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Erben I DD- 631 - Geskiedenis

Erben I DD- 631 - Geskiedenis



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Erben ek

Henry Erben, gebore in New York 6 September 1832, betree die vloot as middelskipper op 17 Junie 1848. Hy lewer uitstekende diens in die burgeroorlog en prys die ysterkleed St. Louis en Sumter in die Mississippi en Pinola in die Golf van Mexiko. , en met die vloot -haubitsbattery wat tydens die Antietam -veldtog by die weermag gedien het. Hy tree op 6 September 1894 af, maar keer terug na diens tydens die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog, onder bevel van die Patrol Fleet wat die kus van die Verenigde State van Galveston na Bar Harbor bewaak het. Admiraal Erben is op 23 Oktober 1909 in New York dood.

(DD-631: dp. 2.050, 1. 376'6 ", b. 39'7", dr. 17'9 "; s. 35 k; kpl. 273; a. 5 5", 10 21 "tt ., 6 dep., 2 dct .; cl. Fletcher)

Erben (DD-631) is op 21 Maart 1943 van stapel gestuur deur Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine, geborg deur mev. C. B. G. Gaillard, dogter van agter-admiraal Erben; en in opdrag van 28 Mei 1943, bevelvoerder J. H. Nevins, Jr., in bevel.

By die aankoms van Pearl Harbor op 2 Oktober 1943 uit Boston, het Erben by die 5de vloot aangesluit en op 1 November opgelei op die Hawaiiaanse eilande, wat 'n neergestorte vlieënier gered het tydens oefeninge met 'n draer. Sy het op 8 November vanaf Pearl Harbor gevaar, 'n ontmoeting met 'n taakgroep op 15 November gehad en dit tydens lugaanvalle op die Gilberts ondervra, verskeie kere vlieëniers gered wie se vliegtuie neergestort het of sonder brandstof was. Toe die invalsgolwe van mariniers op 20 November beland het, het Erben voortgegaan om die draers te ondersoek wat ondersteuningsaanvalle geloods het, en haar beskerming teen haar vliegvuur beskerm toe 13 Japannese torpedovliegtuie laatmiddag aangeval het. Sy het weer effektief afgeskiet teen Japannese vliegtuie wat die taakgroep aangeval het toe hy op 4 Desember uit aanvalle in die Marshalls teruggetrek het.

Erben word by Pearl Harbor aangevul en op 21 Desember 1943 na die see om Funafuti te oefen saam met die ondersteuningsgroep wat gereël is vir die Marshalls -inval. Sy het op 23 Januarie 1944 gevaar en op 29 Januarie het aksie plaasgevind in die bombardement van Taroa en WotJe. Die volgende dag het sy op die Japannese skeepsvaart van Maloelap af op 'n vissersskip gejag, en op die 31ste, terwyl die aanrandings plaasgevind het, het die troepe aan wal vuur ondersteun. Sy het vyf keer by Taroa verskyn vir nagbombardering en teistering van vuur, en het vanaf 2 Februarie uit Majuro op patrollie in die Marshalls gewerk.

Die verwoester het op 17 Maart 1944 na Guadalcanal teruggekeer, en nadat sy troepetransport na Kaap Torokina begelei het, het sy by Milnebaai voorberei op die Hollandia -operasie, waartydens sy lugrederye gekeur het wat die landings by Aitape en Hollandia tot April ondersteun. Gedurende 'n groot deel van Mei het sy in die New Hebrides en Russells opgelei en op 8 Junie by Kwajalein aangekom om op te tree vir die Marianas -operasie. Vanaf 12 Junie, toe sy met die draers gesorteer het, tot 4 Augustus, toe sy terugkeer na Eniwetok, was sy byna konstant op see om die draers te ondersoek terwyl hulle lugaanvalle voorinvasie geloods het. van die Filippynse See, en voorsien antisubmarine en lugbeskerming om skeepvaart aan te val.

Van Eniwetok het Erben teruggekeer na 'n maand van kort opknapping en opleiding op die Hawaiiaanse eilande, waarna sy na Manus vertrek het, waarna sy op 14 Oktober 1944 vertrek het om vervoer na die Leyte -landings van 20 Oktober te begelei. Sy patrolleer en voorsien lugweervuur ​​om die vervoer te beskerm tot 24 Oktober, en toe die Slag om die Leyte -golf woed, vaar Humboldtbaai om die uittrede van LST's te beskerm. Sy keer terug na Leyte op 14 November met 'n konvooi versterkings en vaar dieselfde dag na Manus, Majuro 'Pearl Harbor en 'n opknapping aan die weskus.

Erben was weer in aksie op 15 Maart 1945 toe sy eendag uit Ulithi saam met die taakspan van die lugdiens byeenkom vir lugaanvalle op Kyushu en Okinawa. Tydens twee hiervan, op 26 en 30 Maart, het sy altesaam vier vlieëniers gered. Die gestamp van Okinawa het sy hoogtepunt bereik vir die invalslandings van 1 April, en Erben het voortgegaan om die draers te ondersoek terwyl hulle die volgende twee maande van die eiland af opereer. Sy het suksesvol afgevuur om selfmoordaanvalle uit die weg te ruim, oorlewendes van beskadigde skepe gered, kusdoelwitte gebombardeer en baie vlieëniers neergeslaan. Op 3 en 23 Mei het sy dieselfde drie-man-vliegtuigbemanning uit die draer Randolph gered (CV-15).

Tot en met Junie 1945 was Erben in die Leyte -golf vir herstelwerk aan haar sonar -toerusting en oefeninge, en op 1 Julie seil om lugaanvalle te ondersoek en bombardemente op Japan aan te gaan en voor die hoofliggaam te patrolleer om te verseker dat vliegtuie wat terugkeer van aanvalle nie wat Japannese vliegtuie na die vragmotors lei. Op 9 Augustus, tydens die bombardement van staalwerke in Kamaishi, het sy twee vyandelike sleepwaens met vuurwapens laat sink. Sy het voortgegaan om met die vervoerder van Japan af te vaar tot op 15 September toe sy die Tokiobaai binnegaan om aan te vul. Op 1 Oktober seil sy om passasiers by Okinawa aan te neem, met wie sy op 21 Oktober 1945 by Long Beach aangekom het. Sy is uit diens geneem en op 31 Mei 1946 in die reservaat geplaas.

Met die uitbreiding van die vloot in die Koreaanse oorlog, word Erben (DD-631) op 19 Mei 1951 weer in gebruik geneem en vanaf Long Beach, haar tuishawe, op 27 Augustus na Yokosuka gevaar. Sy het dadelik by die vernietigerskerm aangesluit wat die draers van TF 77 beskerm teen duikbootaanval. Einde September en Oktober bombardeer sy kusdoelwitte in die SongJin-ChongJin-gebied, wat die kommunikasie- en toevoerroetes van die vyand ontwrig, en op 9 Oktober 'n Noord-Koreaan wat die Kommuniste vlug in 'n klein bootjie red. Nadat sy deelgeneem het aan antisubmarine -oorlogvoeringsoefeninge buite Okinawa, het sy teruggekeer na 'n siftingsdiens en op 2 Desember 'n vlieënier gered. Sy het Manchester (CL-83) vergesel in 'n bombardement aan die weskus van Korea, en het daarna na die ooskus geseil om die vuurvegters aan wal te ondersteun. Sy keer terug na San Diego op 21 Maart 1952 vir opknapping en vaar op 1 November weer vir diens van Korea af.

Benewens die uitvoering van pligte soortgelyk aan dié van haar eerste Koreaanse oorlogstoer, het Erben Taiwan en Hong Kong besoek en saam met skepe van die Royal Navy gewerk. Sy keer op 1 Junie 1953 terug na San Diego, en gedurende die oorblywende 5 jaar van haar aktiewe diens het sy nog vier vaarte na die Verre Ooste onderneem, diens gedoen by die Taiwan Patrol en saam met die draers van die 7de vloot. Sy is weer uit diens geneem en op 27 Junie 1958 in die reservaat geplaas.

Erben het ses gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en vier vir Koreaanse oorlogsdiens.


Diensgeskiedenis [wysig | wysig bron]

Amerikaanse vloot [wysig | wysig bron]

Tweede Wêreldoorlog [wysig | wysig bron]

1943 [wysig | wysig bron]

Aangekom by Pearl Harbor 2 Oktober 1943 vanuit Boston, Erben het by die 5de vloot aangesluit en op 1 November opgelei in die Hawaiiaanse eilande. Sy het 'n vlieënier wat gered is, gered tydens oefeninge met 'n vliegdekskip. Sy het op 8 November vanaf Pearl Harbor gevaar, 'n ontmoeting gehad met 'n taakgroep op 15 November en dit tydens lugaanvalle op die Gilbert -eilande ondervra, verskeie kere vlieëniers gered wie se vliegtuie neergestort het of sonder brandstof was. Toe die invalsgolwe van mariniers op 20 November op Tarawa beland, Erben het voortgegaan om die draers te ondersoek wat ondersteuningsaanvalle geloods het, wat haar beskerming teen haar lugvuur beskerm het toe 13 Japannese torpedovliegtuie laatmiddag aangeval het. Sy het weer effektief afgeskiet teen Japannese vliegtuie wat die taakgroep aangeval het toe hy op 4 Desember uit die aanval op die Marshall -eilande teruggetrek het.

1944 [wysig | wysig bron]

Erben by Pearl Harbor aangevul en op 21 Desember 1943 op see gelê vir Funafuti om te oefen saam met die ondersteuningsgroep wat gereël is vir die inval in die Marshalls. Sy het op 23 Januarie 1944 gevaar en op 29 Januarie het aksie plaasgevind in die bombardement van Taroa en Wotje. Die volgende dag het sy op die Japannese skeepsvaart van Maloelap gejag en op 'n vissersskip gestrand, en op die 31ste, toe die aanrandings plaasgevind het, het die troepe aan wal vuur ondersteun. Vyf keer verskyn sy by Taroa weens nagbombardeer en teistering van vuur, en vanaf 2 Februarie uit Majuro op patrollie in die Marshalls.

Die vernietiger keer op 17 Maart 1944 terug na Guadalcanal, en nadat sy troepevervoer na Kaap Torokina begelei het, het sy by Milnebaai voorberei op die Hollandia -operasie, waartydens sy lugrederye ondersoek het wat die landings by Aitape en Hollandia tot April ondersteun. Gedurende 'n groot deel van Mei het sy opgelei in die New Hebrides en Russell Islands, en op 8 Junie het sy by Kwajalein aangekom om op te tree vir die Marianas -operasie. Vanaf 12 Junie, toe sy met die draers gesorteer het, tot 4 Augustus, toe sy terugkeer na Eniwetok, was sy byna konstant op see om die draers te ondersoek terwyl hulle lugaanvalle voorinvasie geloods het, die landings gedek het, 'n belangrikste oorwinning in die Slag behaal het van die Filippynse See, en voorsien antisubmarine en lugbeskerming om skeepvaart aan te val.

Van Eniwetok, Erben keer terug na 'n maand van kort opknapping en opleiding op die Hawaiiaanse eilande, en vertrek daarna na Manus -eiland, waarna sy op 14 Oktober 1944 vaar om vervoer na die Leyte -landings van 20 Oktober te begelei. Sy patrolleer en voorsien lugweervuur ​​om die vervoer te beskerm tot 24 Oktober, en toe die Slag om die Leyte -golf woed, vaar Humboldtbaai om die uittrede van LST's te beskerm. Sy keer 14 November terug na Leyte met 'n konvooi versterkings en seil dieselfde dag na Manus, Majuro, Pearl Harbor en 'n opknapping aan die weskus.

1945 [wysig | wysig bron]

Erben was op 15 Maart 1945 weer in aksie toe sy eendag uit Ulithi saam met die vinnige taakmag vir lugaanvalle op Kyūshū en Okinawa vergader het. Tydens twee hiervan, op 26 en 30 Maart, het sy altesaam vier vlieëniers gered. Die stamp van Okinawa het sy hoogtepunt bereik vir die invallings van 1 April, en Erben het voortgegaan om die draers te kyk terwyl hulle gedurende die volgende twee maande van die eiland af opereer. Sy het met sukses afgevuur om weg te ry kamikazes, het oorlewendes van beskadigde skepe gered, kusdoelwitte gebombardeer en baie vlieëniers neergeslaan. Op 3 en 23 Mei het sy dieselfde drie-man-vliegtuigbemanning gered Randolph.

Tot Junie 1945, Erben was in die Leyte -golf vir herstelwerk aan haar sonar -toerusting en oefeninge, en het op 1 Julie gevaar om lugaanvalle te ondersoek en bombardemente op Japan aan te gaan, voor die hoofliggaam te patrolleer om te verseker dat vliegtuie wat terugkeer van aanvalle nie Japannese vliegtuie na die draers. Op 9 Augustus, tydens die bombardement van staalwerke in Kamaishi, het sy twee vyandelike sleepwaens met vuurwapens laat sink. Sy het tot 15 September met die vervoerder van Japan af gereis, toe sy die Tokiobaai binnegaan om aan te vul. Op 1 Oktober seil sy om passasiers by Okinawa aan te neem, met wie sy op 21 Oktober 1945 by Long Beach aangekom het. Sy is uit diens geneem en op 31 Mei 1946 in die reservaat geplaas.

Koreaanse Oorlog [wysig | wysig bron]

Met die uitbreiding van die vloot in die Koreaanse Oorlog, Erben is op 19 Mei 1951 weer in gebruik geneem en het op 27 Augustus vanaf Long Beach, haar tuishawe, na Yokosuka gevaar. Sy het dadelik by die vernietigerskerm aangesluit wat die draers van die Task Force 77 teen duikbootaanval beskerm. Einde September en Oktober bombardeer sy kusdoelwitte in die Songjin-Chongjin-gebied, wat die kommunikasie- en toevoerroetes van die vyand ontwrig, en op 9 Oktober 'n Noord-Koreaan wat die Kommuniste in 'n klein bootjie vlug, red. Nadat sy deelgeneem het aan antisubmarine -oorlogvoeringsoefeninge buite Okinawa, het sy teruggekeer na die ondersoek, en 'n vlieënier wat op 2 Desember gered is, gered. Sy vergesel Manchester in 'n bombardement aan die weskus van Korea, en dan na die ooskus geseil om die vuurvegters aan wal te ondersteun. Sy keer terug na San Diego op 21 Maart 1952 vir opknapping en vaar op 1 November weer vir diens van Korea af.

Benewens die uitvoering van pligte soortgelyk aan dié van haar eerste Koreaanse oorlogstoer, Erben Taiwan en Hong Kong besoek, en opereer met skepe van die Royal Navy. Sy keer op 1 Junie 1953 terug na San Diego, en gedurende die oorblywende 5 jaar van haar aktiewe diens het sy nog vier vaarte na die Verre Ooste onderneem, diens gedoen by die Taiwan Patrol en saam met die draers van die 7de vloot. Op 8 Junie 1957 vertrek sy na die Verre Ooste. Op 14 Junie arriveer sy in Pearl Harbor en bly daar tot 16 Junie 1957, waar sy 'n paar herstelwerk laat doen het. Op 23 Junie 1957 arriveer sy op Midway Island en van 29 Junie tot 6 Julie word sy in Yokosuka, Japan, oorgeplaas. Op 6 Julie arriveer sy in Yokohama, Japan, en bly daar tot 8 Julie. 13 Julie is in Naha, Okinawa, en op 17 Julie, Kao Shuing, Taiwan, deurgebring. Van 26 tot 28 Julie anker sy weer in Kao Shuing, Taiwan en op 1 Augustus 1957 in Yokosuka, Japan. Sy is weer uit diens geneem en op 27 Junie 1958 in die reservaat geplaas.

Suid -Koreaanse vloot [wysig | wysig bron]

ROKS Chung Mu (DD-911), in 1982.

Erben is op 16 Mei 1963 na Suid -Korea oorgeplaas, waar sy hernoem is ROKS Chung Mu (DD-911). In 1979 het die Republiek van Korea se vloot haar rompnommer verander na 91. Sedert 1983 was sy 'n stilstaande opleidingsvaartuig. Die oud-Erben na berig word, is verbreek.


Beskrywing

Ons bied graag 'n pasgemaakte Amerikaanse vlootvernietiger DD 631 USS Erben geborduurde polohemp aan.

Vir 'n ekstra (en opsionele) heffing van $ 7,00 kan ons hemde gepersonaliseer word met tot 2 reëls teks van 14 karakters elk (spasies ingesluit), soos met 'n veteraan se naam en koers en rang op die eerste reël, en jare diens op die tweede reël.

Ons DD 631 USS Erben geborduurde polohemp is 100% voorgekrimp, 6,5 oz ringspun katoenpiek, vir gemak en duursaamheid. Ons bied hempgroottes wat wissel van Volwasse Klein tot Volwasse 3XL (ekstra koste is van toepassing op Volwasse 2XL en 3XL groottes).

Gegewe die hoë borduurvereistes vir hierdie hemde, kan u 4 weke stuur.

As u enige vrae het oor ons hempaanbod, kontak ons ​​gerus by 904-425-1204 of stuur 'n e-pos na [email  protected], en ons sal met u praat!


Beskrywing

Ons bied graag 'n klassieke styl 5 -paneel -aangepaste Amerikaanse vlootvernietiger DD 631 USS Erben geborduurde hoed aan.

Vir 'n ekstra (en opsionele) heffing van $ 7,00, kan ons hoede gepersonaliseer word met tot 2 reëls teks van 14 karakters elk (spasies ingesluit), soos met 'n veteraan se van en koers en rang op die eerste reël, en jare diens op die tweede reël.

Ons DD 631 USS Erben geborduurde hoed is in twee style beskikbaar. 'N Tradisionele hoë profiel en' 8221 flat bill snap -styl terug (met 'n outentieke groen ondervisier aan die onderkant van die flat bill), of 'n moderne “ medium profiel ” geboë bill klittenband terug “ baseballpet ” styl. Albei style is 'n enkele grootte wat by almal pas. Ons hoede is gemaak van duursame 100% katoen vir asemhaling en gemak.

Gegewe die hoë borduurvereistes vir hierdie hoede, kan u 4 weke stuur.

As u enige vrae het oor ons hoedaanbiedinge, kontak ons ​​gerus by 904-425-1204 of stuur 'n e-pos na [email  protected], en ons sal met u praat!


Opdrag en organisasie [wysig | wysig bron]

Die vloot van die Republiek Korea sluit die hoofkwartier van die Republiek Korea se vloot, die vloot van die Republiek Korea, die mariene korps van die Republiek van Korea, die kommando vir vlootopleiding en opleiding, Naval Logistics Command en Naval Academy in. Die Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is die hoogste offisier van die ROK Navy.

Senior leierskap [wysig | wysig bron]

Vanaf November 2011 was die volgende persone in die amp:

  • Hoof van vlootoperasies: admiraal Choi Yoon-hee (gevestig in die vloothoofkwartier van die Republiek Korea, Gyeryong)
  • Hoofkommandant Republiek van Korea se vloot: vise-admiraal Koo Ok-hyoe (gebaseer in die hoofkwartier van die vloot van die Republiek Korea, Busan)
  • Kommandant van die Marine Corps van die Republiek Korea: luitenant-generaal Lee Ho-yeon (gebaseer in die hoofkwartier van die Republiek Korea Marine Corps, Hwaseong)
  • Bevelvoerder Naval Onderwys en Opleiding: Viseadmiraal Jung Ho-sub (gevestig in Jinhae)
  • Kommandeur Naval Logistics Command: agteradmiraal (boonste helfte) Im Jong-cheol (gevestig in Jinhae)
  • Superintendent Republic of Korea Naval Academy: Viseadmiraal Sohn Jeong-mok (gevestig in Jinhae)

Organisasie [wysig | wysig bron]

Hoofkwartier van die Republiek Korea se vloot [wysig | wysig bron]

Die ROK Navy word gelei deur die Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Die hoofkwartier van die vloot van die Republiek van Korea, geleë in die Gyeryongdae-kompleks, die drie-diens-hoofkwartier in Gyeryong, bevat die kantoor van die Chief of Naval Operations en verskillende agentskappe en personeelfunksies. Die CNO is 'n vierster-admiraal en lid van die gesamentlike stafhoofde. Die CNO hou toesig oor die administrasie van die werwing, organisering, opleiding, toerusting, verskaffing en mobilisering van die ROK Navy. ⎬ ]

Vloot van die Republiek van Korea [wysig | wysig bron]

Die opperbevelhebber van die Republiek Korea se vloot (함대 사령부 CINCROKFLT) is verantwoordelik vir vlootoperasies en is gebaseer op die Busan Naval Operations Base met 'n bevelhoofkwartier. CINCROKFLT dien ook in vredestyd as bevelvoerder Naval Component Command (CNCC) van die ROK-US Combined Forces Command (CFC), of as die adjunk-bevelvoerder Combined Naval Component Command (DCCNCC). Die vloot van die Republiek van Korea het drie genommerde vloote wat elk toegewys is aan die seë oos, wes en suid van Suid -Korea:

  • Kommandeur Eerste Vloot (basis: Donghae)
  • Kommandeur Tweede Vloot (basis: Pyeongtaek)
  • Incheon Naval Sector Defense Command
  • Kommandeur Derde Vloot (basis: Mokpo)
  • Jeju -verdedigingskommando

Vir verskillende soorte vlootoperasies het die ROK -vloot twee oppervlakte -flottille, 'n seevlugmag, 'n duikboot -flottielje, spesiale oorlogvoering (UDT/SEAL) en 'n opleidingseskader onder bevel van die CINCROKFLT:

  • Komponent Flotilla Five
  • Mine Warfare Squadron 52
  • Amfibiese eskader 53
  • Redding en diens eskader 55
  • Skeepsbergingseenheid (SSU)
  • Air Wing Six
  • Maritieme taak Flotilla Seven
  • Submarine Flotilla Nege
  • Maritieme taktiese intelligensiegroep
  • Opleiding eskader
  • Busan -vlootbasis -eskader

As deel van die "Defensiehervorming 2020", wat deur die Roh Moo-hyun-administrasie voorgestel is, is die ROK-vloot aangesê om sy bevel vir duikbootoperasies in 'n vloot-duikbootmag te hervorm. ⎭ ] ⎮ ]

Genummerde vloot [wysig | wysig bron]

Die drie genommerde vloot, elk onder leiding van 'n agter-admiraal (boonste helfte), is verantwoordelik vir die beskerming van die groenwater rondom Suid-Korea: Die eerste vloot is vir die oostelike vlootsektor, die tweede vloot is vir die westelike vlootsektor en die derde Vloot is vir die suidelike vlootsektor, insluitend Jeju -eiland. Elke vloot bevat hoofsaaklik eskaders van patrolliemagte wat bestaan ​​uit Kwanggaeto die Grote klas vernietigers, Ulsan klas fregatte, Pohang klas korvette en Chamsuri klas patrolliebote.

Mobiele taakflotilla [wysig | wysig bron]

Toe Admiraal An Pyongtae, destyds hoof van vlootoperasies, die bevel oor die vloot in 1995 neem, het hy voorgestel om 'n blou-water-vloot vir die Republiek van Korea te bou. In 2001 kondig president Kim Dae-jung 'n plan aan vir die oprigting van 'n taakspan genaamd 'strategiese maneuver-vloot' (전략 기동 함대 Jeollyak Gidong Hamdae), wat "nasionale belange in die vyf oseane beskerm en bydra tot wêreldvrede". ⎨ ] As deel van die plan het die ROK Navy op 1 Februarie 2010 een taakgroep gestig, Commander Maritime Task Flotilla Seven, wat ontwikkel het uit kommandant ASW Squadron 51 van die Component Flotilla Five. Die Maritieme Taakflotilla bestaan ​​uit twee Sejong die Grote klas AEGIS geleide missielvernietigers, en ses Chungmugong Yi Sunshin klas vernietigers. ⎯ ] Daar word gehoop dat die mag Suid -Korea teen enige Noord -Koreaanse aggressie kan verdedig, asook handelsroetes kan beskerm wat noodsaaklik is vir die ROK. Dit is ook ontwerp om geskille of territoriale onluste te onderdruk met afskrikking en indien nodig geweld. [ aanhaling nodig ] Tans is die vloot verdeel in twee eskaders wat op basisse in Busan en Jinhae gestasioneer is. Wanneer die nuwe vlootbasis op die eiland Jeju in 2014 voltooi is, sal die ROKN nuwe vaartuie na die basis verskuif om die vloot te versterk. Benewens gevegsoperasies voer die skepe van die vloot humanitêre operasies uit: A Chungmugong Yi Sunshin klasvernietiger van die Taakflotilla word ontplooi in reaksie op seeroweryaanvalle in vaarbane langs die kus van Somalië.

Republiek Korea se marinekorps [wysig | wysig bron]

Navorsingsopleiding en -opleiding [wysig | wysig bron]

Die Naval Education and Training Command is een van die twee belangrikste oeweropdragte van die ROK Navy wat verantwoordelik is vir opleiding. Dit is in Jinhae geleë. Sy primêre rol is om die aanvanklike oriëntasie en basiese opleiding vir nuwe rekrute van die vloot en die Koreaanse kuswag uit te voer. Een van die belangrikste ondergeskikte eenhede is die Naval War College in Daejeon. ⎰ ]

Naval Logistics Command [wysig | wysig bron]

Die Naval Logistics Command is die ander groot oewerbevel van die ROK Navy. Dit bedryf ook die Naval Ship Yard in Jinhae. ⎱ ]

Naval Academy van die Republiek van Korea [wysig | wysig bron]

Die Republiek Korea se vlootakademie is 'n vierjarige akademiese diensakademie in Jinhae. Dit is gestig in 1946. Gegradueerdes word aangestel as vaandels in die vloot of tweede luitenante in die mariene korps. Die Naval Academy bied ook die Officer Candidate School aan, wat opleiding bied om onderoffisiere vir burgerlike kollege -gegradueerdes en kandidate met militêre ervaring te word. ⎲ ]

Ligging [wysig | wysig bron]

Busan Naval Operations Base

Die ROK Navy bedryf verskeie vlootbasisse in Suid -Korea: Jinhae, Busan, Donghae, Pyeongtaek, Mokpo, Incheon, Pohang. Vliegtuigstasies is in Pohang, Jinhae en Mokpo. Jinhae is sedert die stigting van die Koreaanse kuswag die belangrikste hawe vir die ROK -vloot deur die aanbied van belangrike vlootgeriewe, waaronder die vlootwerf. Busan het 'n ander belangrike vlootbasis vir die CINCROKFLT geword sedert sy bevelhoofkwartier in 2007 van Jinhae verhuis het. Donghae, Pyeongtaek en Mokpo huisves die bevelhoofkwartier van onderskeidelik die Eerste, Tweede en die Derde Vloot. Incheon is gasheer vir 'n verdedigingsbevel onder 'n een-ster-admiraal wat verantwoordelik is vir kuswater naby Seoul, die hoofstad van die land. Pohang het 'n vlootbasis vir amfibiese magte, soos die 1st Marine Division in die omgewing. Die ROK-vloot beplan ook om 'n nuwe vlootbasis aan die suidelike kus van Jeju-do te bou om 'n eskader van die Maritime Task Flotilla en twee duikboot-eskaders te bou teen 2014. Die ROK Navy beplan om sy beheer oor die see rondom die Koreaanse Skiereiland te versterk deur hierdie magte in te span.

Verhouding met die Amerikaanse vloot [wysig | wysig bron]

VADM Ahn Kee-seok, CINCROKFLT en VADM Doug Crowder, C7F groet die kleure by Naval Air Facility Atsugi, Japan.

Suid -Korea het 'n gesamentlike militêre vennootskap met die Verenigde State, soos uiteengesit in die onderlinge verdedigingsverdrag wat in 1951 onderteken is. Kommandant US Seventh Fleet (C7F) word aangewys as Commander Combined Naval Component Command (CCNCC) "vir die verdediging van die Koreaanse skiereiland in die in die geval van vyandighede, sou alle vriendelike vlootmagte in die teater onder C7F -beheer val. " ⎳ ] Die ROK en die Amerikaanse regering het ooreengekom oor die oordrag van operasionele beheer uit die oorlog na die Suid -Koreaanse regering in 2015.

Commander Naval Forces Korea (CNFK) is 'n oewerbevel van die Amerikaanse vloot wat dien as die kusondersteuningsagentskap vir alle Amerikaanse vlootaktiwiteite in Suid -Korea. Commander Fleet Activities Chinhae (CFAC) is 'n Amerikaanse vlootinstallasie in Jinhae.


Diagnostiese toetse

LABORATORIESE TOETSE

Die laboratoriumevaluering kan 'n volledige aantal bloedselle met differensiaal, 'n eritrosiet -sedimentasietempo en 'n urinalise insluit. Die bevindings van die kliniese evaluering kan dui op die behoefte aan ander spesifieke toetse, soos 'n serumkalsiumvlak, 'n uriensuurvlak, elektroforese van serum en urine vir ligte kettings en 'n prostaatspesifieke antigeenvlak. Laboratoriumtoetse is veral nuttig as infeksie of maligniteit as 'n moontlike oorsaak van die ruggraatpatologie beskou word.

Die regtehouer het nie regte verleen om hierdie item in elektroniese media te reproduseer nie. Sien die oorspronklike gedrukte weergawe van hierdie publikasie vir die ontbrekende item.

VERBEELDSTUDIES

Beeldstudies is uiters belangrik in die evaluering van noodgevalle in die rugmurg. Tensy 'n rooi vlag op die kliniese ondersoek aangeteken word, word gewone filmfoto's nie aanbeveel vir die roetine-evaluering van pasiënte met akute nek- of lae rugpyn binne die eerste maand van simptome nie3 (Tabel 1) .5

Computertomografiese (CT) skandering, magnetiese resonansie beelding (MRI), myelografie en gekombineerde CT en myelografie kan anatomie duidelik definieer. Hierdie studies is egter duur en het 'n hoë vals-positiewe koers

Omdat MRI nie -invasief is, nie bestraling behels nie, 'n groot deel van die ruggraat dek en veranderinge in die skyf en werwelkolom kan toon, het dit die beeldvormingsmodaliteit geword van die keuse van radikulopatie, abses van die rugmurg, gewrigte van die rugmurg, spinale stenose en nie-traumatiese vaskulêre letsels. 8 – 12 Die gebruik van die magnetiese resonansbeelde in die vinnige volgorde lei tot 'n myelografie-agtige voorkoms wat 'n vinnige sifting van die ruggraat met hoë sensitiwiteit vir epidurale massas moontlik maak.9 Gecheleerde gadolinium verbeter MRI-studies verder .

In vergelyking met MRI -studies bied CT -skanderings 'n beter beeld van benige strukture. Daarom word CT -skandering beskou as die keuse van beeldvorming om pasiënte te evalueer vir ruggraat trauma en werwelfrakture. . CT -skandering is goedkoper as MRI.

Beenskandering kan handig wees as gewone filmfoto's van die ruggraat normaal is, maar die kliniese bevindings is verdag vir osteomiëlitis, benige neoplasma of okkultiese breuk. Alhoewel beenskandering 'n sensitiewe siftingsinstrument is vir benige gewasse en infeksies, is die resultate vals positief by 'n derde van die ouer pasiënte, wat die grootste risiko loop vir hierdie toestande en 'n hoë voorkoms van artrose het.


Ons nuusbrief

Produk Beskrywing

USS Erben DD 631

'Persoonlike' doekskipafdruk

(Nie net 'n foto of plakkaat nie, maar 'n kunswerk!)

Elke matroos was mal oor sy skip. Dit was sy lewe. Waar hy 'n geweldige verantwoordelikheid gehad het en saam met sy naaste skipmaats gewoon het. As 'n mens ouer word, word sy waardering vir die skip en die vloot se ervaring sterker. 'N Persoonlike afdruk toon eienaarskap, prestasie en 'n emosie wat nooit verdwyn nie. Dit help om u trots te toon, selfs al is 'n geliefde nie meer by u nie. Elke keer as u by die afdruk loop, sal u die persoon of die vlootervaring in u hart voel (gewaarborg).

Die beeld word op die waters van die see of die baai uitgebeeld met 'n vertoning van haar kuif, indien beskikbaar. Die skepe se naam word onderaan die druk gedruk. Wat 'n wonderlike doekafdruk om jouself of iemand wat jy ken te herdenk wat moontlik aan boord van haar gedien het.

Die gedrukte prentjie is presies soos u dit sien. Die doek grootte is 8 "x10" gereed vir die raamwerk soos dit is, of u kan 'n ekstra mat van u keuse byvoeg. As u 'n groter prentjie (11 "x 14") op 'n doek van 13 "x 19" wil hê, koop dan hierdie afdruk en koop voor die betaling ekstra dienste in die winkelkategorie (tuis) links van hierdie bladsy. Hierdie opsie is 'n ekstra $ 12,00. Die afdrukke word op bestelling gemaak. Hulle lyk ongelooflik as hulle gematteer en omraam is.

Ons PERSONALISEER die afdruk met "Naam, posisie en/of jare gedien" of enigiets anders wat u wil hê dit moet vermeld word (GEEN Bykomende koste nie). Dit is net bokant die foto van die skip geplaas. Nadat u die afdruk gekoop het, stuur 'n e -pos aan ons of dui in die aantekeninge -gedeelte van u betaling aan wat u daarop wil druk. 'N Paar van Voorstelle:

Amerikaanse seevaarder
JOU NAAM HIER
Trots bedien Sept 1963 - Sept 1967

My seun of dogter dien tans in die Amerikaanse vloot
Hulle NAAM en RANK

Dit sal 'n goeie geskenk wees en 'n uitstekende toevoeging tot enige historiese militêre versameling. Sal fantasties wees om die huis- of kantoormuur te versier.

Die watermerk "Great Naval Images" sal NIE op u druk verskyn nie.

Hierdie foto is gedruk op Argief-veilige suurvrye doek gebruik 'n hoë resolusie drukker en behoort baie jare te hou.

As gevolg van sy unieke natuurlike geweefde tekstuur bied doek 'n spesiale en kenmerkende voorkoms wat slegs op doek vasgelê kan word. Die doekafdruk benodig geen glas nie, wat die voorkoms van u afdruk verbeter, glans elimineer en u totale koste verlaag.

Ons waarborg dat u nie teleurgesteld sal wees met hierdie item of u geld terug nie. Boonop sal ons die doekafdruk onvoorwaardelik vervang vir VRY as u u afdruk beskadig. U word slegs 'n nominale fooi plus gestuur en hantering in rekening gebring.


USS Arnold J. Isbell (DD-869), a Versnelling-klasvernietiger, was die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na Arnold J. Isbell, 'n vliegdekskipkaptein tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

USS Stickell (DD-888) was 'n Versnelling-klas vernietiger van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is vernoem na luitenant John H. Stickell USNR (1914 �), wat op 13 Desember 1943 in aksie by die Jaluit Atoll in die Marshall -eilande dood is en postuum die Navy Cross toegeken is. Sy is herdoop HS Kanaris (D212) in 1972 na die Helleense vloot oorgeplaas.

Die tweede USS Henry W. Tucker (DD-875) was 'n Versnelling-klas vernietiger van die Amerikaanse vloot.

USS Tingey (DD-539) was 'n Fletcher-klas vernietiger van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy was die derde vlootskip wat vernoem is na Commodore Thomas Tingey (1750 �).

USS Erben (DD-631), a Fletcher-klasvernietiger, was 'n skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na agteradmiraal Henry Erben (1832 �).

USS Naifeh (DE-352) was 'n John C. Butler-klas vernietiger begelei in diens by die Amerikaanse vloot van 1944 tot 1960. Sy is in 1966 as 'n teiken gesink.

USS Yarnall (DD-541), a Fletcher-klasvernietiger, was die tweede skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na luitenant John Yarnall (1786 �).

USS Taussig (DD-746) was 'n Amerikaner Allen M. Sumner-klas vernietiger. Dit is vernoem na Edward D. Taussig, 'n agteradmiraal van die Amerikaanse vloot, wie se loopbaan meer as 50 jaar was. Adm. Taussig word onthou omdat hy op 17 Januarie 1899 aanspraak gemaak het op Wake Island vir die Verenigde State terwyl hy die geweerboot beveel het. Bennington en vir die aanvaarding van die fisiese afstanddoening van Guam uit Spanje, wat 300 jaar van die Spaanse koloniale bewind beëindig het. Die skip is op 30 Augustus 1943 neergelê op Staten Island, New York, deur die Bethlehem Shipbuilding & amp; Drydock Co. wat op 25 Januarie 1944 gelanseer is, geborg deur juffrou Ellen M. Taussig, adm. Taussig se kleindogter en in opdrag by die New York Navy Yard op 20 Mei 1944.

USS Blou (DD-744), 'n Allen M. Sumner-klasvernietiger, was die tweede Amerikaanse vlootskip met die naam, vir luitenant -bevelvoerder John S. Blue (1902 �).

USS Alfred A. Cunningham (DD-752), 'n Allen M. Sumner-klasvernietiger, is die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na Alfred Austell Cunningham, 'n USMC -offisier en vlieënier.

USS John A. Bole (DD-755), was 'n Allen M. Sumner-klas vernietiger van die Amerikaanse vloot.

USS John W. Thomason (DD-760), 'n Allen M. Sumner-klasvernietiger, is die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na John William Thomason, Jr., 'n USMC -offisier wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog die Navy Cross toegeken is vir dapperheid.

USS Ingersoll (DD-652) was 'n Fletcher klasvernietiger in die Amerikaanse vloot, wat van 28 Junie 1943 tot 19 Mei 1974 diens gedoen het. Ingersoll het veral tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog en Viëtnam -oorloë aksie in die Stille Oseaan -gebiede gevind.

USS Porterfield (DD-682) was 'n Fletcher-klas vernietiger van die Amerikaanse vloot. She was laid down by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding, San Pedro, California 12 December 1942 launched 13 June 1943 sponsored by Mrs Louis B. Porterfield and commissioned 30 October 1943, with Commander J. C. Woefel in command.

USS Platte (AO-24) was 'n Cimarron-class oiler serving with the United States Navy, named for the 1836 Platte Purchase that included the Platte Rivers in Iowa, Missouri and Nebraska. Her memorial in Platte County, Missouri honors all four rivers that share the name recorded by Lewis and Clark in 1803.

USS Hollister (DD-788) was 'n Versnelling-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for the three Hollister brothers, who were killed in 1943 while serving in the Navy during World War II.

USS James E. Kyes (DD-787) was 'n Versnelling-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Commander James E. Kyes (1906�).

USS Bausell (DD-845) was 'n Versnelling-klasvernietiger in die Amerikaanse vloot tydens die Koreaanse oorlog en die Viëtnam -oorlog. She was named for Marine Corporal Lewis K. Bausell (1924�), who was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for "conspicuous gallantry" during the Battle of Peleliu.


JACK Operations & Activities

An 85-foot Japanese-built trawler, K-333, crewed by Koreans, would be the first JACK vessel to operate from Yo-do (island) at the mouth of Wonsan harbor. The WWII OSS officer accepted conditionally both MSG Hoffman and SGT Fosmire had to volunteer to join him. The two paratroopers agreed and the three became seamen aboard a 1940s, diesel-powered, 80-ton fishing trawler that would rescue downed UN airmen and conduct covert insertions along the northeast coast of Korea . 31

31 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

MSG Walter Hoffman (far left rear in Army sweater and soft cap) with both Korean trawler crews aboard K-444.

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Eindnotas

K-333 and its 12-man Korean crew were berthed at Pusan while shipboard modifications were being made. Interior compartments had to accommodate forty passengers. Hidden crew-served weapons mounts had to be installed and the radio antennas concealed. Capable of a top speed of twelve knots (twelve nautical miles per hour) and a cruising speed of eight to ten knots, the modified trawler K-333 had four hatch-covered foredeck holds to accommodate forty guerrilla raiders. Light machine gun mounts (.30 caliber) were placed on both sides of the forward hold section and a .50 caliber heavy machine gun station was installed at the back of the captain’s cockpit (wheelhouse) . 32 The antennas were hidden in the masts and cranes so as not to attract attention from a distance . 33 K-333 was to be a 1950s version of the WWI and WWII Q-boats, armed Q-boats vessels disguised as merchant ships.

32 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

33 Colonel Rod Paschall, “Special Operations in Korea,” Conflict, 7:2 (1987), 162.

The Japanese trawler became home for Sergeants Fosmire and Hoffman. They collected the individual and crew-served weapons, supervised the fabrication and installation of armor-shielded machine gun mounts, and accumulated ammunition to test fire everything. 1LT Curtis signed for liquor and cigarettes, both of which were used to pay the crew and to barter for food and supplies only available on the black market. After several multi-day shakedown cruises well beyond Pusan harbor, the K-333 team received orders . 34 Meanwhile, a more experienced SMG resumed raid and intelligence missions along the northeast coast, well north of Wonsan.

34 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

On 21 April 1952, the Horace A. Bass (APD-124) supported an operation to capture rail workers to get the latest information on identification (ID) cards. The North Koreans regularly changed ID paper colors and stamps. The secondary mission of the SMG was to destroy a railway bridge or tunnel where the railroad hugged shallow coastal beaches at the base of rugged mountains. These were dangerous targets because there were no harbors or inlets and riptides were common. Most railroad targets were near fishing villages where manpower was conscripted to repair damage from bombs and naval gunfire. With the Red Chinese entrenched along the main line of resistance, North Korea had tightened up internal security and critical infrastructure protection . 35

35 Dwyer, “Behind the Lines,” 7 from http://www.korean-war.com/Archives/ 2004/02/msg00118.html accessed 10/9/2012 Korean War Chronology, http://www.history.navy.mil/korea/chron51a.htm accessed 10/12/2005 When John Limond Hart left as the second JACK chief (1952-1953), “the enemy’s security precautions were so stringent that we still did not have any intelligence agents located in the North.” Hart, The CIA’s Russians (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003), 10.

The primary SMG interpreter sighting the 57mm recoilless rifle, Chon Do-hyun, ‘John Chun,’ was killed in action on 21 April 1952.

The SMG discovered this the hard way. An enemy beach patrol spotted and engaged the three scout swimmers. Despite heavy covering fire from the .30 cal. machine guns on the LCPR during UDT LT Atcheson’s recovery effort, the SMG lost three guerrillas. The biggest loss was their primary interpreter, Chon Do-hyun (‘John Chun’) . 36

36 Dwyer, “Behind the Lines,” 7 from http://www.korean-war.com/Archives/ 2004/02/msg00118.html accessed 10/9/2012 Korean War Chronology, http://www.history.navy.mil/korea/chron51a.htm accessed 10/12/2005.

Nine days later the SMG raiders acquitted themselves well using their 57mm recoilless rifles. The gunners trained by SFC Pagnella hit a locomotive, but it escaped destruction by quickly backing into a tunnel. The demolitions team blew up a railway bridge and captured three North Korean civilians . 37 About the same time, K-333 was headed northeast to Yo-do.

37 Dwyer, “Behind the Lines,” 8, 9 from http://www.korean-war.com/Archives/ 2004/02/msg00118.html accessed 10/9/2012 Korean War Chronology, http://www.history.navy.mil/korea/chron51a.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea51b.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/korea/chron51a.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea/chron5a.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/horea/chron52b.htm accessed 10/12/2005.

Many UN forces were based on the largest island in Wonsan harbor. Garrisoned by ROK Marines, Yo-do had been used as a special operations base by the British Royal Marine 41 Commando, Marine/Navy Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company (ANGLICO) teams, and ROK Army special intelligence units since late summer 1950. The CIA and ROK Army began using the island in early 1951 as an agent training base and launch site for intelligence operatives and raiding forces . 38 The Far East Air Forces (FEAF) 3rd Air Rescue Squadron (RS) kept an H-5 Sikorsky helicopter detachment on the island to recover downed UN pilots. The old Japanese airstrip was extended by Navy Seabees to handle Beechcraft C-45 Expeditors, C-46 Commandos, C-47 Skytrains, and emergency landings of carrier-based propeller aircraft . 39 Yo-do was a natural base location for K-333.

38 Hwang-Sung (editor), My Father’s War (Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear Publishing, 2008), 132.

39 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 The Yo-do airstrip would later be improved and lengthened by Navy Seabees. On 15 July 1952, seven Corsairs made emergency landings on the airstrip, refueled, and flew back to their aircraft carrier. It was later named in honor of Vice Admiral R.P. Briscoe, Commander, NFFE, who authorized its enlargement. Korean War Chronology at http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea/chron52b.htm Frank Ransom, “Air-Sea Rescue 1941-1952,” U.S. Air Force Historical Study No. 95. USAF Historical Division, Research Studies Institute, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL (August 1954), 160, 166 Forrest L. Marion, That Others Might Live: USAF Air Rescue in Korea (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Force History and Museums Program, 2004), 11 CDRs Malcolm W. Cagle and Frank A. Manson, The Sea War in Korea (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1957), 427-430.

WONSAN HARBOR

The islands in Wonsan harbor were occupied by ROK Marines, British, American, and Korean special operations and intelligence units. Yo-do, the largest, was their center of operations. A former Japanese airstrip, extended by Navy SEABEEs crossed the island.

Although several hundred ROK Marines guarded Yo-do and the surrounding islands, the Americans and Korean crew slept aboard the CIA trawler at night. They only ate meals ashore in the heavily sandbagged messhall . 40 This was a wise precaution because the offshore islands and UN minesweepers and blockade ships were targeted daily by the North Korean shore batteries ringing Wonsan harbor. These coastal batteries ranged from heavy mortars to 155mm howitzers. Exchanges varied from single harassment rounds to barrages of more than a hundred rounds. The ships counter-fired during the day when Marine and Navy spotter teams on the harbor islands identified shore targets. Thus, destroyers, minesweepers, and UN personnel stationed on the islands were hit daily by artillery resulting in deaths, injuries, and damaged vessels, especially after the Soviets provided radar-controlled fire direction systems . 41

40 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 Kingston interview, 1987, USAMHI Project 1987-16.

41 Korean War Chronology, http://www.history.navy.mil/korea/chron51a.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea51b.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/korea/chron51a.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea/chron5a.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/horea/chron52b.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea/chron53a.htm accessed 10/12/2005.

The mission of the K-333 trawler team was to rescue downed UN airmen, surreptitiously land and extract JACK intelligence agents, support SMG coastal raids, and direct naval gunfire against targets of opportunity along the coast from Wonsan to the Tumen River . 42 Though the SMG continued to use Navy APDs, K-333 with its non-military signature could come closer to shore. Still, its primary function was to plug holes in a nonexistent JACK aircrew recovery net . 43 At night, they regularly put agents over the side into “wiggle boat” fishing sampans coordinated by ROK intelligence units on Yo-do . 44 The South Koreans simply emulated the small boat agent insertions done by North Korea since before the war.

42 Singlaub, Hazardous Duty, 181–82.

43 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

44 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005. Supporting the USMC ANGLICO (Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company) on Yo-do was a bilingual Navy Intelligence officer, LT James S. Lampe. Born and raised in Syen Chun (northwest Korea, fifty miles from the Yalu and 225 miles northwest of Seoul), Lampe was the son of Presbyterian missionary H.W. Lampe (Princeton Theological Seminary). As the only American on Yo-do fluent in Korean, LT Lampe had strong rapport with the ROK military intelligence units and civilian residents. Still, there was no way to ‘vett’ the fishermen whose boats were used to deliver agents to the mainland. For them and their families on the mainland to survive most also ‘worked for’ North Korean intelligence. “LT James S. Lampe and USS George K. MacKenzie (DD-836)” at http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/kowar/log-sup/kor51.html accessed 4/5/2013.

Confronted by heavy losses of agents infiltrating enemy lines overland (‘line crossers’) in late 1950, the EUSA guerrilla command Tactical Liaison Office (TLO) started copying the South Korean use of small indigenous craft to insert agents along the West coast. The 441st Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) espionage operation, SALAMANDER, contracted fishing junks en sampans to put agents deep into North Korea, initially from West coast islands above the 38th Parallel that were occupied by anti-Communist North Korean guerrillas. In early 1951, the 441st CIC moved north from Paengyong-do to Cho-do to be closer to the Yalu River estuary. An East coast SALAMANDER base was established on Yo-do in the summer of 1951 so that their agents could infiltrate one coast and exfiltrate via the other. In addition to increasing the special warfare population on Yo-do, the 441st introduced fast American sea craft to compensate for size, speed, and limited deep sea–worthiness of native fishing boats . 45 It was easy for K-333 to blend in with the various ‘commercial’ vessels using the Yo-do ‘marina.’

45 John P. Finnegan, “The Evolution of US Army HUMINT: Intelligence Operations in the Korean War,” Studies in Intelligence, 44: 2 (2000), 85 Monthly Historical Reports, 442nd Counter Intelligence Corps Detachment, 1 March 1951 through June 1951, RG 319, National Archives retired MG Daniel C. Helix, interview by Briscoe, 14 April 2006, USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC, hereafter cited by name and date.

The Seventh Fleet destroyer tender USS Dixie (AD-14), the command and control vessel for the East coast blockade, had secure facilities for classified special operations meetings.

Numerous U.S. military officers and sergeants ‘served’ in JACK, yet few knew about the other paramilitary and intelligence activities. Each mission was compartmented on a ‘need to know’ basis. It was the same in EUSA guerrilla command. Yet, at the tactical level, limited maritime and air assets had to serve everyone and therein was a tenuous connection.

“Since air and sea assets were shared by a ‘whole blizzard of organizations involved with special operations, the lines of command and coordination were blurry,’” recalled 1LT Daniel C. Helix, FEC Liaison Detachment (FEC/LD), Sasebo Naval Base, Japan. “The boats on my books were used by a variety of elements in Korea. I arranged engine repairs, overhauls, modifications, and new vessel purchases. I also provided pay for the Korean crews. ‘Deals with the CIA’ were concocted aboard the USS Dixie (AD-14) at levels way above my pay grade. That Seventh Fleet destroyer tender served as the C&C vessel for the Navy East coast blockade. ” 46 (see “Combined Command for Reconnaissance Activities, Korea (CCRAK)” and “The CCRAK Navy” articles).

46 Helix interviews, 7 December 2005 and 14 April 2006 Helix, The Kochi Maru Affair (Walnut Creek, CA: Devil Mountain Books, 2004), 66, 83.

JACK elements capitalized on CCRAK maritime assets ‘carried on’ the FEC/LD property books. It was simple because those assets were ‘controlled’ by a dysfunctional headquarters. Military compartmentation enabled JACK to hide its operations among theirs. “CCRAK never ‘broke the code,’ or chose to ignore it,” said MAJ ‘Jack’ Singlaub. “My old friend from OSS Jedburgh and China days, LTC [Benton M.] ‘Mac’ Austin was the CCRAK liaison for JACK and FEC/LD. We talked often to keep ‘feathers from getting ruffled.’ ” 47 By mid-1951, however, the static combat situation hampered paramilitary operations and limited intelligence collection in Korea.

47 Singlaub interviews, 20-21 March 2012.

Neither the U.S. military, the UN, JACK, nor the South Koreans factored how tightly the Communists controlled their populations. When Armistice talks began in the spring of 1951, the front lines between conventional forces became semi-fixed . 48 The floods of refugees that fled the fluid battlefront in 1950 and early 1951 became trickles as fortified trench lines began to separate the opposing forces. With Chinese troops manning key terrain along the front, the North Korean military ‘locked down’ internal security, especially along the coasts.

48 Hart, The CIA’s Russians, 10 Weiner, Legacy of Ashes, 62, 64.

This was the environment in which LT Curtis and Sergeants Hoffman and Fosmire operated. It was very hostile and despite the conglomeration of special operations assets working from Yo-do, there was no coordinated UN effort. Blockade ships ordered to reduce North Korean mine carrying sampan infiltrations occasionally sank boats containing friendly agent teams . 49 Still, the JACK added a second trawler (K-444) to the Wonsan operation. By typhoon season, MAJ ‘Dutch’ Kramer had rotated home and CPT Robert Kingston had taken his place at Yong-do . 50

49 On 6 January 1952 the USS Erben (DD 631) sank a boat near Kojo that did not have proper recognition signals. It was carrying X Corps intelligence agents. This incident caused the Seventh Fleet commander to charge CTF 95 (US Naval blockade command) with the responsibility for controlling and clearing all friendly small craft operating near or above the bomb line on both coasts of Korea. FEC gave EUSA guerrilla command ‘clearinghouse’ authority and coordination responsibility for maritime operations with CTF 95. The two JACK trawlers stayed abreast of current US Navy operating requirements. Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 Korean War Chronology, http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea/chron5a.htm accessed 10/12/2005.

50 Singlaub interviews, 12 September 2008 and 24 May 2011.

Typhoons regularly hit Korea and Japan in the summer. In June 1952, Typhoon Dinah severely curtailed air operations and forced the UN blockade ships to seek safe harbor for nearly ten days. UN ground forces had only artillery to counter enemy attacks. “Sheltered in a small cove of Yo-do, we had all three anchors out and kept the engine of K-333 running ‘slow forward’ for thirty-six hours to keep from being driven ashore. Every time the stern scraped bottom we’d ‘rev up’ the engine to pull away. It was a hairy time,” remembered SGT Fosmire . 51 Operating inside the UN naval blockade line posed other problems.

51 Korean War Chronology, http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/korea/chron52b.htm accessed 10/9/2005 Fosmire interview, 13 April 2006.

Not being recognized as a friendly by UN air and naval vessels was a constant danger. Visual signals identifying the two JACK trawlers as ‘friendly’ vessels changed monthly. Simple signals supported the commercial ‘fishing trawler’ cover. They ranged from flying three rice sacks to hanging two glass-ball fishing floats on the mast during daylight to using colored identification lights and flares to respond to night challenges. Since the two trawlers regularly hugged the coast at night to observe enemy activity (truck convoys or steam locomotives sneaking out of tunnels), to offload and recover SMG raiding parties, and to slip agents aboard sampans, the two JACK vessels naturally raised the suspicions of radar men on blockade vessels paranoid about enemy sampans carrying mines . 52 (See “CIA Paramilitary Operations, 1950-1951” article).

52 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

“When we turned to face the lights and appropriately respond to the challenge, I realized that virtually every gun on the ship was trained on us.”

The CIA trawlers were challenged regularly. In dark-of-the-moon nights, blockade destroyers on ‘flycatcher’ patrol (searching for North Korean mine-carrying sampans) would slip in quietly and ‘light them up’ with all searchlights. “A ‘light up’ was brighter than a Hollywood set,” said SGT Fosmire. “When we turned to face the lights and appropriately respond to the challenge, I realized that virtually every gun on the ship was trained on us. ” 53 Even when recognized as friendly, Fosmire was often ordered to turn seaward ninety degrees and go to the five-mile limit. If they were idling, awaiting the return of a SMG raiding party, the JACK guerrillas had a long paddle in store while K-333 or K-444 responded to directives. After the ‘flycatcher’ vessel left the area, the trawler would slip back in for the rubber boat pickup . 54 The following actions illustrate a few JACK SMG coastal operations.

53 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

54 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

The mission to capture a group of Russian officers meeting with North Korean military leaders near Dok-jin-ri (North Hamgyong) was assigned in mid-October 1952. Instead of using the trawlers (K-333 and K-444) to put the SMG force ashore, Lieutenant Curtis and Sergeants Hoffman and Fosmire were to assist LT Atcheson and SFC William Hanscombe (SFC Pagnella’s replacement) aboard MW Bs, twenty-six-foot plywood motor launches used for general duty and as auxiliary lifeboats. The three-man East coast maritime team transloaded the SMG raiders from their trawlers to a destroyer escort (DE-699), the USS Marsh. This was done at night on 17 October 1952 on the seaward side of Yo-do to mask the transloading. When the empty trawlers returned to the other side of Yo-do to anchor, the Marsh slipped away to the north . 55

55 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 Dwyer, “Behind the Lines,” 67.

Shortly after midnight 18 October 1952, the Marsh pinpointed the beach landing site with its radar and lowered two MWBs into the dark sea. Lines were tossed to each and the RB-10 rubber boats were slid over the side. Then, the SMG raiders climbed down cargo nets to board eight bobbing rubber craft. The two whaleboats, each towing four boats, tugged the SMG raiders 600 meters offshore, and then stood-by idling, to tow them back after the raid. LT Curtis and MSG Hoffman were teamed with LT Atcheson in the command whaleboat while SGT Fosmire accompanied SFC Hanscombe in the other. Die Marsh had guided the MWBs ashore by relaying radar navigational vectors to the Navy coxswains wearing radio headsets . 56

56 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 Dwyer, “Behind the Lines,” 67.

The scheduled meeting (according to the defector with them) was two miles inland in a village. The SMG was operating in the dark-of-the-moon, their preferred phase. The ingress went smoothly. Only the muffled engines and phosphorescent boat wakes signaled the movement of the attack force. After reaching shore safely, the scout swimmers reconnoitered the area. Then, using light sticks, they signaled “all clear. ” 57 The flank security and assault elements began paddling their RB-10s to shore.

57 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 Dwyer, “Behind the Lines,” 67.

The carrying capacity of the Navy twenty-six foot plywood Mark II motorized whale boat (MWB) was limited. The coxswain normally stood to steer the craft. It is easy to understand why the coxswains were eager to break contact and get beyond small arms range.

As the beach security elements disembarked and ran crouched to their flank guard positions, the situation changed drastically. Both security teams began receiving effective small arms fire. When a heavy machine gun began firing tracers from the north, instead of “laying low,” the SMG raiders, “itching for a fight,” returned fire. With their positions identified in the darkness an intense firefight broke out . 58

58 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

“By the time LT Atcheson fired his flare gun to signal an immediate withdrawal, several rubber boats had been hit. As the firing increased and the machine gun tracers moved closer to the beach landing site, both whaleboats headed in to grab the RB-10 tow lines. We got in first and grabbed four rubber boat lines. As we turned to head back out with four boats in tow, I noticed that Atcheson’s whaleboat was ‘dead in the water.’ Its propeller had become fouled in some fishing nets. We swung alongside and I passed our towlines to Lieutenant Curtis. Then, under even heavier small arms fire, we turned about and raced back to the beach to collect the remaining RB-10s, two of which were partially deflated,” related SGT Fosmire . 59

59 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005.

“In the time it took us to return, the remaining SMG raiders had gotten their wounded in the boats and cleared the shore. They were paddling frantically to get beyond small arms range.”

“In the confusion, neither coxswain radioed the Marsh for suppressive fires. Both seamen were intent on their tasks—steering or freeing their whaleboats. They were hell bent on breaking contact and getting out of small arms range,” said Fosmire. “In the time it took us to return, the remaining SMG raiders had gotten their wounded in the boats and cleared the shore. They were paddling frantically to get beyond small arms range. When we got to them, Hanscombe and I grabbed the tow lines and lashed them to our stern as the coxswain swung back out to sea. In the meantime, LT Atcheson’s coxswain had ‘cleared’ the propeller and was headed back to the Marsh,” said Fosmire. “The action didn’t last more than ten minutes . . . or so it seemed, but it was quite exciting. ” 60

60 Fosmire interview, 6 September 2005 Lee Wha Rang, The Secret History of the Yong-do Partisan Unit (Seoul: PROCOM Publishers, 2001) Yong-do Partisan Unit at http://www.kimsoft.com/2005/Yong-doPartisans.htm , 71-72 accessed 10/5/2006.

While the wounded SMG raiders were treated in the sick bay, DE-699 steamed south to Yo-do. Fortunately, no one was killed. On the seaward side of the island the SMG transloaded aboard the two trawlers for the return trip to Yong-do. SGT Fosmire was decorated for his heroic actions . 61 Another SMG raid with the soldier-seamen using their trawlers was more successful.


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