Artikels

Lekythos, Odysseus en Polyfemus

Lekythos, Odysseus en Polyfemus



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Polifemus

Polifemus ( / ˌ p ɒ l ɪ ˈ f iː m ə s / Grieks: Πολύφημος, deurlig. Polifēmos, Epiese Grieks: [polýpʰɛːmos] Latyn: Polifamus [pɔlʏˈpʰeːmʊs]) is die reusagtige seun van Poseidon en Thoosa in die Griekse mitologie, een van die Cyclopes wat in Homeros beskryf word Odyssee. Sy naam beteken 'volop in liedere en legendes'. [1] Polifemus het die eerste keer verskyn as 'n woeste mens-etende reus in die negende boek van die Odyssee. Die satyr -toneelstuk van Euripides is afhanklik van hierdie episode, afgesien van een detail vir 'n komiese effek, word Polyphemus 'n pederast in die toneelstuk. Later het klassieke skrywers hom in hul gedigte as heteroseksueel voorgestel en sy naam gekoppel aan die nimf Galatea. Dikwels word hy hierin as onsuksesvol uitgebeeld en as onbewus van sy oneweredige grootte en musikale tekortkominge. [2] In die werk van selfs latere skrywers word hy egter aangebied as 'n suksesvolle minnaar en vaardige musikant. Vanaf die Renaissance weerspieël kuns en letterkunde al hierdie interpretasies van die reus.


Odysseus

Die held van Homerus se epiese gedig die Odyssee is Odysseus. Hy is een van die figure wat die meeste in die Westerse literatuur uitgebeeld word. Nadat Odysseus ongeveer 10 jaar lank in die Trojaanse oorlog geveg het, moes hy nog tien jaar se swerftogte en avonture verduur voordat hy na sy huis en familie terugkeer. Homer het hom uitgebeeld as 'n man met uitstaande skerpsinnigheid, vindingrykheid, moed en uithouvermoë. Odysseus se naam in Engels is Ulysses.

Volgens Homeros was Odysseus koning van Ithaca, een van die Ioniese eilande. Sy ouers was Laertes en Anticleia. Odysseus se vrou was Penelope, en hulle het 'n seun, Telemachus. (In latere tradisie was Odysseus in plaas daarvan die seun van Sisifos en seuns van Circe, Calypso en ander.)

Odysseus verskyn ook in Homerus se epiese gedig die Ilias, wat die Trojaanse Oorlog betref. Daarin speel Odysseus 'n leidende rol in die bereiking van die versoening tussen die Griekse helde Agamemnon en Achilles. Odysseus se dapperheid en vaardigheid om te veg word herhaaldelik bewys. Sy wiligheid word veral getoon in die nagekspedisie wat hy saam met Diomedes onderneem teen die Trojane.

Die Odyssee beskryf hoe Odysseus die verowering van Troje bereik het, wat die oorlog beëindig het. Hy het Griekse soldate laat wegkruip in 'n groot hol houtperd (die Trojaanse perd). Toe die Trojane die perd binne die ommuurde stad bring, het die krygers uitgeswerm en die hekke vir die res van die Griekse soldate oopgemaak.

Odysseus se omswerwinge na die oorlog en die herstel van sy huis en koninkryk is die sentrale tema van die Odyssee. Nadat hy Troje verlaat het, kom Odysseus na die land van die Lotus-Eaters, 'n stam wat 'n geheimsinnige plant eet. Met moeite red hy 'n paar van sy metgeselle, wat bedwelm is om die plant te eet. Odysseus ontmoet en verblind dan Polyphemus the Cyclops, 'n seun van Poseidon. Odysseus ontsnap uit die grot van Polyfemus deur aan die maag van 'n ram vas te klou.

Odysseus en sy metgeselle arriveer later op die eiland Laestrygones, wat kannibalistiese reuse is. Hulle vernietig 11 van Odysseus se 12 skepe. In die oorblywende skip arriveer Odysseus en sy oorlewende metgeselle op die eiland van die towenaar Circe. Sy verander van sy manne in varke, en hy moet hulle red. Volgende besoek Odysseus die land van die dooies, waar hy praat met die gees van Agamemnon en die blinde siener Tiresias. By Tiresias leer Odysseus hoe hy die toorn van Poseidon, wat kwaad is vir hom, vermy het omdat hy Polyphemus vermoor het.

Terwyl Odysseus verder reis, gaan hy verby die Sirens en Scylla en Charybdis, wesens wat probeer om hom en sy bemanning te vernietig. Op 'n eiland van die songod Helios ontmoet die mans die vee van die god, die beeste van die son. Ondanks waarskuwings maak Odysseus se metgeselle die beeste dood vir voedsel. Odysseus alleen oorleef die daaropvolgende storm. Hy bereik dan die eiland van die nimf Calypso. Sy hou hom sewe jaar lank gevange op die eiland voordat Athena en Hermes hom help.

Odysseus verlaat uiteindelik Calypso en kom uiteindelik tuis in Ithaca. Intussen het Penelope (sy vrou) en Telemachus (sy seun) gesukkel om hul gesag te behou tydens sy byna 20-jaar afwesigheid. Meer as 100 vryers het Penelope onder druk geplaas om weer te trou. Terwyl hulle wag dat sy onder hulle besluit, het hierdie mans in die huis van Odysseus gebly - geëet, gedrink en gedrang.

As Odysseus by die huis kom, word hy eers net deur sy getroue hond en 'n verpleegster herken. Hy bewys sy identiteit met die hulp van Athena. Om te bevestig dat hy regtig Odysseus is, laat Penelope hom met sy ou boog toutrek en skiet. Dan, met die hulp van Telemachus en twee slawe, vermoor Odysseus al die vryers van Penelope. Penelope glo Odysseus nog steeds nie en gee hom nog 'n toets. Maar uiteindelik weet sy dat dit hy is en aanvaar hom as haar verlore man en die koning van Ithaca. (Vir 'n meer gedetailleerde weergawe van Odysseus se avonture, kyk Homeriese legende, "The Odyssey.")

In die werke van Homerus het Odysseus baie geleenthede om sy talent vir russe en bedrog te toon. Terselfdertyd is hy voortdurend moedig, lojaal en vrygewig. Talle ander Griekse en Romeinse skrywers beeld Odysseus ook uit. Hulle het hom soms voorgestel as 'n beginsellose politikus, soms as 'n wyse en eerbare staatsman. Filosowe bewonder gewoonlik sy intelligensie en wysheid. Sommige Romeinse skrywers (waaronder Vergilius en Statius) was geneig om Odysseus as die vernietiger van Rome se moederstad, Troje, af te skaal. Ander Romeinse skrywers (soos Horatius en Ovidius) het hom bewonder. Odysseus, 'n blywende literêre figuur, is deur baie ander latere skrywers behandel, waaronder William Shakespeare (in Troilus en Cressida), Níkos Kazantzákis (in The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel), en (metafories) deur James Joyce (in Ulysses) en Derek Walcott (in Omeros).


Inhoud

Uitstalling

Die Odyssee begin na die einde van die Trojaanse Oorlog van tien jaar (die onderwerp van die Ilias), waaruit Odysseus, die koning van Ithaca, nog steeds nie teruggekeer het nie, omdat hy Poseidon, die god van die see, kwaad gemaak het. Odysseus se seun, Telemachus, is ongeveer 20 jaar oud en deel sy afwesige vader se huis op die eiland Ithaca met sy ma Penelope en "die vryers", 'n skare van 108 luidrugtige jong mans wat elkeen probeer om Penelope vir haar hand te oorreed huwelik, terwyl hulle in die koning se paleis gekuier het en sy rykdom opgevreet het.

Odysseus se beskermer, die godin Athena, vra Zeus, die koning van die gode, om Odysseus uiteindelik toe te laat om terug te keer huis toe Poseidon afwesig is van die berg Olympus. Dan, vermom as 'n hoofman met die naam Mentes, besoek Athena Telemachus om hom aan te spoor om nuus van sy pa te soek. Hy bied haar gasvryheid en hulle sien hoe die vryers roeiend eet terwyl Phemius, die bard, 'n verhalende gedig vir hulle opvoer.

Daardie aand vind Athena, vermom as Telemachus, 'n skip en bemanning vir die ware prins. Die volgende oggend bel Telemachus 'n vergadering van burgers van Ithaca om te bespreek wat gedoen moet word met die onbeskofte vryers, wat dan spot met Telemachus. Saam met Athena (nou vermom as Mentor) vertrek die seun van Odysseus na die Griekse vasteland, na die huishouding van Nestor, die eerbiedwaardigste van die Griekse krygers in Troje, wat na die oorlog in Pylos gewoon het.

Van daar af ry Telemachus na Sparta, vergesel van die seun van Nestor. Daar vind hy Menelaus en Helen, wat nou versoen is. Helen en Menelaus sê ook dat hulle na 'n lang reis deur Egipte na Sparta teruggekeer het. Daar, op die eiland Pharos, ontmoet Menelaus die ou seegod Proteus, wat hom vertel het dat Odysseus 'n gevangene van die nimf Calypso was. Telemachus verneem die lot van Menelaus se broer, Agamemnon, koning van Mykene en leier van die Grieke in Troje: hy is vermoor by sy terugkeer huis toe deur sy vrou Clytemnestra en haar minnaar Aegisthus. Die verhaal skuif kortliks na die vryers, wat nou eers besef het dat Telemachus weg is. Boos, formuleer hulle 'n plan om 'n hinderlaag op sy skip te maak en hom dood te maak terwyl hy huis toe vaar. Penelope luister na hul komplot en is bekommerd oor die veiligheid van haar seun.

Ontsnap na die Phaeacians

In die loop van Odysseus se sewe jaar as gevangene van die godin Calypso op 'n eiland (Ogygia), het sy diep verlief geraak op hom, alhoewel hy haar aanbiedinge van onsterflikheid as haar man aanmoedig en nog steeds huil huis toe. Sy word beveel om hom vry te laat deur die boodskapper god Hermes, wat deur Zeus gestuur is in reaksie op Athena se pleidooi. Odysseus bou 'n vlot en kry klere, kos en drank deur Calypso. Toe Poseidon verneem dat Odysseus ontsnap het, verwoes hy die vlot, maar gehelp deur 'n sluier wat deur die seenimf Ino gegee word, swem Odysseus aan wal op Scherie, die eiland van die Feacians. Kaal en uitgeput skuil hy in 'n hoop blare en raak aan die slaap.

Die volgende oggend, wakker gemaak deur die lag van meisies, sien hy die jong Nausicaä, wat saam met haar diensmeisies na die see gegaan het nadat Athena haar in 'n droom gesê het om dit te doen. Hy doen 'n beroep op hulp. Sy moedig hom aan om die gasvryheid van haar ouers, Arete en Alcinous, te soek. Alcinous beloof om hom 'n skip te gee om hom huis toe te keer, sonder om te weet wie Odysseus is.

Hy bly vir 'n paar dae. Odysseus vra die blinde sanger Demodocus om die verhaal van die Trojaanse perd te vertel, 'n strategie waarin Odysseus 'n hoofrol gespeel het. Odysseus kon sy emosie nie wegsteek terwyl hy hierdie episode herleef nie, en onthul uiteindelik sy identiteit. Daarna vertel hy die verhaal van sy terugkeer uit Troje.

Odysseus se verslag van sy avonture

Odysseus vertel sy verhaal aan die Phaeacians. Na 'n mislukte aanval is Odysseus en sy twaalf skepe deur storms van koers gedryf. Odysseus het die lotusvreters besoek wat sy manne die vrugte gegee het wat veroorsaak het dat hulle hul tuiskoms vergeet het. Odysseus moes hulle met geweld terug na die skip sleep.

Daarna beland Odysseus en sy manne op 'n welige, onbewoonde eiland naby die land van die Cyclopes. Die mans land toe op die kus en kom in die grot van Polyphemus, waar hulle al die kase en vleis kry wat hulle verlang. Met sy terugkeer huis toe, verseël Polyphemus die ingang met 'n massiewe rots en gaan eet Odysseus se manne. Odysseus het 'n ontsnappingsplan bedink waarin hy, wat homself as 'Niemand' identifiseer, Polyphemus met wyn gedwing het en hom met 'n houtpaal verblind het. Toe Polyfemus uitgeroep het, het sy bure vertrek nadat Polyfemus beweer het dat 'niemand' hom aangeval het nie. Odysseus en sy manne het uiteindelik uit die grot ontsnap deur op die onderbuise van die skape te skuil toe hulle uit die grot gelaat is.

Toe hulle ontsnap, openbaar Odysseus hom, terwyl hy Polyphemus bespot het. Die Cyclops bid tot sy vader Poseidon en vra hom om Odysseus te vloek om tien jaar lank te dwaal. Na die ontsnapping gee Aeolus Odysseus 'n leertas met al die winde, behalwe die westewind, 'n geskenk wat 'n veilige terugkeer huis toe moes verseker het. Net toe Ithaca in sig kom, maak die matrose die sak oop terwyl Odysseus slaap, en dink dat dit goud bevat. Die winde vlieg uit en die storm dryf die skepe terug soos hulle gekom het. Aeolus, wat erken dat Odysseus die woede van die gode getrek het, het geweier om hom verder by te staan.

Nadat die kannibalistiese Laestrygonians al sy skepe behalwe sy eie vernietig het, vaar hy verder en bereik die eiland Aeaea, die tuiste van die heksgodin Circe. Sy het die helfte van sy mans in varke verander met bedwelmde kaas en wyn. Hermes het Odysseus gewaarsku oor Circe en vir Odysseus 'n kruie gegee moly, maak hom bestand teen Circe se magie. Odysseus het Circe gedwing om sy manne terug te verander na hul menslike vorm, en is deur haar verlei.

Hulle het een jaar by haar gebly. Uiteindelik, onder leiding van Circe se instruksies, steek Odysseus en sy bemanning die see oor en bereik 'n hawe aan die westelike rand van die wêreld, waar Odysseus aan die dooies geoffer het. Odysseus roep die gees van die profeet Tiresias op en word meegedeel dat hy kan terugkeer huis toe as hy homself en sy bemanning kan weerhou om die heilige vee van Helios op die eiland Thrinacia te eet, en dat dit nie sou lei nie sy skip en sy hele bemanning. Sien Odysseus se ontmoeting met die dooies Nekuia.

Toe hulle terugkeer na Aeaea, begrawe hulle Elpenor en word deur Circe aangeraai oor die oorblywende fases van die reis. Hulle het die land van die Sirenes omsingel. Al die matrose het hul ore met byewas toegesluit, behalwe Odysseus, wat aan die mas vasgemaak was omdat hy die lied wou hoor. Hy het vir sy matrose gesê om hom nie los te maak nie, want dit sou hom net laat verdrink. Hulle het toe tussen die seskoppige monster Scylla en die maalkolk Charybdis gegaan. Scylla eis ses van sy mans.

Daarna land hulle op die eiland Thrinacia, met die bemanning wat Odysseus se wense om van die eiland af weg te bly, oorheers. Zeus het 'n storm veroorsaak wat hulle verhinder het om te vertrek, wat veroorsaak het dat hulle die kos wat Circe aan hulle gegee het, uitgeput het. Terwyl Odysseus weg was om te bid, het sy manne die waarskuwings van Tiresias en Circe geïgnoreer en die heilige beeste van Helios gejag. Die songod het daarop aangedring dat Zeus die mans vir hierdie heiligmaking straf. Hulle het 'n skipbreuk opgedoen en alles behalwe Odysseus het verdrink. Odysseus klou aan 'n vyeboom vas. Op Ogygia geland, bly hy daar as Calypso se minnaar.

Keer terug na Ithaca

Nadat hy na sy verhaal geluister het, stem die Phaeacians saam om Odysseus meer skat te voorsien as wat hy sou ontvang het uit die buit van Troje. Hulle lewer hom snags, terwyl hy vas aan die slaap is, na 'n verborge hawe op Ithaca.

Odysseus word wakker en glo dat hy op 'n ver land geval is voordat Athena aan hom verskyn en onthul dat hy inderdaad op Ithaca is. Sy steek sy skat weg in 'n nabygeleë grot en vermom hom as 'n bejaarde bedelaar sodat hy kan sien hoe dit in sy huishouding gaan. Hy vind sy weg na die hut van een van sy eie slawe, varkboer Eumaeus, wat hom gasvry behandel en gunstig van Odysseus praat. Na ete vertel die vermomde Odysseus vir die plaasarbeiders 'n fiktiewe verhaal van homself.

Telemachus vaar van Sparta af huis toe en vermy 'n hinderlaag wat deur die vryers gestel is. Hy klim aan die kus van Ithaca en ontmoet Odysseus. Odysseus identifiseer homself aan Telemachus (maar nie aan Eumaeus nie), en hulle besluit dat die vryers doodgemaak moet word. Telemachus gaan eerste huis toe. Saam met Eumaeus keer Odysseus terug na sy eie huis, terwyl hy nog steeds voorgee dat hy 'n bedelaar is. Hy word bespot deur die vryers in sy eie huis, veral Antinous. Odysseus ontmoet Penelope en toets haar bedoelings deur te sê dat hy Odysseus op Kreta ontmoet het. Nou ondervra, voeg hy by dat hy onlangs in Thesprotia was en daar iets geleer het van Odysseus se onlangse omswerwinge.

Odysseus se identiteit word deur die huishoudster, Eurycleia, ontdek toe sy 'n ou litteken herken terwyl sy sy voete was. Eurycleia probeer Penelope vertel van die ware identiteit van die bedelaar, maar Athena sorg dat Penelope haar nie kan hoor nie. Odysseus sweer Eurycleia tot geheimhouding.

Die doodmaak van die vryers

Die volgende dag, op versoek van Athena, maneuveer Penelope die vryers om om haar hand te kompeteer met 'n boogskietkompetisie met behulp van Odysseus se boog. Die man wat die boog kan trek en 'n pyl deur 'n dosyn bylkoppe kan skiet, sou wen. Odysseus neem self aan die kompetisie deel: hy alleen is sterk genoeg om die boog te snoer en die pyl deur die dosyn bylkoppe te skiet, wat hom die wenner maak. Hy gooi dan sy lappe af en maak Antinous dood met sy volgende pyl. Odysseus maak die ander vryers dood, eers met die res van die pyle en dan deur swaarde en spiese sodra beide kante hulself bewapen het. Sodra die stryd gewonne is, hang Telemachus ook twaalf van hul huishulpe wat Eurycleia identifiseer as skuldig aan die verraad van Penelope of seks met die vryers. Odysseus identifiseer homself aan Penelope. Sy is huiwerig, maar herken hom as hy noem dat hy hul bed gemaak het van 'n olyfboom wat nog tot op die grond gewortel is.

Die Odyssee is 12 109 reëls wat bestaan ​​uit daktieliese heksameter, ook genoem Homeriese heksameter. [3] [4] Dit maak oop in medias res, in die middel van die algehele verhaal, met vorige gebeure beskryf deur terugflitse en storievertelling. [5] Die 24 boeke stem ooreen met die letters van die Griekse alfabet wat die verdeling waarskynlik na die komposisie van die gedig gemaak het deur iemand anders as Homeros, maar word algemeen aanvaar. [6]

In die klassieke tydperk het sommige van die boeke (individueel en in groepe) gewoonlik hul eie titels gekry:

  • Boek 1-4: Telemasjien - die verhaal fokus op die perspektief van Telemachus. [7]
  • Boeke 9–21: Verskoning—Odysseus herinner aan sy avonture vir sy Phaeacian -leërskare. [8]
  • Boek 22: Mnesterophonia ('slag van die vryers' Mnesteres, 'vryers' + phónos, 'slag'). [9]

Boek 22 sluit die Griekse epiese siklus af, alhoewel fragmente van die 'alternatiewe einde' van die soorte bekend staan ​​as die Telegonie. Die Telegonie eenkant, die laaste 548 reëls van die Odyssee, wat ooreenstem met boek 24, word deur baie geleerdes geglo dat 'n effens later digter dit bygevoeg het. [10]

Die gebeure in die hoofvolgorde van die Odyssee (uitgesluit Odysseus se ingeslote vertelling van sy omswerwinge) word gesê dat dit op die Peloponnesos en op die wat nou die Ioniese Eilande genoem word, plaasvind. [11] Daar is probleme met die oënskynlik eenvoudige identifikasie van Ithaca, die tuisland van Odysseus, wat al dan nie dieselfde eiland is wat nou genoem word Ithakē (moderne Grieks: Ιθάκη). [12] Die omswerwinge van Odysseus, soos aan die Phaeacians vertel, en die ligging van die Phaeacians se eie eiland Scheria, veroorsaak meer fundamentele probleme as geografie toegepas moet word: geleerdes, oud sowel as modern, is verdeeld oor of nie een van die plekke wat Odysseus besoek het (na Ismaros en voor sy terugkeer na Ithaca) is werklik nie. [13] Beide verouderde sowel as hedendaagse geleerdes het probeer om Odysseus se reis in kaart te bring, maar is dit nou grootliks eens dat die landskappe, veral van die Apologia (Boeke 9 tot 11), te veel mitologiese aspekte bevat as kenmerke om onomstrede toepasbaar te wees. [14] Klassisist Peter T. Struck het 'n interaktiewe kaart gemaak wat Odysseus se reise uiteensit, [15] insluitend sy nabye tuiskoms wat deur die sak wind gedwarsboom is. [14]

Geleerdes het sterk invloede van mitologie en literatuur uit die Nabye Ooste gesien Odyssee. [16] Martin West merk op aansienlike parallelle tussen die Epos van Gilgamesj en die Odyssee. [17] Beide Odysseus en Gilgamesj is bekend daarvoor dat hulle na die eindes van die aarde reis, en gaan op hul reise na die land van die dooies. [18] Op sy reis na die onderwêreld volg Odysseus instruksies wat Circe aan hom gegee het, wie se aan die rande van die wêreld geleë is en deur beeldspraak met die son verbind word. [19] Net soos Odysseus, kry Gilgamesh aanwysings oor hoe om die land van die dooies te bereik van 'n goddelike helper: die godin Siduri, wat, net soos Circe, by die see aan die einde van die aarde woon, wie se huis ook verband hou met die son. Gilgamesh bereik Siduri se huis deur 'n tonnel onder die berg Mashu, die hoë berg waaruit die son in die lug kom, deur te gaan. [20] West voer aan dat die ooreenkoms van Odysseus en Gilgamesj se reise met die rande van die aarde die gevolg is van die invloed van die Gilgamesj -epos op die Odyssee. [21]

In 1914 vermoed die paleontoloog Othenio Abel dat die oorsprong van die Cyclops die gevolg was van antieke Grieke wat 'n olifantskedel gevind het. [22] Die enorme neusgang in die middel van die voorkop kon vir die wat nog nooit 'n lewende olifant gesien het, soos die oogkas van 'n reus gelyk het. [22] Klassieke geleerdes, aan die ander kant, weet al lankal dat die verhaal van die Cyclops oorspronklik 'n volksverhaal was, wat onafhanklik van die Odyssee en wat later deel daarvan geword het. Soortgelyke verhale word in kulture in Europa en die Midde -Ooste aangetref. [23]: 127–31 Volgens hierdie verduideliking was die Cyclops oorspronklik bloot 'n reus of ogre, baie soos Humbaba in die Epos van Gilgamesj. [23]: 127–31 Graham Anderson stel voor dat die toevoeging daaroor dat dit slegs een oog gehad het, uitgevind is om te verduidelik hoe die dier so maklik verblind is. [23]: 124–5

Tuiskoms

Tuiskoms (Oudgrieks: νόστος, nostos) is 'n sentrale tema van die Odyssee. [24] Anna Bonafazi van die Universiteit van Keulen skryf dat, in Homeros, nostos is "terugkeer huis toe van Troje, op see". [24]

Agatha Thornton ondersoek nostos in die konteks van ander karakters as Odysseus, om 'n alternatief te bied vir wat na die einde van die Odyssee. [25] Een voorbeeld is byvoorbeeld die van Agamemnon se tuiskoms teenoor Odysseus '. By die terugkeer van Agamemnon vermoor sy vrou Clytemnestra en haar minnaar, Aegisthus, Agamemnon. Agamemnon se seun, Orestes, vermoor Aegisthus uit wraak vir die dood van sy vader. Hierdie parallel vergelyk die dood van die vryers met die dood van Aegisthus en stel Orestes as 'n voorbeeld vir Telemachus. [25] Omdat Odysseus ook weet van Clytemnestra se verraad, keer Odysseus vermom terug huis toe om die lojaliteit van sy eie vrou, Penelope, te toets. [25] Later prys Agamemnon Penelope omdat hy Odysseus nie vermoor het nie. Dit is vanweë Penelope dat Odysseus roem en 'n suksesvolle tuiskoms het. Hierdie suksesvolle tuiskoms is anders as Achilles, wat roem het, maar dood is, en Agamemnon, wat 'n onsuksesvolle tuiskoms gehad het wat sy dood tot gevolg gehad het. [25]

Swerf

Slegs twee van Odysseus se avonture word deur die verteller beskryf. Die res van Odysseus se avonture word deur Odysseus self vertel. Die twee tonele wat deur die verteller beskryf word, is Odysseus op die eiland van Calypso en Odysseus se ontmoeting met die Phaeacians. Hierdie tonele word deur die digter aangesê om 'n belangrike oorgang in Odysseus se reis voor te stel: weggesteek word om terug te keer huis toe. [26]

Calypso se naam kom van die Griekse woord kalúptō (καλύπτω), wat 'bedek' of 'verberg' beteken, wat gepas is, want dit is presies wat sy met Odysseus doen. [27] Calypso hou Odysseus vir die wêreld verborge en kan nie huis toe keer nie. Nadat hy die eiland van Calypso verlaat het, beskryf die digter Odysseus se ontmoetings met die Phaeacians - diegene wat 'konvooi sonder seer vir alle mense' [28] - wat sy oorgang verteenwoordig van nie terugkeer na huis nie. [26] Ook tydens Odysseus se reis ontmoet hy baie wesens wat naby die gode is. Hierdie ontmoetings is nuttig om te verstaan ​​dat Odysseus in 'n wêreld buite die mens is en dat dit die feit beïnvloed dat hy nie huis toe kan keer nie. [26] Hierdie wesens wat naby die gode is, sluit in die Phaeacians wat naby die Cyclopes gewoon het, [29] wie se koning, Alcinous, die agterkleinseun is van die koning van die reuse, Eurymedon, en die kleinseun van Poseidon. [26] Sommige van die ander karakters wat Odysseus teëkom, is die siklope Polyphemus, die seun van Poseidon Circe, 'n towenares wat mense in diere en die kannibalistiese reuse, die Laestrygonians, verander. [26]

Gasvriendskap

Gedurende die loop van die epos kom Odysseus verskeie voorbeelde teë xenia ("gasvriendskap"), wat modelle bied van hoe gashere moet optree en nie moet nie. [30] [31] Die Faeërs demonstreer voorbeeldige gasvriendskap deur Odysseus te voed, vir hom slaapplek te gee en hom baie geskenke en 'n veilige reis huis toe te gee, wat alles 'n goeie gasheer moet doen. Polifemus toon swak gasvriendskap. Sy enigste 'geskenk' aan Odysseus is dat hy hom laaste sal eet. [31] Calypso is ook 'n voorbeeld van swak gasvriendskap omdat sy Odysseus nie toelaat om haar eiland te verlaat nie. [31] 'n Ander belangrike faktor vir gasvriendskap is dat koningskap vrygewigheid impliseer. Daar word aanvaar dat 'n koning die middele het om 'n vrygewige gasheer te wees en meer vrygewig is met sy eie eiendom. [31] Dit word die beste gesien wanneer Odysseus, vermom as 'n bedelaar, vir Antinous, een van die vryers, om voedsel smeek en Antinous sy versoek van die hand wys. Odysseus sê in wese dat hoewel Antinous soos 'n koning kan lyk, hy ver van 'n koning is, aangesien hy nie vrygewig is nie. [32]

Volgens J. B. Hainsworth volg gasvriendskap 'n baie spesifieke patroon: [33]

  1. Die aankoms en ontvangs van die gas.
  2. Om te bad of vars klere aan die gas te gee.
  3. Gee kos en drank aan die gas.
  4. Vrae kan aan die gas gestel word en die gasheer moet vermaak verskaf.
  5. Die gas moet slaapplek kry, en beide die gas en die gasheer tree af vir die nag.
  6. Die gas en gasheer ruil geskenke uit, die gas kry 'n veilige reis huis toe en die gas vertrek.

'N Ander belangrike faktor van gasvriendskap is om nie die gas langer te hou as wat hulle wil nie en ook om hul veiligheid te belowe terwyl hulle 'n gas in die huis van die gasheer is. [30] [34]

Toets

Nog 'n tema regdeur die Odyssee toets. [35] Dit vind op twee verskillende maniere plaas. Odysseus toets die lojaliteit van ander en ander toets Odysseus se identiteit. 'N Voorbeeld van Odysseus wat die lojaliteit van ander getoets het, is wanneer hy huis toe keer. [35] In plaas daarvan om onmiddellik sy identiteit bekend te maak, kom hy vermom as 'n bedelaar aan en gaan dan vas om te bepaal wie in sy huis lojaal aan hom gebly het en wie die vryers gehelp het. Nadat Odysseus sy ware identiteit onthul het, toets die karakters Odysseus se identiteit om te sien of hy werklik is wie hy sê hy is. [35] Penelope toets byvoorbeeld Odysseus se identiteit deur te sê dat sy die bed vir hom na die ander kamer sal skuif. Dit is 'n moeilike taak, aangesien dit bestaan ​​uit 'n lewende boom wat nodig is om afgekap te word, 'n feit wat slegs die regte Odysseus sou weet en sodoende sy identiteit bewys. Lees meer hieroor vir meer inligting oor die vordering van toetstipes. [35]

Toetsing het ook 'n baie spesifieke tipe toneel wat daarmee gepaard gaan. Dwarsdeur die epos volg die toetsing van ander 'n tipiese patroon. Hierdie patroon is: [35] [34]

  1. Odysseus huiwer om die lojaliteit van ander te bevraagteken.
  2. Odysseus toets die lojaliteit van ander deur dit te bevraagteken.
  3. Die karakters beantwoord Odysseus se vrae.
  4. Odysseus gaan sy identiteit bekend.
  5. Die karakters toets Odysseus se identiteit.
  6. Daar is 'n toename in emosies wat verband hou met die erkenning van Odysseus, gewoonlik kla of vreugde.
  7. Laastens werk die versoende karakters saam.

Voortekens

Voortekens kom gereeld voor gedurende die hele Odyssee. Binne die epiese gedig betrek hulle gereeld voëls. [36] Volgens Thornton is die belangrikste een wie elke teken ontvang en op watter manier dit manifesteer. Byvoorbeeld, voëltekens word aan Telemachus, Penelope, Odysseus en die vryers gewys. [36] Telemachus en Penelope ontvang ook hul tekens in die vorm van woorde, nies en drome. [36] Odysseus is egter die enigste karakter wat donderweer of weerlig as teken ontvang. [37] [38] Sy beklemtoon dit as deurslaggewend omdat weerlig, as 'n simbool van Zeus, die koningskap van Odysseus verteenwoordig. [36] Odysseus word deur beide die Zeus verbind Ilias en die Odyssee. [39]

Voortekens is nog 'n voorbeeld van 'n tipe toneel in die Odyssee. Twee belangrike dele van 'n voorteken tipe toneel is die erkenning van die teken, gevolg deur sy interpretasie. [36] In die OdysseeAlle voëltekens - met die uitsondering van die eerste - wys hoe groot voëls kleiner voëls aanval. [36] [34] Om elke voorteken te vergesel, is 'n wens wat eksplisiet gestel kan word of slegs geïmpliseer kan word. [36] Telemachus wil byvoorbeeld wraak [40] en dat Odysseus tuis moet wees, [41] Penelope wens Odysseus se terugkeer, [42] en die vryers wens die dood van Telemachus. [43]

Samestelling

Die datum van die gedig is 'n kwessie van ernstige meningsverskil onder klassisiste. In die middel van die 8ste eeu vC het die inwoners van Griekeland 'n aangepaste weergawe van die Fenisiese alfabet begin aanneem om hul eie taal neer te skryf. [44] Die Homeriese gedigte was moontlik een van die vroegste produkte van die geletterdheid, en sou dit in die laat agtste eeu 'n tyd saamgestel gewees het. [45] Op die kleibeker wat in Ischia, Italië, aangeteken is, staan ​​die woorde "Nestor's cup, good to drink from." [46] Sommige geleerdes, soos Calvert Watkins, het hierdie beker gekoppel aan 'n beskrywing van koning Nestor se goue beker in die Ilias. [47] As die beker 'n sinspeling op die Ilias, kan die gedig se komposisie tot 700-750 vC gedateer word. [44]

Die datering word ook ingewikkeld deurdat die Homeriese gedigte, of gedeeltes daarvan, gereeld deur rhapsodes uitgevoer is vir 'n paar honderd jaar. [44] Die Odyssee soos dit vandag bestaan, is dit waarskynlik nie beduidend anders nie. [45] Afgesien van klein verskille, het die Homeriese gedigte teen die 6de eeu 'n kanonieke plek in die instellings van antieke Athene gekry. [48] ​​In 566 vC het Peisistratos 'n burgerlike en godsdienstige fees met die naam Panathenaia ingestel, met optredes van Homeriese gedigte. [48] ​​Dit is belangrik omdat 'n 'korrekte' weergawe van die gedigte uitgevoer moes word, wat daarop dui dat 'n bepaalde weergawe van die teks gekanoniseer is. [49]

Tekstuele tradisie

Die Ilias en die Odyssee is wyd gekopieer en gebruik as skooltekste in lande waar die Griekse taal deur die oudheid gepraat is. [50] [51] Geleerdes het moontlik al in die tyd van Aristoteles in die 4de eeu vC begin om kommentaar op die gedigte te skryf. [50] In die 3de en 2de eeu vC het geleerdes verbonde aan die Library of Alexandria - veral Zenodotus van Efese en Aristarchus van Samothrace - die Homeriese gedigte geredigeer, kommentare daaroor geskryf en gehelp om die kanonieke tekste daar te stel. [52]

Die Ilias en die Odyssee bly wyd bestudeer en word gedurende die Middeleeue as skooltekste in die Bisantynse Ryk gebruik. [50] [51] Die Bisantynse Griekse geleerde en aartsbiskop Eustathios van Thessalonike (ongeveer 1115-1195/6 nC) skryf volledige kommentaar op beide die Homeriese epos wat later generasies as gesaghebbend beskou het [50] [51] sy kommentaar op die Odyssee alleen beslaan byna 2000 groot bladsye in 'n twintigste-eeuse uitgawe. [50] Die eerste gedrukte uitgawe van die Odyssee, bekend as die editio princeps, is in 1488 vervaardig deur die Griekse geleerde Demetrios Chalkokondyles, wat in Athene gebore is en in Konstantinopel gestudeer het. [50] [51] Sy uitgawe is in Milaan gedruk deur 'n Griekse drukker met die naam Antonios Damilas. [51]

Sedert die laat 19de eeu bevat baie papirusse dele of selfs hele hoofstukke van die Odyssee is in Egipte gevind, met inhoud wat verskil van latere Middeleeuse weergawes. [53] In 2018 onthul die Griekse ministerie van kultuur die ontdekking van 'n kleitablet naby die tempel van Zeus, met 13 verse uit die Odyssee se 14de rapsodie vir Eumaeus. Hoewel dit aanvanklik berig is uit die 3de eeu nC, moet die datum nog bevestig word. [54] [55]

Engelse vertalings

Die digter George Chapman het die eerste volledige Engelse vertaling van die Odyssee in 1614, wat in rympies van iambiese pentameter gestel is. [50] Emily Wilson, professor in klassieke studies aan die Universiteit van Pennsylvania, het opgemerk dat byna al die mees prominente vertalers van Griekse en Romeinse letterkunde in die eerste dekade van die 21ste eeu mans was. [56] Sy noem haar ervaring met die vertaling van Homeros een van 'intieme vervreemding'. [57] Wilson skryf dat dit die gewilde opvatting van karakters en gebeure van die Odyssey, [58] om die verhaal te buig met konnotasies wat nie in die oorspronklike teks voorkom nie: "Byvoorbeeld, op die toneel waar Telemachus toesig hou oor die hang van die slawe wat by die vryers geslaap het, stel die meeste vertalings neerhalende taal (" slette "of" hoere "bekend) ") [.] Die oorspronklike Grieks noem hierdie slawe nie neerhalende taal nie." [58] In the original Greek, the word used is hai, the feminine article, equivalent to "those female people". [59]

The influence of the Homeric texts can be difficult to summarise because of how greatly they have impacted the popular imagination and cultural values. [60] The Odyssey en die Ilias formed the basis of education for members of ancient Mediterranean society. That curriculum was adopted by Western humanists, [61] meaning the text was so much a part of the cultural fabric that it became irrelevant whether an individual had read it. [62] As such, the influence of the Odyssey has reverberated through over a millennium of writing. The poem topped a poll of experts by BBC Culture to find literature's most enduring narrative. [2] [63] It is widely regarded by western literary critics as a timeless classic, [64] and remains one of the oldest works of extant literature commonly read by Western audiences. [65]

Literatuur

In Canto XXVI of the Inferno, Dante Alighieri meets Odysseus in the eighth circle of hell, where Odysseus himself appends a new ending to the Odyssey in which he never returns to Ithaca and instead continues his restless adventuring. [22] Edith Hall suggests that Dante's depiction of Ulysses became understood as a manifestation of Renaissance colonialism and othering, with the cyclops standing in for "accounts of monstrous races on the edge of the world", and his defeat as symbolising "the Roman domination of the western Mediterranean". [30]

Irish poet James Joyce's modernist novel Ulysses (1922) was significantly influenced by the Odyssey. Joyce had encountered the figure of Odysseus in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses, an adaptation of the epic poem for children, which seems to have established the Latin name in Joyce's mind. [66] [67] Ulysses, a re-telling of the Odyssey set in Dublin, is divided into 18 sections ("episodes") which can be mapped roughly onto the 24 books of the Odyssey. [68] Joyce claimed familiarity with the original Homeric Greek, but this has been disputed by some scholars, who cite his poor grasp of the language as evidence to the contrary. [69] The book, and especially its stream of consciousness prose, is widely considered foundational to the modernist genre. [70]

Modern writers have revisited the Odyssey to highlight the poem's female characters. Canadian writer Margaret Atwood adapted parts of the Odyssey for her novella, The Penelopiad (2000). The novella focuses on Odysseus' wife, Penelope, [71] and the twelve female slaves hanged by Odysseus at the poem's ending, an image which haunted her. [72] Atwood's novella comments on the original text, wherein Odysseus' successful return to Ithaca symbolises the restoration of a patriarchal system. [72] Similarly, Madeline Miller's Circe (2018) revisits the relationship between Odysseus and Circe on Aeaea. [73] As a reader, Miller was frustrated by Circe's lack of motivation in the original poem, and sought to explain her capriciousness. [74] The novel recontextualises the sorceress' transformations of sailors into pigs from an act of malice into one of self-defence, given that she has no superhuman strength with which to repel attackers. [75]


The Odyssey Quiz: Check Your Knowledge

After listening to Odysseus&rsquo adventures, Alcinous provides Odysseus with a ship, which takes him back to Ithaca overnight.

Odysseus blinded Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon. As a result, Poseidon becomes Odysseus' greatest antagonist as he attempts to avenge the attack on his son.

Odysseus is best known for his craft and cunning. Unlike other classical heroes, his physical prowess is less significant than his intelligence and trickery.

The suitors are 108 noblemen vying for Penelope's hand in marriage&mdashand the throne&mdashafter Odysseus' 20-year absence from Ithaca.

Thanks to the characters Phemius and Demodocus, readers of The Odyssey gain insight into the nature and significance of poetic performance in Homer's era.

Nice try! Review these resources to improve your score: 

Great work! You਌learly understand the plot, characters, and key themes of The Odyssey.਌ongratulations on finishing this lesson. 


Odysseus: the First Western Man

J. M. W. Turner’s “Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus”

“Odysseus is the first recognizably Western man.”

“Now halt the strife of inexorable war.”

“Let our brilliance make them look dark. No, let us not become darker ourselves on their account, like all those who punish…Let us look away.”

– Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science

H omer ends the Odyssey with an exhortation from the god Cronus to Odysseus to stop perpetuating the cycle of wars of revenge and initiate a new era of peace and love, supervised by the goddess Athena. In Greek mythology, Cronus had ruled the Titan gods during the mythological Golden Age that had vanished long before the Trojan War and Athena was the goddess not only of war but also of wisdom and the arts. The implication is that Odysseus became a wise and just ruler, dispensing kindness through strength.

Homer is presenting an argument on two levels. The Golden Age might be gone, but great men can strive to regain it through heroic means that are a departure from the unrestrained brutality of mortal combat between nobles―the result of an honor culture that made endless revengeful blood-feuds a major preoccupation for those of noble birth. And the means of attaining this new golden age will be a culture of amity and harmonious relations that celebrates human achievements other than war, maintaining peace through wise leadership, even if the capacity to wage war is one of the principle means of maintaining peace.

This sentiment is a major departure from the cultural milieu explored in the Iliad. It represents an awareness that mortal conflict and brutal heroism, cruelty, and continual strife might give way to a new age prompted by the emergence of a new kind of human being, an individualist and cultural innovator. A prototypical Nietzschean life-affirming heroic individual but also one who transcends partisan identities to achieve an integrated, unitary sense of being. In doing so, this individual brings out the best in people. He is capable of forging a harmonious society of peaceful cooperation: one committed to seeking excellence of being, rather than conflict based on identity distinctions.

The term ‘identity politics’ is a recent innovation, but the idea of dividing society into competing, mutually-antagonistic groups narrowly-defined by a non-integrated partisan sense of identity is not new in fact, it is as old as history itself. But for those wishing to bring peace and harmony founded on goodwill, the challenge is to integrate the sources of identity into one unitary whole. The idea that this is a struggle that begins within the individu was addressed by Homer in the Odyssey. It was later taken up by Aristotle, then by Christian theologians, and much later by Kant, Nietzsche, and then Freud, and by many others since.

What makes the link between Homer and Nietzsche so interesting is that both, in effect, present the inner struggle as being about the intuitive (rather than rational) grasp of what it is to be a unitary being, rather than this achievement being the result of a process of rational self-development. Nietzsche explored the challenge of integrating the sense of self into one unitary sense of being, but Homer got there long before he did.

Ilias en Odyssey: An Archaic Warrior-Hero Culture in Transition

Homer’s two epic poems can be seen as marking the beginning of a transition from an archaic mode of life to a new way of understanding the human predicament and potential.

The Iliad presents a partial account of this transition. The Achaeans are obsessed with manly virtues and the preservation of their honor, as well as their status as warrior-heroes. This culture failed the Achaeans at Troy, who after ten years were facing defeat. The situation was resolved by a new kind of man, Odysseus, king of Ithaca, a man of many talents but one who was held in low esteem by his peers.

He provided the cunning and inventiveness to enable the Achaeans to overcome the Trojans by means of clever―but very unheroic―guile and trickery. Homer’s argument here is that this is not really much of an improvement. Troy is destroyed and most of its inhabitants killed or enslaved, but the victorious Achaeans are much depleted in numbers, and the booty they obtain does not make up for all the lives and treasure they have expended on the war.

The Odyssey, in contrast, presents a new kind of narrative: a deeply personal account of the struggles of one man as he endures the punishment of the gods for his usurpation of their powers (of guile and trickery) over mortals. During his voyage home, Odysseus discovers that he is capable of imposing brutal self-discipline in a way that inspires gentler sentiments. He also realizes that he is able to conceptualize both himself and others in a completely new way. He becomes a true leader, unlike his fellow nobles who are driven by instinct, superstition, and violent emotions. He is not consistent to this point, after his return home, he wages vengeful war on Penelope’s suitors.

At the very end of the Odyssey, Homer introduces the idea of a very different approach to the settling of disputes: to explore ways of arriving at non-lethal justice, to focus on building and maintaining relations based on goodwill so as to avoid further conflicts from breaking out. Although Homer’s account is presented in terms of the influence of Cronus and Athena on Odysseus, this is a literary device to introduce an idea so novel that to present it in any other way would have bemused his audience.

During his ordeals, Odysseus has had to dig deep within himself to discover a new attribute then unknown in Greek culture (and not described in these terms at all by Homer). This is the faculty of will over hubris: the capacity to overcome pride and impulsiveness in order to strengthen one’s sense of unity of being. This issue was later explored by Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics, with the idea of the Golden Mean and overcoming weakness of will (akrasia), and he combined it with the idea of virtuous friendship based on mutual goodwill. For Aristotle, this was the basis for a peaceful, just, and harmonious society and polity. Later still, Christian universalism offered the idea of goodwill as being an expression of amity without the necessity of the bond of mutual friendship.

Nietzsche had little use for Christian universalism for Aristotle’s idea of virtuous friendship or Homer’s earlier vision of a political culture of amity and harmonious relations. But he did view the integrated, unitary sense of being as emerging from the “will to power” and “self-overcoming.”

Self-Overcoming to Achieve an Integrated, Unitary Sense of Being

Nietzsche’s “will to power” is the necessary and deterministic force of nature expressing itself in all things, living or otherwise. For Nietzsche, living is but a specific form of the “will to power,” and, as such, it is an expression of nature. It is not intrinsically different from things that are not alive. His materialism and natural determinism have, as an inevitable consequence, claimed that everything is related to everything else, spatially as well as temporally. We, humans, are part of the ever-unfolding process that constitutes the universe. The fullest expression of the “will to power” is to be life-affirming—that is, to celebrate everything that we are now while trying to become everything that we are not but are necessarily going to become (even if we do not yet know it). At the same time, we will never become fully human unless we love everything that we are.

Thus, Nietzsche’s “will” is not free will in any conventional sense it is the multitude of varieties of the force of nature seeking full expression, even as they compete with one another. This is why competition and conflict are necessary and inevitable in nature and in human society. It is also why Nietzsche increasingly looks inwards for an explanation of how humans can reconcile the various competing natural forces within themselves and construct an integrated, unitary sense of being through overcoming the self.

The unitary sense of being we each have is the result of the individuation of the “will to power” forging self-integration. Nietzsche conceived of this as being the expression of the faculty of will. The human will is not an act or deed or stipulation it is being continually in the process of becoming. The “will to power” has been misinterpreted as meaning only the desire for power over others however, in fact, this is only part of its expression. Further, in this externalized form, it may be creative or destructive, life-affirming or life-denying.

Nietzsche’s assertion that “you shall become the person you are” is about embracing one’s fate but also allowing the natural forces of life to give rise to life-affirming expression, even if in competition with other-selves intent on doing the same. The question arises as to whether this entails a social and cultural determinism. Nietzsche gives the impression that cultural development is possible, and that we can strive (through art and its appreciation) to become as fully human as possible. This does not necessarily mean that we have achieved anything ourselves, just that we have allowed the natural forces within us full expression. But if this is the case, is it not equally a natural phenomenon that we should seek to punish those who give us cause for offense? Nietzsche tells us to “look away” instead. There is enough conflict in the world already to have any more than is absolutely necessary.

For Nietzsche―who loved paradoxes and contradictions―conflict can be life-affirming. We see natural forces opposing one another all the time, and, out of this opposition, comes something new: a force in another direction or a new manifestation of nature seeking full expression. In this way, Nietzsche conceives of the emergence of the idea of personal sovereignty―a person’s capacity to conquer the darker side of natural inclinations―as itself being a development of human nature. Whether this is a voldoende explanation is another matter however, what is missing in Nietzsche’s account is the idea that goodwill―in being unique to human beings―functions as an indication of personal sovereignty. But this is precisely the road that Homer has Odysseus travel.

Odysseus as a Sovereign Individual

The final event in the Odyssey is also the final stage in a process of self-development undergone by Odysseus from the time he leaves Troy to sail home. The Odysseus who set sail from Ithaca to Troy was a young man of noble birth, but he was viewed by his peers somewhat unfavorably. He tried to get out of going to war (his wife had just given birth), though he had been one of those who initially supported the idea. He was known as being crafty and cunning and perhaps even a little wise, but the Greek warrior-heroes looked with disdain upon these qualities. Probably worst of all, he was an accomplished bowman, renowned for his marksmanship. None of these characteristics were associated with the archaic Greek warrior-hero ethos of andreia (manliness). When Odysseus leaves for Troy, his great bow remains behind he will fight without it.

Odysseus is only one of many noble figures in the Iliad, all of whom are portrayed by Homer in two-dimensional terms—that is, they have no depth to their characters. They attribute their motivations and sentiments to influence from the gods, and they know only two kinds of reward in life: those gained from excelling as a warrior-hero and, then, the bodily pleasures gained from food, drink, and sex. They celebrate their victories and lament the loss of their comrades, as do any warriors. They quarrel endlessly, but one never gets the sense that there are deeper, more complex sentiments resulting from any faculty of introspection and self-criticism, or an aspiration to be anything different than what they already are.

The Odysseus who returns to Ithaca after 20 years away is almost unrecognizable in these terms. During his long journey home, he has again successfully defied the gods and again won, enduring many ordeals and overcoming much adversity. Yet, at the end of the Odyssey, Odysseus is presented as having achieved real depth of character, self-insight, and self-control.

This is signaled by Homer in the exhortation of Cronus to end the wars of revenge and the cycles of feuding, as well as Athena’s role as Odysseus’ mentor in his striving to make a better world. For the first time in Western history, we get an impression of the recognition of the potential for human progress. Homer’s Odysseus is a man of real existential depth, and this is the result of an inner struggle to overcome his own limitations. And it all happens intuitively—not through any quasi-Socratic questioning.

Nietzsche believed that Western culture and civilization had taken a wrong turn with Socrates’ promotion of rational deliberation as the only route to truth, downgrading the grasp of truth directly without the mediation of reason (Kant termed this “intuition”). Truth was a contested idea long before Socrates, and Nietzsche argued that without truth, nihilism triumphs. Classical Greek drama was an attempt to hold back nihilistic sentiments, but the cultural force of Greek drama declined during the Hellenic period. In turn, the defense against nihilism was weakened. Christianity emerged as the bulwark against nihilistic catastrophe for 2,000 years, and when that began to fail, the simmering ressentiments of nihilism erupted again. The counter-poise was Nietzsche’s “noble soul.”

Nietzsche’s heroic individualism represents the path that his “noble souls” take in their striving to become fully human. In pre-Socratic Greece, the only figure who comes anywhere close to Nietzsche’s “noble soul” is the legendary Odysseus, who in Homer’s Odyssey achieves an integrated, unitary sense of being as a result of his inner struggle for self-knowledge and self-control.

Multiple Self-Interpretations and the Unitary Sense of Being

Odysseus is the first recognizably Western man. His noble compatriots could have been nobles in almost any other culture of the time—that is, products of their society, conforming to its values, even if they quarreled over honor, status, and power. They appear as loose bundles of attributes, and the art of the time gives them little individuality apart from one or two external characteristics: their identity is fragmentary. But Odysseus―at least in the Odyssey―is very different.

Here is a man who also lives in his mind, who grieves over his fallen comrades. He suffers agonies of self-doubt he misses his wife and child dreadfully he is horrified to see the spirit of his mother in Hades. He rejects all easy solutions to his torments, and his hubris often leads him astray. He suffers seemingly endless pain and misery during his long journey home. And yet, from all this, he eventually develops a sense of being that enables him to maintain his focus on getting home. Even the offer of immortality from the beautiful semi-divine enchantress Calypso―in return for becoming her eternal lover―fails to persuade him to give up his quest to return home. His love for Penelope is greater. The strength of Odysseus’ bond with Penelope indicates a new evaluation of the status of women―and of the marital bond―then foreign to ancient Greece.

Gevolgtrekkings

Nietzsche’s view of human life as a text to be interpreted has the primary existential struggle going on binne each individual as the various forces of nature―the “will to power”―compete for expression and dominance. At a psychological, social, and cultural level, partisan identities strive for expression and dominance, as in modern identity politics.

In the Odyssey, we see just this process played out internally, with Odysseus being deprived of all social reinforcement from his home culture as his men succumb on the journey home. He then has to sustain his own sense of self from his own inner resources alone. In effect, he learns a new mental skill: He creates his own narrative. His sense of being and self-concept are narrative constructs that he reinforces through continual reinterpretation, as well as through a deepening of content and context until he arrives home a very changed man: a man of unique character. Odysseus becomes a “noble soul” in Nietzschean terms.

It is easy to dismiss Nietzsche’s model of character-as-literary-construct as being a theory that seems to explain everything, even as it explains nothing it cannot be proven wrong, after all. But Western culture and civilization are grounded on such an idea nevertheless. This is because, without such unifying effort, our sense of being fragments into partisan identities, each seeking dominance. Nietzsche drew on Homer’s arguments, but the latter had gone further in anticipating the emergence of identity politics by 2,800 years for Homer, the goodwill that inspires harmonious political relations is impossible without an integrated, unitary sense of being.

Antagonism, hostility, enmity, and war have always been with us, but Homer urges a fundamental change in how we should see ourselves. His two epic poems mark the beginning of the history of Western literature and, hence, the start of Western civilization. What resonates today is the idea that Odysseus achieved an integrated, unitary sense of being and became a sovereign, self-created individual for whom goodwill was a fundamental political principle .

Paul Sturdee is a retired teacher of philosophy who now prefers a life of quiet contemplation. He has also written under the pen name “Wen Wryte.”


Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homer's Odyssey

Odysseus returns to Ithica after twenty years. He is disguised as an old beggar. He believes enough time has been wasted and wants things to go back to normal. Penelope makes an offer to the wooers. She gets the bow of Odysseus and tells the wooers that whoever will easily string the bow and shoot the arrow through twelve axes will be rewarded. The reward is he will become her husband. Odysseus asked the Queen if he could participate being he was an old beggar. Everyone was surprised that she&hellip


The story of the Odyssey says that Odysseus landed on the island of Cyclops (modern day Sicily) while attempting to navigate his way back to his homeland Ithaca. While exploring the island, he and his men entered a cave that was stocked with delicious food. What they didn’t realize was that it was the cave of Polyphemus and they were eating his stock. He was out on the island, tending to his flock of sheep, and returned to find the men.

He was enraged, led his sheep into the cave, blocked the entrance with a large stone and immediately grabbed two of the men, smashed their heads against the rocky walls and ate them. He went to sleep, leaving Odysseus and his men terrified. When the giant awoke, he immediately ate two more men, removed the stone, led his sheep out and then trapped the men inside again. While he was gone, Odysseus began to devise a plan.

When Polyphemus returned to the cave, Odysseus offered the giant some strong wine. Polyphemus became intoxicated and while he was drunk, he asked Odysseus what his name was. He replied, “No one.” Satisfied with the answer, Polyphemus told Odysseus that he would eat “No one” last to show his gratitude for the drink. He then fell into a deep sleep.

Odysseus seized the opportunity and took a wooden stake that he had carved while the giant had left him earlier in the day. He put it into the center of a hot fire, waiting until it glowed bright red with intense heat. He drove it straight into the giant’s eye and it blinded him instantly. Polyphemus began to scream, begging the other giants on the island to help him. As they arrived, he told them that “No one” had done this to him. This saved Odysseus, who eventually escaped the cave. The other giants assumed that a god had attacked Polyphemus and told him to pray for help, as they couldn’t interfere.

In the morning, Polyphemus still had to tend to his sheep. He let them out of the cave to eat but because he was unable to see, he felt the back of the sheep, wondering if any of the men who had still been trapped in the cave were riding on them. He felt nothing and went about his day as best as he could without being able to see.

But Odysseus was wise and had told his men to tie themselves underneath the bellies of the animals. This allowed them to escape, reach their ship and sail away. As the ship reached farther away from the land, Odysseus decided to tell the giant his real name. This was a mistake though because Polyphemus asked his father to seek revenge on the man who had taken his sight.


How does Odysseus escape from Polyphemus?

In Homer’s Odyssey, the main character is the hero archetype with his cunning and brave nature. During his quest, he overcomes many obstacles in his way by deceiving monsters, goddesses, and evil spirits. Book 9 presents the reader with a perfect example of Odysseus’s imaginative character and how he walks dry out of every storm.

Detailed answer:

Odysseus’s adventure leads him towards Ismarus, the city of Cicones (Cyclopes), one-eyed giants. His men, led by greed and foul desires, decide to stay on the island. It has enough food for the whole team, meat, cheese, milk, etcetera. However, soon the inhabitants of the island show up. One of them is Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon. The hospitality of a one-eyed giant soon has turned to hostility. He devoured two of Odysseus’s men and imprisoned the rest “for later.” Polyphemus put a giant rock over the entrance to ensure that none will escape their horrible fate.

Odysseus wanted to murder the monster with his sword right on the spot. However, he realized that his team would be trapped. He needed to outsmart the monster, or in other cases, he would soon die of hunger along with his command. Thus, Odysseus quickly mastered a plan. As Polyphemus went outside to pasture his sheep, Odysseus found a wooden staff in the cave and tried to harden it with fire. Upon Polyphemus’s return, Odysseus offered the giant some wine he had brought from his ship to get a one-eyed monster drunk.

Polyphemus started to scream from immense pain. When his neighbors tried to ask what happened, he kept answering, “Nobody is killing me.” This was the brilliance of Odysseus’s plan, which quickly brought him freedom and victory over giants. In the morning, unseen by the blind son of Poseidon, Odysseus escaped along with his comrades. They attached themselves to the underbellies of Polyphemus’s sheep, which granted them the desired freedom.

As they were safe on the ship, Odysseus loudly revealed his true identity, proclaiming Polyphemus’s stupidity. The one-eyed giant was not able to reach them and get his revenge. However, he prayed to his father, Poseidon, to avenge him. The brilliance of this plan is that it is revealed step-by-step to the reader, and one cannot guess what is going to happen next. This move creates a sense of empathy for the main characters. Not only can they die, but there is also a perspective that they will kill a cannibal monstrosity.

The one thing a reader can consider rather foolish is that Odysseus revealed himself. He was too proud that he outsmarted the son of god. His pride ultimately leads the crew to another ‘adventure.’ It is understandable that Odysseus was angry with Polyphemus for his friends’ deaths. However, that taunt brought him nothing but more harm. As a final act of his vengeance, Odysseus also steals Polyphemus’s sheep to eat with his team.


What is the theme of Cyclops in The Odyssey?

Know more about it here. Keeping this in view, what are some themes in the Odyssey?

  • Theme #1. Hubris. Hubris is one of the major themes of the epic, The Odyssey and is a Greek term for excessive pride.
  • Theme #2. Homecoming.
  • Theme #3. Hospitality.
  • Theme #4. Temptation.
  • Theme #5. Heroism.
  • Theme #6. Trickery and Deception.
  • Theme #7. Fate and Free Will.
  • Theme #8. Justice and Punishment.

Subsequently, question is, what does the Cyclops in The Odyssey represent? Cyclops. Die Cyclops, genoem Polifemus, traps Odysseus and some of his crew in his cave. He eats six of them and then gets blinded by Odysseus. Die Cyclops, because he has only one eye, represents people who see through only one perspective.

Consequently, what is the moral of Odysseus and the Cyclops?

The story of Odysseus' encounter with the Cyclops offers us two important lessons about self-control in contexts of change. These lessons are as relevant today as there were in Odysseus' time. The first and most obvious lesson is that self-control is a vital commodity for dealing with change.

What is the theme of Book 11 in the Odyssey?

Achilles received eternal glory or kleos in the Trojan War, but when he meets Odysseus he tells him that he would rather be alive without any glory than in the underworld. This interaction emphasizes the Odyssey's theme of metis and dolos as opposed to the desire for kleos in the Iliad.


Kyk die video: Odysseus and the Cyclops. Greek Mythological Story. Bedtime Stories (Augustus 2022).