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Verdrag van Blois, Oktober 1505

Verdrag van Blois, Oktober 1505



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Verdrag van Blois, Oktober 1505

Die Verdrag van Blois van Oktober 1505 was die tweede van twee Verdrae van Blois wat die vrede herstel het na die Tweede Italiaanse Oorlog van 1499-1503.

Die Tweede Italiaanse Oorlog het in twee helftes verdeel. In die eerste geval het Louis XII Milaan suksesvol binnegeval en daarna 'n poging van die afgesette hertog Ludovico Sforza om die stad terug te neem, afgeweer. In die tweede val die Franse en Spaanse gesamentlik die koninkryk van Napels binne, voordat hulle uitval oor die verdeling van die buit. Die Spaanse het as die oorwinnaars uit die stryd getree en sleutelgevegte by Cerignola (26 April 1503) en die Garigliano (28-29 Desember 1503) gewen. Die Franse is uit Napels gedwing, wat vir die res van die tydperk van die Italiaanse oorloë onder Spaanse bewind gebly het.

Na hierdie nederlae was Louis gereed vir vrede. In September 1504 het hy 'n eerste verdrag van Blois, met die keiser Maximilian, ooreengekom. Dit was gebaseer op 'n huwelik tussen Louis se dogter Claude, die erfgenaam van Bretagne, en Maximilian se kleinseun Charles, die toekomstige Charles V. Louis het ingestem om die hertogdomme van Milaan en Bourgondië as haar bruidskat te gee. In ruil daarvoor het Maximilian ingestem om Louis as hertog van Milaan te belê.

In April 1505 stel Louis voor om Napels by hierdie bruidskat te voeg. Napels was sedert 1503 in Spaanse hande, so dit sou 'n manier gewees het om die status quo te aanvaar sonder om sy eie eis amptelik te laat vaar.

Die oorlog is uiteindelik amptelik beëindig deur die tweede Verdrag van Blois, van Oktober 1505, waarin Louis vrede gemaak het met Ferdinand II van Aragon. Destyds sou Ferdinand op die punt staan ​​om met Germaine van Foix te trou, waarskynlik in die hoop om 'n eie erfgenaam te produseer om hom in Aragon, Sicilië en Napels te volg. Louis het ingestem om Germaine Napels as deel van haar bruidskat te gee, maar as die nuwe egpaar nie 'n erfgenaam sou kry nie, sou die eis na Frankryk terugkeer. Ferdinand het ingestem om Louis 1 000 000 dukate in vergoeding te betaal.

Nie een van die twee verdrae van Blois het werklik iets opgelewer nie. In 1506 het openbare druk gehelp om Louis te oortuig om met sy dogter Claude te trou met Francis van Angouléme, die erfgenaam van Frankryk. Dit beteken dat die verdrag van 1504 nietig was, maar ook verseker het dat Bretagne 'n permanente deel van Frankryk sou word.

Die verdrag van 1505 duur nogal langer, maar in 1516 sterf Ferdinand sonder om 'n erfgenaam saam met Germaine te kry. As gevolg hiervan herleef die Franse hul aanspraak op Napels, maar slegs vir 'n paar maande. In 1516 het die nuwe Franse koning, Francis I, die Verdrag van Noyon ooreengekom met die ewe nuwe Karel I van Spanje (die toekomstige Karel V). Die Franse het weereens ingestem om hul aanspraak op Napels te laat vaar, alhoewel hulle 'n huweliksalliansie met Charles gehad het, en weer het die huwelik nie plaasgevind nie. Die Franse het dus die grootste deel van die tydperk van die Italiaanse oorloë hul aanspraak op Napels aangedring en het selfs 'n aantal dikwels rampspoedige veldtogte in die suide van Italië geveg, maar het nooit weer beheer oor die gebied gekry nie.


Die Verdrag van Londen is in 1518 onderteken en staan ​​ook bekend as die Verdrag van Universele Vrede. Alle Europese lande, behalwe Islamitiese Turkye, is na Londen genooi (Rusland was destyds beskou as deel van Asië). beëindig dus oorlogvoering tussen die state van Europa. In Oktober 1518 is dit begin tussen verteenwoordigers van  England   en  France. Dit is toe bekragtig deur ander   Europese en#160 nasies en die   pous. 160 Die ooreenkoms het 'n verdedigingsliga tot stand gebring op grond van die volgende:

Die voorwaardes wat aangegaan word, verklaar met 'n aktiewe buitelandse beleid om nie net 'n standpunt van nie-aggressie te verbind nie, maar ook om te beloof om oorlog te voer teen enige staat wat die bepalings van die verdrag verbreek. Destyds word beskou as 'n triomf vir Thomas Wolsey en Henry VII 160 om sy posisie in Europese politieke kringe aansienlik te vergroot, in die mate dat Engeland as 'n derde grootmoondheid beskou word.


Inhoud

In 1499 sluit Louis 'n alliansie aan met die Republiek Venesië en Switserse huursoldate en val die hertogdom Milaan binne op voorwaarde dat die Lombardiese gebiede tussen Venesië en Frankryk verdeel word. Pouslike steun is verleen vir die veldtog in ruil vir Lodewyk XII se militêre steun vir die Romagna -veldtogte van Cesare Borgia. Ludovico Sforza het, nadat hy self 'n leër van Switserse huursoldate gehuur het, na die stad teruggekeer om dit te vind beset deur Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, wat hom by die Franse Ludovico se leër aangesluit het, word gou verstrooi, en hy is self in die gevangenis in Frankryk.

Bang vir die nuwe toenadering tussen Lodewyk XII en die Italiaanse moondhede bied Ferdinand II van Aragon 'n alliansie aan teen Frederik IV van Napels wat Ferdinand II van Aragon as 'n buite -egtelike erfgenaam van die Napolitaanse titel beskou het by die dood, sonder direkte manlike erfgename, van sy neef Ferdinand II van Napels. Louis XII en Ferdinand II het op 11 November 1500 tot hierdie bepalings ingestem en pous Alexander VI, nominale oorheerser van die Koninkryk Napels, het op 25 Junie 1501 sy goedkeuring verleen. ΐ ]

In 1501 neem Franse en Aragonese leërs Napels in beslag. Die twee konings het nou gestry oor die verdeling van die buit Ferdinand se aandrang dat hy erken moet word as koning van beide Napels en Sicilië het spoedig gelei tot oorlog tussen Frankryk en Spanje. Toe die konflik weer in die tweede helfte van 1502 uitbreek, het Don Gonzalo de Cordoba nie numeriese meerderwaardigheid gehad nie, maar kon hy die lesse wat in 1495 geleer is, ook toepas teen die Helvetiese infanterie, die Spaanse terceros, wat gewoond was aan die einde van die geveg na die Reconquista, het sommige van hierdie wanbalans aangespreek. Α ] Cordoba het aanvanklik die ontmoeting met die vyand vermy in die hoop om die Franse in selfvoldaanheid te lok. Later word die konflik gekenmerk deur kort skermutselings. Tydens hierdie veldtog is 'n Franse ridder, il La Motte, deur Spaanse magte gevange geneem en later hierdie tyd as gyselaar gebruik om sy beroemde Challenge of Barletta op 13 Februarie 1503 te verklaar. Franse ridders, sowel as 'n beter voorraadlyn wat deur die Spaanse vloot gewaarborg is, het Cordoba die oorhand gegee teen die Franse, wat 'n nederlaag op Cerignola (April 1503) en Garigliano (Desember 1503) gely het. Lodewyk XII, gedwing om Napels te verlaat, het hom na Lombardy teruggetrek.


GESKIEDENIS VAN BLOIS

Alhoewel Blois van antieke oorsprong is, word die eerste keer in die 6de eeu die eerste keer duidelik deur Gregory van Tours genoem, en die stad het in die 9de eeu 'n mate van opvallendheid gekry, toe dit die setel geword het van 'n kragtige graafskap met 'Blisum castrum' («Le château de Blois»). In 1171 was Blois die plek van 'n beskuldiging van bloed laster teen die Joodse gemeenskap wat daartoe gelei het dat 31 Jode (volgens ongeveer 40) doodgebrand is. [1] In 1196 verleen graaf Marie voorregte aan die inwoners van die stad, 'n gemeente wat gedurende die Middeleeue bestaan ​​het, waarskynlik uit hierdie tyd dateer. Die tellings van die Châtillon -lyn was meer gereeld in Blois as hul voorgangers, en die oudste dele van die kasteel (uit die 13de eeu) is deur hulle gebou. In 1429 maak Joan of Arc Blois haar basis vir operasies vir die verligting van Orleans. Na sy ballingskap in Engeland, Karel van Orleans het in 1440 in die kasteel gaan woon, waar sy seun, daarna Louis XII, in 1462 gebore is. In die 16de eeu was Blois dikwels die oord van die Franse hof. Die Verdrag van Blois, wat die Italiaanse oorloë tydelik gestaak het, is daar in 1504-1505 onderteken.

Die inwoners van die stad het baie Calviniste ingesluit, en in 1562 en 1567 was dit die toneel van stryd tussen hulle en die ondersteuners van die Katolieke kerk. In 1576 en 1588 het Henri III, koning van Frankryk, Blois gekies as die ontmoetingsplek van die state-generaal, en in 1588 het hy die moorde op Henry, hertog van Guise, en sy broer, Louis, aartsbiskop van Reims en kardinaal, in die Château, waar hul dood kort daarna gevolg is deur die van die koningin-moeder, Catherine de 'Medici. Van 1617 tot 1619 woon Marie de 'Medici, die vrou van koning Henri IV, verban uit die hof, op die kasteel, wat kort daarna deur koning Lodewyk XIII aan sy broer Gaston, hertog van Orleans, gegee is wat daar gewoon het tot sy dood in 1660.

Die bisdom, gevestig in die Blois -katedraal, dateer uit die einde van die 17de eeu. In 1814 was Blois vir 'n kort rukkie die setel van die regentskap van Marie Louise, vrou van Napoleon I.

Blois is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog beset deur die Duitse leër, wat die stad op 18 Junie 1940 ingeneem het. Die stad is gedurende die laaste twee weke van Augustus 1944 deur Amerikaanse soldate bevry. By albei geleenthede het die stad verskeie dae van bombardemente weerstaan. .

Meer inligting oor die geskiedenis van Blois op die wikipedia: Blois  !


II. DIE aanval hernu: 1496 en ndash1505

Maximilian, & ldquoKing of the Romans & rdquo & mdashi.e., Van die Duitsers & mdash verskaf 'n tussenspel. Hy skrik vir die gedagte dat sy groot vyand, Frankryk, versterk moet word, en omring hom, deur Italië te verower, het hy gehoor hoe ryk en regverdig en swak daardie land is, nog nie 'n land nie, maar slegs 'n skiereiland. Hy het ook aansprake op Italië gehad, tegnies was die stede Lombardy nog steeds keiserlike leen, en hy, hoof van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk, sou dit wettiglik kon gee aan wie hy wou, en Lodovico het hom, met floriene en 'n ander Bianca, nie omgekoop nie op hom die hertogdom van Milaan? Boonop het baie Italianers hom genooi: sowel Lodovico as Venesië doen 'n beroep op hom (1496) om Italië binne te gaan en hulle te help om 'n bedreigde herhaling van die Franse aanval te weerstaan. Maximilian het gekom, met 'n handjievol troepe Venetiaanse subtiliteit het hom oorreed om Livorno, die laaste uitlaatklep van Florence aan die Middellandse See, aan te val, en so 'n verswakking van 'n Florence nog steeds verbonde aan Frankryk en altyd meeding met Venesië. Maximilian & rsquos-veldtog het misluk deur onvoldoende koördinering en ondersteuning, en hy het slegs 'n wyse man na Duitsland teruggekeer (Desember 1496).

In 1498 word die hertog van Orl & eacuteans Louis XII. As kleinseun van Valentina Visconti het hy nie die eise van sy familie aan Milaan vergeet nie en as neef van Charles VIII het hy die eise van die Anjous aan Napels geërf. Op die dag van sy kroning aanvaar hy onder meer die titels van hertog van Milaan, koning van Napels en Sicilië en keiser van Jerusalem. Om sy pad skoon te maak, hernu hy 'n vredesverdrag met Engeland en sluit hy 'n ander met Spanje. Deur haar Cremona en die lande oos van die Adda te belowe, lok hy Venesië om 'n alliansie met hom te sluit om die oorlog in stryd te voer met die hertog van Milaan, Lodovico Sforza, en teen almal behalwe die Here Pous van Rome, vir die doel om die mees Christelike koning en die hertogdom van Milaan te herstel as sy regmatige en ou erfenis. & rdquo 4 'N Maand later (Maart 1499) het hy 'n ooreenkoms met die Switserse kantons aangegaan om hom soldate te voorsien in ruil vir 'n jaarlikse subsidie ​​van 20 000 floriene. In Mei het hy Alexander VI in die alliansie gebring deur aan Caesar Borgia 'n Franse bruid van koninklike bloed, die hertogdom van Valentinois en 'n pand te gee om die pouslike state vir die pousdom te verower. Lodovico voel hulpeloos teen so 'n koalisie. Hy vlug na drie weke na Oostenryk toe sy hertogdom op 6 Oktober 1499 in Venesië en Frankryk verdwyn.

Die hele Italië behalwe Venesië en Napels was nou onder Franse oorheersing of invloed. Mantua, Ferrara en Bologna het haastig ingedien. Florence het vasgehou aan haar alliansie met Frankryk as haar enigste beskerming teen Caesar Borgia. Ferdinand van Spanje, hoewel hy so na aan die Aragonese dinastie in Napels was, het 'n geheime kompakte by Granada (11 November 1500) met die verteenwoordigers van Louis aangegaan vir die gesamentlike verowering van die hele Italië suid van die pouslike state. Alexander VI, wat Franse hulp nodig gehad het om hierdie state te verower, het saamgewerk deur 'n bul uit te reik wat Federigo III van Napels afgesit het en die verdeling van die koninkryk tussen Frankryk en Spanje bevestig het.

In Julie 1501 het 'n Franse leër onder die Skot Stuart d & rsquoAubigny, Caesar Borgia en Lodovico & rsquos die verraderlike gunsteling, Francesco di San Severino, deur Italië na Capua opgeruk, dit geneem en geplunder en na Napels gevorder. Federigo, deur almal laat vaar, het die stad aan die Franse oorgegee in ruil vir 'n gemaklike toevlugsoord en lewensrente in Frankryk. Intussen el gran capit & aacuten, Gonzalo de C & oacuterdoba, het Calabrië en Apulië gewen vir Ferdinand en Isabella en Federigo en sy seun Ferrante, wat Taranto oorgegee het nadat hy deur Gonzalo sy vryheid belowe is, is op versoek van Ferdinand as 'n gevangene na Spanje gestuur. Toe die Spaanse weermag met die Franse in aanraking kom op die grense tussen Apulië en die Abruzzi, ontstaan ​​daar geskille oor die grenslyn tussen die twee diefstalle en tot Alexander & rsquos -verligting gaan Spanje en Frankryk oorlog voer oor die presiese verdeling van die buit (Julie 1502 ). As die Here nie 'n onenigheid tussen Frankryk en Spanje getref het nie, en rdquo gesê het dat die pous aan die Venesiaanse ambassadeur gesê het, en waar moet ons wees? & rdquo 5

Die lotgevalle van die nuwe oorlog was 'n tyd lank die Franse gunstig. D & rsquoAubigny & rsquos -magte het bykans die hele Suid -Italië oorrompel, en Gonzalo het sy troepe in die versterkte stad Barletta toegesluit. Daar het 'n middeleeuse voorval 'n somber oorlog opgehelder (13 Februarie 1503). Die bevelvoerder van 'n Italiaanse regiment in die Spaanse weermag het woedend geword deur die opmerking van 'n Franse offisier dat die Italianers 'n vroulike en onheilspellende volk was, en daag dertien Fransmanne uit om teen dertien Italianers te veg. Daar is ooreengekom dat die oorlog onderbreek word en dat die vyandige leërs as toeskouers gestaan ​​het terwyl die ses-en-twintig stryders baklei het totdat al dertien Fransmanne deur wonde gestrem is en gevange geneem is. Gonzalo, met die Spaanse ridderlikheid wat gereeld met die Spaanse wreedheid gekonfronteer het, het uit sy eie sak die lospryse van die gevangenes betaal en dit na hul leër teruggestuur. 6

Die voorval herstel die moreel van die groot kaptein en die rsquos -troepe wat hulle uit Barletta uitgereik het, die belegers verslaan en versprei en die Franse weer by Cerignola verslaan. Op 16 Mei 1503 het Gonzalo sonder verset Napels binnegegaan en word hy deur die bevolking geprys, waarop altyd staatgemaak kan word om die oorwinnaar te toegejuig. Lodewyk XII stuur 'n ander leër teen Gonzalo, hy ontmoet dit op die oewer van die Garigliano en stuur dit (29 Desember 1503) in die rigting waarin Piero de & rsquo Medici, saam met die Franse vlug, verdrink is. Gonzalo beleër nou Gaeta, die laaste vesting van die Franse in Suid -Italië. Hy bied hulle ruim voorwaardes aan, wat hulle gou aanvaar het (1 Januarie 1504) en die getrouheid waarmee hy hierdie voorwaardes nagekom het nadat die Franse ontwapen was, het hulle gelei deur 'n so groot skending van presedente & mdashto noem hom le gentil capitaine. 7 Deur die verdrag van Blois (1505) het Louis 'n bietjie gesig gered deur sy Napolitaanse regte toe te ken aan sy familielid Germaine de Foix, wat egter met die weduwee Ferdinand sou trou en Napels as bruidskat na hom toe gebring het. Die krone van Napels en Sicilië is bygevoeg by die wat reeds op die onversadigbare kop van Ferdinand en rsquos was, en daarna, tot 1707, het die koninkryk van Napels 'n appanade van Spanje gebly.


Germaine de Foix, koningin van Aragon, Napels, Sardinië, Navarra en Sicilië en Vicereine van Valencia

Ferdinand van Aragon was vyf en dertig jaar getroud met Isabella van Kastilië. Toe Isabella sterf, was die slinkse koning in die vroeë vyftigerjare en het hy om politieke redes besluit dat hy 'n nuwe bruid wou hê, al het hy Isabella belowe dat hy nooit weer sou trou nie. Hy het na die Franse gesoek na 'n bruid in 'n poging om 'n alliansie te sluit wat sy skoonseun Philip van Boergondië sou irriteer. Dit was net so dat koning Lodewyk XII 'n tiener -niggie gehad het, Germaine de Foix, wat 'n goeie kandidaat was om die nuwe vrou vir die Aragonese koning te wees.

Germaine is gebore in 1488, die dogter van Johannes van Foix, Burggraaf van Narbonne en seun van koningin Eleanor van Navarra. Germaine se ma was Marie van Orléans, 'n suster van koning Lodewyk XII van Frankryk. Germaine en haar broer Gaston het in die gesinshuis grootgeword totdat hulle wees gelaat is in 1492. Daarna het hulle in die koninklike huis gaan woon onder die toesig van Louis se koningin, Anne van Bretagne. Terwyl hy daar was, het Germaine 'n opleiding in die klassieke gekry. Anne was baie gretig om voordelige huwelike te maak vir die jong dames in haar sorg.

In 1500 is koning Vladislas II van Hongarye en Bohemen onlangs geskei en het geen erfgename gehad nie. Hy stuur gesante na Frankryk om 'n alliansie met koning Louis aan te gaan, wat hy hoop om te sluit met 'n nuwe huwelik met 'n jong vrou wat kinders kan baar. Die gesante het na Hongarye teruggekeer met geverfde portrette van Germaine en 'n familielid, Anne van Foix-Candale, wat ook in die sorg van koningin Anne was. Anne het die portretstryd gewen en koningin van Hongarye geword, wat Germaine vrygelaat het om elders te trou.

Germaine was op die punt om Juana van Castilië te groet toe sy in November 1501 die koninklike kasteel van Blois besoek het en ook haar ligte verversings bedien op die aand van haar aankoms. Germaine was saam met koningin Anne op toer toe haar huwelik met Ferdinand beskou is as deel van die onderhandelinge oor die Verdrag van Blois. Isabella van Kastilië is laat in 1504 oorlede en Ferdinand het haar belowe dat hy nie weer sou trou nie. Hy was drie-en-vyftig en kroniekskrywers van die tyd het gesê dat hy wellustig is, maar steeds opvallend. Hy het 'n lip gekry sedert hy 'n tand verloor het, en hy het 'n effense uitslag op sy linkeroog gekry. Maar hy was ryk en nog steeds 'n waardige vangs. Die Heilige Romeinse keiser Maximiliaan het Ferdinand probeer wegstuur van 'n Franse huwelik en het hom sy keuse van edele maagdprinsesse uit Duitsland aangebied.

Ferdinand het aan sy onderdane gesê dat hy weer moet trou om 'n erfgenaam te word. Dit was nie waar nie, want hy het drie jong dogters, drie kleinseuns en vier kleindogters gehad wat in aanmerking kom om sy troon te erf. Dit was 'n blatante poging om mededingende erfgename van sy volwasse kinders te skep en die koninkryk van Aragon van Castilië te skei. Dit was veral skadelik vir sy dogter Juana wat die troon van Aragon sou erf. Dit het ook sy dogter Katherine se status in die gedrang gebring. Sy kwyn in armoede in Engeland na die dood van haar man Arthur Tudor, prins van Wallis. As haar posisie in die erfopvolging in Kastilië verminder word, het dit haar kans verminder om met prins Henry van Engeland of enige ander man te trou.

Ferdinand se huwelik met Germaine was deel van die bepalings van die tweede Verdrag van Blois wat op 12 Oktober 1505 gesluit is. Die bepalings van die verdrag was 'n poging om die vrede te herstel na die Tweede Italiaanse Oorlog van 1499-1503, wat twee verskillende fases gehad het. In die eerste geval het koning Lodewyk XII Milaan suksesvol binnegeval en daarna 'n poging van die afgesette hertog Ludovico Sforza om die stad terug te neem, afgeweer. In die tweede helfte val die Franse en Spaanse gesamentlik die koninkryk van Napels binne, maar veg toe oor die verdeling van die buit. Die Spaanse het as die oorwinnaars in hierdie geveg uit die stryd getree en belangrike gevegte in April en Desember van 1503 gewen. Die Franse is uit Napels gedwing, wat vir die res van die Italiaanse oorloë onder die Spaanse heerskappy gebly het.

Met die bepalings van die Verdrag van Blois het koning Lodewyk XII ingestem tot Germaine se huwelik met die Aragonese koning. Germaine was eintlik verwant aan Ferdinand, aangesien sy die kleindogter van sy halfsuster was. Enige kinders wat uit die huwelik gebore word, sou die koninkryk van Napels erf. As daar geen afstammelinge was nie, moes Napels na Frankryk terugbesorg word. Ferdinand het ingestem om Louis 'n miljoen goue dukate te vergoed vir die koste van die oorlog wat die Franse gevoer het om Napels te verower. Louis hou van hierdie ooreenkoms omdat Germaine sy familielid was en met hierdie reëling kan Napels weer onder die invloed van Frankryk kom.

Ferdinand het gesê dat hy Franse steun aan sy kant wou wen en die voordeel van sy dogter, Juana, se man, Philip van Bourgondië, ontneem het. Die verdrag is gesluit minder as een jaar na die dood van Isabella. Diegene wat met Ferdinand teen die Franse geveg het, was nie gelukkig met hierdie alliansie nie. Ferdinand se mense, wat Isabella liefgehad en gerespekteer het, kon nie verstaan ​​dat hy so vinnig moes trou nie. Die eerbied vir Isabella het sedert haar dood nog meer gegroei.

In Januarie 1506 vertrek Germaine en haar trein Frankryk na Spanje en steek die platteland in die sneeu oor. Op 8 Maart is Germaine en Ferdinand getroud in die klein dorpie Duenas, dieselfde dorp waar Ferdinand die eerste jare van sy huwelik met Isabella deurgebring het. Die egpaar het hul wittebrood daar deurgebring, en sommige mense beskou dit as oneerbiedig vir Isabella se geheue. Byna onmiddellik aanvaar Germaine haar rol as waarnemende koningin van Kastilië. Sy het so geïdentifiseer geraak met haar rol in Spanje, dat die Franse nie meer kon vertrou dat sy na hul belange sou kyk nie.

As gevolg van hierdie haastige huwelik en die Franse konneksie het Ferdinand alle steun van die edeles en raadslede van Kastilië verloor. Slegs 'n handjievol mense het hom gesteun toe Juana en Philip na Castilië gekom het om hul regte as heersers te laat geld. Twee maande na Juana se aankoms, kondig Ferdinand aan dat hy na Aragon terugkeer. Dit is onduidelik of hy selfs met sy dogter vergader het voordat hy vertrek het.

Germaine en Ferdinand reis na Aragon en vertrek dan in Julie 1506 na sy waardevolle nuwe koninkryk Napels. In die nasleep van Ferdinand se beslissende nederlaag van die Franse in Napels, verlaat hy die groot militêre bevelvoerder Gonzalo Fernándo de Córdoba as waarnemende onderkoning. Ferdinand is begroet as 'n oorwinnende held en Córdoba het hulde gebring deur uitbundige vieringe op te voer. Dit word al hoe duideliker dat Ferdinand geïrriteerd en jaloers was op die bewondering wat die Italianers en sommige van die Fransmanne vir Córdoba uitgespreek het. Germaine en Ferdinand het 'n uitgebreide toer deur Napels gedoen en hy het die eed van getrouheid ontvang. In 1507 stop hulle by Saona om met koning Lodewyk XII te vergader en keer dan terug na Valencia waar hulle formeel ontvang word.

Ferdinand was oortuig dat Córdoba die bestuur van Napels verkeerd hanteer het. Hy het hom na Spanje teruggeroep met die voorwendsel dat hy hom die eer gegee het om 'n bevelvoerder in die Orde van Santiago te word. Toe Córdoba in Spanje was, is die eer vergeet en Ferdinand het hom die leisels van Germaine se perd laat vashou toe sy gaan ry in 'n duidelike poging om hom te verneder. Córdoba het uiteindelik in afsondering gegaan en kry nie meer militêre opdragte nie.

In die afwesigheid van haar man het Germaine opgetree as luitenant -generaal van Katalonië, Valencia en Aragon. In Mei 1509 het sy geboorte gegee aan 'n seun met die naam John en die titel van Prins van Girona. Ongelukkig is die baba binne 'n paar uur dood. Haar broer Gaston de Foix is ​​op 11 April 1512 oorlede en sy regte op die troon van Navarra het aan haar oorgegaan.

Ferdinand sterf op 23 Januarie 1516. Sy gesondheid is verswak deur die gevolge van 'n drankie gemaak van bul testikels wat Germaine hom aangespoor het om te drink in 'n poging om sy seksuele sterkte en vrugbaarheid te verhoog. Hy het moontlik gely onder die gevolge van sifilis wat op daardie stadium in Europa bekendgestel is en wydverspreid onder lede van die Aragonese familie was. Dit was ongeneeslik en kon steriliteit veroorsaak. Toe Ferdinand sterf, het sy testament gespesifiseer dat Germaine villa's in Madrigal en Olmedo ontvang. Die trone van Aragon en Navarra gaan na Juana en haar seun Charles.

Nadat Ferdinand gesterf het, het Germaine hom na Guadalupe Arevalo en Madrid teruggetrek. In 1518 vergesel sy koning Charles na Aragon op sy reis om die ede voor die Cortes te hoor. Sy het aan die hof van die Koning gebly. In 1519 het Germaine geboorte geskenk aan 'n dogter met die naam Isabel. Die vader van hierdie kind is vermoedelik Charles self. Die meisie het in die hof grootgeword, maar is nooit erken as die dogter van die koning nie. Isabel word genoem in die testament van Germaine en sy noem haar dogter van sy majesteit. Isabel is blykbaar in 1537 oorlede.

Charles was instrumenteel in die reël van Germaine se huwelik met John van Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach in Barcelona in Junie 1519. John was 'n neef van die keurvorst Joachim van Brandenburg en 'n goeie vriend van koning Charles. Hy het sy verkiesing as die Heilige Romeinse keiser ondersteun en sy kroning in Aken bygewoon.

Uitbeelding van John van Brandenburg-Ansbach, Germaine de Foix se tweede eggenoot. (Beeld deur PeterBraun74 van Wikimedia Commons)

In 1523 het Charles Germaine saam met haar man in die kantoor van Vicereine van Valencia aangestel. Dit was geen maklike taak nie. Valencia het in 'n ernstige ekonomiese krisis beland. Met die ontdekking van die Nuwe Wêreld in 1492 was die Europese ekonomie gefokus op die Atlantiese Oseaan tot nadeel van handel in die Middellandse See. Valencia, saam met Mallorca, Katalonië en Aragon is belet om deel te neem aan die handel oor die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Gekonfronteer met 'n mislukte ekonomie, het die ambagsgilde, bekend as die Germanies, in opstand gekom teen die regering van die Habsburgse koning Charles, terwyl die meeste gevegte van 1519 tot 1523 plaasgevind het. Dit was bekend as die opstand van die broederskap. Die Duitsers het opgestaan ​​teen die monargie en feodalisme, geïnspireer deur die Italiaanse republieke. Dit behels ook 'n sosiale opstand teen die adel wat uit Valencia gevlug het toe die plaag in 1519 uitbreek. Boonop bevat die opstand 'n anti-Islamitiese komponent terwyl die rebelle teen die Moslem-bevolking van Aragon opstaan ​​en gedwonge bekerings tot die Christendom afdwing.

Skildery wat die “Revolt of the Brotherhood ” verteenwoordig deur Marcelina Unceta y Lopez

Toe Germaine met haar nuwe magte aankom, het sy 'n harde stryd teen die rebelle en sy leiers aangeneem. Sy het brutale onderdrukking gebruik wat gelei het tot 'n vinniger outoritêre sentralisering van die regering van koning Charles. Haar voorkeur was om die rebelle so hard as moontlik te behandel en daar word geglo dat sy persoonlik die doodsbevel van honderd rebelle onderteken het. Onder haar bewind is moontlik agt honderd teregstellings uitgevoer. Uiteindelik, in Desember 1524, het Germaine groot boetes opgelê en 'n kwytskelding onderteken wat die vervolging van al die voormalige rebelle in wese beëindig het. Daar was moontlik nog 'n paar jaar weerstand teen die regering, aangesien koning Charles in 1528 'n bykomende algemene vergifnis moes onderteken.

Germaine was 'n beduidende voorstander van die integrasie van Spanje en haar kwytskelding was een van die eerste dokumente wat in Kastiliaans Spaans uitgereik is, eerder as Katalaans. Die oprigting van haar hof in Valencia word ook beskou as die begin van die einde van die gebruik van die Katalaans. Die edele klasse het begin om Spaans te praat om Germaine se agting te behou.

Na afloop van die stryd in Valencia berei koning Charles hom voor om in Frankryk oorlog toe te gaan. John het Germaine se juwele, silwer gereedskap en goud verpand om fondse in te samel. Na die oorwinning van koning Charles in Pavia vroeg in 1525, is John in beheer van die waardevolste gevangene van die geveg, koning François I van Frankryk. John het die koning teruggebring om einde Junie naby Valencia gehou te word. Toe word John skielik baie siek en ly hy swaar. Koning François het die dienste van sy persoonlike dokter aangebied, maar John is op 5 Julie in Valencia oorlede.

Germaine was weer weduwee, maar nie lank nie. Op 1 Augustus 1526 het koning Charles gereël dat Germaine trou met Ferdinand van Aragon, hertog van Calabrië en Apulië. Hy was 'n neef van Germaine se eerste man en die seun van koning Frederik van Napels wat tydens die Italiaanse oorloë afgesit is. Ferdinand, hertog van Calabrië, is gevange geneem en na Barcelona gebring nadat sy pa die troon verloor het waar hy koning Ferdinand se vriendskap gekry het.

Uitbeelding van Ferdinand van Aragón, hertog van Calabrië, Germaine se derde man

Germaine en Ferdinand het voortgegaan as pastore van Valencia. Hulle was noemenswaardige beskermhere van kuns en musiek en was die voorsitter van 'n kultuurhof wat met die van die Italiaanse Renaissance te kampe het. Germaine het voortgegaan om die stadige integrasie van Valencia met Castiliaanse oorheersde Spanje aan te moedig. Sy sterf in Liria in 1538. Soos sy versoek het, is haar oorskot begrawe in die klooster van San Miguel de los Reyes wat op haar bevel gebou is.


Germaine de Foix, koningin van Aragon, Napels, Sardinië, Navarra en Sicilië en Vicereine van Valencia

Ferdinand van Aragon was vyf en dertig jaar getroud met Isabella van Kastilië. Toe Isabella sterf, was die slinkse koning in die vroeë vyftigerjare en het hy om politieke redes besluit dat hy 'n nuwe bruid wou hê, al het hy Isabella belowe dat hy nooit weer sou trou nie. Hy het na die Franse gesoek na 'n bruid in 'n poging om 'n alliansie te sluit wat sy skoonseun Philip van Boergondië sou irriteer. Dit was net so dat koning Lodewyk XII 'n tiener -niggie gehad het, Germaine de Foix, wat 'n goeie kandidaat was om die nuwe vrou vir die Aragonese koning te wees.

Germaine is gebore in 1488, die dogter van Johannes van Foix, Burggraaf van Narbonne en seun van koningin Eleanor van Navarra. Germaine se ma was Marie van Orléans, 'n suster van koning Lodewyk XII van Frankryk. Germaine en haar broer Gaston het in die gesinshuis grootgeword totdat hulle wees gelaat is in 1492. Daarna het hulle in die koninklike huis gaan woon onder die toesig van Louis se koningin, Anne van Bretagne. Terwyl sy daar was, het Germaine 'n opleiding in die klassieke gekry. Anne was baie opgewonde oor die voordelige huwelike vir die jong dames in haar sorg.

In 1500 is koning Vladislas II van Hongarye en Bohemen onlangs geskei en het geen erfgename gehad nie. Hy stuur gesante na Frankryk om 'n alliansie met koning Louis aan te gaan, wat hy hoop om te sluit met 'n nuwe huwelik met 'n jong vrou wat kinders kan baar. Die gesante keer terug na Hongarye met geverfde portrette van Germaine en 'n familielid, Anne van Foix-Candale, wat ook in die sorg van koningin Anne was. Anne het die portretstryd gewen en koningin van Hongarye geword, wat Germaine vrygelaat het om elders te trou.

Germaine was op die punt om Juana van Castilië te groet toe sy in November 1501 die koninklike kasteel van Blois besoek het en ook haar ligte verversings bedien op die aand van haar aankoms. Germaine was saam met koningin Anne op toer toe haar huwelik met Ferdinand beskou is as deel van die onderhandelinge oor die Verdrag van Blois. Isabella van Kastilië is laat in 1504 oorlede en Ferdinand het haar belowe dat hy nie weer sou trou nie. Hy was drie-en-vyftig en kroniekskrywers van die tyd het gesê dat hy wellustig is, maar steeds opvallend. Hy het 'n lip gekry sedert hy 'n tand verloor het, en hy het 'n effense uitslag op sy linkeroog gekry. Maar hy was ryk en nog steeds 'n waardige vangs. Die Heilige Romeinse keiser Maximiliaan het Ferdinand probeer wegstuur van 'n Franse huwelik en het hom sy keuse van edele maagdprinsesse uit Duitsland aangebied.

Ferdinand het aan sy onderdane gesê dat hy weer moet trou om 'n erfgenaam te word. Dit was nie waar nie, want hy het drie jong dogters, drie kleinseuns en vier kleindogters gehad wat in aanmerking kom om sy troon te erf. Dit was 'n blatante poging om mededingende erfgename van sy volwasse kinders te skep en die koninkryk van Aragon van Castilië te skei. Dit was veral skadelik vir sy dogter Juana wat die troon van Aragon sou erf. It also put his daughter Katherine’s status in jeopardy. She was languishing in poverty in England after the death of her husband Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales. If her position in the line of succession in Castile was diminished, it lessened her chances of marrying Prince Henry of England or any other husband for that matter.

Ferdinand’s marriage to Germaine was part of the provisions of the second Treaty of Blois which was concluded on October 12, 1505. The terms of the treaty were an effort to restore peace after the Second Italian War of 1499-1503 which had two different phases. In the first, King Louis XII successfully invaded Milan, and then repulsed an attempt by the deposed Duke Ludovico Sforza to retake the city. In the second half, the French and Spanish jointly invaded the kingdom of Naples, but then fought over the division of the spoils. The Spanish emerged as the victors in this fight, winning key battles in April and December of 1503. The French were forced out of Naples, which remained under Spanish rule for the rest of the Italian Wars.

With the stipulations of the Treaty of Blois, King Louis XII agreed to Germaine’s marriage to the Aragonese King. Germaine was actually related to Ferdinand as she was the grand-daughter of his half-sister. Any children born of the marriage would inherit the kingdom of Naples. If there were no descendants, Naples was to be returned to France. Ferdinand agreed to reimburse Louis one million gold ducats for the cost of the war which the French had waged in reconquering Naples. Louis liked this deal because Germaine was his relative and with this arrangement, Naples could come under the influence of France once again.

Ferdinand said he was trying to win French support to his side, taking the advantage away from his daughter Juana’s husband, Philip of Burgundy. The treaty was concluded less than one year after the death of Isabella. Those who had fought with Ferdinand against the French weren’t happy with this alliance. Ferdinand’s people, who loved and respected Isabella, couldn’t understand his need to remarry so quickly. The veneration of Isabella had grown even more since her death.

In January of 1506, Germaine and her train left France for Spain, crossing the countryside in the snow. On March 8, Germaine and Ferdinand were married in the small town of Duenas, the same town where Ferdinand had spent the early years of his marriage to Isabella. The couple spent their honeymoon there and some people viewed this as disrespectful to Isabella’s memory. Almost immediately Germaine assumed her role as acting queen of Castile. She became so identified with her role in Spain, the French could no longer count on her to look out for their interests.

As a consequence of this hasty marriage and the French connection, Ferdinand lost all support of the nobles and councilors of Castile. Only a handful of people backed him when Juana and Philip came to Castile to assert their rights as rulers. Two months after Juana’s arrival, Ferdinand announced he was returning to Aragon. It is unclear if he even met with his daughter before departing.

Germaine and Ferdinand traveled to Aragon and then departed in July of 1506 for his valuable new Kingdom of Naples. In the wake of Ferdinand’s decisive defeat of the French in Naples, he left the great military commander Gonzalo Fernándo de Córdoba as acting viceroy. Ferdinand was greeted as a conquering hero and Córdoba paid tribute to him by staging lavish celebrations. It became increasingly obvious Ferdinand was irritated and jealous of the admiration expressed for Córdoba by the Italians and some of the Frenchmen. Germaine and Ferdinand did an extensive tour of Naples and he received the oath of fidelity. In 1507, they made a stop at Saona to meet with King Louis XII and then returned to Valencia where they were formally received.

Ferdinand was convinced Córdoba had mishandled the management of Naples. He recalled him to Spain on the pretext of giving him the honor of becoming a Commander of the Order of Santiago. Once Córdoba was in Spain the honor was forgotten and Ferdinand made him hold the reins of Germaine’s horse when she went riding in an obvious effort to humiliate him. Córdoba eventually went into seclusion and was given no more military assignments.

In the absence of her husband, Germaine acted as lieutenant general of Catalonia, Valencia and Aragon. In May of 1509, she gave birth to a son who was named John and given the title of Prince of Girona. Sadly, the baby died within a few hours. Her brother Gaston de Foix died on April 11, 1512 and his rights to the throne of Navarre passed to her.

Ferdinand died on January 23, 1516. His health had been weakened by the effects of a potion made of bull’s testicles which Germaine had urged him to drink in an effort to increase his sexual potency and fertility. He may have suffered from the effects of syphilis which had been introduced in Europe at that time and was widespread among members of the Aragonese family. It was incurable and capable of causing sterility. When Ferdinand died, his will specified that Germaine receive villas in Madrigal and Olmedo. The thrones of Aragon and Navarre went to Juana and her son Charles.

After Ferdinand died, Germaine withdrew to Guadalupe Arevalo and Madrid. In 1518, she accompanied King Charles to Aragon on his journey to hear the oaths before the Cortes. She remained at the court of the King. In 1519, Germaine gave birth to a daughter named Isabel. The father of this child is presumably Charles himself. The girl grew up at court but was never acknowledged as being the king’s daughter. Isabel is mentioned in Germaine’s will and she calls her “daughter of his majesty”. Isabel apparently died in 1537.

Charles was instrumental in arranging Germaine’s marriage to John of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach in Barcelona in June of 1519. John was a cousin of the Elector Joachim of Brandenburg and a good friend of King Charles. He had supported his election as Holy Roman Emperor and attended his coronation in Aachen.

Depiction of John of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Germaine de Foix’s second husband. (Image by PeterBraun74 from Wikimedia Commons)

In 1523, Charles appointed Germaine to the office of Vicereine of Valencia jointly with her husband. This was no easy task. Valencia had fallen into a severe economic crisis. With the discovery of the New World in 1492, the European economy was focused on the Atlantic Ocean to the disadvantage of trade in the Mediterranean Sea. Valencia, along with Majorca, Catalonia, and Aragon were precluded from participating in the cross-Atlantic trade.

Faced with a failing economy, the artisan guilds, known as the Germanies, rebelled against the government of the Habsburg King Charles with most of the fighting occurring from 1519 to 1523. It was known as the Revolt of the Brotherhoods. The Germanies rose up against the monarchy and feudalism, inspired by the Italian republics. It also involved a social revolt against the nobility who fled Valencia when the plague broke out in 1519. In addition, the revolt contained an anti-Islamic component as the rebels rose up against the Muslim population of Aragon and imposed forced conversions to Christianity.

Painting representing the “Revolt of the Brotherhood” by Marcelina Unceta y Lopez

When Germaine arrived with her new powers, she took a hard line against the rebels and its leaders. She used brutal repression which led to a faster authoritarian centralization of the government of King Charles. Her preferred course of action was to treat the rebels as harshly as possible and it is believed she personally signed the death warrants of one hundred rebels. Under her rule, as many as eight hundred executions may have been carried out. Finally in December of 1524, Germaine instituted huge fines and signed a pardon that in essence ended the persecutions of all the former rebels. There may have been some scattered resistance to the government for a few more years as King Charles had to sign an additional general pardon in 1528.

Germaine was a significant advocate of the integration of Spain and her pardon was one of the first documents issued in Castilian Spanish rather than Catalan. Also, the establishment of her court in Valencia is seen as the beginning of the demise of the use of the Catalan language there. The noble classes began to favor speaking Spanish to maintain Germaine’s esteem.

After the end of the struggles in Valencia, King Charles was preparing to go to war in France. John pawned Germaine’s jewels, silver utensils and gold to raise funds. After King Charles victory at Pavia in early 1525, John was put in charge of the most valuable prisoner of the battle, King François I of France. John brought the king back to be held near Valencia at the end of June. John then suddenly became extremely ill and was suffering greatly. King François offered the services of his personal physician but John died on July 5 in Valencia.

Germaine was widowed again but not for long. On August 1, 1526, King Charles arranged for Germaine to marry Ferdinand of Aragon, Duke of Calabria and Apulia. He was a cousin of Germaine’s first husband and the son of King Frederick of Naples who had been deposed during the Italian Wars. Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria had been taken prisoner and brought to Barcelona after his father lost the throne where he gained King Ferdinand’s friendship.

Depiction of Ferdinand of Aragón, Duke of Calabria, Germaine’s third husband

Germaine and Ferdinand continued as viceroys of Valencia. They were notable patrons of the arts and music and presided over a cultural court that rivaled those of the Italian Renaissance. Germaine continued to encourage the slow integration of Valencia with Castilian dominated Spain. She died in Liria in 1538. As she requested, her remains were buried in the monastery of San Miguel de los Reyes which had been constructed upon her orders.


Population [ edit | wysig bron]

The Château de Blois, a Renaissance château once occupied by King Louis XII, is located in the centre of the city, and an 18th century stone bridge spans the Loire. As Blois is built on a pair of steep hills, winding and steep pathways run through the city, culminating in long staircases at various points. To the south of the city, the Forêt de Russy is a reminder of the thick woods that once covered the area.

La Maison de la Magie Robert-Houdin (The House of Magician Robert-Houdin) is a museum fronting on the Château. As a museum of France, it is the only public museum in Europe which incorporates in one place collections of magic and a site for permanent performing arts, and is directly linked to the personality of Jean-Eugene Robert-Houdin. Α] Β] Γ] Δ]


First use of Tarot

Ross Caldwell made a provisional collection of French spellings of the word Tarot, trying to give an answer about the first positive proven use of the word Tarot (not Taraux or Tarocchi, but TAROT):

It seems to be in a document written around 1560, once owned by Roger de Gaigni res and published for the first time by Thierry Depaulis. It is a French translation (probably by the huguenot Fran ois Rasse de Neux (c.1520-c.1589) , of an anonymous Italian "Tarocchi Appropriati" written in 1559. The appropriati is called in Italian "Gioco da tarocchi fatto in conclavi", and is entitled in French "Le Tarot des XXII cardinaux". The first three lines of the manuscript published by Depaulis have "Aux Pasquinades et aussi de Tarots."

"Vingt & deux Cardinaux jouants sans bruit du monde, Dans une grande salle au tarot pour plaisir. " So he uses both "tarot" and "tarots". See Depaulis, "Roger de Gaigni res et ses tarots" in _Le Vieux Papier_, fasc. 301 (July 1986) pp. 117-124.

A Survey of Spellings.

My list of occurences of variations of "tarot" in documentary sources for the 16th and early 17th century shows that "tarots" was the preferred spelling over this time (date. place. spelling. (author. source(s))

  • 9 Tarots
  • 4 Tarot
  • 2 Taraux
  • 1 Tarau
  • 1 Tarault
  • 1 Tarotz
  • 11 Tarots
  • 4 Tarot
  • 3 Taraux
  • 1 Tarau
  • 1 Tarault
  • 2 Tarotz
  • 2 Taros

On Tarot packs for the 18-19th century, I can glean the following spellings from my few sources (letters refer to current borders, not necessarily accurate for historical purposes (B)Belgium (D)Germany (F)France (I)Italy (S)Switzerland) :

  • Taros (Héri, early 18th c., Soleure (S) K II, 318)
  • Tarots (Madenié, c. 1709, Dijon (F) K II, 315)
  • Taros (J.-P. Mayer, c.1730, Constance(D) TJM no.45 (p. 75), KII,
  • 325 SSII, no.29 (p. 174))
  • Taros (Hautot, 1723-48, Rouen (F) K II, 323)
  • Taraut (Antoine Jar, 18th c., Bouvignes-sur- Meuse (B) K II, 329)
  • Taros (Thomasset, 1731, Murten (Morat)(S) K II, 319)
  • Taros (Laudier, 1746, Strasbourg (F) TJM no. 44 (p. 74))
  • Tarrau/Terrau (anon.,1755, Coppet (F or S) SS II, 21-22, 99 (cf.
  • Carrajat 1786)
  • Taraut (Dupont, 1766, Brussels (B) K II, 207)
  • Tareau (Ignaz Krebs, 18th c., Friburg im Bresgau Piatnik repr.
  • 1984, K II, 214)
  • Tarot (Paiche, 1780, Berne (S) K II, 334)
  • Taros (Rochus II Schaer, 1783, Mümliswil (S) SS II, no. 4 (p. 124))
  • Tarrau/Terrau (Carrajat, 1786, Chambéry(F)(engr. Milan?) K II,
  • 210,335)
  • Taros (Hans Buolmann, l.18th c., Unterwalden( S) SS II, no. 31 (p.
  • 178))
  • Taros (J.-B. II Benois, l.18th c., Strasbourg(F) SS II, no. 24 (p.
  • 164))
  • Taros (Conrad Iseli, l. 18th c., Soleure (S) K II, 331)
  • Taraut (Galler, l. 18th c., Brussels (B) K I, 153)
  • Taros (Carey, 1793-1800, Strasbourg TJM no. 47 (p. 76))
  • Taros (Ignace Crelier, 1791-1803, Porrentruy (S) D'Allemagne, I,
  • 186)
  • Tarots (Jerger, e. 19th c., Besançon (F) TJM no.48 (pp.76-77) K
  • II, 211)
  • Taroques (Draghi, e. 19th c., Finale (I) K II, 220)

Constance (Konstanz) German-Swiss (incl. Strasbourg) -
Taros (10)
Tarot (1)

Freiburg im Breisgau
Tareau (1)

Brussels (Bruxelles) close to Bouvignes -
Taraut (3)

Besançon-Dijon (close together) -
Tarots (2)

Italian with French titles -
Tarrau/Terrau ("terrau" is obviously an error Carrajat's plates were earlier used, in 1755, by an anonymous cardmaker in Coppet (France or Switzerland) )
Taroques

The most common spelling in this brief survey is "Tarots", occuring both in texts and on cards, with 14 instances.
"Taros" has 13 occurences.
"Tarot" occurs 4 times.

Clearly the plural form was preferred for most of the time of the terms' usage, mirroring the Italian preference for "tarocchi" over "tarocco".

I wish I knew what preferential spellings Lyonnais cardmakers had for their cards or wrappers.


Bybel ensiklopedieë

MAXIMILIAN I (1459-1519), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Frederick III. and Leonora, daughter of Edward, king of Portugal, was born at Vienna Neustadt on the 22nd of March 1 459. On the 18th of August 1477, by his marriage at Ghent to Mary, who had just inherited Burgundy and the Netherlands from her father Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, he effected a union of great importance in the history of the house of Habsburg. He at once undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI., king of France, and defeated the French forces at Guinegatte, the modern Enguinegatt on the 7th of August 1479. But Maximilian was regarded with suspicion by the states of Netherlands, and after suppressing a rising in Gelderland his position was further weakened by the death of his wife on the 27th of March 1482. He claimed to be recognized as guardian of his young son Philip and as regent of the Netherlands, but some of the states refused to agree to his demands and disorder was general. Maximilian was compelled to assent to the treaty of Arras in 1482 between the states of the Netherlands and Louis XI. This treaty provided that Maximilian's daughter Margaret should marry Charles, the dauphin of France, and have for her dowry Artois and FrancheComte, two of the provinces in dispute, while the claim of Louis on the duchy of Burgundy was tacitly admitted. Maximilian did not, however, abandon the struggle in the Netherlands. Having crushed a rebellion at Utrecht, he compelled the burghers of Ghent to restore Philip to him in 1485, and returning to Germany was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at Frankfort on the 16th of February 1486, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 9th of the following April. Again in the Netherlands, he made a treaty with Francis II., duke of Brittany, whose independence was threatened by the French regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the struggle with France was soon renewed. This war was very unpopular with the trading cities of the Netherlands, and early in 1488 Maximilian, having entered Bruges, was detained there as a prisoner for nearly three months, and only set at liberty on the approach of his father with a large force. On his release he had promised he would maintain the treaty of Arras and withdraw from the Netherlands but he delayed his departure for nearly a year and took part in a punitive campaign against his captors and their allies. On his return to Germany he made peace with France at Frankfort in July 1489, and in October several of the states of the Netherlands recognized him as their ruler and as guardian of his son. In March 1490 the county of Tirol was added to his possessions through the abdication of his kinsman, Count Sigismund, and this district soon became his favourite residence.

Meanwhile the king had formed an alliance with Henry VII. king of England, and Ferdinand II., king of Aragon, to defend the possessions of the duchess Anne, daughter and successor of Francis, duke of Brittany. Early in 1490 he took a further step and was betrothed to the duchess, and later in the same year the marriage was celebrated by proxy but Brittany was still occupied by French troops, and Maximilian was unable to go to the assistance of his bride. The sequel was startling. In December 1491 Anne was married to Charles VIII., king of France, and Maximilian's daughter Margaret, who had resided in France since her betrothal, was sent back to her father. The inaction of Maximilian at this time is explained by the condition of affairs in Hungary, where the death of king Matthias Corvinus had brought about a struggle for this throne. The Roman king, who was an unsuccessful candidate, took up arms, drove the Hungarians from Austria, and regained Vienna, which had been in the possession of Matthias since 1485 but he was compelled by want of money to retreat, and on the 7th of November 14 9 1 signed the treaty of Pressburg with Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, who had obtained the Hungarian throne. By this treaty it was agreed that Maximilian should succeed to the crown in case Ladislaus left no legitimate male issue. Having defeated the invading Turks at Villach in 1492, the king was eager to take revenge upon the king of France but the states of the Netherlands would afford him no assistance. The German diet was indifferent, and in May 1493 he agreed to the peace of Senlis and regained Artois and Franche-Comte.

In August 1493 the death of the emperor left Maximilian sole ruler of Germany and head of the house of Habsburg and on the ,6th of March 1494 he married at Innsbruck Bianca Maria Sforza, daughter of Galeazzo Sforza, duke of Milan (d. 1476). At this time Bianca's uncle, Ludovico Sforza, was invested with the duchy of Milan in return for the substantial dowry which his niece brought to the king. Maximilian harboured the idea of driving the Turks from Europe but his appeal to all Christian sovereigns was ineffectual. In 1494 he was again in the Netherlands, where he led an expedition against the rebels of Gelderland, assisted Perkin Warbeck to make a descent upon England, and formally handed over the government of the Low Countries to Philip. His attention was next turned to Italy, and, alarmed at the progress of Charles VIII. in the peninsula, he signed the league of Venice in March 1495, and about the same time arranged a marriage between his son Philip and Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon. The need for help to prosecute the war in Italy caused the king to call the diet to Worms in March 1495, when he urged the necessity of checking the progress of Charles. As during his father's lifetime Maximilian had favoured the reforming party among the princes, proposals for the better government of the empire were brought forward at Worms as a necessary preliminary to financial and military support. Some reforms were adopted, the public peace was proclaimed without any limitation of time and a general tax was levied. The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops. The reforms of 1495 were rendered abortive by the refusal of Maximilian to attend the diets or to take any part in the working of the new constitution, and in 1497 he strengthened his own authority by establishing an Aulic Council (Reichshofrath ), which he declared was competent to deal with all business of the empire, and about the same time set up a court to centralize the financial administration of Germany.

In February 1499 the king became involved in a war with the Swiss, who had refused to pay the imperial taxes or to furnish a contribution for the Italian expedition. Aided by France they defeated the German troops, and the peace of Basel in September 1499 recognized them as virtually independent of the empire. About this time Maximilian's ally, Ludovico of Milan, was taken prisoner by Louis XII., king of France, and Maximilian was again compelled to ask the diet for help. An elaborate scheme for raising an army was agreed to, and in return a council of regency (Reichsregiment ) was established, which amounted, in the words of a Venetian envoy, to a deposition of the king. The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France. The hostility of the king rendered the council impotent. He was successful in winning the support of many of the younger princes, and in establishing a new court of justice, the members of which were named by himself. The negotiations with France ended in the treaty of Blois, signed in September 1504, when Maximilian's grandson Charles was betrothed to Claude, daughter of Louis XII., and Louis, invested with the duchy of Milan, agreed to aid the king of the Romans to secure the imperial crown. A succession difficulty in Bavaria-Landshut was only decided after Maximilian had taken up arms and narrowly escaped with his life at Regensburg. In the settlement of this question, made in 1505, he secured a considerable increase of territory, and when the king met the diet at Cologne in 1505 he was at the height of his power. His enemies at home were crushed, and their leader, Berthold, elector of Mainz, was dead while the outlook abroad was more favourable than it had been since his accession.

It is at this period that Ranke believes Maximilian to have entertained the idea of a universal monarchy but whatever hopes he may have had were shattered by the death of his son Philip and the rupture of the treaty of Blois. The diet of Cologne discussed the question of reform in a halting fashion, but afforded the king supplies for an expedition into Hungary, to aid his ally Ladislaus, and to uphold his own influence in the East. Having established his daughter Margaret as regent for Charles in the Netherlands, Maximilian met the diet at Constance in 1507, when the imperial chamber (Reichskammergericht ) was revised and took a more permanent form, and help was granted for an expedition to Italy. The king set out for Rome to secure his coronation, but Venice refused to let him pass through .her territories and at Trant, on the 4th of February 1508, he took the important step of assuming the title of Roman Emperor Elect, to which he soon received the assent of pope Julius II. He attacked the Venetians, but finding the war unpopular with the trading cities of southern Germany, made a truce with the republic for three years. The treaty of Blois had contained a secret article providing for an attack on Venice, and this ripened into the league of Cambray, which was joined by the emperor in December 1509. He soon took the field, but after his failure to capture Padua the league broke up and his sole ally, the French king, joined him in calling a general council at Pisa to discuss the question of Church reform. A breach with pope Julius followed, and at this time Maximilian appears to have entertained, perhaps quite seriously, the idea of seating himself in the chair of St Peter. After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513. In 1500 the diet had divided Germany into six circles, for the maintenance of peace, to which the emperor at the diet of Cologne in 1512 added four others. Having made an alliance with Christian II., king of Denmark, and interfered to protect the Teutonic Order against Sigismund I., king of Poland, Maximilian was again in Italy early in 1516 fighting the French who had overrun Milan. His want of success compelled him on the 4th of December 1516 to sign the treaty of Brussels, which left Milan in the hands of the French king, while Verona was soon afterwards transferred to Venice. He attempted in vain to secure the election of his grandson Charles as king of the Romans, and in spite of increasing infirmity was eager to lead the imperial troops against the Turks. At the diet of Augsburg in 1518 the emperor heard warnings of the Reformation in the shape of complaints against papal exactions, and a repetition of the complaints preferred at the diet of Mainz in 1517 about the administration of Germany. Leaving the diet, he travelled to Wels in Upper Austria, where he died on the 12th of January 1519. He was buried in the church of St George in Vienna Neustadt, and a superb monument, which may still be seen, was raised to his memory at Innsbruck.

Maximilian had many excellent personal qualities. He was not handsome, but of a robust and well-proportioned frame. Simple in his habits, conciliatory in his bearing, and catholic in his tastes, he enjoyed great popularity and rarely made a personal enemy. He was a skilled knight and a daring huntsman, and although not a great general, was intrepid on the field of battle. His mental interests were extensive. He knew something of six languages, and could discuss art, music, literature or theology. He reorganized the university of Vienna and encouraged the development of the universities of Ingolstadt and Freiburg. He was the friend and patron of scholars, caused manuscripts to be copied and medieval poems to be collected. He was the author of military reforms, which included the establishment of standing troops, called Landsknechte, the improvement of artillery by making cannon portable, and some changes in the equipment of the cavalry. He was continually devising plans for the better government of Austria, and although they ended in failure, he established the unity of the Austrian dominions. Maximilian has been called the second founder of the house of Habsburg, and certainly by bringing about marriages between Charles and Joanna and between his grandson Ferdinand and Anna, daughter of Ladislaus, king of Hungary and Bohemia, he paved the way for the vast empire of Charles V. and for the influence of the Habsburgs in eastern Europe. But he had many qualities less desirable. He was reckless and unstable, resorting often to lying and deceit, and never pausing to count the cost of an enterprise or troubling to adapt means to ends. For absurd and impracticable schemes in Italy and elsewhere he neglected Germany, and sought to involve its princes in wars undertaken solely for private aggrandizement or personal jealousy. Ignoring his responsibilities as ruler of Germany, he only considered the question of its government when in need of money and support from the princes. As the "last of the knights" he could not see that the old order of society was passing away and a new order arising, while he was. fascinated by the glitter of the medieval empire and spent the better part of his life in vague schemes for its revival. As "a gifted amateur in politics" he increased the disorder of Germany and Italy and exposed himself and the empire to the jeers of Europe.

Maximilian was also a writer of books, and his writings display his inordinate vanity. Syne Geheimes Jagdbuch, containing about 2500 words, is a treatise purporting to teach his grandsons the art of hunting. He inspired the production of The Dangers and Adventures of the Famous Hero and Knight Sir Teuerdank, an allegorical poem describing his adventures on his journey to marry Mary of Burgundy. The emperor's share in the work is not clear, but it seems certain that the general scheme and many of the incidents are due to him. It was first published at Nuremberg by Melchior Pfintzing in 1517, and was adorned with woodcuts by Hans Leonhard Schaufelein. Die Weisskunig was long regarded as the work of the emperor's secretary, Marx Treitzsaurwein, but it is now believed that the greater part of the book at least is the work of the emperor himself. It is an unfinished autobiography containing an account of the achievements of Maximilian, who is called "the young white king." It was first published at Vienna in 1775. He also is responsible for Freydal, an allegorical account of the tournaments in which he took part during his wooing of Mary of Burgundy Ehrenpforten, Triumphwagen en Der weisen konige Stammbaum, books concerning his own history and that of the house of Habsburg, and works on various subjects, as Das Stahlbuch, Die Baumeisterei en Die Gdrtnerei. These works are all profusely illustrated, some by Albrecht Diirer, and in the preparation of the woodcuts Maximilian himself took the liveliest interest. A facsimile of the original editions of Maximilian's autobiographical and semi-autobiographical works has been published in nine volumes in the Jahrbi cher der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Kaiserhauses (Vienna, 1880-1888). For this edition S. Laschitzer wrote an introduction to Sir Teuerdank, Q. von Leitner to Freydal, and N. A. von Schultz to Der Weisskunig. The Holbein society issued a facsimile of Sir Teuerdank (London, 1884) and Triumphwagen (London, 1883).

Sien Correspondance de l'empereur Maximilien I. et de Marguerite d'Autriche, 1507-1519, edited by A. G. le Glay (Paris, 1839) Maximilians I. vertraulicher Briefwechsel mit Sigmund Pruschenk, edited by V. von Kraus (Innsbruck, 1875) J. Chmel, Urkunden, Briefe and Aktenstiicke zur Geschichte Maximilians I. and seiner Zeit. (Stuttgart, 1845) and Aktenstiicke and Briefe zur Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg im Zeitalter Maximilians I. (Vienna, 1854-1858) K. Kliipfel, Kaiser Maximilian I. (Berlin, 1854) H. Ulmann, Kaiser Maximilian I. (Stuttgart, 1884) L. P. Gachard, Lettres ine'dites de Maximilien I. sur les affaires des Pays Bas (Brussels, 1851-1852) L. von Ranke, Geschichte der romanischen and germanischen Volker, 1 4941.514 (Leipzig, 1874) R. W. S. Watson, Maximilian I. (London, 1902) A. Jager, Ober Kaiser Maximilians I. Verhaltnis zum Papstthum (Vienna, 1854) H. Ulmann, Kaiser Maximilians I. Absichten auf das Papstthum (Stuttgart, 1888), and A. Schulte, Kaiser Maximilian I. als Kandidat far den pcipstlichen Stuhl (Leip igg, 1 906)).) W


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