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USS Atlanta CL -51 - Geskiedenis

USS Atlanta CL -51 - Geskiedenis



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USS Atlanta CL-51

Atlanta (CL-51: dp. 6,000; 1. 541'0 "; b. 52'10"- dr 20'6 "- s. 33,6 k.; Kpl.
673; a. 16 5 ", 9 1.1", 8 21 "~; C*I. Atl ~ nt,)

Die derde Atlanta (CL-51), die eerste van 'n nuwe klas skepe wat oorspronklik as vlootleiers beskou is, maar wat as besonder effektiewe lugvaartkruisers bekend geword het, is op 22 A '1 1940 in Kearny, N.J., neergelê deur die Federal Shipbuilding en
Dry Dock Co.; op 6 September 1941 gelanseer; geborg deur mev John R. Marsh (beter bekend onder haar pseudoniem, Margaret Mitchell, die skrywer van die roman Gone With the Wind); en in opdrag by die New York Navy Yard op 24 Desember 1941; Kapt Samuel P. Jenkins in bevel.
Nadat sy uitgetrek het, het Atlanta tot 13 Maart afgeskudde opleiding aangebied, eers in Chesapeakebaai en daarna in Maine's Casco Bay, waarna sy na die New York Navy Yard teruggekeer het vir herstelwerk en veranderinge na afskud. Na bewering op 31 Maart 'gereed vir verre diens', vertrek die nuwe ligte kruiser op 5 April uit New York na die Panamakanaalsone. Sy het Cristobal op die 8ste bereik. Nadat sy die istfimiese waterweg oorgesteek het, het Atlanta op 12 April Balboa skoongemaak met bevele om Cherton Island te herken-'n klein, onvrugbare, onbewoonde atol ongeveer 670 inifEeps suidwes van Acapulco, Mexiko-tydens haar reis na die Hawaiiaanse eilande, vir enige tekens van vyandige aktiwiteite. Omdat sy niks gevind het nie, bereik sy Pearl Harbor op 23 April.
Deur haar kort verblyf in Hawaïese waters te kenmerk met 'n lugvaartpraktyk by Oahu op 3 Mei, het Atlanta in geselskap met McCall (DD-400) op 10 Mei geseil as begeleiding vir die ammunisie-skip Rainier (AE-5) en die olieman Kaskaskia (AO) -27), op pad na Noumea, Nieu -Caledonië. Op 16 Mei, nadat sy die hulpdienste na hul bestemming gesien het, het sy aangesluit by vise-admiraal William F. Halsey se Task Force (TF) 16, gevorm rondom die draers Enterprise (CV-6) en Hornet (CV-8), terwyl dit teruggestoom het na Pearl Harbor, nadat hy teruggeroep is na die Hawaïese waters in reaksie op 'n dreigende Japannese stoot in die rigting van die Midway -atol. TF 16 het op 26 Mei by Pearl aangekom.
Atlanta het die oggend van die 28ste weer met TF 16 gevaar. In die daaropvolgende dae het sy die draers gekeur terwyl hulle noordwes van Midway opereer in afwagting van die aankoms van die vyand. By die berig van Japannese skepe in die suidweste, op die oggend van 4 Junie, het Atlanta vir aksie toegelaat toe sy Hornet vertoon. Eskader van die drie Amerikaanse draers het die Japannese gesoek, en gedurende daardie dag het vliegtuie van Yorktown en Enterprise vier onvervangbare vyandelike vlakke oprig. Japannese vliegtuie het TF 17 twee keer getref, gevorm rondom Yorktown (CV-5) en onafhanklik van TF 16 gewerk, en dit het die grootste deel van die vyandelike aanvalle geëis. Gedurende die dae wat gevolg het op die Slag van Midway, het Atlanta tot 11 Junie op die skerm van TF 16 gebly, toe die taakspan bevele ontvang het om na Pearl Harbor terug te keer.
Toe sy op 13 Junie haar bestemming bereik het, het Atlanta, buite 'n kort tydperk van lugvaartoefeninge op 21, 25 en 26 Junie, in die hawe gebly, winkels en voorraad aangeneem en in Julie 1942 op 24-uur en daarna 48-uur waaksaam. Drydock het ek op 2 en 2 Julie aangebring sodat haar onderkant geskraap, skoongemaak en geverf kon word, en die kruiser het haar beskikbaarheid op die 6de voltooi en daarna 'n besige skedule van skietoefeninge hervat met hommeltuie, hoëspoed-slee en in bombardemente aan die wal in die operasionele gebied van Hawaii.
Op 15 Julie 1942 vaar Atlanta, weer in TF 16, na Tongatabu. Anker in Nukualofa, Tonga, op 24 Julie, waar sy Maury (DD-401) aangevuur het en dan brandstof by die tenkwa Mobilube opneem, het die ligte kruiser later dieselfde dag aangesteek en TF 16 verbygesteek. Op 29 Julie, soos alle voorbereidings stap vinnig vorentoe vir die inval in Guadalcanal, in die Britse Salomonseilande, Atlanta is by TF 61 aangewys.
Atlanta het die lugrederye ondersoek terwyl hulle lugaanvalle geloods het om die aanvanklike landings op Guadalcanal op 7 en 8 Augustus te ondersteun, en Atlanta het in die omgewing van die eiland gebly tot die onttrekking van die taakmagte op die 9de. Vir die volgende paar dae het sy
op see gebly, waar nodig aangevul terwyl die taakspan naby die Solomons werksaam was.
Namate die Amerikaners hul wins op Guadalcanal gekonsolideer het, het die Japannese kritieke behoefte aan versterkings daartoe gelei dat admiraal Isoroku Yamamoto die gekombineerde vloot suidwaarts gestuur het om 'n groot troepekonvooi te dek. Amerikaanse verkenningsvliegtuie het die Japannese magte die oggend van 23 Augustus gewaar. Terwyl die konvooi van die vyand in die noordweste aangemeld is, het Enterprise en Saratoga soek- en aanvalvliegtuie geloods, maar die vliegtuig kon nie kontak maak nie weens die verslegtende weer en die feit dat die Japannese, met die wete dat hulle opgemerk is, koers verander het.
Die hele dag op 24 Augustus het Atlanta vyandelike kontakverslae ontvang en Enterprise gekeur toe sy 'n stakingsgroep op die been gebring het om die Japannese verdienste te soek. Die aanskoue van 'n vyandige "snooper" om 1328 het die seevaarders van Atlanta na algemene kwartiere gestuur, waar hulle die volgende vyf en 'n half uur gebly het. Teen 1530 het die kruiser tot 20 knope gewerk, aangesien TF 16 ongeveer noord-noordwes gestaan ​​het "om die aangemelde vyandelike draersgroep te sluit." Teen 1637, met ongeïdentifiseerde vliegtuie wat nader kom, het Atlanta 25 knope gehaal. Enterprise het daarna 'n stakingsgroep kort daarna begin, wat die evolusie in 1706 voltooi het.
Intussen het die inkomende vyandelike aanval-bomwerper en vegvliegtuie van Shokaku en Zuikaku die taakspan aangespoor om spoed tot 27 knope te verhoog; kort nadat Enterprise haar eie vliegtuig gelanseer het, het die Japannese aanval deur kapt. Jenkins na raming uit ten minste 18 Aichi D3A1 Type 99-draagbommenwerpers ("Vals") bestaan, om 1710 uit die noordweste gekom. In die volgende 11 minute, Atlanta se 5-duim, 1. 1-duim en
Batterye van 20 millimeter het bygedra tot die spervuur ​​oor Enterprise, aangesien die ligte kruiser aan elke beweging van Enterprise voldoen het terwyl sy gewelddadig beweeg het om die duikbomwerpers te vermy.
Ten spyte van die hewige vuurvliegtuigvuur, het Enterprise egter 'n slag geslaan en skade aan granaatskade opgedoen deur 'n geskatte vyf byna ongelukke. Kapt. Jenkins het later berig dat sy skip moontlik vyf van die aanvallers neergeskiet het.
Atlanta het ongeskonde en selfversekerd uit haar vuurdoop gekom; as haar uitvoerende beampte, komdr. Campbell D. Emery, skryf na die geveg: "Alhoewel Atlanta deur die Midway -veldtog was ... "Kaptein Jenkins het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom:" Die skip funksioneer in alle opsigte soos ontwerp en kan as 'n doeltreffende eenheid beskou word. "
Die volgende dag by TF 11 aan diens, het Atlanta die volgende paar dae op 30 Augustus met die nuwe TF 61 gewerk. Toe die Japannese duikboot 1-26 Saratoga op 31 Augustus getorpeer het, het die ligte kruiser die geteisterde vlagskip vertoon toe Minneapolis (CA-36) 'n sleeplyn opgestel het en haar uit die gevaar begin haal het. Die mag het uiteindelik op 6 September Tongatabu ingedien, waar Atlanta die skip voorsien het, aangevuur uit New Orleans (CA-32) en 'n tydperk van instandhouding geniet het.
Op 13 September het die ligte kruiser op die 15de sy diens as begeleier aanvaar vir die Noumea-gebonde ammunisie skip Lassen (AE-3) en die vliegtuig wat Hammondsport (APV-2) vervoer. Nadat sy haar aanklagte veilig na hul bestemming in Dumbeabaai, Noumea, op die 19de gesien het, het Atlanta gevoed, winkels aangeneem en

ammunisie, en vaar op die 21ste as deel van Task Group (TG) 66.4. Op 23 September was die ligte kruiser deel van TF 17 en is die volgende dag losgemaak om saam met Washington (BB-56) en die verwoesters Walke (DD-416) en Benham (DD-397) na Tongatabu te gaan, wat sy bereik het op die 26ste.
Op 7 Oktober met dieselfde skepe onderweg, het Atlanta tussen 11 en 14 Oktober vlugtig Guadalcanal-vervoer begelei voordat hulle op die middag van die 15de in Espiritu Santo gestap het vir brandstof. Die skip, wat destyds aan die admiraal Willis A. Lee se TF 64 toegewys is, seil dieselfde dag ná donker om die operasies te hervat oor die voortgesette pogings om Guadalcanal te beveilig. Die oorlogskip het die middag van 23 Oktober teruggekeer na Espiritu Santo vir brandstof, winkels en voorraad.
Twee dae later, met 'n offensief van die Japannese weermag wat nie die Amerikaners uit Guadalcanal kon verdryf nie, het admiraal Yamamoto die gekombineerde vloot na die suide gestuur in 'n poging om die Amerikaanse vlootmagte hardnekkig te ondersteun. Atlanta werk in TF 64, saam met Washington, San Francisco (CA-38), Helena (CL-50) en twee vernietigers, terwyl die opponerende magte op 26 Oktober aan die Slag van die Santa Cruz-eilande deelneem. Op daardie dag het Atlanta agterna gepatrolleer van die brandstofgroep wat die twee Amerikaanse taakmagte ondersteun. Op die 27ste, toe die Japannese duikboot 1-15 TF 64 aanval, het haar torpedo Washington misgeloop en ongeveer 400 meter buite haar steengroef ontplof-die krag het met hoë spoed gemanoeuvreer om die gebied skoon te maak.
Op die oggend van die 28ste het Atlanta die admiraal Norman Scott van San Francisco aan boord geneem en die vlagskip geword van die nuut aangewese TG 64.2. Nadat hy uit Washington aangevuur is, word Atlanta deur vier vernietigers vertoon, noordwes noordwaarts, om Japannese posisies op Guadalcanal te beskadig. Atlanta het die oggend van die 30ste die waters van Lunga Point bereik, en Atlanta het omstreeks 0550 met die mariene skakelbeamptes begin, en dan wes gestoom, met haar bombardement op Point Cruz om 0629 terwyl die verwoesters 'n kolom -agterkant vorm. TG 64.2 het sy missie verrig en het teruggekeer na Lunga Point, waar Atlanta die skakelbeamptes van stapel gestuur het. Daarna het sy saam met haar skerm na Espiritu Santo gegaan, waar sy die middag van 31 Oktober aangekom het.
Daarna dien Atlanta as die vlagskip van Admiral Scott as die ligte kruiser, vergesel van vier vernietigers, die vervoer Zeilin (AP-9) en vragskepe Libra (AK-53) en Betelgeuse (AK-28) na Guadalcanal. Die kruiser en haar kollegas het voortgegaan om die TG 62.4-skepe wat deur die skepe aangewys is, te ondersoek terwyl hulle by Lunga Point ontslae raak en voorrade aflaai en troepe aan boord gaan.
Teen 0905 het die taakgroep 'n verslag ontvang dat nege karweerbomwerpers en 12 vegters uit die noordweste nader en omstreeks 0930 hul omgewing sou bereik. in 'n sirkel om hulle. Vyftien minute later kom nege "Vals van die vervoerder Hiyo uit die wolke oor Henderson Field; die Amerikaanse skepe het kort daarna losgebrand en 'n spervuur ​​veroorsaak wat 'verskeie' vliegtuie neergeslaan het. Gelukkig was nie een van die hoofdoelwitte van die aanval-Zeilin , Weegskaal en Betelgeuse het meer as geringe skade opgedoen as gevolg van verskeie nabye missies, hoewel Zeilin 'n mate van oorstromings opgedoen het.
'N Bietjie meer as 'n uur later, om 1050, het Atlanta 'n boodskap ontvang van nog 'n inkomende Japannese lugaanval. Vyftien minute later het Atlanta die drie hulpdienste noordwaarts gelei met die verwoesters in 'n kring om die geaardheid. Die "bogeys" -27 Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 landaanvalvliegtuie ("Betty") van Rabaul-geslote, waarneembare rigting wes na noord, kom van oor Kaap Esperance in 'n baie los "V" -formasie. Alhoewel die vernietigers losgebrand het, was die vliegtuie buite bereik en het die skepe die vuur nagegaan. Die "Betties" het op hul beurt die skepe geïgnoreer en voortgegaan om Henderson Field te bombardeer. By die verdwyning van die vliegtuie het TG 62.4 die aflaai van Lunga Point hervat.
Die optrede op 11 November het egter slegs 'n voorsmakie gegee van die beproewing wat gevolg het. Die volgende dag was Atlanta nog steeds van Lunga Point af, om die aflaai te ondersoek, as deel van TF 67 onder admiraal Daniel J. Callaghan in San Francisco. Omstreeks 1310 het Atlanta 'n waarskuwing ontvang dat 25 vyandelike vliegtuie op pad is na Guadalcanal, wat binne 50 minute sou arriveer. Die ligte kruiser het in 1318 na die algemene kwartaal gegaan en die sein ontvang "berei voor om lugaanval af te weer."
Binne ses minute het Atlanta en die ander vegters van die
ondersteuningsgroep vorm 'n skerm rondom die vervoergroep (TG 67.1), en die twee groepe stoom saam noordwaarts op 15 knope. Omstreeks 1410 het die Amerikaners die inkomende aanval gesien, wat bestaan ​​het uit 25 tweemotorige bomwerpers ("Betties") wat in twee groepe opgebreek het nadat hulle Florida-eiland skoongemaak het, op hoogtes van 25 tot 50 voet. Juneau (CL-52) het op 1412 losgebrand. Atlanta het dit 'n minuut later gedoen en haar gewere op vliegtuie opgelei, wat na die gaping in die skerm tussen San Francisco en die vernietiger Buchanan (DD-484) gelei het. Atlanta beweer dat hy twee "Betties" neergeskiet het net nadat hulle hul torpedo's omstreeks 1415 laat val het, slegs drie minute voordat die aanval geëindig het. Nadat die laaste Japanse vliegtuig gespat is, het die werk met die aflaai van vragte en vragskepe hervat. Een "Betty", wat verlam is deur lugvuur, het die na -bo -opbou van San Francisco neergestort en die krag aangerig.
Die skielike einde van die lugaanval het Atlanta en haar kollegas egter net 'n kort blaaskans gegee, want daar kom nog 'n kwartier probleme. 'N Japanse oppervlaktemag, bestaande uit twee slagskepe, een kruiser en ses verwoesters, is opgespoor wat suidwaarts na Guadalcanal gestoom het om Henderson Field op die vliegveld op die eiland te beskadig. Admiraal Callaghan se ondersteuningsgroep sou "die [uittredende vervoer en vragvaartuie] teen vyandelike aanval dek". Gevolglik vertrek TG 67.4 omstreeks 1800 uit Lunga Point en stoom ooswaarts deur Sealark Channel, wat die onttrekking van TG 67 dek. 1. 'n Uur voor middernag het Callaghan se skepe koers omgeslaan en weswaarts gegaan.
Helena se radar het die eerste kontak op die Japannese skepe op 'n afstand van 26 000 meter opgetel. Namate die reeks gesluit is, het Atlanta se oppervlak -soekradar, gevolg deur haar skietradars, 'n kontak met die vyandelike skepe gekry.
Die bevel van admiraal Callaghan vir 'n koersverandering na links het onmiddellik probleme veroorsaak, aangesien Atlanta onmiddellik links moes draai om 'n botsing met een van die vier vernietigers in die bakkie te vermy. beweging. Toe Atlanta begin om haar stasie voor San Francisco te hervat, het die Japannese vernietiger Akatsuki die ligte kruiser verlig en torpedo's afgevuur. Atlanta het haar battery geskuif om op die vyandelike verwoester te skiet en op 'n afstand van ongeveer 1,600 meter losgebrand.
Toe twee ander Japannese vernietigers haar vuurlyn oorsteek, het Atlanta albei met haar voorste 5-duim-houers omgegaan, terwyl sy na die berge by die verligte skip voortgegaan het. 'N Bykomende, ongeïdentifiseerde aanvaller maak ook oop op die ligte kruiser uit die noordooste. Omtrent daardie tyd het ten minste een van Akatsuki se torpedo's van Atlanta se voorste enjinkamer ingeloop. Sy het alles behalwe hul dieselkrag verloor, die onderbreking van haar geweervuur ​​opgedoen en moes die stuurbeheer na die stuurkamer in die agterkant skuif. As 'n vergelding het Atlanta die soeklig van Akatsukirs afgeskiet, en die vyandskip, wat ook deur San Francisco se geweervuur ​​geslaan is, sak met alle hande,
Tragedie, jy het kort daarna toegeslaan. Kort nadat haar tweestryd met Akatsuki beëindig is, het Atlanta onder die invloed van 'n vlaag van wat na raming 19 8-duim-treffers was gespoel, "in die dringendheid van geveg, duisternis en verwarde intermin.
glimlag van 'n vriend of vyand, "skiet haar in. Alhoewel dit byna almal is
u
doppe wat deur die dun vel van die skip gegaan het sonder om te ontplof en groen kleurstof versprei het om hul gang te merk, het fragmente van hul impak baie mense gedood, waaronder Admi. ral Scott en sy personeellede. Atlanta was bereid om terug te skiet op haar nuwe aanvaller, maar San Francisco se eie geweerflitse onthul 'n duidelik 'nie-Japannese rompprofiel', wat daartoe gelei het dat die pogings opgeskort is.
Nadat die 8-duim-vuur opgehou het, het kapt. Jenkins, Atlanta, die situasie in oënskou geneem en op wonderbaarlike wyse slegs 'n geringe (maar pynlike) wond in sy voet in die slagting vorentoe opgedoen, sy pad agteruit na Slag 11, erg geslaan, grootliks magteloos, onder die kop en effens na die hawe, het sy skip erg seergekry en 'n derde van die bemanning was dood of vermis. Terwyl die geveg in sy afnemende stadium voortduur, het die manne van die ligte kruiser begin om puin op te ruim, die gewig van die bokant te verwyder om die lys reg te stel, die volume seewater in die skip te verminder en die talle gewondes op te vang.
Daglig onthul die teenwoordigheid van drie brandende Amerikaanse vernietigers, die gestremde Portland, en die verlamde Japannese vernietiger Yudachi wat Portland summier met drie salpe gestuur het. Atlanta, wat in die rigting van die vyandelike oewer van Cape Esperance dryf, het haar stuurboord laat val of; haar kaptein het 'n boodskap aan Portland gestuur waarin hy die ligte kruiser verduidelik
desperate benoudhede. Intussen het bote van Guadalcanal na die skip gekom en die ernstiger gewondes van haar mans afgeneem. Teen die oggend is dit alles verwyder.
Bobolink (AT-131) het op 13 November om 0930 op die toneel aangekom en Atlanta onder sleeptou geneem, wat dit moeiliker gemaak het omdat die kruiser haar anker gesleep het en na Lunga Point gegaan het. Tydens die reis het 'n "Betty" die geaardheid nader, en een van die twee oorblywende 5-duim-houers-die een wat deur 'n dieselgenerator aangevuur word en dit weggery het; die ander houer, met handbediening, kon nie betyds opgelei word nie.
Atlanta bereik Kukuni ongeveer 1400, op watter stadium het kapt. Jenkins met sy oorblywende offisiere beraadslaag. Soos Jenkins, wat later 'n vlootkruis toegeken is vir sy heldhaftigheid tydens die geveg, later geskryf het: "Dit was nou duidelik dat pogings om die skip te red nutteloos was en dat die water geleidelik toeneem." Selfs as daar voldoende bergingsfasiliteite beskikbaar was, het hy toegelaat, sou die ernstige skade wat die skip in die geveg opgedoen het, twyfelagtig gemaak het of die skip gered kon word al dan nie. Kapt. Jenkins het gemagtig deur bevelvoerder, die Stille Oseaan -magte, om na eie goeddunke oor die vernietiging van die skip op te tree, en beveel dat Atlanta met 'n slopingsheffing laat vaar word.
Alle ander mans behalwe die kaptein en 'n slopingsgeselskap het gevolglik aan boord gegaan van Higgins -bote wat vir die doel uit Guadalcanal gestuur is. Nadat die aanklag ingestel en ontplof het, het die laaste mans die gehawende skip verlaat. Uiteindelik, op 2015 op 13 November 1942, sak Atlanta drie myl wes van Lunga Point in 30 vaam. Haar naam is op 13 Januarie 1943 van die vlootlys verwyder.
Atlanta (CL-51) is bekroon met vyf gevegsterre vir haar diens in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die Presidensiële Eenheid Citation vir haar 'heroïese voorbeeld van onoorwinlike veggees' in die geveg by Guadalcanal op 13 November 1942.


Woordeboek van Amerikaanse vlootgevegskepe

Die derde Atlanta (CL-51)-die eerste van 'n nuwe klas skepe wat oorspronklik as flottielieleiers beskou is, maar wat bekend gestaan ​​het as besonder effektiewe lugvaartkruisers-is op 22 April 1940 in Kearny, NJ, neergelê deur die Federal Shipbuilding en Drydock Co . gelanseer op 6 September 1941 geborg deur mev John R. Marsh (beter bekend onder haar pseudoniem, Margaret Mitchell, die skrywer van die roman Weg met die wind) en in opdrag by die New York -vloot Yard op 24 Desember 1941, kaptein Samuel P. Jenkins in bevel.

Na die uitrusting, Atlanta het opleiding tot 13 Maart gedoen, eers in Chesapeake Bay en daarna in Maine's Casco Bay, waarna sy na die New Yards vloot Yard teruggekeer het vir herstelwerk en veranderings na die afskud. Na bewering op 31 Maart 'gereed vir verre diens', vertrek die nuwe ligkruiser op 5 April uit New York na die Panamakanaalsone. sy bereik Cristobal op die 8ste. Na die transito van die ismiese waterweg, Atlanta het op 12 April Balboa skoongemaak met bevele om Clipperton-eiland te herken-'n klein, onvrugbare, onbewoonde atol ongeveer 670 myl suidwes van Acapulco, Mexiko-tydens haar reis na die Hawaiiaanse eilande, vir enige tekens van vyandige aktiwiteite. Omdat sy niks gevind het nie, bereik sy Pearl Harbor op 23 April.

Deur haar kort verblyf in Hawaïese waters te kenmerk met 'n lugvaartpraktyk by Oahu op 3 Mei, Atlanta, in geselskap met McCall (DD-400) het op 10 Mei as begeleiding vir die ammunisie skip gevaar Reëneriger (AE-5) en die oliebak Kaskaskia (AO-27), op pad na Noumea, Nieu-Caledonië. Op 16 Mei, nadat sy die hulpdienste na hul bestemming gesien het, het sy aangesluit by vise -admiraal William F. Halsey se Task Force (TF) 16, gevorm rondom die draers Onderneming (CV-6) en Hornet (CV-8), terwyl dit terugstoom na Pearl Harbor, nadat dit teruggeroep is na Hawaïese waters in reaksie op 'n dreigende Japannese aanslag in die rigting van die Midway-atol. TF 16 het op 26 Mei by Pearl aangekom.

Atlanta het die oggend van die 28ste weer met TF 16 gevaar. In die daaropvolgende dae het sy die draers gekeur terwyl hulle noordwes van Midway opereer in afwagting van die vyand se aankoms. By die verslag van Japannese skepe in die suidweste, op die oggend van 4 Junie, Atlanta vir aksie gewys terwyl sy vertoon het Hornet. Eskadrons van die drie Amerikaanse draers het die Japannese gesoek, en gedurende daardie dag, vliegtuie van Yorktown en Onderneming het vier onvervangbare vyandelike woonstelle doodgemaak. Japannese vliegtuie het TG 17 twee keer getref, gevorm rondom Yorktown (CV-5) en onafhanklik van TG 16, en dit het die grootste deel van vyandelike aanvalle geverg. Gedurende die dae wat gevolg het op die Slag van Midway, Atlanta het tot 11 Junie op die skerm van TF 16 gebly, toe die taakspan bevele ontvang het om na Pearl Harbor terug te keer.

By haar bestemming op 13 Junie, Atlanta, Buiten 'n kort tydperk van lugvaartoefeninge op 21, 25 en 26 Junie, bly sy in die hawe, neem winkels en voorraad aan en staan ​​24 uur en daarna 48 uur in Julie 1942 in kennis. Drydock op 1 en 2 Julie sodat sy die onderkant kon geskraap, skoongemaak en geverf word, die kruiser het haar beskikbaarheid op die 6de voltooi en daarna 'n besige skedule van skietoefeninge met drone-teikens, hoëspoed-slee en in die oewer van die oewer in die Hawaii-operasionele gebied hervat.

Op 15 Julie 1942 het Atlanta, weer in TF 16, vaar na Tongatabu. Anker in Nukualofa, Tonga, op 24 Julie, waar sy aangevuur het Maury (DD-401) en dan brandstof by die tenkwa aangeneem Mobilube, die ligte kruiser het later dieselfde dag aangestap en TF 16. ingehaal, terwyl alle voorbereidings vinnig op die inval van Guadalcanal in die Britse Salomonseilande verloop het, Atlanta is toegeken aan TF 61.

Deur die draers te kyk terwyl hulle lugaanvalle begin om die aanvanklike landings op Guadalcanal op 7 en 8 Augustus te ondersteun, Atlanta het in die omgewing van die eiland gebly tot die onttrekking van die taakgroepe op die 9de. Die volgende paar dae het sy op die see gebly en aangevul indien nodig terwyl die taakspan naby die Solomons opereer.

Terwyl die Amerikaners hul wins op Guadalcanal gekonsolideer het, het die Japannese kritieke behoefte aan versterkings daartoe gelei dat admiraal Isoroku Yamamoto die gekombineerde vloot suidwaarts gestuur het om 'n groot troepekonvooi te dek. Amerikaanse verkenningsvliegtuie het die Japannese magte die oggend van 23 Augustus gewaar. Terwyl die vyandelike konvooi in die noordweste aangemeld is, Onderneming en Saratoga soek- en aanvalvliegtuie geloods, maar die vliegtuig kon nie kontak maak nie weens die verslegtende weer en die feit dat die Japanners, wetende dat hulle opgemerk is, koers omkeer.

Die hele dag op 24 Augustus, Atlanta vyandelike kontakverslae ontvang en gekeur Onderneming toe sy 'n stakingsgroep begin om die Japannese draers te soek. Die waarneming van 'n vyandige "snooper" om 1328 gestuur Atlanta's matrose na algemene kwartiere, waar hulle die volgende en 'n half uur lank gebly het. Teen 130 het die kruiser tot 20 knope gewerk, aangesien TF 16 ongeveer noord-noordwes gestaan ​​het "om die aangemelde vyandelike draersgroep te sluit." Om 1637, met ongeïdentifiseerde vliegtuie wat nader kom, Atlanta tot 25 knope gegaan. Onderneming het kort daarna 'n stakingsgroep gestig wat die evolusie in 1706 voltooi het.

Intussen slaan die inkomende vyand toe-bomwerper en vegvliegtuie van Shokaku en Zuikaku-het die taakspan gevra om die spoed kort daarna tot 27 knope te verhoog Onderneming Die Japannese aanval, wat deur kapt. Jenkins na raming uit ten minste 18 Aichi D3A1 tipe 99-draagbommenwerpers ("Vals") bestaan, voltooi het, het omstreeks 1710 uit die noordweste gekom. Oor die volgende kw11 minute, Atlanta's 5-duim-, 1,1-duim- en 20-millimeter-batterye het bygedra tot die spervuur Onderneming, soos die ligkruiser konformeer Ondernemings elke beweging terwyl sy gewelddadig manipuleer om die duikbomwerpers te vermy.

Atlanta ongeskonde en selfversekerd uit haar vuurdoop te voorskyn gekom toe haar uitvoerende beampte, komdr. Campbell D. Emery, skryf na die geveg: "Hoewel die Atlanta was deur die Midway -veldtog. dit was die eerste geleentheid wat die bemanning gehad het om aktief by die vyand in die geveg aan te sluit. Alle hande verwelkom die geleentheid met entoesiasme. . "Kaptein Jenkins het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom:" Die skip funksioneer in alle opsigte soos ontwerp en kan as 'n doeltreffende eenheid beskou word. . "

Meld die volgende dag by TF 11 aan vir diens, Atlanta met die krag-op 30 Augustus herontwerpte TF 61-in die komende dae bedryf. Toe die Japannese duikboot Ek-26 getorpedeer Saratoga,/i> op 31 Augustus het die ligte kruiser die geteisterde vlagskip vertoon as Minneapolis (C-36) het 'n sleeplyn opgestel en haar uit die gevaar begin haal. Die mag het uiteindelik op 6 September Tongatabu ingedien, waar Atlanta skip voorsien, aangevuur uit New Orleans (CA-32), en het 'n tydperk van instandhouding geniet.

Op 13 September het die ligte kruiser aan diens geneem as begeleier vir die Noumea-gebinde ammunisie-skip Lassen (AE-3) en die vliegtuig vervoer Hammondsport (APV-2) op die 15de. Nadat sy haar op 19 op die veilige plek na hul bestemming in Dumbea Bay, Noumea, gesien het, Atlanta,/i> aangevuur, het winkels en ammunisie aangeneem en op die 21ste gevaar as deel van Task Group (TG) 66.4. Op 23 September, wat deel uitmaak van TF 17, is die ligte kruiser die volgende dag losgemaak om saam te werk Washington (BB-56) en die vernietigers Walke (DD-416) en Benham (DD-397) na Tongatabu, wat sy op die 26ste bereik het.

Aan die gang met dieselfde skepe op 7 Oktober, Atlanta het vervoer tussen Guadalcanal-vervoer tussen 11 en 14 Oktober kortliks begelei voordat hulle op die middag van die 15de in Espiritu Santo gestap het vir brandstof. Die skip, wat destyds aan die admiraal Willis A. Lee se TF 64 toegewys is, seil dieselfde dag dieselfde dag na donker om die operasies te hervat wat die voortgesette pogings om Guadalcanal te beveilig dek. Die oorlogskip het die middag van 23 Oktober teruggekeer na Espiritu Santo vir brandstof, winkels en voorraad.

Twee dae later, met 'n offensief van die Japannese weermag wat nie die Amerikaners uit Guadalcanal kon verdryf nie, het admiraal Yamamoto die gekombineerde vloot na die suide gestuur in 'n poging om die Amerikaanse vlootmagte hardnekkig te ondersteun. Atlanta bedryf in TF 64, saam met Washington, San Francisco (CA-38), Helena (CL-50) en twee vernietigers, terwyl die opponerende magte op 26 Oktober aan die Slag van die Santa Cruz-eilande deelgeneem het. Daardie dag, Atlanta agterna gepatrolleer van die brandstofgroep wat die twee Amerikaanse taakmagte ondersteun. Op die 27ste toe die Japannese duikboot Ek-15 het TF 64 aangeval-haar torpedo het gemis Washington, Ongeveer 400 meter verder as haar steengroef ontplof-die krag het met hoë spoed gemanoeuvreer om die gebied skoon te maak.

Die oggend van die 28ste, Atlanta aan boord gebring van admiraal Norman Scott van San Francisco, en word die vlagskip van die nuut aangewese TG 64.2. Na brandstof uit Washington, Atlanta vertoon deur vier vernietigers, noordwes noordwaarts, om Japannese posisies op Guadalcanal te beskut. Die oggend van die 30ste het ek die waters by Lungapunt bereik, Atlanta om 0550 met mariene skakelbeamptes begin, en dan wes gestoom, met haar bombardement op Point Cruz om 0629 terwyl die verwoesters 'n kolom agterkant vorm. TG 64.2 het sy missie bereik en teruggekeer na Lungapunt waar Atlanta die skakelbeamptes afgestap. Daarna het sy saam met haar skerm na Espiritu Santo gegaan, waar sy die middag van 31 Oktober aangekom het.

Daarna, Atlanta het as admiraal Scott se vlagskip gedien as die ligte kruiser, vergesel van vier vernietigers, die vervoer begelei Zeilin (AP-9) en vragskepe Weegskaal (AK-53) en Betelgeuse (AK-28) na Guadalcanal. Die kruiser en haar kollegas het voortgegaan om die skepe-met die naam TG 62.4-af te skerm terwyl hulle by Lunga Point aflaai en voorrade aflaai en troepe aan boord gaan.

By 0905 het die taakgroep 'n verslag ontvang dat nege draerbomwerpers en 12 vegters uit die noordweste nader en omstreeks 0930 hul omgewing sou bereik. Omstreeks 0920, Atlanta het die drie hulpe in die kolom na die noorde gelei, met die vernietigers in 'n sirkel om hulle. Vyftien minute later, nege "Vals" van die vervoerder Hiyo uit die wolke oor Henderson Field gekom het, het die Amerikaanse skepe kort daarna losgebrand en 'n spervuur ​​gelê wat 'verskeie' vliegtuie neergeslaan het. Nie een van die belangrikste doelwitte van die aanval was gelukkig nie-Zeilin, Weegskaal en Betelgeuse-het egter meer as geringe skade opgedoen as gevolg van verskeie ongelukke Zeilin oorstromings ondervind. Die drie hulpdienste het teruggekeer na die waters by Lunga Point, sodra die aanval geëindig het, en die werkende vrag en die troepe van die land begin hervat.

'N Bietjie meer as 'n uur later, om 1050, Atlanta het berig gekry van nog 'n inkomende Japannese lugaanval. Vyftien minute later, Atlanta het die drie hulpverleners noordwaarts gelei met die verwoesters in 'n kring om die geaardheid. Die "bogeys"-27 Mitsubishi G4M1 Type 1 landaanvalvliegtuie ("Betty") van Rabaul-geslote, waarneembare rigting wes na noord, kom van oor Kaap Esperance in 'n baie los "V" -formasie. Alhoewel die vernietigers losgebrand het, was die vliegtuie buite bereik en het die skepe die vuur nagegaan. Die "Betties" het op hul beurt die skepe geïgnoreer en voortgegaan om Henderson Field te bombardeer. By die verdwyning van die vliegtuie het TG 62.4 die aflaai van Lunga Point hervat.

Die optrede op 11 November het egter slegs 'n voorsmakie gegee van die beproewing wat gevolg het. Die volgende dag, Atlanta was nog steeds van Lunga Point af en ondersoek die aflaai as deel van TF 67 onder admiraal Daniel J: Callaghan in San Francisco. Omstreeks 1310, Atlanta 'n waarskuwing ontvang dat 25 vyandelike vliegtuie na Guadalcanal op pad is, wat binne 50 minute sou arriveer. Die ligte kruiser het in 1318 na die algemene kwartaal gegaan en die sein ontvang "berei voor om lugaanval af te weer."

Binne ses minute, Atlanta en die ander vegters van die ondersteuningsgroep vorm 'n skerm rondom die vervoergroep (TG 67.1), en die twee groepe stoom saam noordwaarts op 15 knope. Omstreeks 1410 het die Amerikaners die inkomende aanval gesien, wat bestaan ​​het uit 25 tweemotorige bomwerpers ("Betties") wat in twee groepe opgebreek het nadat hulle Florida-eiland skoongemaak het, op hoogtes van 25 tot 50 voet. Juneau (CL-52) het om 1412 losgebrand. Atlanta 'n minuut later het sy haar gewere op vliegtuie opgelei na die gaping tussen die skerms San Francisco and the destroyer Buchanan (DD-484). Atlanta claimed to have shot down two "Betties" just after they dropped their torpedoes, at about 1415, only three minutes before the attack ended. Once the last Japanese plane had been splashed, the work of unloading the transports and cargo ships resumed. One "Betty," crippled by antiaircraft fire, had crashed the after superstructure of San Francisco, inflicting the only damage on the force.

The abrupt end of the air attack gave Atlanta and her colleagues only a brief respite, however, for trouble approached from yet another quarter. A Japanese surface force, comprising two battleships, one cruiser and six destroyers, was detected steaming south toward Guadalcanal to shell Henderson Field--the airstrip on the island. Admiral Callaghan's support group was to "cover [the retiring transports and cargo vessels] again enemy attack." Accordingly, TG 67.4 departed Lunga Point about 1800 and steamed eastward through Sealark Channel, covering the withdrawal of TG 67.1. An hour before midnight, Callaghan's ships reversed course and headed westward.

Helena's radar picked up the first contact on the Japanese ships at a range of 26,000 yards. As the range closed, Atlanta's surface search radar, followed by her gunnery radars, picked up a contact on the enemy ships.

Admiral Callaghan's order for a course change to the left caused problems immediately, as Atlanta had to turn left immediately to avoid a collision with one of the four destroyers in the van--the latter having apparently executed a "ships left" rather than "column left" movement. Soos Atlanta began moving to resume her station ahead of San Francisco, the Japanese destroyer Akatsuki illuminated the light cruiser and fired torpedoes. Atlanta shifted her battery to fire at the enemy destroyer, opening fire at a range of about 1,600 yards.

As two other Japanese destroyers crossed her line of Atlanta engaged both with her forward 5-inch mounts, while her after mounts continued to blast away at the illuminated ship. An additional, unidentified, assailant also opened up on the light cruiser from the northeast. At about that time, at least one of Akatsuki's torpedoes plowed into Atlanta's forward engine room from the port side. She lost all but auxiliary diesel power, suffered the interruption of her gunfire, and had to shift steering control to the steering engine room aft. As if in retribution, Atlanta shot out Akatsuki's searchlight, and the enemy ship battered by San Francisco's gunfire as well, sank with all hands.

Tragedy though, struck shortly thereafter. Soon alter her duel with Akatsuki ended, Atlanta reeled under the impact of a flurry of what was estimated as 19 8-inch hits when San Francisco, "in the urgency of battle, darkness, and confused intermingling of friend or foe" fired into her. Though almost all of the shells passed through the thin skin of the ship without detonating and scattered green dye throughout to mark their passage, fragments from their impact killed many men--including Admiral Scott and members of his staff. Atlanta prepared to return fire on her new assailant, but San Francisco's own gun flashes disclosed a distinctly "non-Japanese hull profile" that resulted in a suspension of those efforts.

After the 8-inch fire ceased, Atlanta's Capt. took stock of the situation, and, miraculously having suffered only a minor (but painful) wound in his foot in the carnage forward, made his way aft to Battle II. Badly battered, largely powerless, down by the head and listing slightly to port, his ship had been badly hurt, and a third of his crew was dead or missing. As the battle continued in its waning stages, the light cruiser's men set to work clearing debris, jettisoning topside weight to correct the list, reducing the volume of sea water in the ship, and succoring the many wounded.

Daylight revealed the presence nearby of three burning American destroyers, the disabled Portland, and the crippled Japanese destroyer Yudachi watter Portland summarily dispatched with three salvoes. Atlanta, drifting toward the enemy-held shore east of Cape Esperance, dropped her starboard anchor her captain sent a message to Portland explaining the light cruiser's [453] desperate straits. In the meantime, boats from Guadalcanal came out to the ship and took off the more seriously wounded of her men. By midmorning, all of those had been taken off.

Bobolink (AT-131) arrived on the scene at 0930 on 13 November and took Atlanta under tow--an operation made more difficult by the fact that the cruiser was dragging her anchor--and headed toward Lunga Point. During the voyage, a "Betty" neared the disposition, and one of the two surviving 5-inch mounts--the one powered by a diesel generator--fired and drove it off the other mount, on manual control, could not be trained around in time.

Atlanta reached Kukum about 1400, at which point Capt. conferred with his remaining officers. As, who was later awarded a Navy Cross for his heroism during the battle, later wrote, "It was by now apparent that efforts to save the ship were useless, and that the water was gaining steadily." Even had sufficient salvage facilities been available, he allowed, the severe damage the ship had suffered in battle would have rendered it doubtful whether or not the ship could have been saved. Authorized by Commander, South Pacific Forces, to act his own discretion regarding the destruction of the ship, Capt. ordered that Atlanta be abandoned and sunk with a demolition charge.

Accordingly, all remaining men except the captain and a demolition party boarded Higgins boats sent out from Guadalcanal for the purpose. After the charge had been set and exploded, the last men left the battered ship. Ultimately, at 2015 on 13 November 1942, Atlanta sank three miles west of Lunga Point in 30 fathoms. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 13 January 1943.


ATLANTA CL 51

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.


    Atlanta Class Light Cruiser
    Keel Laid 22 April 1940 - Launched 6 September 1941

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USS Atlanta (CL 104)

USS ATLANTA was one of the CLEVELAND - class light cruisers and the fourth ship in the Navy named after the city in Georgia.USS ATLANTA was decommissioned in July 1949 and, after over thirteen years in the Pacific Reserve Fleet, was stricken from the Navy list at the beginning of 1962. However, she was reinstated in May 1964, redesignated IX 304, and converted to a weapons effects test ship. Laid up once more late in 1965, ATLANTA was stricken from the Navy list for the second time in April 1970, and was sunk as a target off San Clemente Island, Calif., on 1 October 1970.

Algemene kenmerke: Awarded: 1942
Keel laid: January 25, 1943
Launched: February 6, 1944
Commissioned: December 3, 1944
Decommissioned: July 1, 1949
Builder: New York Shipbuilding, Camden, NJ.
Propulsion system: geared turbines, 100,000 shp
Propellers: four
Length: 610.2 feet (186 meters)
Beam: 66.3 feet (20.2 meters)
Draft: 24.6 feet (7.5 meters)
Displacement: approx. 14,130 tons fully loaded
Speed: 32.5 knots
Aircraft: four
Armament: twelve 15.2cm 6-inch/47 caliber guns in four triple mounts, twelve 12.7cm 5-inch/38 caliber guns in six twin mounts, 28 40mm guns, 10 20mm guns
Crew: 70 officers and 1285 enlisted

This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS ATLANTA. Dit is geen amptelike lys nie, maar bevat die name van matrose wat hul inligting ingedien het.

USS ATLANTA was laid down on 25 January 1943 at Camden, N.J., by the New York Shipbuilding Corp. launched on 6 February 1944 sponsored by Mrs. John R. Marsh (better known by her pen name, Margaret Mitchell, the author of the novel Gone With The Wind) who also sponsored the cruiser ATLANTA (CL 51) and commissioned on 3 December 1944, Capt. B. H. Colyear in command.

After commissioning, the light cruiser got underway on 5 January 1945 for shakedown training in the Chesapeake Bay and the Caribbean. Upon the completion of those exercises, ATLANTA arrived at Norfolk on 14 February and then moved up the coast to Philadelphia. After a period in the navy yard there, she sailed on 27 March for the Pacific. She stopped at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and transited the Panama Canal before reaching Pearl Harbor on 18 April. From 19 April to 1 May, the ship conducted training exercises in Hawaiian waters. She then sailed to Ulithi and reported to Task Force (TF) 58 on 12 May.

From 22 to 27 May, ATLANTA served with the Fast Carrier Task Force operating south of Japan near Okinawa while its aircraft struck targets in the Ryukyus and on Kyushu to support forces fighting for Okinawa. Her task group broke up on 13 June, and ATLANTA entered San Pedro Bay, Philippines, on 14 June. Following two weeks of upkeep, she sailed on 1 July with Task Group (TG) 38.1 and once again protected the fast carriers launching strikes against targets in the Japanese home islands. During these operations, the cruiser took part in several shore bombardment missions against Honshu and Hokkaido.

ATLANTA was operating off the coast of Honshu when the Japanese surrendered on 15 August 1945. On 16 September, she entered Tokyo Bay and remained there through 29 September.

With over 500 passengers on board, the cruiser sailed on 30 September for the United States. She paused en route at Guam before arriving in Seattle, Wash., on 24 October. The vessel then proceeded to the shipyard at Terminal Island, Calif., for an extensive overhaul. She was ready to return to sea on 3 January 1946 and got underway for Sasebo, Japan.

From January through June, ATLANTA operated among several Far Eastern ports which included Manila, Philippines Tsingtao and Shanghai, China Okinawa Saipan Nagasaki, Kagoshima, and Yokosuka, Japan. In June, she returned via Guam to the United States and arrived at San Pedro, Calif., on the 27th. Two days later, the cruiser entered the San Francisco Naval Shipyard for overhaul. On 8 October, she headed toward San Diego for sea trials.

The cruiser remained in southern California waters until 23 February 1947, when she left for maneuvers off Hawaii. On 1 May, she departed Pearl Harbor with TF 38 for a visit to Australia. The ships stayed in Sydney through 27 May, then sailed for San Pedro, Calif., via the Coral Sea, Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Guam. She dropped anchor at San Pedro on 28 July. A series of maneuvers off the California coast ensued, the ATLANTA returned to Pearl Harbor on 28 September. She continued on to Yokosuka, Japan. After two days at anchor there, she sailed to Tsingtao, China. Other ports of call during the deployment were Hong Kong Singapore and Keelung, China. On 27 April 1948, the cruiser got underway and proceeded via Kwajalein and Pearl Harbor to San Diego.

Following her arrival back in the United States on 19 May, ATLANTA conducted exercises off San Diego. She paid a visit to Juneau, Alaska, from 29 June to 6 July. She then arrived at Seattle on 12 July to begin a major overhaul. The cruiser returned to San Diego for local maneuvers on 20 November.

In early February 1949, the ship embarked naval reservists for a training cruise and operated between San Diego and San Francisco until 1 March when she entered the Mare Island Naval Shipyard to commence deactivation. Atlanta was decommissioned on 1 July 1949 and placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 1 October 1962, and she was earmarked for disposal.

ATLANTA's career, however, had not yet ended. Instead, she underwent an extensive modification at the San Francisco Naval Shipyard. Reinstated on the Navy list as IX 304 on 15 May 1964, the vessel was converted to a target ship for studies of the effects of high energy air explosions on naval ships. The changes included cutting her hull down to the main deck level and erecting various experimental superstructures - designed for guided missile frigates and guided missile destroyers - on her deck. In these configurations she was subjected to explosions to determine whether or not the experimental structures could satisfactorily combine essential lightness with equally essential strength and blast resistance. These three tests were conducted off the coast of Kahoolawe, Hawaii, in early 1965. ATLANTA was damaged, but not sunk, by the experiments. She was laid up at Stockton, Calif., sometime late in 1965. Her name was again struck from the Navy list on 1 April 1970, and the former light cruiser was sunk during an explosive test off San Clemente Island, Calif., on 1 October 1970.


Geskiedenis

After its commissioning on December 24, 1941, it made its maiden voyage along the American Atlantic coast . At the beginning of April 1942 she set course for the Pacific .

Your first mission during the Pacific War was escorting a convoy in the South Pacific. Then she was assigned to the task force with the aircraft carriers Onderneming en Hornet , with which she took part in the Battle of Midway in June 1942 .

In mid-July 1942, the ship left Pearl Harbor to take part in operations in the South Pacific. At the beginning of the Battle of Guadalcanal in early August, she escorted the aircraft carriers that supported the landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi .

Later in the month accompanied Atlanta die Onderneming in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and protected the Saratoga after this by a Japanese torpedo had been hit.

For the next several months their main task was to protect smaller units during the ongoing battle for Guadalcanal. After the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands , in which she was only remotely involved, they moved their operations closer and closer to the main island. On October 30, Atlanta bombed Japanese positions on Guadalcanal with their guns, and about two weeks later their anti-aircraft guns fired Japanese planes that attacked American transport and supply ships.

On the night of November 12th to 13th, 1942, the Atlanta flagship of a task force under Rear Admiral Norman Scott , which consisted of cruisers and destroyers and had the order to intercept Japanese ships that wanted to bomb Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. The following naval battle of Guadalcanal was a chaotic battle that was fought in bad weather and with only limited visibility. It is considered to be one of the most brutal naval battles of the Second World War and both sides suffered high material and personnel losses. Die Atlanta suffered severe damage from a Japanese torpedo hit and further artillery fire from enemy and own ships. Rear Admiral Scott was killed in the attacks. Although the crew tried to save the ship all day of November 13, it was abandoned and sunk in the afternoon on the orders of their commanding officer.

Die Atlanta lies on her port side off Lunga Point in Savo Sound known as Ironbottom Sound. The wreck was investigated using ROVs in 1991 and 1992 . Divers later visited the shipwreck. In 2011, Atlanta , which is 130 m deep, was dived and filmed again. The documentary Return to the USS Atlanta was created from the footage .


USS Atlanta (i) (CL 51)


USS Atlanta in the south-west Pacific, late1942.

USS Atlanta (Capt. Samuel Power Jenkins, USN) was wrecked by gunfire and torpedoes from Japanese warships on 12 November 1942.

After an attempted salvage failed the ship was scuttled off Guadalcanal the following day.The Commanding officer survived the sinking however he was wounded and Rear Admiral Norman Scott was killed.

Commands listed for USS Atlanta (i) (CL 51)

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1Capt. Samuel Power Jenkins, USN24 Dec 194113 Nov 1942

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Inhoud

The original main gun battery of the Atlanta-class was composed of eight dual 5 inch/38 caliber (127 mm) gun mounts (8x2 5-inch guns). This battery could fire over 17,600 pounds (10,560 kg) of shells per minute, including the radar-fuzed "VT" antiaircraft shells. Four of the ships, beginning with Oakland, had their two "wing" mounts of dual 5 inch guns replaced with eight of the highly effective Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns. Die Atlanta-class cruisers were the only class of U.S. Navy cruisers commissioned during World War II to be armed with torpedoes tubes, with eight 21" torpedo tubes in two quad launchers. Ώ]

The class was designed with a substantial secondary anti-aircraft armament of sixteen 1.1 in guns in quad mounts, later replaced by 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, and 6 20 mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft cannons. More of these weapons were added as the war progressed to counter the danger of Japanese air attacks (especially kamikazes). Oakland was launched with eight Bofors 40 mm guns and sixteen 20 mm anti-aircraft cannons. Although ships of the class were planned as destroyer flotilla leaders, the original design did not include anti-submarine armament such as sonar or depth charge tracks these were added later. When the vessels were determined to be more valuable as protection against aircraft, the tracks were removed. ΐ ]

The class was powered by four 665 psi boilers, connected to 2 geared steam turbines producing 75,000 hp (56 MW), and the ships could maintain a top speed of 33.6 knots (62 km/h). On trial the Atlanta made 33.67 knots (62 km/h) and 78,985 shp (58,899 kW). The ships of the Atlanta-class had thin armor: a maximum of 3.5 in (88.9 mm) on their sides, with the captain's bridge and the 5-inch gun mounts being protected by only 1.25 in (31.75 mm). ΐ ]

The ships were originally designed for 26 officers and 523 men, but this increased to 35 officers and 638 men with the first four ships, and 45 officers and 766 men with the second group of four ships beginning with Oakland. The ships were also designed as flagships with additional space for a flag officer and his staff but the additional space was used for additional crew necessary to man anti-aircraft weapons and electronics. Α ]


Wreck of USS Atlanta (CL-51)

USS Atlanta was the lead ship in her Class of Light Anti-Aircraft Cruisers built for the US Navy, laid down at the Federal Shipbuilding Yard in Kearny, NJ in April 1940 and commissioned into service in December 1941. Dispatched immediately to the US Pacific Fleet to combat the formidable threat posed by Japanese aviators, the Atlanta arrived at Pearl Harbor in April 1942 where she found her substantial anti-aircraft capabilities in high demand.

Briefly calling at Pearl before joining Task Force 16 at Noumea, New Caledonia, the Atlanta was attached to the USS Enterprise (CV-6) and joined her in returning to Hawaiian waters to meet the Imperial Japanese Navy’s powerful Combined Fleet in the Battle of Midway. Seeing her charge safely through the decisive American victory, Atlanta spent much of the next two months engaged in exercises in Hawaiian waters before shaping a course for Solomon Islands, where she and her crew were once again paired with the Enterprise in heavy fighting as Japanese Carrier forces counterattacked their American counterparts in the August 1942 Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Remaining in theatre supporting American forces fighting in and around Guadalcanal for the next two months, Atlanta assumed the role of Flagship for the newly-designated Task Group 64.2 as she brought aboard Rear Admiral Norman Scott in late October and in company with her sistership USS Juneau (CL-51) departed Espiritu Santo Island as part of an escort force for a resupply convoy bound for Guadalcanal.

Screening the transports as they unloaded off Lunga Point on the morning November 12th, Atlanta and her crew came under no fewer than three separate waves of Japanese air attack throughout the day, but through heavy fire and adroit maneuvering both Atlanta and her assigned transports emerged unscathed and with no fewer than four enemy aircraft downed to her credit. As darkness approached and the potential of further airstrikes lessened, Atlanta’s crew were pulled from their General Quarters stations for the first time in over seven hours and allowed a chance for a meal, however the reprieve from action proved to be short-lived. Word soon reached the assembled American naval force that recon aircraft had spotted a large Japanese Naval Force had been spotted heading South through the body of water known as 'the Slot' towards Guadalcanal, with obviously malicious intent. Immediately ordered to escort the vulnerable transports into the open ocean, Atlanta saw her charges to the mouth of the Sealark Channel before rejoining her Task Group and assuming battle formation off Lunga Point shortly before midnight.

Screened ahead by a column of four Destroyers, Atlanta led a line of four other Cruisers and a further four Destroyers on a slow Northward heading as radarmen aboard ship and aboard the USS Helena (CL-50) scanned the dark and squall-dotted seas for any signs of the inbound enemy force. Making their first intermittent contact at roughly 0030hrs on the morning of the 13th, communication issues between the few radar-equipped American vessels and their non-equipped Flagship USS San Francisco (CA-38) about the size, distance and bearings of the enemy force led to nearly an hour of crippling inaction as the Japanese Force, consisting of two Battleships, one Cruiser and eleven Destroyers, continued to close in at high speed. With numerous rain squalls further complicating efforts to get visual contact with the enemy, the sudden emergence of the entire Japanese formation on both sides of the American column from a squall line at only 3,000 yards distance at 0130hrs caused all preconceived battle tactics to be cast aside.

Aboard Atlanta, gun and torpedo battery crews began to target their mounts on a formation of enemy ships now appearing to their Northwest as they waited for what must have seemed like an eternity for the order from the Flagship to open fire. Instead, an order for a full column turn to the left served to scatter the American formation and almost caused the Atlanta to collide with the Destroyer USS O’Bannon (DD-450) which was steaming ahead of her. With both sides still holding fire as Japanese ships steadily enveloped the US battle line, Atlanta found herself racing to resume her position at the lead of the US Cruiser formation when a single searchlight from the Japanese Destroyer HIJMS Akatsuki pierced the night and lit Atlanta’s superstructure at 0148hrs.

Needing no further orders, Atlanta’s main battery immediately opened fire onto the enemy ship from the nearly point-blank distance of 1,600 yards, opening the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal with a nearly-full salvo hit. Joined seconds later by all ships on both sides the battle quickly descended into total chaos as Japanese ships began to attack the American formation from both sides, causing the American ships to break formation and attack independently. With ships from both sides now cutting through each other’s formations in the total darkness, the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal became a series of violent evasive maneuvers to avoid collisions with both enemy and friendly ships, all the while firing and taking fire from point blank range in what would later be termed as “a bar room brawl with the lights shot out”. Despite the hectic conditions, Atlanta’s gun batteries split their attention between different targets lying to each side of the ship, her Bow trio raking a pair of Japanese Destroyers passing ahead with accurate fire as her rear turrets continued to pound the now hapless Akatsuki into a flaming wreck. Shifting her fire to a large enemy vessel attacking from the Northeast, Atlanta was beginning a turn to engage when a single “Long Lance” torpedo slammed into her Portside midship, easily punching through her lightly-armored hull and causing catastrophic damage to her forward engine and fire rooms and knocking her rear engine and fire rooms offline, leaving the ship suddenly dead and dark in the water and with no power to her gun mounts. Drifting to a halt as her engineers raced to bring her auxiliary generators online, Atlanta’s silhouette was sighted by gun directors aboard the Flagship, who took the ships unfamiliar outline and silent guns to be those of a Japanese vessel and promptly ordered the San Francisco’s formidable main battery of nine 8-inch guns to engage.

Regaining power, headway and the ability to fight, Atlanta was moving to rejoin the still-furious battle raging around her when the first salvo of shells from the San Francisco slammed into her, the first of nineteen direct hits of friendly fire to strike the ship over the next few minutes. Due in part to her lightly armored superstructure and hull not detonating the San Francisco’s armor-penetrating shells, Atlanta was spared nearly total destruction as the accurate fire passed cleanly through the ship. Heavy shrapnel spray and concussive effects from the impacts however killed or injured dozens of Atlanta’s crew, including Rear Admiral Scott, killed with most of his staff and crew when Atlanta’s bridge took a direct hit. Frantic radio and signal lamp messages to the San Francisco caused the Flagship to realize her mistake and cease fire, but for Atlanta the respite came too late. Riddled with shellfire, once again left without power and cloaked in several large onboard fires, Atlanta took a heavy list to fore and Port as her remaining crew, reduced by death and injury by almost a third, set about massive damage control efforts as the battle left her behind and eventually broke at 0226hrs.

Sunrise on November 13th found Atlanta adrift North of Guadalcanal, still listing and largely powerless but still afloat and no longer afire thanks to the efforts of her crew. Towed to the protected waters off Kukum Point with great difficulty due to her heavily damaged and waterlogged condition, Atlanta was abandoned by all but a skeleton crew who remained aboard to oversee continued salvage efforts. Not surprisingly found to have suffered severe damage and to still be taking aboard considerable amounts of water through uncontrolled flooding, Atlanta’s Captain conferred with the Commander of US South Pacific Forces and was authorized to scuttle his ship if onsite repairs could not make her sound enough to be towed out of the battle area. Despite a daylong effort by salvage parties to save Atlanta, by nightfall on the 13th the battered Cruiser was still taking on water and settling more and more by the Bow, prompting Captain Samuel Jenkins to issue the order to scuttle Atlanta. With only a small boarding party and her Captain aboard, the Atlanta was towed to this location roughly 3 miles north of Lunga Point where her colors were struck and explosives set off in her hull. Rapidly flooding after the final blast, USS Atlanta sank bow first at this location at 2015hrs on November 13th 1942.


USS Atlanta received her fifth and final World War Two Battle Star and the Presidential Unit Citation for her "heroic example of invincible fighting spirit" for her actions on the date of her loss.


Inhoud

The first of the new class of ships was laid down on 22 April 1940 at Kearny, New Jersey, by the Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., launched on 6 September 1941, sponsored by Margaret Mitchell (author of Weg met die wind), and commissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 24 December 1941, Captain Samuel P. Jenkins in command.

Bewapening

Atlanta was fitted with eight twin 5-inch gun turrets, placed in a unique configuration. She had three forward turrets and three aft turrets, mounted inline and increasing in height toward the midships, giving her a symmetrical appearance, with a "gap" in the middle superstructure. In addition, the aft battery also had one "wing-mounted" turret on each side, for a total of 16 5-inch guns. The firing arcs of the forward and aft batteries intersected at a very limited angle, giving her an arc of 60° in which she could fire all of her guns broadside (excluding the wing turrets). Because Atlanta was able to bring all her guns to bear only within that narrow arc, her ability to engage surface targets was limited. Her firing arcs were ideally suited to bringing her guns to bear on an aircraft, however, with a minimum of six guns available from any angle.


Poveste

După punerea în funcțiune, pe 24 decembrie 1941, și-a făcut călătoria inițială de -a lungul coastei atlantice americane . La începutul lunii aprilie 1942 a stabilit cursul pentru Pacific .

Prima ta misiune din timpul războiului din Pacific a fost însoțirea unui convoi din Pacificul de Sud. Apoi a fost repartizată în grupul de lucru cu portavioanele Onderneming și Hornet , cu care a participat la bătălia de la Midway din iunie 1942 .

La mijlocul lunii iulie 1942, nava a părăsit Pearl Harbor pentru a participa la operațiuni în Pacificul de Sud. La începutul bătăliei de la Guadalcanal, la începutul lunii august, ea a escortat portavioanele care susțineau debarcările pe Guadalcanal și Tulagi .

Mai târziu , în luna însoțite Atlanta Onderneming în Bătălia de Insulele Solomon de Est și a protejat Saratoga dupa aceasta de un japonez torpilă a fost lovit.

În următoarele câteva luni, sarcina lor principală a fost protejarea unităților mai mici în timpul bătăliei în curs pentru Guadalcanal. După bătălia din Insulele Santa Cruz , în care a fost implicată doar de la distanță, și-au mutat operațiunile din ce în ce mai aproape de insula principală. La 30 octombrie, Atlanta a bombardat pozițiile japoneze pe Guadalcanal cu armele lor și, aproximativ două săptămâni mai târziu , armele antiaeriene au tras avioane japoneze care au atacat navele de transport și aprovizionare americane.

În noaptea de 12 spre 13 noiembrie 1942, pilotul Atlanta al unei forțe de lucru sub controlul amiralului Norman Scott , care consta din crucișătoare și distrugătoare și avea ordinul de a intercepta navele japoneze care doreau să bombardeze Henderson Field pe Guadalcanal. Următoarea bătălie navală de la Guadalcanal a fost o bătălie haotică care a fost purtată pe vreme rea și cu vizibilitate limitată. Este considerat a fi una dintre cele mai brutale bătălii pe mare din cel de-al doilea război mondial și ambele părți au suferit pierderi materiale și de personal ridicate. Atlanta a suferit leziuni grave de la un hit torpilă japoneză și artilerie mai departe de foc de la inamic și nave deținute. Contraamiralul Scott a fost ucis în atacuri. Deși echipajul a încercat să salveze nava toată ziua de 13 noiembrie, aceasta a fost abandonată și scufundată după-amiaza la ordinul comandantului lor.

În Atlanta se află pe ei babord off Lunga Point , în Savo Sound cunoscut ca Ironbottom sunet. Epava a fost investigată folosind ROV-uri în 1991 și 1992 . Scafandrii au vizitat ulterior naufragiul. În 2011, Atlanta , care are o adâncime de 130 m, a fost scufundată și filmată din nou. Documentarul Return to the USS Atlanta a fost creat din filmări .


Kyk die video: Atlanta class (Augustus 2022).