens!

'Desertion' is 'n pejoratiewe term in die menslike samelewing. Ons beskou hulle as 'terugkeerders' van die waansin van alle oorlog. Ons wag dat hulle huis toe kom, trots dat hulle nooit iemand hoef doodgemaak het nie.

Alhoewel die Amerikaanse straf vir verlatenheid tydens oorlog nog steeds die dood is, het geen Amerikaanse woestyn sedert 11 September 2001 meer as 24 maande gedien nie. (En wat is nog oorlog!)

Oorlog van 1812 (1812-1815)
12,7% van alle Amerikaanse troepe het in vredestyd verlaat in vergelyking met 14,8%. Dit was grootliks te wyte aan die doodstraf vir sulke "verraad". Baie het summiere uitvoering onder oë gehad.

Meksikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog (1846-1848)
8,3%, 9 200 Amerikaanse soldate het verlate gegaan.

Amerikaanse burgeroorlog (1861-1865)
Die Unie -leër van die noorde het veel groter verlate as die konfederasie van die suide in die gesig gestaar. Uit slegs drie noordelike state is meer as 87 000 woestyne aangeteken, in totaal 180 000 verlate persone teen die einde van die oorlog. Daar word gesê dat die suide deur die oorlog 103 400 verloor het weens verlatenheid, insluitend hele eenhede soldate. Tot 278 000 van 500 000 troepe was egter teen die einde van die oorlog vermis. Mark Twain verlate van beide kante. William Smitz van die Noorde se Pennylvania Volunteers was die laaste woestyn wat in 1865 deur die vuurpeloton geskiet is.

Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914-1918)
240 000 Britse en Statebond-soldate is in die hof geveg en 346 is tereggestel vir verlatenheid, lafhartigheid, 'n pos verlaat, 'n bevel geweier het, of die wapens uit 3080 doodsvonnisse weggooi tydens die 'War to End All Wars', waaronder 25 Kanadese en 22 Iere. Hulle word herdenk deur die Shot at Dawn Memorial in Staffordshire. Die gedenkteken is geskoei op die 17-jarige privaat Herbert Burden, geblinddoek en vasgemaak aan 'n paal. Byna al die name van hierdie woestyne is nie by oorlogsgedenktekens gevoeg nie. Sommige, hoewel nie byna almal nie, is deur die Britse regering postuum begenadig. 'N Paar het 'n blinddoek geweier toe hulle na 'n vuurpeloton gekyk het en besluit om hulle in die oë te kyk. (En dit is lafaards.)

Meer as 600 Franse soldate is tereggestel weens verlating.

15 Duitse soldate is tereggestel weens verlating.

28 Nieu -Seelandse woestyne is ter dood veroordeel en vyf tereggestel. Hierdie soldate is in 2000 postuum begenadig.

Die Amerikaanse weermag het 21 282 woestyne aangeteken en president Woodrow Wilson het al 24 doodsvonnisse vir woestyne verander.

Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945)
Meer as 21 000 Amerikaanse woestyne is tydens “The Good War” verhoor en skuldig bevind aan verlating. Alhoewel 49 ter dood veroordeel is, is slegs een, privaat Eddie Slovik, 'n soldaat wat vrywillig was om mynvelde skoon te maak, op 31 Januarie 1945 in Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines in Frankryk deur muskiet tereggestel. Sy laaste verklaring was: "Ek sal weer weghardloop as ek daarheen moet gaan."

Die opperste geallieerde bevelvoerder en later die Amerikaanse president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, het Slovik se doodsvonnis bevestig en beweer dat "dit nodig was om verdere verlatenhede te ontmoedig". Slovik het gesê: "Hulle skiet my vir die brood en kougom wat ek gesteel het toe ek 12 was."

Slovik se teregstelling was verborge vir Franse burgers. Hy was aan arms en bolyf, knieë en enkels vasgebind en aan 'n spyk op 'n ses-vir-ses paal gehang teen die klipmuur van 'n Franse plaashuis. Aan 12 soldate is M-1 gewere uitgereik, waarvan slegs een 'n leë ronde bevat. Na die eerste vlug, het Private Slovik nie gesterf nie, hy is dood toe die soldate herlaai. Eddie Slovik was die eerste Amerikaanse woestyn wat tereggestel is sedert Lincoln president was. Hy was 24.

Slovik is begrawe in 'n genommerde graf in ry 3, graf 65 van plot "E" saam met 95 Amerikaanse soldate wat tereggestel is vir verkragting en moord, tot 1987 toe president Ronald Reagan beveel om sy oorskot terug te gee. Hy word begrawe in Detroit, langs sy vrou, Antoinette. Sy het sewe Amerikaanse presidente versoek om terug te keer totdat sy in 1979 gesterf het, sonder dat sy mediese voordele ontvang het.

In die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was 1,7 miljoen Amerikaanse krygshowe, 'n derde van alle Amerikaanse vervolgings. Alleen in Mei 1942 was daar 2 822 afvalliges van diens.

Meer as 1 500 Oostenrykse soldate het die Duitse Wehrmacht verlaat. 'N Veldtog om hulle te onthou, is in 1988 begin met die tema: "Desertion is not reprewable, war is". In 2014 is hulle vereer deur 'n monument, die Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice. Die beeldhouwerk sit in Wene oorkant die Oostenrykse kanselier en die president se kantoor. Dit is eenvoudig ingeskryf met slegs twee woorde, "alleen".

In Duitsland is meer as 15 000 soldate ter wille van verlatenheid deur die Nazi -regime tereggestel. Hulle is in 2007 herdenk deur die Deserteur Denkmal in Stuttgart. Dit is opgedra "Aan die deserters uit alle oorloë".

Oorlog teen Viëtnam (1955-1975)
Minstens 50 000 Amerikaanse soldate het vertrek, waaronder baie wat na Kanada, Frankryk en Swede gevlug het.

Die Sowjetunie, gedurende sy geskiedenis 1917-1991, het 158.000 deserters doodgemaak en 135.000 Rooi Leër-offisiere in die tronk gestop. 'N Verdere 1,5 miljoen Sowjet -krygsgevangenes onder die Nazi's is tydens hul repatriasie na Siberiese gulags gestuur weens ontevredenheid in die geledere.

60,000-80,000 etniese Sowjet-grenstroepe uit die Moslem-Sentraal-Asiatiese streke het tydens die Afghaanse burgeroorlog 1979-1989 verlate gegaan. 85 000 Afghaanse troepe het ook gedurende hierdie tydperk verlate gegaan.

Oorloë oor Afghanistan, Irak en vele meer (2001-hede)
Sedert 2000 beraam die Pentagon dat meer as 40 000 troepe uit alle takke van militêre diens verlaat het. Net in 2001 het 7 978 verlate geraak.

Meer as 5.500 Amerikaanse troepe het in 2003-2004 verlaat. In 2005 het 3,456 soldate vertrek. Teen 2006 het die getal 8 000 bereik.

In 2006 het die Britse weermag meer as 1 000 woestyne aangemeld.

Die Amerikaanse weermag sersant Bowe Bergdahl word van die verlating en "wangedrag" voor die vyand aangekla nadat hy sy pos in Afghanistan in 2009. Hy is vyf jaar lank gevange gehou deur die Taliban voordat hy in 2014 verruil is vir ses hooggeplaaste Afghanen wat deur die VSA gehou word. in hul buite -geregtelike gevangenisbasis in Guantánamobaai, Kuba. Een is dood voor die uitruil, sodat vyf Taliban vrygelaat is deur die VSA, die weermaghoof van personeel, adjunkminister van intelligensie, 'n voormalige minister van binnelandse sake en twee senior bevelvoerders. Die Taliban eis oorspronklik $ 1 miljoen en die vrylating van 21 Afgaanse gevangenes saam met 'n Pakistaanse wetenskaplike wat Amerikaanse soldate vermoor het. (President Obama onderhandel eintlik met terroriste. Die opperbevelhebber het 'n publisiteitsfoto saam met Bergdahl se ouers in die Roostuin geneem.)

Dit lyk asof die jong sersant vervolg word, want as hy nie die geval was nie, kon hy vergoeding van die Amerikaanse regering eis weens 'n krygsgevangene. (Die VSA kan triljoene bestee aan oorloë en betaal vir 'n krygsraad, maar weier om een ​​soldaat te vergoed!) Bergdahl moet lewenslange tronkstraf opgelê word.

So what was this home-schooled Idaho boy who studied fencing and ballet, never owned a car and rode everywhere by bicycle doing in the military, anyway? Hint: the military maw will take any cannon fodder it can get! Bowe went from a year-long retreat at a Buddhist monastery direct to infantry school at Fort Benning. Like Pvt. Slovik, Sgt. Bergdahl, announced his intention to “walk away into the mountains of Pakistan”., taking only his compass.After he began to learn Pashto, Bergdahl spent more times with Afghans than the soldiers of his ‘counterinsurgency’ unit. He wrote his parents he was “ashamed to be an American” and considered renouncing his US citizenship, a small detail buried by the White House. His parents wrote back, “OBEY YOUR CONSCIENCE!”

64% of Canadians were polled to ask their government to accept US military refugees after two motions for compassion were passed in Parliament in 2008 and 2009. Hundreds of American deserters have fled to Canada.

However, these legislative efforts were non-binding. The Canadian government has adopted a harsh policy of deporting deserters to the US, in marked contrast to the Vietnam period, and many young Americans simply go underground in Canada.

The BBC commented on the precedent-setting case of Iraq war resister Jeremy Hinzman in 2004: “Americans in trouble have been running to Canada for centuries… in the wake of the American Revolution…[and in the] Underground Railroad that spirited escaped American slaves to freedom…”.

Although I counselled, aided and abetted hundreds of Vietnam draft refusers throughout the 1960s as part of the Student Peace Union, The Resistance, and the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, I had little contact with American deserters. I first advocated desertion in a large, public Gensuikin demonstration in front of the huge US military base deploying troops to Vietnam in Naha, Okinawa, in 1969. I arrived by ship and left in a private plane.

I still advocate, counsel, aid and abet desertion by anyone in military service anywhere. Deserters are not only national heroes. They are global heroes who have refused to kill civilians and soldiers on foreign soil.

You can do no greater good than refusing to kill. If you are in the military, anybody’s military, do the right thing: RUN AWAY!

Wikipedia, “Desertion”
Charles Glass, Deserters: The Last Untold Story of the Second World War, 2013.
William Bradford Huie, The Execution of Private Slovik, 1954. A 1974 movie of the same name based on the book and starring Martin Sheen.
Benedict B. Kimmelman, “The Example of Private Slovik”, American Heritage, September/October 1987. http:/www.americanheritage.com/node/55767 [1]
Joseph Heller, Catch-22, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1961.
Ray Rigby, The Hill, New York: John Day, 1965.

CJ Hinke is a translator, book publisher and bibliographer of numerous children’s books in Latin and Thai. He has lived in Thailand since 1989 where he founded Freedom Against Censorship Thailand (FACT [2] ) in 2006 to campaign against pervasive censorship in Thai society. As a Quaker, he became an organiser in the pacifist movement opposing the war in Vietnam and was arrested more than 35 times in demonstrations of civil disobedience. After moving to Canada, in 1976, he became the last American arrested for the Vietnam draft, pardoned by Jimmy Carter’s first official act as US President. CJ formed the Society Protecting Intact Kinetic Ecosystems (SPIKE) which supported the tree-spiking of one of the world’s last intact temperate rainforests in Clayoquot Sound off the west coast of Vancouver Island. FACT’s campaign [2] is active internationally in resisting Internet, book, film and self-censorship. “Freedom of opinions, freedom of thought, freedom of ideas, every one of us deserves a voice.”


WWII 'Deserters': Stories Of Men Who Left The Front Lines

John Bain, shown above in 1940, is one of the men Glass profiles in The Deserters.

Bain, show above at 85 in 2007, deserted from the Gordon Highlanders. Penguin Press steek onderskrif weg

Few citizens are more honored than military veterans, and there's particular reverence for those who defeated the Nazis in World War II. Like any war, however, World War II was complicated and traumatic for those on the ground, and not a few deserted from the front lines.

In a new book, The Deserters, journalist Charles Glass tells the stories of three very different men whose lives dramatize how the strain of war can push a soldier to the breaking point — and how the line between courage and cowardice is never simple. These three lives stand in for tens of thousands of soldiers with similar stories records show that 50,000 American soldiers deserted in the European theater during World War II. While this does not seem unusual, Glass says that impression changes if you consider the context.

"In the American army, only about 10 percent of the soldiers in uniform actually saw combat," Glass tells Fresh Air's Dave Davies, "and they were very rarely rotated out of the fronts. Most of the people [who] deserted were those who broke down in battle. . That figure of 50,000 . is extremely high given the number of men who were actually at the front."

Glass, a veteran journalist and author of Americans In Paris: Life and Death Under Nazi Occupation, also points out how difficult it was to identify which men might crack under the pressures of war.

"It's very hard to know which ones will and which ones won't," he says, "and the men themselves going into battle didn't always know. Some of those who were extremely gung-ho in training were the very first to break down in combat."

Onderhoud Hoogtepunte

On the people who turned the deserters in

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'Agent Garbo,' The Spy Who Lied About D-Day

"It was very rare for those veterans to turn in a fellow from their unit who deserted. They often saw them deserting the front lines but didn't say a word. The ones who turned them in were the rear echelon troops. So when they went back to Paris or Lyon or somewhere where there was no battle, and a cook or clerk at a desk . would [see] someone was a deserter . he would turn them in. But the front-line soldiers very rarely turned in their fellow front-line soldiers . because they felt, 'There but by the grace of God go I.' "

On poor leadership contributing to desertion

"Some units had much higher rates [of desertion] than others. The 36th in the battles in France had the highest rate of any division in the American Army. It can't be accidental that there were junior officers . who were not interested in their men, and not talking to their men, and not looking after their men. [Pvt.] Steve Weiss felt like his captain always led from behind, was never at the front lines, you could never find him, they couldn't confide in him, they couldn't ask him for anything, and they felt like they got a raw deal from him."

On Pvt. Steve Weiss' desertion

"Under that severe strain, one night in the middle of the night he wandered off in a daze. And other deserters said this — that they didn't make a conscious decision, but they just found their bodies leading them away from the front — and he wandered into the woods, found a barn and slept for a couple of days, put himself back together and then reported again for duty. And that was clearly not a conscious desertion."

On the Parisian black market run largely by deserters

"The Paris press was writing about it a lot at the time — that [there] was 'Chicago-style vandalism and gangsterism' in the streets of Paris, and the American military had to do something about it. There were shootouts between the Paris police and the American and British MPs on one side and the deserters on the other side. They would rob banks, they would rob cafes, they would stop people on the street and steal women's jewelry they were gangs of real, hardcore outlaws, and they were armed and trained."

On one deserter who never returned to the United States and the life he made for himself in France

"I came across a man named Wayne Powers who was a truck driver who was delivering supplies from Normandy to Belgium, from just after D-Day to the Battle of the Bulge. One day his truck was hijacked, probably by deserters, and he was wandering around and decided to go back to a village where he had met a young woman that he rather liked. He went back to [the village] and this woman put him up and took him in and hid him. They then had five children, and he hid in the house and never came out.

"And one day there was a car accident in front of the house. He happened to open the curtains and the police who were taking information about the car accident saw him and went in to question him, realized he was an American, probably a deserter. They called the MPs from the nearby American base who arrested him. He was taken off to the base to be held for court-martial. This got to the French newspapers and within two days, 60,000 letters arrived from French people writing to the American Embassy saying, 'Please let him off. He did it for love.' So he was court-martialed. He was sentenced. His sentence was commuted, and he went back to her and they had another child and got married."


Home leave and desertion

It seems that at least a week for UK leave was allowed, going by these recollections.
I would assume that shorter periods of leave were spent behind the line in France I did consider that he went home when he shouldn't have done, but it seems he had a pass.
However there is this quote within the above attachment -

'Jack Dorgan of the Northumberland Fusiliers was sent on his first home leave sooner than he had expected.
Our battalion went to France in April 1915 and in the first week in June the colonel sent for me. He says, ‘Sergeant,’ he says, ‘I’ve just received this morning intimation from the War Office that leave can be started now. I’ve chosen you to be one of our first to go home for four days to England, on leave.’ I came out of his dugout, took off my hat – steel helmets weren’t invented then – and I put my Army-issue hat on the bankside and put a bullet through it. So that when I went home back to England wearing a hat with a bullet hole through I could say, ‘That was a near one.’ And that’s what I did.'

So perhaps four days was the norm.

Betgo

Home leave sounds a little weird to me in the US, as recent US wars have been further away, so no home leave I believe.

I also wondered if they had a problem with soldier deserting during leave given the conditions of WWI and if other soldiers had a hard time convincing themsleves to go back,.

There has been some study of this recently. The British military had what had been abolished in civilian law about 80 years earlier, a bloody code, with the death penalty for all sorts of things. There were about 3000 British military death sentences in WWI and about 300 executions. There were cases like someone shot for cowardice who said he was pinned down and couldn't move forward to rejoin his platoon. There were 2 shot for sleeping on guard duty.

The one case in the US in WWII of someone shot for desertion, the guy had had a bad conduct deferment for a criminal record. They needed more soldiers so he was sent in a "replacement" detachment to fighting at the front with the worst casualties, mostly with men whose medical deferments had been revoked or were drafted when they turned 18. He and a guy with him had trouble making it to the front, due to artillery fire etc. and maybe reluctance increased by the problem even getting there. When he finally got to the front, he walked back a few miles and turned himself in. He wrote out a note saying he would desert again. The officer told him to destroy it that it was incriminating, but he refused. He already had a record and didn't have much of a job, so a dishonorable discharge wouldn't matter much. By the time he was court martialled, the fighting was worse with the Battle of the Bulge, and there were some men who preferred prison and a bad discharge to combat and veterans benefits. If the war and heavy casualties had continued longer, they might have executed more sentences for desertion, and of course the soldiers didn't know there wouldn't be more executions.

Deaf tuner

Home leave sounds a little weird to me in the US, as recent US wars have been further away, so no home leave I believe.

I also wondered if they had a problem with soldier deserting during leave given the conditions of WWI and if other soldiers had a hard time convincing themsleves to go back,.

There has been some study of this recently. The British military had what had been abolished in civilian law about 80 years earlier, a bloody code, with the death penalty for all sorts of things. There were about 3000 British military death sentences in WWI and about 300 executions. There were cases like someone shot for cowardice who said he was pinned down and couldn't move forward to rejoin his platoon. There were 2 shot for sleeping on guard duty.

The one case in the US in WWII of someone shot for desertion, the guy had had a bad conduct deferment for a criminal record. They needed more soldiers so he was sent in a "replacement" detachment to fighting at the front with the worst casualties, mostly with men whose medical deferments had been revoked or were drafted when they turned 18. He and a guy with him had trouble making it to the front, due to artillery fire etc. and maybe reluctance increased by the problem even getting there. When he finally got to the front, he walked back a few miles and turned himself in. He wrote out a note saying he would desert again. The officer told him to destroy it that it was incriminating, but he refused. He already had a record and didn't have much of a job, so a dishonorable discharge wouldn't matter much. By the time he was court martialled, the fighting was worse with the Battle of the Bulge, and there were some men who preferred prison and a bad discharge to combat and veterans benefits. If the war and heavy casualties had continued longer, they might have executed more sentences for desertion, and of course the soldiers didn't know there wouldn't be more executions.


Runners – The Untold Story of Wartime Desertion

Eddie Slovik was the first to admit that he wasn’t “cut out for combat duty.” And for a time, the U.S. Army agreed.

The 24-year-old Detroit native was initially passed over for military service in World War Two because of a series of small time criminal convictions. But in January 1944, a dearth of fresh recruits compelled Uncle Sam to suddenly declare Slovik fit for the army. He was conscripted and underwent training as a rifleman.

By the end of the summer, Slovik arrived in war torn France with a batch of green replacements destined for the American 28 th Infantry Division. The unit had suffered heavy losses during the Normandy campaign and needed fresh troops to bring it up to strength for the planned push into Germany.

On his way up to the front line, Slovik’s column came under heavy fire from enemy artillery. All of the recruits scurried for cover. When the barrage lifted, a terrified Slovik and another private slipped away from the group and made their way to the rear where they attached themselves to a Canadian unit. They remained there for six weeks before their hosts turned the two over to American MPs.

He reported to the commanding officer for the first time on Oct. 7, 1944.

The next day, the young rifleman requested a transfer to a rear echelon post explaining that he was too scared to serve on the line. When his commander refused him, the private openly declared to the platoon leader his intention to desert. The following morning, he made good on the threat abandoning his position and walking several miles to the rear. In the afternoon, he presented himself at the division’s headquarters with a hand-written confession of his desertion. In the note, he claimed that he was too scared to fight and asked for a transfer to a support unit.

A junior officer present told Slovik to tear up the note and return to his unit. The private refused, saying he’d sooner spend the war in jail than at the front. MPs placed him under arrest.

While in custody, a colonel advised Slovik to destroy the confession and head back to the line. Once more, Slovik refused. This time he was thrown into the stockade.

The divisional judge advocate met with the private and also urged him to reconsider. He even offered him a transfer to another rifle company. Slovik refused, saying he’d prefer a court martial.

On Nov. 11, Slovik was tried for desertion by nine staff officers. The panel spared no time finding him guilty and sentenced him to death by firing squad. Despite the speed and severity of the ruling, it was generally expected that the punishment would eventually be reduced to a prison term. Unfortunately, for Slovik, it didn’t work out that way.

With desertions on the rise, the divisional commander, Maj. Gen. Norman Cota, saw the sentence as an opportunity to stiffen the resolve of the rank and file. He refused to commute it. “If I hadn’t approved it,” Cota later said, “I don’t know how I could have gone up to the line and looked a good soldier in the face.”[1]

On Dec. 23, Slovik wrote to General Eisenhower seeking a Christmas reprieve. But with Allied desertions at an all time high following the Nazi’s surprise Ardennes offensive a week earlier, Ike was loathe to offer clemency. The decision sealed Slovik’s fate.

On the morning of Jan. 31, a mere 96 days before the end of the war in Europe, Pvt. Eddie Slovik from Detroit, Mich. was strapped to a post in a farmyard at Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, France and shot to death by 12 riflemen.

Slovik was just one of 102 U.S. service personnel executed by military authorities during World War Two. He was however the enigste American soldier to be shot for desertion – the other condemned men were put to death for either rape or murder.

Despite this, according to the new book Deserter: The Untold Story by journalist and author Charles Glass, more than 40,000 American soldiers abandoned their posts during the war and nearly 100,000 British troops did the same.

Keith Lowe, who reviewed the book for the British newspaper The Telegraph points out that the number of World War Two deserters would have provided about 10 infantry divisions for the Allies.

Even with such staggering numbers, to this day, historians pay little attention to these wartime deserters. Yet, according to the author, what we think we know about these men is not always correct.

“Desertion is still synonymous with cowardice,” writes Lowe in his review. “But as Glass makes clear, there were actually dozens of reasons for abandoning one’s unit in the Second World War. Some men were indeed shirkers, but the vast majority simply needed a break from the constant strain of being under fire. Others were tempted away by the promise of wine, women or loot.”

Glass even reports how some soldiers in the rear echelon busted out of their units so they could actually go up to the front to fight. Others were simply insane.

Lowe details a number of cases of desertion from Glass’ book, explaining each deserter’s motives for quitting the fight and how they faced justice (if at all).

To read the full article, click here. To join the book’s own Facebook group, click here.

But don’t you run off just yet — here are some other interesting facts about military desertion:

  • More than 21,000 American soldiers were convicted of desertion in World War Two. Most received stiff prison terms 49 were handed death sentences. With the exception of Eddie Slovik, all of these condemned men had their sentences reduced.
  • The German army was much tougher on deserters. The Wehrmacht executed some 15,000 soldiers for desertion during World War Two. Today, these men are remembered as victims of war. A monument to them was even erected in Ulm in 1988. “Desertion is not reprehensible,” it reads, “war is.”
  • The number of German army executions pales in comparison to Russia’s record. More than 158,000 Soviet soldiers were put to death for fleeing their posts during the war. Others were confined to penal battalions, which was just as good as a death sentence. Stalin also ordered his armies to form “blocking detachments” that would be positioned just behind the front to mow down any soldiers that fled. “It takes a very brave man to be a coward in the Red Army,” Stalin once remarked.
  • Executions for desertion and cowardice were much more common in the British Army during the First World War, than in the Second. Two hundred and sixty five Tommies were shot by firing squads between 1914 and 1918 for “desertion”, “cowardice” or “quitting their posts”. [2] Even falling asleep while on duty was punishable by death, as two British soldiers discovered in 1917. [3]
  • Arthur Muntz of Dublin, Georgia wasn’t granted the benefit of a court martial after he deserted. A Confederate solider at the First Bull Run, the 22-year-old Muntz fired a single musket round and then panicked and fled the battle. After chasing the Yankees from the field, his own comrades pursued the wayward private into a nearby woods where they captured him and shot him on their own. It wasn’t until after the war that Muntz’s family learned his fate when one of his killers contacted them.

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Intent

If a person intends to return to "military control" someday, he is guilty of AWOL, not desertion, even if he was away for 50 years. Conversely, if a person was absent for just one minute and then captured, he could be convicted of desertion if the prosecution can prove that the member intended to remain away permanently from the military.

If the intent of the absence was to miss an important function of his or her job, such as a combat deployment, then the intent to remain away permanently to support a charge of desertion is not necessary. However, services such as drill, target practice, maneuvers, and practice marches are not ordinarily considered as an important duty. "Important duty" may include hazardous duty, duty in a combat zone, certain ship deployments, and more.

Whether a duty is hazardous or a service is considered important depends on the circumstances of the particular case, and is a question of fact for the court-martial to decide.


The History of the Desertion, or an Account of All the Publick Affairs in England: From the Beginning of September, 1688, to the Twelfth of February Following (Classic Reprint)

James the Second the 151m lg? Pajl and his Qeturn afterwards wh as forced. And involuntary, could have no Influence upon us and if he were now to&apos he reflored again, aihl waft he ne - crowned and [worn de Excerpt from The History of the Desertion, or an Account of All the Publick Affairs in England: From the Beginning of September, 1688, to the Twelfth of February Following

James the Second the 151m lg? Pajl and his Qeturn afterwards wh as forced. And involuntary, could have no Influence upon us and if he were now to' he reflored again, aihl waft he ne - crowned and [worn de novo, as Henry the Sixth.

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