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Die slag van Prestonpans 1745, 2de uitgawe, Martin Margulies

Die slag van Prestonpans 1745, 2de uitgawe, Martin Margulies



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Die slag van Prestonpans 1745, 2de uitgawe, Martin Margulies

Die slag van Prestonpans 1745, 2de uitgawe, Martin Margulies

Prestonpans was nie 'n baie lang stryd nie. Die regeringsmagte het aan die begin van die geveg gehardloop, en die agtervolging het waarskynlik langer geduur as die geveg self. 'N Boek wat geheel en al gefokus was op die verloop van die geveg, sou dus inderdaad baie kort wees! Gelukkig dek hierdie uitstekende boek 'n baie groter tydperk. Ons begin met 'n inleiding wat begin met 'n kort geskiedenis van die tyd van die Stuart -dinastie in Engeland, die val van Jakobus II en die vroeëre Jakobitiese opstande. Vervolgens gaan ons in op 'n gedetailleerde blik op die opbou tot die '45, 'n tydperk waarin die Franse beleid aanhou verander het totdat prins Charles Stuart uiteindelik besluit het om op eie inisiatief op te tree. Hierdie afdeling is veral goed oor die manier waarop nuus van 'n moontlike opstand die Skotse owerhede bereik het en die wyse waarop verskillende ministers daarop gereageer het.

Die afdeling oor die twee leërs is ewe uitstekend en kyk na hul wapens, toerusting en gevegstyle, en ondersoek ook die kwaliteit van die regeringsleër in detail - die swak kwaliteit van die meeste van Cope se manne het 'n groot rol gespeel in sy nederlaag. Daarna volg ons prins Charles toe hy van die westelike Hooglande na die Great Glen vorder en dan suid na Edinburgh, en Cope trek noord om die lyn van die Fort in die Hoogland te versterk, sy versuim om Charles te onderskep en sy dringende poging om vaar terug na Edinburgh. Uiteindelik kyk ons ​​na die veldtog self en die kort stryd.

'N Belangrike sterkte van hierdie boek is die gebruik van die skrywer van primêre bronne, en veral die vele briewe en verslae wat tussen die verskillende senior figure gestuur is, om op te spoor wie weet wat wanneer, en wie glo wanneer. Dit het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die veldtog wat by Prestonpans geëindig het, met verskillende figure wat die moontlikheid van 'n opstand met verskillende vlakke van erns behandel het. Nadat die prins 'n stroom gerugte geloods het, het nuus en bevele in Skotland deurgeloop, en dit het 'n groot impak op Cope se optrede gehad toe hy noordwaarts getrek het om die prins te onderskep, en dan die skip geneem het om betyds terug te keer na Edinburgh om keer dat die stad val. Cope se bevele speel 'n groot rol in die mislukking van sy ekspedisie na die Hoogland, waar hy 'n vroeë kans om die Jacobiete te onderskep misgeloop het.

Alhoewel die stryd baie kort was, het albei kante 'n reeks maneuvers uitgevoer voordat die geveg begin het. Dit word in detail opgespoor, met die primêre bronne weer gebruik om die volgorde waarin daar beweeg is, te ontwrig. In die laaste tydperk voor die geveg reageer die regeringsmagte op Jakobitiese bewegings, maar bly in dieselfde redelike sterk verdedigingsposisie.

Die skrywer gee ewe veel aandag aan beide kante, sodat ons ook die stadige uitbreiding van die leër van prins Charles, die meningsverskille tussen sy belangrikste ondersteuners en hul vordering na Edinburgh kan opspoor. Ons kry 'n gebalanseerde siening van prins Charles en erken sy werklike prestasies gedurende die '45 en sy vele gebreke. Hierdie boek bevat ook omtrent die positiefste siening van Cope wat ek gesien het - die skrywer voer 'n oortuigende argument aan dat Cope se planne heeltemal aanvaarbaar was, en dat die swak gehalte en onervarenheid van sy manne tot sy nederlaag gelei het.

Dit is 'n uitstekende weergawe van die veldtog en die stryd van Prestonpans, die oorwinning wat die Jacobiete van die '45 van 'n geringe irritasie in 'n werklike bedreiging vir die Hanoveriese regering verander het.

Hoofstukke
1 - Die aanloop
2 - Die leërs
3 - Na Edinburgh
4 - Prestonpans 1745
5 - Nadraai
6 - Epiloog

Skrywer: Martin Margulies
Uitgawe: Sagteband
Bladsye: 216
Uitgewer: Prestoungrange & Cuthill Press
Jaar: 2013



Ons erfenis 'veldtog' en groot beduidende verslae en planne

Die Trustees het eers die Droom van die mense van Prestonpans [HIER GELINK] in September 2006, waarin 'n reeks kwessies uiteengesit word waarop hulle sou fokus. Hierdie kwessies word onmiddellik hieronder gelys en 'n skakel word na die oorspronklike dokumentasie gegee.

Namate die veldtog sedert 2006 gevorder het, is beduidende stappe geneem wat aanleiding gee tot verslae en planne, en dit word ook opgesom en hieronder gekoppel, bv. RGA se Ekonomiese haalbaarheidstudie en amp haleysharpedesign Binne -visies.

Kwessies wat aan die begin behandel is in Kommentaar aan Historic Scotland [nou Historic Environment Scotland] in 2007 vir The Prestonpans Heritage Campaign was:

  • Geskiedenis/konteks van die Slag van Prestonpans
  • Wetgewing/Beskerming van die terrein en omgewing
  • Terreinanalise
  • Geneesmiddels genees - kyk na die beste manier om die slagveldgebied in die toekoms aan te bied
  • Kragstasie - saam met Scottish Power om alle impakte op die gebied te help verbeter
  • Waggon Way - 'n blik op die herstel van Waggon Way op die slagveld in samewerking metdie John Muir Way
  • Slagsentrum - die skep van 'n boeiende 'Lewende Geskiedenis' sentrum op die terrein
  • Roete - die mark van die slagveldroete, insluitend die Riggonhead Defile en die opstel van interaktiewe media
  • Art-Sculpture-Follies - die skep van stryd relevante landmerke
  • Hawens -die behoud en interpretasie van die hawegebiede om wedergeboorte te bevorder
  • Prestonpans - die bevordering van die plaaslike gemeenskap deur middel van hierdie projekte
  • Nywerheid - kyk na die plaaslike bedryf deur die geskiedenis

Volg die skakels hier onder vir al die besonderhede van die Trust se aktiwiteite sedertdien.

The Campaign is van stapel gestuur met The Dream en 'n gedetailleerde uiteensetting van 'n manifes na uitgebreide plaaslike konsultasies en 'n RSA CoffeeHouse -uitdaging in 2006. Teen Desember 2010 het die Trust sy PROSPEKTUS aan die Nasie bekend gestel om 5 miljoen pond te soek om 'n Living History Centre in Prestongrange Museum te ontwikkel.

Die versoekskrif aan die Skotse parlement @ Holyrood om die veldtog te ondersteun gemaak soos die tapisserie in die MSP's Lobby vertoon word met die PROSPECTUS wat ook deur Iain Gray MSP aan hulle gestuur is en namate Historic Scotland sy konsultasie op fase 1 van die oprigting van 'n National Inventory of Scottish Battlefields - Desember 2011, begin het. die totaal van & pond7 miljoen word by die regering en openbare instansies aangevra, en die Trust verbind hom daartoe om die balansering van £ 2 miljoen by private skenkers te kry.

Vertrou nuusbriewe word af en toe gedruk vir die uitdeel van geleenthede, benewens die dienste wat hier op hierdie webwerf en NewsNet -items gereeld op hierdie webwerf gelewer word - sien die knoppie Nuusberigte hier links.

Toerisme -handelsanalise van die 'Prestonpans Experience'

Source Tourism Solutions het verkennende studies onderneem met die reisbedryf en onder verenigings en klubs om die vraag na besoeke te evalueer en om maniere te ontwikkel om besoekers aan te moedig om 'n Prestonpans -ervaring van die slagveld en die muurskilderye te geniet. Hierdie studies het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die potensiaal beslis bestaan ​​en 'n uiteensetting van maniere om voort te gaan om die besoekersgetal te laat groei, wat die Slag identifiseer as die mees aantreklike toerisme -aantreklikheid van die stad vir handelsverskaffers.

Jaarlikse heraanstellings @ 21 September word ondersteun deur 'n nuutgemaakte plaaslike Alan Breck-regiment van Prestonpans-vrywilligers

Ian Nimmo, voormalige voorsitter van die RLS Society, het hierdie 'feitelike' geskiedenis van Al [l] an Breck Stewart geskryf, wie se naam gegee is aan die heropvoering van Prestonpans-vrywilligers wat in September 2007 gestig is onder Martin Margulies as opper-kolonel in September 2007 Elke jaar is lesse geleer en beelde geneem.

Ekonomiese haalbaarheid van 'n besoekersentrum by Meadowmill of Prestongrange Museum deur RGA

Die eerste groot eksterne studie in opdrag van die Trustees het ondersoek ingestel of 'n besoekersentrum by Meadowmill 'n selfonderhoudende basis kan wees, sodra die kapitaaluitgawes bereik is. Max Gaunt van RGA, 'n toerismepotensiaalassessor met die sterkste reputasie in Skotland wat die sukses van besoekers vir die Falkirk Wheel en die Skotse parlement korrek voorspel het, is uitgenooi om die evaluering vir die Trust uit te voer. Daar kan jaarliks ​​ongeveer 70 000 besoekers voorspel word, mits die sentrum van die regte kwaliteit is.

In 2010 het die Trust besluit om die ekonomiese haalbaarheid van die opsporing by die Prestongrange Heritage Museum te ondersoek, en RGA het hul vorige studie opgedateer. Hulle het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat ongeveer 120 000 besoekers verwag kan word as die ander fasiliteite van die museum aansienlik opgegradeer en geïnterpreteer word.

Battlefield Archaeological Research & amp verwante inisiatiewe - met HLF -ondersteuning

Die Trustees is absoluut van mening dat die nodige besoekersentrum van 'kwaliteit' by Meadowmill gebaseer moet wees op deeglik ondersoekde fondamente, nie die minste op die slagveld self nie. En hoewel die verloop van 263 jaar beteken het dat 'n aansienlike deel van die grond nou in woon- en nywerheidsgebruik is, wat beteken dat baie verlore gegaan het, is dit steeds 'n primêre vereiste dat die oorblywende items noukeurig geëvalueer, geargiveer en, soos gepas, voorberei word vir aanbieding by die sentrum.

Om dit voort te sit met die raad van dr Tony Pollard van die Glasgow University Battlefield Argeology Center en die County Argeoloog Biddy Simpson, is 'n 'Your Heritage' toekenning van die Heritage Lottery gesoek en verkry in Maart 2008. Sommige £ 50,000 vir HLF saam met 10 000 pond van ander donateurs van Trust word belê in hierdie en ander aktiwiteite wat hieronder beskryf word.


Die 'Your Heritage' -projek ook bevat 'n simposium van September 2008 wat deur trustee Herbert Coutts byeengeroep is vir alle belanghebbendes om veldtogvordering tot op hede en toekomstige uitdagings, die opleiding van besoekersgidse en die skepping van slagveldmerkers te debatteer.

'Imagining' Victory Hope en Ambition in die sentrum

Die besoekersentrum mag nie 'n 'museum' van geskiedenis wees nie. Dit word opgevat as 'n forum vir Lewende Geskiedenis, wat voortbou op die Hoop en Ambitie wat Victory in 1745 by Prestonpans geskep het. Terwyl die verhaal natuurlik vertel sal word van die pragtige oorwinning wat deur Prince Charles Edward's Highlanders behaal is oor die rooi jasleër onder leiding van generaal Sir John Cope, dit is die geleentheid vir die viering van die hoop en ambisies van elke besoeker wat dit hoor en sien oorvertel. Om te begin dink en voor te stel hoe dit in die sentrum bereik en volgehou kan word, het die Trustees die internasionaal bekroonde interieurontwerpspan by haleysharpedesign om gedurende die somer van 2008 te werk en om hul eie opkomende idees voor te lê aan MSP's by Holyrood Parlement en aan die HLF geborgde tweejaarlikse gevegsimposium in Prestonpanson 18/19 September. Die finale verslag is in Oktober ingedien en word hieronder saam met die twee tussentydse dokumente gekoppel.

Historiese Skotland se konsultasie oor hoe om die slagvelde van die land die beste te beskerm

Gedurende die vroeë somer van 2008 het Historic Scotland die standpunte van die land gesoek deur 'n Raadplegingsdokument uiteensit wat hulle voel moet gedoen word om die slagvelde van Skotland te beskerm. Die Trust het die dokument nie net onder mekaar oorweeg nie, maar ook tydens 'n Open Consultation in Prestonpans op 23 Junie waarheen hulle leiers uit die Oos -Lothiese Antiquarians, Dunbar en Prestonpans Gemeenskapsrade, Prestonpans Historical Society, Old Musselburgh Club se Pinkie Group en die algemene publiek genooi het.

Die oorweldigende mening was dat die dokument 'gering' was en nie naastenby aan die vereistes van die uitdagings of die geleenthede kon voldoen nie. 'N Stel opmerklike opmerkings is aan die historiese Skotland voorgelê en aan die Eerste Minister en die Minister van Kultuur voorgelê. In wese het die Trust aangevoer dat slagvelde veel meer is as taktiek en terrein. Hulle het 'n belangrike opvoedkundige boodskap om te deel en is 'n integrale element in die persoonlikheid en selfbeeld van die gemeenskap waar die geveg plaasgevind het. Om presies argeologies die presiese plek te identifiseer en te 'beskerm', skiet dit te kort wat nodig is, en internasionale vergelykings toon dit duidelik aan.

Die trustees was teleurgesteld dat die standpunte wat hulle gelewer het, nie op advies van Historic Scotland [HS] deur die minister aanvaar is nie. Die Trust het veral aangevoer dat elke plaaslike 'rentmeesterskap' -gemeenskap 'n strategiese voorstel moet opstel vir die interpretasie van hul stryd, alhoewel die beskikbaarheid van befondsing duidelik sou beteken dat implementering slegs oor 'n lang tydperk bereik kon word.

HS is gevra om te analiseer watter verskil die konsultasie gemaak het en het soos volg geantwoord:

Bewaar en interpreteer die WaggonWay van Tranent na Cockenzie

Die WaggonWay wat van Tranent na Cockenzie loop, is waarskynlik die oudste spoorweg van Brittanje. Sy gravitasiestelsel het toegelaat dat steenkool van Tranent vanaf die begin van die 18de eeu met gemak die hawe van Cockenzie bereik het - aanvanklik met houtrails wat later deur yster vervang is. Die voorgestelde skema behels navorsingsargeologie, interpretasieborde, die bou van 'n replika-wa en die herleiding van die oorlewende paaie om saam te gaan met die John Muir-weg in die noorde. Bonnie Prince Charlie's Highland Army het oor die WaggonWay gelaai toe hulle die rooi jasse in 1745 teen die mure van Preston House agtervolg.

Third Force News van die Skotse Raad van Vrywillige Organisasies

The Battle Trust is 'n lid van die Raad van SCVO en toe Raymond Duncan Andrew Dallmeyer s'n sien Slag van Pots 'n Pans by The Fringe in Augustus het hy besluit om 'n ondersteunende oorsig van ons werk te bied, en ons benadering tot ander gemeenskappe wat bestuurders van die land se slagvelde is, te prys.Nou is daar 'n gedagte!

Scotland's Homecoming 2009: Prestonpans Clan Exhibition & amp aktiwiteite: 18/31 Julie

Die Trust, met ondersteuning van die Homecoming Fund van die East Lothian Council, het 'n uitstalling en 'n wye verskeidenheid byeenkomste aangebied wat van The Prestoungrange Gothenburg afkomstig is. Die briefing oor die belangrikste stamme wat saam met The Prince op 21 September 1745 by die geveg was, is opgestel deur Arran Johnston.

Lewende geskiedenis sentrum voorstel vir die nasionale dialoog: Junie 2009

Die Minister van Kultuur Michael Russell MSP, met die verantwoordelikheid vir Historiese Skotland en die beskerming van Skotse slagvelde, het tydens hul vergadering in April 2009 formeel met die Trustees ooreengekom om die Trust te help in die volgende fase van sy veldtog om die nasionale sentrum vir lewende geskiedenis te stig oor die geveg in 1745 - om uitgebreide besonderhede te ontwikkel en finansiering te soek.

Die 'volgende stap' -dokumentasie is op 22 Junie by die minister se verteenwoordigers uit Historic Scotland ingedien. Dit is geplaas vir 'n Concept Review deur Devonhall Associates en die Trustees reageer daarna op die menings wat Devonhall in November uitgespreek het - soos hieronder getoon. Dit ondersoek plan B, dit wil sê dat die sentrum, insluitend 'n tapytpaviljoen, by die Prestongrange Heritage Museum in Morrisons Haven moet wees. 'N Omvattende [Uitgawe II] van die Prospektus is in Desember 2010 gepubliseer.

BattleGame - Prestonpans 21 September 1745

Gordon Veitch het 'n BattleGame -bord van 10 'x 8' ontwikkel vir toe Vertrou op afgeskaalde modelle van al die relevante geboue en topografiese kenmerke waarop die geveg deur spelers gevoer kan word.

Skoolbesoekprogram - geborg deur Scottish Arts Council/ Lottery Awards for All

Die ambisie om skole te besoek om die verhaal van die Slag van Prestonpans te vertel, is verwesenlik met die steun van die Scottish Arts Council in 2009/ 2010. Leierskap en koördinering vir die Trust is deur Kristine Cunningham en Martine Robertson. Greg Dawson-Allen is aangestel as storieverteller en 'n omvattende program van besoeke aan skole wat gemaak is met behulp van wapendemonstrasies, die Trust's BattleBus, Gordon Veitch's BattleGame, die Adams DVD en 'n nuwe Youngster's Guide wat spesiaal vir die Trust geskryf is deur Stuart McHardy.

Preston Lodge School BBC -video HIER GELINK

Versoek aan die Oos -Lothiese Raad om die bewaring van Cope's Obelisk et al

In Januarie 2010 het die Trustees saam met die Prestonpans Gemeenskapsraad 'n versoekskrif aan die Oos -Lothan Raad voorgelê dat hulle beter aandag moet gee aan die omgewing rondom Cope se obelisk, die omgewing van die Battle Bing, padtekens en werklike kwessies en dat hulle hul steun in die openbaar moet verklaar vir die veldtog. Die ELC -kabinet het in Junie 2010 hul steun tegelykertyd afgekondig, wat daarop dui dat hulle die moontlikheid wil ondersoek om die Battle Living History Center by die Heritage Museum te skep eerder as op die Battle Bing. Die Trust aanvaar dat hierdie voorstel noukeurig beoordeel moet word - mits die gevegsterrein, strydbing en Riggonhead Defile alleen beskerm en doeltreffend aangebied word, en dat 'n algehele plan vir die museum opgestel is. As hierdie voorbehoud aanvaarbaar was, het die museumterrein aansienlike voordele vir die gemeenskap in die algemeen inhou.

Die Prestonpans Tapestry

Gedurende 2009 en 2010 het die Trust en die Prestoungrange -kunstefees saam met 200+ borduurwerkers regoor die land saamgewerk om 'n tapisserie van 103 meter lank x 460 mm te maak wat die verhaal vertel van Bonnie Prince Charlie se epiese reis van Rome/ St Nazaire na Victory in Prestonpans in September 1745. Die volledige verhaal van die ontstaan ​​daarvan word op ons toegewyde webwerfadres vertel www.prestonpanstapestry.org Die ontwerpkunswerk is deur dr Andrew Crummy, Senior Stitcher was Dorie Wilkie met Gillian Hart as sameroeper van die Stitchers.

In 2015 het die Trust ook eienaarskap en verantwoordelikheid geneem vir die 305 paneel, 153 meter Skotse Diaspora Tapisserie sowel as The PrestonpansTapestry.

Voorstelle aan Heritage Lottery Fund [HLF] om The BathHouse by Prestongrange Museum te verander

In 2017 het die Trust in samewerking met die Oos -Lothiese Raad by Prestongrange Museum ambisieuse voorstelle vir 'n sentrum vir lewende geskiedenis aan HLF voorgelê, wat ongelukkig van die hand gewys is. Daarna is 'n Resilience Grant beskikbaar om die Trust in staat te stel om sy momentum voort te sit - sien volgende afdeling.

Visie vir Victory 1745 en pad na Victory 2019

Die Resilience Studies behels 'n eksterne oudit van al die Trust wat sedert 2006 behaal is, en 'n vergelykende studie van ander suksesvolle battke -plekke in die Verenigde Koninkryk en Europa. vanaf 18 April/ 9 Mei 2019.


Top resensies uit die Verenigde Koninkryk

Kon nie resensies filtreer nie. Probeer asseblief weer later.

Hierdie boek dek die vroeë stadiums van die '45, tot en met die slag van Prestonpans, waarby die leërs, generaals en wapens ondersoek is. Dit wil veral die gedrag van sir John Cope hersien, wie se leër in so 'n kort tydperk by Prestonpans verslaan is. In die geheel bereik dit hierdie doel, en op 'n redelik onpartydige manier.

Daar is egter 'n paar gebreke. Dit lyk asof die skrywer dink dat die geskiedenis 'n groot onreg aan Cope gedoen het en haal Tommasson en Buist (Battles of the '45) en Evelyn Lord se aaklige boek oor die Engelse Jacobiete aan. Die voormalige boek is egter eintlik simpatiek vir Cope, en meer onlangse militêre verslae is ook, so sy baanbrekersbenadering is tog nie so nuut nie.

Die skrywer wil nie gewilde uitbeeldings van die geveg in film (Chasing the hert, Bonnie Prince Charlie) of in fiksie (Waverley) ondersoek nie, wat jammer is, en Alan Breck Stuart word ook nie genoem nie. Die skrywer dink dat die '15 in Engeland in Lancashire begin het - dit was Northumberland.

Daar is 'n gebrek aan manuskripbronne wat hier gebruik word - bv. Staatsdokumente vir Skotland, maar sommige van hierdie briewe verskyn in die hofverrigtinge, so miskien is dit nie 'n groot verlies nie. Die skrywer neem ook nie die kritiek op Cope in kontemporêre korrespondensie soos gepubliseer in Mounsey, Carlisle and the '45, of die wat Andrew Henderson in The History of the Rebellion (1748) gemaak het, aan boord nie.

In die algemeen 'n goeie boek, maar bederf deur 'n paar gebreke.

Dit is 'n moderne weergawe van die beroemde geveg wat in September 1745 net 'n paar kilometer oos van Edinburgh plaasgevind het, wat 'n oortuigende oorwinning vir Charles Stuart en sy Highland -volgelinge tot gevolg gehad het. Martin Margulies het 'n onderwerp aangepak wat voorheen baie min aandag daaraan geskenk het in terme van gedetailleerde skryfwerk en begrip, veral in die verduideliking van die gedrag van die baie verguisde generaal Cope, wat 'n baie eerliker beoordeling kry.

Die skrywer gee 'n deeglike verduideliking van die agtergrond van die situasie waarin die strydende leërs hulle bevind het en 'n redelik gedetailleerde beskrywing van die Britse leër en hul (hoofsaaklik) teenstanders op die Hoogland. Margulies beklemtoon die sterk kontrasterende kenmerke van die leërs en hoe elkeen sy bates die beste kan benut om voordeel te trek uit die teenstander. Margulies voer aan dat die 'vreesfaktor' en 'etniese vooroordeel van Engelse en Laevelders teen die gevreesde Highland Other' 'n groot rol gespeel het in die oorwinning van die Jacobiete, maar wys daarop dat veteraan -troepe wat in die leër van Cumberland in Culloden teenwoordig was, oneindig beter sou kon hanteer. Wat hy nie verduidelik nie, is waarom hierdie gereelde troepe in Falkirk en Clifton Moor verslaan is.

'N Groot deel van die teks konsentreer op generaal John Cope en Margulies help die absurde mites van lafhartigheid en onbevoegdheid waarmee die ongelukkige generaal opgesaal het, baie. Die skrywer kyk na die verskillende opsies wat Cope voor die geveg oopgemaak het- om in die '15 'suid van die Forth te bly in 'n' Argyll-agtige 'poes, bly by Dalwhinnie om die Jacobiete toegang tot die Laeveld te weier, en kies 'n ander slagveld -en ondersoek noukeurig wat 'n aanneemlike optrede was. Elkeen verlaag hy met slim ontleding en wys daarop dat Cope onder positiewe bevele was, wat sy opsies nog 'n bietjie beperk het.

Die skrywer dra duidelik die idee oor dat Cope se voorbereiding vir die geveg by die keuse van die grond en die plasing van sy troepe met uiterste sorg en professionaliteit plaasgevind het, met behulp van Jakobitiese ooreenkomste om hierdie punt te versterk. Die stryd self is verbasend 'n kort, maar bondige beskrywing- daar is immers net soveel wat geskryf kan word oor 'n geveg wat minder as tien minute geduur het!

Margulies maak gebruik van moderne werke van kredietwaardige owerhede soos Duffy en McLynn om sy eie gevolgtrekkings te maak en die boek bevat 'n indrukwekkende bibliografie. Die grootste swakpunte in hierdie boek vir my was die losstaande skryfstyl wat die skrywer gebruik, sommige van die te vereenvoudigde opinies wat hy gebruik (waarvan ek vroeër genoem het) en die feit dat dit lyk asof hy geloofwaardigheid heg aan die geskrifte van Stuart Reid wie se werke Ek sou vir almal sê om dit ten alle koste te vermy.

Die meeste bronne versterk egter hierdie stuk en daar is 'n goeie aanhalingsbalans van beide leërs en ooggetuieverslae van die privaat soldate tot by die algemene bevelvoerders. Die skrywer is duidelik vyandig teenoor Charles Stuart en spreek sy opinie oor die prins uit sonder om onseker te wees, terwyl die gebreke van lord George Murray uitgewys word. Daar is 'n effense sweem van 'n vyandige gesindheid teenoor die Jakobiete in die algemeen, maar nie voldoende nie, waardeur dit die genot van 'n andersins goeie boek sou verwoes. Beslis die moeite werd om te koop.


Die geveg [wysig | wysig bron]

Kolonel Gardiner -monument

Ondanks die swak toestand van sy kavallerie en artillerie, was Cope vasbeslote om by die Jakobitiese leër betrokke te raak. Hy het 'n goeie intelligensie gehad dat die Jakobitiese leër net minder as 2 000 man tel, meestal saamgestel uit fiks en geharde manne, maar sleg gewapen. Γ ] Sy offisiere het blykbaar geglo dat die rebelle nooit 'n enkele mag, insluitend infanterie en kavallerie, sou aanval nie. Hulle het die inwoners tydens hul optog verseker dat daar geen geveg sou wees nie. Δ ]

Op 20 September het Cope se magte Charles se vooraf bewaker teëgekom. Cope besluit om sy stand te hou en die Jakobitiese leër te betrek. Hy het sy leër opgestel na die suide met 'n moerasagtige sloot aan die voorkant, en die parkmure rondom Preston House beskerm hul regterflank. Hy monteer sy kanon agter die lae wal van die Tranent -kolonie, wat die slagveld oorsteek. Ε ]

Alhoewel die Jakobitiese leër die hoë grond suid van Cope se leër verseker het, was hulle ontsteld oor die natuurlike voordele van Cope se posisie. 'N Frontale hooglading sou in die moerasagtige grond voor die sentrum van die Royalistiese weermag ineengestort word en deur muskiet- en kanonvuur geskiet word. Ζ ] Alhoewel daar baie argumente was tussen die senior Jakobitiese offisiere, was lord George Murray oortuig dat slegs 'n aanval op die oop linkerflank van Cope se weermag 'n kans op sukses was. Jacobite -luitenant Anderson was 'n plaaslike boerseun wat die omgewing goed geken het en Murray oortuig het dat hy 'n uitstekende roete deur die moeraslande ken. Na sy advies het Murray om 16:00 die hele Jacobitiese mag begin beweeg, drie uur voorlangs langs die Riggonhead Defile, oos van Cope se posisie. Η ]

Cope het intussen 'n mate van ooswaartse beweging van die Jakobitiese leër waargeneem namate dit donker geword het, alhoewel hierdie stap die gevolg was van verwarring in die Jakobitiese geledere en dit laat vaar is. ⎖ ] Hy was bang vir 'n aanval teen beide sy flanke, en het sy leër op 'n noord-suidfront aangepas, in die posisie waarin hulle die volgende dag sou veg. Drie maatskappye van Loudon's Highlanders is gedetailleer om die bagasiepark in Cockenzie te bewaak. Ongeveer 100 vrywilligers is ontslaan en die volgende oggend beveel om weer aan te meld, en sodoende die daaropvolgende geveg misgeloop. Cope het ook 'n laaste poging aangewend om 'n paar artilleriste uit die kasteel van Edinburgh te kry. Sowat 'n halfdosyn kanonniers het die kasteel vermom as handelaars verlaat, maar hul gids het verlore geraak. ⎗ ]

Om 'n verrassingsaanval gedurende die nag te voorkom, het Cope vure aan die brand gehou voor sy posisie en nie minder nie as 200 draakies en 300 infanterie as stakkies gepos. Maar teen dagbreek, om 06:00 op 21 September 1745, het Cope se draakonne die skouspel gesien van 1400 Highlanders wat deur die vroeë mis gelaai het en 'wilde oorlogskrete in die Hoogland' maak en met die bloedstollende pype. ' Δ ] Cope se onervare leër het deur pelotonne na sy linkerkant gery om die Highlanders in die gesig te staar, wat uit die ooste opdaag na hul nagmars. Cope het daarin geslaag om 'n kanon op sy regterflank te skarrel. Alhoewel die meeste van sy artilleriste (waarvan die meeste oud was of "invalides") gevlug het, het die twee offisiere wat hulle beheer het, losgebrand sodra die Highlanders binne bereik was. ⎘ ] Ongetwyfeld deur die ligte, onakkurate gewere, het die Highlander -weermag sy leiding voortgesit, maar die sentrum het vasgeloop op moerasagtige terreine, en terwyl hulle vorentoe aanhou, het hulle verskillende snelhede van vooruitgang veroorsaak dat hulle 'n 'V' vorm. Die vlerke aan weerskante het die onervare draakons aan weerskante van die Britse sentrum ontmoet, en die drake het onmiddellik van die veld gevlug.

Dit het die Britse sentrum, met die ervare koninklike infanterie, verlaat na die middel van die "V" aan hul voorkant en die twee onbepaalde vlerke aan weerskante. Die effek van hierdie onbeplande flankerende maneuver het beteken dat die koningsvoetsoldate effektief ingekap is. Hulle het groot slagoffers gely en het meegegee. Die geveg was in minder as 10 minute verby met honderde regeringstroepe wat gedood of gewond is en 1500 gevange geneem is. Cope se bagasie trein by Cockenzie is gevang met slegs 'n enkele skoot. Dit bevat £ 5000, baie muskiete en ammunisie. Die Jakobitiese leër het minder as 100 troepe gesterf of gewond. Die gewonde en gevangenes is op aandrang van prins Charles Stuart die beste moontlike sorg gegee.

Cope het probeer om sy manne bymekaar te kry, maar kon slegs ongeveer tweehonderd agterstanders langs 'n sybaan lei (Johnnie Cope's Road) om te reorganiseer in 'n aangrensende veld, waar hulle verdere betrokkenheid geweier het. Cope en sy aide-de-camp het geen ander keuse gehad as om suidwaarts te reis na Lauder en Coldstream en dan na die veiligheid van Berwick-upon-Tweed, 80 myl daarvandaan, die volgende dag, ⎙ ] Brigadier Fowke veroorsaak skandes deur voor die troepe te kom. ⎚ ] Uit die 2 300 mans in die koninklike leër kon slegs 170 troepe ontsnap.

Kolonel James Gardiner, 'n senior koninklike bevelvoerder wat in die Bankton House naby die gevegstoneel gebly het, is dodelik gewond in 'n laaste heroïese skermutseling wat Sir Thomas Hay van Park insluit, wat aan sy sy geveg het en oorleef het. Colonel Gardiner se noodlottige wonde is toegedien onder 'n wit doringboom waarvan 'n gedeelte vandag in die Naval and Military Museum in Edinburgh is. Gardiner is tot in sy middel gestroop nadat sy besittings deur die Highlanders gebuit is. 'N Bediende het die dodelik gewonde kolonel na die geveg na The Manse in Tranent geneem waar hy gedurende die nag in die arms van die minister se dogter gesterf het. Die kolonel het die onbetwiste held van die dag geword en 'n obelisk vir sy geheue is in die middel van die 19de eeu opgewek. ⎛ ]

'N Steenbok ter nagedagtenis aan diegene wat in die geveg gesterf het, is in 1953 naby die slagveld opgerig en 'n steenkoolbing, met behulp van die oorblyfsels van die steenkoolskaal in die gebied wat as 'n piramide gevorm is, bied nou 'n uitkykpunt vir vandag se besoekers.


Die Prestonpans Tapestry

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Skotse Diaspora Tapisserie: Die volledige amptelike gids met kommentaar

Die tweede uitgawe van die Skotse Diaspora Tapisserieword op 31 Mei 2015 gepubliseer. Dit sal al 305 panele insluit wat nou voltooi is om die tapisserie volledig te maak. Die eerste uitgawe wat in 2014 uitverkoop is, bevat slegs die aanvanklike 167 panele wat deur Homecoming 2014 voltooi is.

Die Scottish Diaspora Tapestry 2nd Edition bring buitengewone verhale terug na Skotland. Tales of Scots ’ prestasies regoor die wêreld nadat hulle hul huise verlaat het om nuwe lewens te bou, dikwels duisende myl daarvandaan. Dit is duidelik dat hulle en hul afstammelinge vandag nooit 'n diep trots op die kultuur van Skotland en die demokratiese ideale daarvan verloor het nie: hulle het hul godsdiens, vaardighede in medisyne, ingenieurswese, plantkunde, onderwys, administrasie, landbou en nog baie meer saamgeneem.

Hundreds of stitchers in twenty five countries have volunteered thousands of hours to craft the panels pictured in this book. In every one of the panels their diaspora tales unfold whether it be of the arrival of tea in India, the creation of a steel works in Corby England, military leadershiop in Sweden and Russia, national parks and tobacco growing in the USA, sugar plantations in Jamaica or the gold rush in Australia. More often than not Scot’s presence around the world stimulated migration to Scotland by the peoples they lived amongst, creating ‘reverse’ diaspora from countries such as Italy, Lithuania, India and Poland.

This ambitious international artwork was conceived and led by the Prestoungrange Arts Festival in Prestonpans as successor/encore to The Battle of Prestonpans Tapestry. The appetite for great embroideries, which that 104 metre tale of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s campaign to regain the throne for the Stuarts in 1745 has stimulated, demanded no less. its creation was deliberately time to coincide with Homecoming 2014. Furthermore, as can be seen in the text of this book, it champions use of the Gaelic language which many who created Scotland’s diaspora spoke when they left its shores. Beathag Mhoireasdan has made all the translations provided.

Historical and image research was undertaken by individuals and communities across the globe and in Prestonpans, to provide the bases for the designs all of which have been created by Andrew Crummy. Leadership amongst the stitchers, line and wool shipping, stretching and backing of the panels, and the gently administration of the project were the roles of Gillian Hart and Yvonne Murphy. Fund raising, exhibitions, publicity, website, facebook and finally editing this volume [in close partnership with John Unwin] have been the responsibility of Arran Johnston and Gordon Prestoungrange.


Agtergrond

The saga of Prince Charles Edward’s campaign in 1745 is as enduring as that of William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy and King of England from 1066. Both sought to recover a nation’s crown that had been snatched away from them by ‘usurpers’.

William had been usurped by Harold despite his knowing full well that King Edward the Confessor had originally bequeathed the throne to William. The Stuart’s direct line of male descent suffered serial usurpation. They were first displaced by the Act of Settlement in the English Parliament because the Prince’s grandfather King James II and VII was a Catholic, his second wife was a Catholic and their male heir had just been born in 1688. There was no appetite in England for Catholicism at that time and thenceforth Catholics were barred from all right to sit upon the throne. The male and Catholic Stuart line was displaced in favour first of the female children of his first marriage to Protestant Anne Hyde. She became Queen Mary II [1689-1694] and her husband, a Dutch Prince, became joint sovereign as William III and II [1689-1702] and they were succeeded by Queen Mary’s younger sister who became Queen Anne [1702-1714]. Thereafter, since Queen Anne had no children, the Electors of Hanover, distant cousins, took the crown as direct descendants of Elizabeth, sister of the Stuart King Charles I whom Parliament had executed in 1649.

There were several bold attempts most particularly in 1689 and 1715 to restore the male Stuart line in the person of James II and VII himself and his son James III and VIII – the Old Pretender. But none came so near to success as the campaign James III and VIII’s son Prince Charles Edward, aka Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender, waged in 1745.

La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde

The success of King William I of England at Hastings in 1066 was at great cost in battle, and the Pope required of William that as penance he build an Abbey part of which survived Henry VIII’s Dissolution and stands to this day on the field where King Harold was slain – at Battle in Sussex. William’s wife, Queen Mathilde went further however to oversee the creation of one of the world’s most famous works of art – the Bayeux Tapestry also known as La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde. Under the supervision of William’s half-brother, Earl of Kent and Bishop Odo of Bayeux [some say it was the inspiration of the late King Harold’s ambitious sister Edith], some 230 feet by twenty inches of the finest embroidery was stitched. It tells the saga of usurpation and William’s ‘just’ invasion to secure his inheritance. It was created [probably at Canterbury] to decorate the walls of Bishop Odo’s newly consecrated Cathedral of Bayeux in 1077 – just 11 years after William’s Victory. The tapestry has never left France and it has only left Bayeux twice and on both occasions to be exhibited in Paris – firstly to celebrate the proclamation of Napoleon I as Emperor in 1804, and secondly to celebrate France’s Liberation in 1944 – which had appropriately arrived through Normandy.

Much more has certainly been written about the ’45 and the role Prince Charles Edward and the Highland Clan Chiefs played in it than of William at Hastings, but until 2010 embroidery on the scale of Bayeux had not been used to tell of his saga. The belief that it could and should be accomplished followed a visit to Bayeux by members of the Battle of Prestonpans 1745 Heritage Trust two years earlier and the town’s growing reputation as an emerging centre for community arts. The arts in myriad forms whether painting, poetry, writing, music, singing, sculpture, story telling or theatre had for a decade been a deliberate vehicle for post-industrial socioeconomic regeneration of Prestonpans under the umbrella of the Prestoungrange Arts Festival Trust. Furthermore, their focus had been the millennium history of the town – since William the Conqueror in fact. In turn the Viking and monastic origins of the town, its early coal mining and salt making, its oyster farming, its glassworks and chemical industries, its potteries, its soap making and brewing, its market gardening and brick making were all honoured in mural art. The town’s sad record of witch persecution in the reigns of Queen Mary and James VI was commemorated in theatre and literature. And from 2006 Prince Charles Edward’s astonishing Victory in the town has been honoured too.

Researching the Prince’s Campaign

It was apparent from the outset to members of the Prestoungrange Arts Festival that appropriate conservation, interpretation and presentation of the Battle of Prestonpans on September 21st 1745 was a matter for the Scottish nation at large. Panners, indwellers of Prestonpans, are but stewards of the legacy. Accordingly a discrete Battle of Prestonpans 1745 Heritage Trust was founded which has always seen its responsibility was to involve the whole nation, building nevertheless on the abundant strengths of the town’s arts community. The occasional remembrance of the battle, at 100th, 200th and 250th anniversaries had been successful but the Trust believed a permanent, living history approach was proper for the 21st century. Accordingly to address that Dream, for that was what we chose to call it, we began with an audit of all that had been essayed across the previous 265 years including the works of artists, the novels of Scott and Stephenson and hundreds more, the poetry and the songs and anthems sung, the films and videos, the local memorials to Colonel Gardiner and the thorn tree beneath which he was mortally wounded, the cairn where many of those who died were finally laid to rest, the BattleBing that stands at Meadow Mill just north of the A1 Great North Road close by the battle site with panoramic views of the entire sequence of manoeuvres by both armies, the contemporary diaries and memoirs, the Proceedings of the Court of Enquiry Field Marshal Wade convened that exonerated Sir John Cope for his crushing defeat, the Trial of Lord Provost Stuart of Edinburgh, and finally the researches and opinions of hundreds of historians across the intervening years. In this latter respect the Trust was especially fortunate that a US human rights lawyer, Martin Margulies, with a holiday home on South Uist close by Eriskay where the Prince first landed on 23rd July 1745, had brought his analytical skills to the same task as the Trustees. In the very same year that the Battle Trust was launched Martin Margulies published the first and only scholarly worked exclusively devoted to, and entitled, The Battle of Prestonpans 1745.

Martin Margulies’s study, and Stephen Lord’s work In Walking With Charlie, which reported how Lord had walked the very route the Prince had taken through the Highlands in 1745, became the prime sources for the events depicted in the The Prestonpans Tapestry as pictured on the pages of this book. But the tapestry also tells of Sir John Cope’s unsuccessful attempt to head off the Prince in the Highlands in July and August and of the barges he took from Aberdeen to Dunbar – too late to save Edinburgh but sufficient to place his army between the Prince and England in mid September and ready for battle at Prestonpans.

Another distinguished scholar has also supported the Trust’s work. With a grant from the Heritage Lottery Dr Tony Pollard and colleagues from Glasgow University’s Battlefield Archaeology Centre have conducted a careful examination of the battle site and been able to suggest that, from artefacts found, the precise location of the initial clash was close by Seton Farm East . They have also been able to evaluate the gravity Waggonway that ran across the subsequent field of battle, carrying coal downhill from Tranent to Cockenzie Harbour – which was indeed Scotland’s first railway.

Living History in Action

A significant programme of annual September re-enactments of known cameos of the battle was instituted in 2007 with the support of appropriately uniformed volunteers from the Czech Republic, Holland, Ireland, Wales, England and of course Scotland itself. The re-enactors dined at Holyroodhouse Palace. In Prestonpans an extensive mural was painted at the town’s primary school. Under the leadership of ‘Colonel’ Adam Watters with the support of the Pipes and Drums of the Royal British Legion, the Alan Breck Regiment of Prestonpans Volunteers has been raised. Martin Margulies became its first ‘Colonel-in-Chief’. A young man precisely the same age as the Prince in 1745, Arran Johnston, has role played the Prince himself since the outset. All the local battle scenes depicted on the tapestry panels have been re-enacted to the ever growing enjoyment of the community of Prestonpans and visitors from afar. On the occasion of The Gathering and Scotland’s Homecoming in 2009 the Trust’s Exhibition of The Princes’ Clans who came out at Prestonpans attracted descendants from as far away as New Zealand.

Theatre has made a major contribution with two plays from Aberlady born BAFTA Winner Andrew Dallmeyer – The Battle of Pots ‘n Pans which toured and went to the Edinburgh Fringe, and Colonel Gardiner – Vice and Virtue. So too has the encouragement of novelists under the local Cuthill Press imprint to create new novels, with Sharon Dabell’s A Backward Glance and Roy Pugh’s The White Rose and the Thorn Tree. Gordon Prestoungrange has also contributed his own novel, A Baron’s Tale, telling of William Grant’s involvement at the time and later as Lord Advocate.

In 2009 the Trust received a grant from the Scottish Arts Council and Awards for All that enabled Greg Dawson-Allen to become Story Teller of the Battle taking the tale to schools across the county and beyond. In the programme of School Visits he was joined by Adam Watters and by local resident Gordon Veitch, twice European BattleGaming Champion. On behalf of the Trust Gordon Veitch has constructed a 10ft x 8 ft topographical representation of Prestonpans and the battlefield in 1745. On the boards by the throw of the dice Cope and the Prince do battle once again and annual championship competitions are arranged.

Designing and Stitching The Prestonpans Tapestry

Andrew Crummy, Convenor of the Prestoungrange Arts Festival for most of the decade, was the principal artist and illustrator of the tapestry. The stitching of the embroidery was led by Dorie Wilkie. The whole was co-ordinated administratively by Gillian Hart who was also the principal photographer. The stitching was shared across Scotland and around the world by more than 200 volunteers each of whom has their tag in the bottom right hand corner of their panel. Recruiting the stitchers was undertaken in the initial stages by Sylvia Burgess. Webmaster was Gordon Prestoungrange.

Andrew Crummy is an accomplished artist in many media and at an early stage in his life worked as an illustrator. As such he was not daunted by the challenge to create all the artwork for the many panels to a consistent style. But what style to choose? He began with the famous 18th century cartoon of Cope confirming his own defeat to Lord Kerr at Berwick on Tweed and developed that. He created black pencil sketches which were then subject to ‘sign off’ wherever possible in the communities across Scotland where the Prince and Cope travelled. He was determined that each locality should make its own contribution, and tell its own version of the events depicted. This was never more important than when several versions were abroad, such as where precisely at Glenfinnan was the Prince’s standard raised and by whom? Or which rose bush at Fassfern was the origin of the white cockade? Equally it was important to seek to find the 18th century exteriors of buildings many since demolished such as the Netherbow Port and Preston House derelict as at High Bridge and Ruthven Barracks or extensively altered such as Blair Castle, Balhaldie House, Kinlochmoidart House, the Salutation Inn in Perth, the Cottage at Duddingston and Tranent Church. To assist all this focussed book and internet research and seemingly endless cross-examination of Martin Margulies lasted for fully nine months. Architect Gareth Bryn-Jones was deeply involved, on occasions ‘estimating’ how a building might have appeared mid-18th century. Field visits around the Highlands were arranged in village halls and centres, most particularly at Eriskay, Arisaig, Borrodale, Glenfinnan, High Bridge, Ruthven, Blair Castle and Dunblane.

Next there was the question of which wools to use to create a tapestry that could last a thousand years and on which linen to embroider it. Andrew Crummy knew he wanted subdued Scottish hues, but the red coats of the Hanoverian government’s troops were often in danger of dominating the panels. Panel stitchers were also invited to networking workshops and ‘problem clinics’, with senior stitchers across the country assisting closer to the work in hand. A core team led by Dorie Wilkie also addressed the challenge of sewing the panels together since each is embroidered separately and the most appropriate backing for the linen and how best to hang it in exhibition – for which Velcro was adopted.

The question was sometimes raised as to whether such a project could be accomplished in just 24 months from start to exhibition. The Trust took the view of Adam Smith that, so long as there was a division of labour, it could. But with post-Smithsonian managerial insight, the questions raised by the logistics of supporting such widely dispersed stitchers and the eventual challenge of a touring exhibition were addressed by a special task group. Nodes on the critical path were identified and resourced as appropriate to avoid bottlenecks.

Why stop at the Prince’s Victory in Prestonpans?

Unlike William I of England, the Prince’s campaign was not ultimately crowned with success. At Culloden the Prince and the Highland Clans were defeated. The Hanoverian government went on the ensure that the loyalty and support on which the Prince had been able to depend for his success were destroyed for ever. At Westminster they even banned the wearing of the tartan and playing of the pipes. Yet paradoxically in so doing they created the abiding and romanticised myth of the Prince, and provided a touchstone for much that is universally recognised as Scottish about Scotland today – not least those ‘illegal’ tartans and the pipes.

The National Trust for Scotland has most recently created a major new visitor centre at Culloden that tells the comprehensive and turbulent Jacobite story. It began when Henry VIII’s sister married the Scottish King and shows how this eventually led by male descent on the death of Queen Elizabeth I to the ascension to the throne of England of Scotland’s then ruling King James VI, the son of Mary Queen of Scots. His son, Charles I, lost his head to Parliament, and following the interregnum with the two Cromwells as Lord Protector, King Charles II then his brother James II and VII ruled before the ‘Glorious Revolution’ saw James abdicate and flee into exile. It continues with the tales of the Uprisings from 1689 till 1746 and then to the end of the lives of Prince Charles Edward and his younger brother Cardinal Prince Henry in Rome. In so doing, in telling the whole story, the significance of the Prince’s campaign to Victory at Prestonpans all too frequently gets lost amidst myriad other details. In Prestonpans it is our particular ambition to ensure that does not happen.

It is our conviction and belief in Prestonpans that the Prince’s quite extraordinary campaign leading to his Victory on September 21st 1745 can be and should be exemplified in its own right.

A young man of 24 turning 25 arrived with 7 supporters in the Outer Hebrides full of Hope and Ambition. From that seemingly improbable start, advised to “Go Home” immediately on arrival, he wrote letters from Borrodale House, raised his Standard at Glenfinnan after less than a month to be joined first by Cameron of Lochiel and then a further 2000 Clansmen. He took Edinburgh some eight weeks after landing. He had Scotland at his feet and defeated Cope at Prestonpans in an astonishing encounter that lasted no more than fifteen minutes.

It is our assertion in Prestonpans today that Prince Charles Edward set an example every young person should seek to follow in their lives. He identified what he believed to be right, he committed himself to it completely, he motivated older and wiser men than he to join him, and he achieved Victory. The fact that the later stages of his campaign failed was no justification for not striving for what he believed to be right. True there is a moral to the story in that his timing was right to begin, and would have been right to have pressed ahead from Derby even though the promised support from France was delayed. But once he had turned back from Derby there was never any hope he might have succeeded. So timing and retaining the initiative are perhaps the abiding lessons to be internalised.

Hope, Ambition & Victory are synonymous with Prestonpans – then and now

So to the final question asked. It is one which, if The Trust had worried unduly about its answer would have ensured embroidering the tapestry never began.

Where is our soon to be consecrated cathedral of Bayeux provided by the Earl of Kent Bishop Odo, half-brother to the Bastard Duke, the conquering King William I? Where will ons display The Prestonpans Tapestry when completed? Will the Lord provide?

The Trust’s answer is both straightforward and ambitious. We expect it to hang in the future Prestonpans Living History Centre which is not yet constructed nor even funded. But when it is, as it surely will be, The Prestonpans Tapestry will be seen as one of its key exhibits that will bring thousands of visitors, young children in particular, to Prestonpans to hear and learn exactly what the 24 turning 25 year old Prince achieved in just eight weeks.

Battle Trustee, architect and artist Gareth Bryn-Jones has worked with structural engineers and internationally acclaimed interior designers haleysharpe to explore and present how the Living History Centre can ideally be created as an extension of the BattleBing already in place. There are several alternative locations such as the town’s extensive Heritage Museum which the Trust is also considering. In the meantime however, it is the Trust’s intention to ‘parade’ The Prestonpans Tapestry far and wide, anywhere and everywhere audiences are interested to hear its message of Youthful Hope and Ambition and just precisely what Victory can be achieved.


Contents

After a French invasion of England during the War of the Austrian Succession in early 1744 was planned but not materialized and the Jacobites in Scotland and England were also reluctant to rise, Charles Edward Stuart equipped two French warships at his own expense and landed on May 25. July 1745 with seven companions near Moidart in the Scottish highlands, in order to start a revolt of the Jacobites, to convince the French to support him and to regain the throne of his father. At Glenfinnan he set up his standard on August 19th. Despite the great misgivings of the Jacobites, members of the highland clans Cameron , Macdonald and MacLean joined him. With about 3,000 men he marched into the capital Edinburgh on September 17, 1745 . The garrison consisting of two dragoons fled hastily and left the city to Prince Charles. Only the fortress Edinburgh Castle was held by British soldiers.

General Sir John Cope , Commander in Chief of Government Forces in Scotland, was with four infantry regiments in Aberdeen . His troops were transferred by ship to Dunbar to retake the capital from the south, teamed up with the Dragoons and marched along the coast road towards Edinburgh. In total, his army consisted of 2,300 men with six guns. Since the best British troops of the line were in Belgium because of the War of the Austrian Succession , he only had inexperienced and poorly trained soldiers who were hardly fit for combat. Prince Charles' highlanders, on the other hand, were undisciplined but highly motivated.


Alan Breck’s Regiment Dined with its Colonel-in-Chief … and more …

The Alan Breck Prestonpans Volunteers were established, with Colonel Agitant Adam Watters, by Warrant from ‘HRH Prince Charles Edward Stuart’ at Holyroodhouse Palace on September 21st 2007. The Regiment’s responsibility is to provide support at all re-enactments to the visiting groups. To date these have included the Glenbuckets, Charles Edward Stuart’s Derby Regiment, the 77th Montgomeries from the Czech Republic and Lace Wars. The Alan Breck’s Captain Cannonier is Gareth Bryn-Jones. As always, the sun set magnificently across the Forth.

The second ceremonial dinner had some 50 members and guests in attendance and was once again welcomed by pipers from the Regiment’s own Pipes [aka the Royal British Legion in Prestonpans]. During the evening contributions were also forthcoming from members of the Regimemnt – Hamish Moore on the small pipes, Coreen Scott with song, John Lindsay with poetry and as the concluding highlight, a performance of Andrew Dallmeyer’s new play: Colonel Gardiner: Vice and Virtue. Set on Gardiner’s deathbed at Tranent Manse the day after the Camerons were involved in their skirmish with the redcoats, Andrew and fellow actor Iain James Monteath gave masterly performances which were greatly appreciated.

Colonel Martin Margulies, in his address to the Regiment, described his recent involvement with the major Battle Trust project to create a Tapestry with 79 x 1 metre wide panels telling the Prince’s story, which he had helped to launch in Eriskay earlier in the week. He also congratulated Trustee Kristine Cunningham for the excellent Exhibition of The Prince’s Clans who came out at Prestonpans in 1745, which members had the opportunity to view during the evening.

Regiment Looks Forward to September Re-enactments

The Annual Dinner is the opportunity to take particular note of the upcoming September re-enactments Septemebr 18/ 19th, and this year to reflect also on the re-enactment with the assistance of the Glenbuckets earlier in the day at Tranent Churchyard – for the most especial benefit of the Kiwi Camerons who had been in attendance.

Plans are also in hand for 2010 to initiate, as may be possible, re-enactments along the Prince’s route in July/ September 1745 as the completed Tapestry is paraded to all communities involved.


Cadell’s 1898 Book on Sir John Cope back as reprint .. buy here!

There have been many excellent books and monographs written over the past 263 years on the topic since Battle was waged in The Pans. Many of them are now extremely hard to come by and very often have become fragile in their advanced years. As such, the Trust resolved to re-print some of the best even adding a just a little extra on the occasion as may be possible.

How Good or Bad was Johnnie Cope?

For the first re-print title, the Trust has choosen to address the conflicting perceptions of the role that Cope played on September 20th and 21st 1745. In The Pans and probably widely across Scotland, Colonel Gardiner was seen as the heroic redcoat Hanoverian figure and General Sir John Cope as an incompetent. We lampoon Cope as we sing Hey Johnnie Cope and we have a grand obelisk to the Colonel here.

Gardiner was of course a local land owner and his home at Bankton House has lately been carefully restored. Everyone hereabouts has a thorntree taken as a cutting from the one beneath which the Colonel was mortally wounded! Incidentally, the Trust has bold plans for the cultural restitution of that portion of the remaining stump of the original thorntree placed in the care of the Military Museum in 1932 but now care-lessly locked in a warehouse in Leith.

But most of us had no idea that a local boy from the Cadell dynasty in Cockenzie, who made good in the Crimea and the Madras artillery becoming General Sir Robert Cadell, had made a substantial effort to get public justice for Cope. Nor that although he died before it was published in 1898 his brother Thomas, who incidentally won the VC in the Indian Mutiny, saw the work to its conclusion under the title Sir John Cope and the Rebellion of 1745.

Better still than this powerful local link, since the Cadell’s were long connected as industrialists with both the waggonway and the potteries, and he lived in Cockenzie House where Cope had kept his money baggage which the Prince was subsequently to capture ….. the book is a compelling and engaging read. It’s very well written.

When the Trust resolved it should be reprinted, all that was needed was a copy of the book which since none seemed to be available on the internet meant finding someone who had a private copy. And even when that was solved in the person of Martin Margulies, the author of the recent title Battle of Prestonpans 1745, Tempus Books 2007, it was found that the insert map of the battle lines was missing. So a second private source in Stephen Lord, webmaster of the 1745 Association, was traced where the map was still with his copy.

… and then we found a portrait of Sir Robert Cadell

At this moment, purely by chance because of the interest aroused by the Trust’s website here, it was mooted that a portrait of Sir Robert Cadell was to be found in the National Portrait Gallery of Scotland. Alas it was not but a web search revealed that an American, Mark Ocepek living in Florida who collected military portraits, had been gifted just such a work by his father who had served in the UK. That portrait with Mark’s permission now graces the rear cover of the reprint whilst the map itself acts as the main cover design and of course takes a place of honour inside the rear cover.

Finally, it seemed appropriate to ask Martin Margulies for a new Introduction to the book which could give him the opportunity to correct any errors there might be in the light of research since 1898.

Finally … we had W Simpson’s painting too

All thus seemed ready for the printer when into the door of The Gothenburg in Prestonpans where the Battle Trust is housed came an anonymous gift of a copy of Horsburgh’s engraving of W Simpson’s painting of the Prince at Holyrood reading Cope’s Proclamation that his head was worth £30,000 and then throwing his own gauntlet to the ground. That image was destined for the frontispiece.

Turning this into the finished reprint was accomplished from France, of which one can be sure The Prince would have approved, by John Unwin, printer to Burke’s Peerage & Gentry which has hosted the Prestoungrange University Press series of publications since 2006.

If you would prefer, you can mail a cheque or banker’s draft for £19.95 plus postage and packing of £3 = £22.95 [overseas alas it’s + £9 airmail or £5 by sea] payable to The Battle Trust to The Prestoungrange Gothenburg, 227 High Street, Prestonpans EH32 9BE, Scotland. Or simply walk in off the High Street during Opening Hours which exclude wintertime Mondays.

P.S. Next Stop Colonel Gardiner …

Next stop for the Trustees is to get an equally accomplished appraisal of the true Colonel Gardiner, pace Dr Doddrige. The task is in hand with playright Andrew Dallmeyer.


Kyk die video: Battle of Culloden #2 16 April 1746 - Jacobites vs Great Britain (Augustus 2022).