Artikels

2de Slag van Bull Run: die veldtoggebied

2de Slag van Bull Run: die veldtoggebied



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

2de Slag van Bull Run: die veldtoggebied

2de Slag van Bull Run: die veldtoggebied

Kaart geneem uit Gevegte en leiers van die burgeroorlog: II: noord na Antietam, p.450


Slag van Tweede Manassas (Tweede Bull Run)

Die Slag van Groveton of Tweede Bull Run, in die rigting van die dorpie Groveton. Die uitsig is vanaf die noordelike wenkbrou van Henry Hill.

Na die nederlaag van die Unie by Manassas in Julie 1861, neem generaal George B. McClellan die bevel oor die federale magte in en om Washington en organiseer hulle in 'n formidabele gevegsmasjien- die Army of the Potomac. In Maart 1862 het hy 'n sterk mag agtergelaat om die hoofstad te bedek, en sy weermag per water na Fort Monroe op die punt van die York-James-skiereiland, slegs 100 kilometer suidoos van Richmond, verskuif. Vroeg in April vorder hy na die Konfederale hoofstad.

In afwagting op so 'n stap het die Suidlanders die Manassas -gebied verlaat en opgeruk om die Federale te ontmoet. Einde Mei was die troepe van McClellan binne die bereik van Richmond. Hier het genl Joseph E. Johnston se Konfederale weermag die Federale aangeval in die bloedige, maar onoortuigende Slag van Seven Pines. Johnston is gewond, en president Davis het genl Robert E. Lee in bevel geplaas. Toe hy die offensief aangryp, het Lee sy mag (nou die Army of Northern Virginia) oor die Chickahominy -rivier gestuur en in 'n reeks woeste gevegte McClellan teruggestoot van die rand van Richmond na 'n posisie aan die Jamesrivier.

Terselfdertyd is die verspreide federale magte in die noorde van Virginia georganiseer in die Army of Virginia onder bevel van genl John Pope, wat aangekom het met 'n reputasie wat pas in die westelike teater van die oorlog gewen is. Deur te dobbel dat McClellan geen verdere probleme in Richmond sou veroorsaak nie, het Lee die korps van Stonewall Jackson noordwaarts gestuur na & quotsuppress & quot Pope. Jackson bots besluiteloos met 'n deel van Pous se troepe op Cedar Mountain op 9 Augustus. Intussen, toe hy verneem dat die Army of the Potomac met water terugtrek om by Pous aan te sluit, het Lee saam met genl James Longstreet se korps opgeruk om Jackson te versterk. Op die Rapidan het pous Lee se pogings om die taktiese voordeel te behaal, suksesvol geblokkeer en daarna sy manne noord van die Rappahannockrivier teruggetrek. Lee het geweet dat as hy pous sou verslaan, hy sou moet toeslaan voordat McClellan se leër in die noorde van Virginia aankom. Op 25 Augustus begin Lee met vrymoedigheid Jackson se korps op 'n optog van meer as 50 myl, om die regterkant van die Unie om agter die pous aan te val.

Twee dae later het Jackson se veterane beslag gelê op Pope se voorraadopslagplek by Manassas Junction. Na 'n dag van wilde feeste, verbrand Jackson die federale voorrade en verhuis na 'n posisie in die bos by Groveton naby die ou Manassas -slagveld.

Pous, wat deur die aanval op sy voorraadbasis gesteek is, het die lyn van die Rappahannock laat vaar en in die rigting van Manassas na & quotbag & quot Jackson gegaan. Terselfdertyd het Lee noordwaarts beweeg met die korps van Longstreet om sy leër te herenig. Op die middag van 28 Augustus, om die pogings van die federale bevelvoerder om te konsentreer by Centerville te voorkom en Pous aan die stryd te bring, beveel Jackson sy troepe om 'n uniekolom aan te val terwyl dit verby die Warrenton Turnpike loop. Hierdie woeste geveg op Brawner's Farm het tot donker geduur.

Pope was oortuig dat Jackson geïsoleer was en het sy kolomme beveel om op Groveton te vergader. Hy was seker dat hy Jackson kon vernietig voordat Lee en Longstreet kon ingryp. Op die 29ste pous se weermag het Jackson se mans langs 'n onvoltooide spoorweggraad noord van die draai gevind. Die hele middag, in 'n reeks ongekoördineerde aanvalle, het Pous sy manne teen die Konfederale posisie geslinger. Op verskeie plekke breek die noordelike inwoners Jackson se lyn kortliks, maar word telkens teruggedwing. Gedurende die middag het die troepe van Longstreet op die slagveld aangekom en, onbekend aan pous, aan die regterkant van Jackson ontplooi, wat die blootgestelde Unie se linkerkant oorvleuel. Lee het Longstreet aangemoedig om aan te val, maar "Ou Pete" verdwyn. Die tyd was net nie reg nie, het hy gesê.

Die oggend van 30 Augustus het rustig verbygegaan. Net voor die middag, toe hy verkeerdelik tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat die Konfederate terugtrek, beveel Pous sy leër vorentoe in & quotpursuit & quot. Die strewe was egter van korte duur. Pous het gevind dat Lee nêrens heen gegaan het nie. Ongelooflik beveel Pous nog 'n aanval op Jackson se lyn. Die korps van Fitz-John Porter het saam met 'n deel van McDowell's die afdeling van Starke getref by die onvoltooide spoorweg se & quotDeep Cut & quot.

Longstreet sien die Union -lyne in wanorde en stoot sy massiewe kolomme vorentoe en steier die Unie links. Pous se weermag het te kampe gehad met uitwissing. Slegs 'n heldhaftige standpunt van noordelike troepe, eers op Chinn Ridge en daarna weer op Henry Hill, het tyd gekoop vir die hardkoppige Unie-magte van Pous. Uiteindelik, onder dekmantel van die duisternis, het die verslane Unie -leër oor Bull Run teruggetrek na die verdediging van Washington. Lee se gewaagde en briljante Tweede Manassas -veldtog het die weg gebaan vir die suide se eerste inval in die noorde, en 'n bod vir buitelandse ingryping.


Die Battle of Bull Run begin

Nadat hy op 18 Julie in die omgewing van Manassas aangekom het, het brig. Genl Daniel Tyler ’s Unie -afdeling het Bull Run ondersoek en by Blackburn en Ford betrokke geraak. Nadat hy ongeveer 150 mans verloor het, het Tyler hom teruggetrek. Met inligting van addisionele verkenning, was McDowell van plan om twee kolomme te gebruik om die linkerflank van die Konfederate aan te val, terwyl 'n derde na die regterkantste flank en suid draai om 'n afleiding te gee, die konfederate van Richmond af te sny en hulle verder suidoos te dwing.

McDowell ’s se plan het deels gereken op die groot -generaal van die Unie, Robert Patterson, se troepe wat die generaal Joseph Johnston ’s Army of the Shenandoah in Winchester verhinder het om versterkings aan Beauregard te verskaf, wat verseker dat die Unie die Konfederate in Manassas sou oortref. Ongetwyfeld vir McDowell, op die oggend van 20 Julie, het Johnston se troepe in 'n bestendige stroom op die spoor by Piedmont -stasie begin klim om te versterk dat Beauregard Patterson te lank gewag het om hulle te betrek.

Vroegoggend op 21 Julie het McDowell twee afdelings noordwaarts na Sudley Springs gestuur, terwyl 'n ander afdeling 'n afleiding moes skep deur Bull Run by Stone Bridge oor te steek. Konfederale kolonel Nathan Evans vermoed dat die aanval op Stone Bridge slegs 'n afleiding was om 'n groter beweging te verberg, en nadat hy dit van sy seinoffisier bevestig het, het hy die meeste van sy mans na Matthews Hill herlei. Hulle kon die Unie -afdelings wat uit die noorde vorder, vertraag, maar teen die middag is hulle teruggery na Henry Hill, oorkant die pad agter hulle.


The Battle of Bull Run: The End of Illusions

Cannon boom, brass bands serenaded en dames gooi ruikers toe Jefferson Davis op 29 Mei 1861 in Richmond aankom om dit die hoofstad van die Konfederale State van Amerika te maak. Hy het vertrek uit die oorspronklike hoofstad in Montgomery, Alabama, kort nadat Virginia ses dae tevore van die Unie afgestig het. Onderweg het jubelende weldoeners sy trein vertraag en hy steek die James River oor in Richmond, ver agter die skedule. Dit was 'n toneel wat heeltemal anders was as die president van Abraham Lincoln se vorige aankoms in Washington in Februarie, toe hy dagbreek in 'n gordyn met 'n slaapmotor die stad binnegesluip het weens dreigemente van moord toe hy deur Baltimore was. Richmond het Davis verwelkom asof hy persoonlik die Yankees wou slaan en hulle uit Virginia -grond sou verdryf.

Uit hierdie verhaal

Twee spoorlyne het bymekaargekom in Manassas, Virginia, net meer as 25 myl buite Washington, DC. Konfederale troepe is gestuur om die aansluiting te beskerm, die troepe van die Unie om dit te neem. Op 18 Julie 1861 het die twee partye teen 'n skermutseling geveg, wat baie oordrewe sou wees in berigte terug na Washington. 'N Volskaalse geveg het drie dae later gevolg. (Guilbert Gates) 1) Hunter se afdeling (Porter, Burnside) lei die aanval
2) Bee's en Bartow se brigades beweeg om Evans te versterk
3) Heintzelman se afdeling (Franklin, et al.) Kom aan
4) Sherman se brigade kom aan
5) Evans, Bee en Bartow trek terug (Guilbert Gates) 6) Jackson kom en sit 'n verdedigingslinie op
7) Twee batterye Union -kanon stamp die Konfederale flank
8) Stuart, bewaak Jackson se flank, en die 33ste Va. Regiment sloop die Union batterye
9) Jackson se magte val aan en 'n hewige heen en weer geveg volg (Guilbert Gates) 10) Twee nuwe Rebel -brigades (Early, Elzey) kom uit die suide
11) Die hele Konfederale lyn beweeg vorentoe in die aanval
12) Uitgeputte Unie -troepe versprei in wanorde (Guilbert Gates)

Foto gallery

Video: Musiek tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog

'N Herdenkings litografie van Bull Run, c. 1890. (Library of Congress) Talle burgerlikes het piekniekmandjies en sjampanje na die slagveld gedra om te kyk wat die eerste groot landbetrokkenheid van die burgeroorlog sou wees. Hier word die slagveld vertoon soos dit vandag lyk. (Elan Fleisher / www.agefotostock.com) Washington se gasvrou Rose Greenhow het intelligensie aan die suidelike bevelvoerders gestuur. (Library of Congress) P.G.T. Beauregard, 'n Konfederale held by Fort Sumter, het saam met 22 000 troepe by Manassas gewag. (National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution) Die onervare Irvin McDowell het 35 000 Noordelikes gelei. (Mathew Brady / Picture History) Brig. Genl. Thomas J. Jackson het sy brigade op 'n reis van 57 myl na Manassas gelei. (Bettmann / Corbis) Jackson sou die veld verlaat met die bynaam "Stonewall" omdat hy die verdediging van die Suide versamel het. (Bettmann / Corbis) Na 'n opmars van meer as tien myl het die kolonel van die unie, Ambrose Burnside, sy manne laat rus en die suidelike troepe tyd gegee om 'n verrassingsaanval te wees. (Library of Congress) Unie -kol. Ambrose Burnside. (Library of Congress) Na die geveg het Manassas die littekens van oorlog gedra. Die treinstasie was in puin. (Medford Historical Society Collection / Corbis) Die brug by Blackburn se Ford was ook in puin na die geveg. (Medford Historical Society Collection / Corbis) In totaal is ongeveer 4.900 soldate dood, gewond of gevange geneem, en toe 'n ontnugterende totaal, maar laag in vergelyking met wat kom. Op hierdie foto merk borde die grafte wat haastig gegrawe is. (Medford Historical Society Collection / Corbis) Joseph E. Johnston luister tevergeefs na die aanvang van die Konfederale aanval. (Corbis) 'Ons sal nooit weer so 'n kans op die veld kry nie,' het die Richmond Eksaminator meegedeel. 'N Tweede Slag van Manassas was 'n jaar af. Hier word Henry House Hill getoon soos dit vandag voorkom. (Newman Mark / www.agefotostock.com) Twee spoorlyne het ontmoet in Manassas, Virginia, net meer as 25 myl buite Washington, DC. Konfederale troepe is gestuur om die aansluiting te beskerm, die troepe van die Unie om dit te neem. Op 18 Julie 1861 het die twee partye teen 'n skermutseling geveg, wat baie oordrewe sou wees in berigte terug na Washington. 'N Volskaalse geveg het drie dae later gevolg. (Guilbert Gates) 1) Die afdeling van Hunter (Porter, Burnside) lei die aanval
2) Bee's en Bartow se brigades beweeg om Evans te versterk
3) Heintzelman se afdeling (Franklin, et al.) Kom aan
4) Sherman se brigade kom aan
5) Evans, Bee en Bartow trek terug (Guilbert Gates) 6) Jackson kom en sit 'n verdedigingslinie op
7) Twee batterye Union -kanon stamp die Konfederale flank
8) Stuart, bewaak Jackson se flank, en die 33ste Va. Regiment sloop die Union batterye
9) Jackson se magte val aan en 'n hewige heen en weer geveg volg (Guilbert Gates) 10) Twee nuwe Rebel -brigades (Early, Elzey) kom uit die suide
11) Die hele Konfederale lyn beweeg vorentoe in die aanval
12) Uitgeputte Unie -troepe versprei in wanorde (Guilbert Gates)

Foto gallery

Verwante inhoud

Vir 'n juigende skare, het hy gesê, “Ek weet dat daar slae in die borste van suidelike seuns 'n vasbeslotenheid is om nooit oor te gee nie, 'n vasbeslotenheid om nooit huis toe te gaan nie, maar om 'n eerverhaal te vertel. Gee ons 'n regverdige veld en 'n vrye stryd, en die suidelike vaandel sal oral in triomf dryf. ”

Anders as Davis ’ Mississippi en die ander katoenstate van die diep suide, was Virginia, die mees bevolkte staat onder die Mason-Dixon-lyn, huiwerig om die Unie van sy vaders te verlaat. Die Richmond -konvensie wat oor afstigting gedebatteer het, leun sterk daarteen. 'N Landadvokaat en West Point -gegradueerde genaamd Jubal Early het vir die meerderheid gepraat toe hy gewaarsku het dat die konvensie die bestaan ​​en die behoud van die billikste regeringswese wat ooit opgerig is, kan besluit. Ons behoort nie haastig op te tree nie, maar koel doelbewus met die oog op die ernstige gevolge. ”

Maar ná die eerste gewere by Fort Sumter, toe Lincoln 75.000 troepe versoek het om die opstand te onderdruk, het die konvensie homself omgekeer. Die mening was so skerp dat die uitslag van die referendum van 23 Mei wat die besluit van die konvensie bevestig het, 'n uitgemaakte saak was. Meer as vyf maande nadat Suid -Carolina die eerste staat geword het wat die Unie verlaat het, het Virginia gevolg. As gevolg hiervan sou die trotse, konserwatiewe ou heerskappy die bloedigste slagveld van die burgeroorlog wees, en die eerste en laaste doel van al die slagting was die hoofstad, die simbool van die suidelike verset, die stad Richmond.

Aanvanklik is daar in Dixie dapper gepraat om Washington die hoofstad van die Konfederasie te maak, omring deur die slawestate Maryland en Virginia. Federale troepe is deur 'n skare in Baltimore aangeval, en Marylanders het spoor- en telegraaflyne na die noorde gesny, wat regimente genoodsaak het om Washington te ompad deur die Chesapeakebaai te stoom. Washington was senuweeagtig en amptenare versterk die Capitol en die tesourie teen gevreesde inval. Richmond is ontsteld oor gerugte dat die Union -kanonboot Pawnee was op pad na die Jamesrivier om die stad aan die brand te steek. Sommige gesinne het paniekerig geraak en geglo dat 'n Indiese stam op die oorlogspad was. Militiese mense het na die rivier gehaas en kanonne stroomaf gerig. Maar die Pawnee nooit gekom nie.

In die noorde en suide het sulke gerugte gerugte nagestreef, maar spoedig is die voorlopiges, werklik en verbeeld, opgelos of weggelag. Die verhoog was gereed vir oorlog, en albei partye was gretig vir 'n vinnige en heerlike oorwinning.

Die weduwee Rose O ’Neal Greenhow was bekend om haar sentrale sentiment, maar in haar huis, oorkant Lafayette Square van die Withuis, het sy weermagoffisiere en kongreslede vermaak, ongeag hul politiek. Een van haar gunstelinge was inderdaad Henry Wilson, 'n toegewyde afskaffer en toekomstige vise -president uit Massachusetts, wat Jefferson Davis vervang het as voorsitter van die senaatskomitee oor militêre aangeleenthede. Greenhow, gesofistikeerd en verleidelik, luister aandagtig na alles wat haar bewonderaars gesê het. Binnekort stuur sy aantekeninge oor die Potomac, gekodeer in 'n kode wat Thomas Jordan by haar gelaat het, wat sy leërkommissie bedank het en suidwaarts gegaan het.

Toe die somer begin, was Jordan adjudant van die Konfederale Weermag onder brig. Genl Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, 'n oorweldigende Louisiana. Beauregard, wat die voorste held van die Konfederasie geword het deur die bombardement van Fort Sumter in April te beveel, versamel nou brigades om die lewensbelangrike spoorwegaansluiting by Manassas te beskerm, bietjie meer as 25 myl wes-suidwes van Washington.

Op 4 Julie het Lincoln 'n spesiale kongresgeleentheid gevra vir 400,000 troepe en $ 400 miljoen, met wetlike gesag om hierdie wedstryd kort en beslis te maak. ” Hy het nie net die hoop uitgespreek nie, maar ook die verwagting die meeste amptenare in Washington. Baie van die milisie -uitrustings wat uit die noorde kom, het in April vir slegs 90 dae aangemeld, met die veronderstelling dat hulle die groot rebelle in 'n kort rukkie kan hanteer. Dag na dag, 'n opskrif in die New York Tribune blêr, “Stuur na Richmond! Stuur deur na Richmond! ” 'n kreet wat in alle uithoeke van die Noorde weerklink het.

Die mees opvallende stem wat terughoudendheid toespreek, kom van die mees ervare soldaat in die land, Winfield Scott, hoof -generaal van die Amerikaanse weermag, wat sedert die oorlog van 1812 in uniform gedien het. Maar op 74 was Scott te afvallig om die veld te neem en te moeg om die gretige amateurs van oorlog te weerstaan, aangesien hulle daarop aangedring het dat die publiek nie vertraging sal duld nie. Scott het veldopdrag aan brig. Genl. Irvin McDowell, met sy hoofkwartier in Robert E. Lee ’s, het die Arlington -herehuis verlaat. Op 16 Julie het die huiwerige McDowell Arlington verlaat en die Unie -leër van die Potomac weswaarts begin.

Die Konfederate het geweet wat kom, en wanneer. Op 10 Julie het 'n pragtige 16-jarige meisie met die naam Betty Duval by Beauregard se lyne aangekom en 'n gekodeerde aflewering van Rose Greenhow uit haar lang, donker hare geskud en gesê dat McDowell in die middel van die maand die offensief sou neem. Ses dae later het Greenhow nog 'n koerier gestuur met 'n briefie waarin gesê word dat die Unie -weermag op pad was.

Beauregard het grootse idees gehad om versterkings van wes en oos in te bring om McDowell te oorkom, hom van agter af aan te val, die Yankees te verpletter en voort te gaan met die bevryding van Maryland en die verowering van Washington. Maar as McDowell se leër gevorderd, het Beauregard die werklikheid in die gesig gestaar. Hy moes Manassas Junction verdedig, waar die Manassas Gap Railroad uit die Shenandoah -vallei by die Orange & amp Alexandria aansluit, wat verbind is met punte suid, insluitend Richmond. Hy het 22 000 mans gehad, McDowell ongeveer 35 000. Hy sou hulp nodig hê.

Aan die noordelike punt van die Shenandoah -vallei het brig. Genl. Joseph E. Johnston het bevel gegee oor ongeveer 12 000 Konfederate wat Noordelike toegang tot die weelderige landbougrond en invalroete blokkeer. Hy staan ​​voor ongeveer 18 000 Federale onder die 69-jarige genl.maj Robert Patterson, nog 'n veteraan uit die oorlog van 1812. Patterson se taak was om Johnston te verhinder om Washington te dreig en om vir Beauregard te help. Begin Julie het Beauregard en Johnston, wat albei aanval verwag, dringend op soek na versterkings by mekaar.

Die wedstryd het op 17 Julie geëindig. Beauregard het president Davis in kennis gestel dat hy, nadat hy langs sy voetspore getref het, sy troepe agter die klein rivier genaamd Bull Run, ongeveer halfpad tussen Centerville en Manassas, teruggetrek het. Daardie aand het Davis Johnston beveel om haastig te wees as dit moontlik is om Beauregard te help. Aangesien Patterson sy Unie -mag onberispelik in die vallei weggetrek het, het Johnston vinnig optogte gelas. Vertoon deur kolonel Jeb Stuart se kavalerie, brig. Genl. Thomas J. Jackson het sy Virginia -brigade teen Winchester op 18 Julie uit die Winchester gelei. Die dreigende slagveld was 57 kilometer ver, en die eerste gewere het al langs Bull Run geblaas.

Beauregard het sy brigades versprei op 'n byna tien kilometer lange agter die kronkelende stroom, van naby Stone Bridge op die Warrenton Turnpike tot by Union Mills. Hulle konsentreer op 'n reeks waadpype wat die rivier van 40 voet oorsteek. Bull Run het steil walle en is diep in plekke, en sou selfs ervare troepe vertraag het. Die soldate van 1861, en baie van hul offisiere, was nog steeds nuwelinge.

McDowell was 42 jaar oud, 'n versigtige teetotaliseringsbeampte wat in Mexiko gedien het, maar die grootste deel van sy loopbaan aan personeeldiens deurgebring het. Met groen troepe en sy eerste groot bevel, wou hy nie die Konfederate regstreeks aanval nie. Hy was van plan om oos te swaai en Beauregard se regterflank te slaan en Bull Run oor te steek waar dit die naaste aan die aansluiting was. Maar nadat hy op 18 Julie by Centerville gekom het, het hy weggery om die grond te ondersoek en daarteen besluit. Voordat hy vertrek, beveel hy brig. Genl Daniel Tyler, bevelvoerende oor sy hoofafdeling, om die paaie vorentoe te ondersoek en nie 'n geveg te begin nie, maar om die rebelle te laat dink dat die weermag direk na Manassas mik. Tyler het sy bevele oorskry: nadat hy die vyand oor die stroom opgemerk en artillerierondes omgeruil het, het hy sy infanterie by Blackburn ’s Ford gestoot en die verdediging getoets. Die Rebels, onder bevel van brig. Genl James Longstreet, het weggekruip totdat die Federals naby was. Toe los hulle 'n storm van muskietery wat Tyler se troepe na Centerville laat vlug het.

In albei rigtings was hierdie kort, skerp botsing geweldig oordrewe. Terug in Washington vier suidelike simpatiseerders wat in die kroeë langs Pennsylvania Avenue saamgedrom het wat hulle alreeds genoem het “the Battle of Bull Run. ” Een generaal van die Unie het aan die Times of London korrespondent William Howard Russell dat die nuus beteken het dat ons gesweer word, terwyl 'n senator generaal Scott aangehaal het dat hy 'n groot sukses aangekondig het. Ons behoort Saterdag in Richmond te wees en#8221 — net twee dae later. Swerms burgers het in 'n partytjiestemming uit die hoofstad gejaag en piekniekmandjies en sjampanje saamgebring, en verwag dat hulle die seuns sou opbeur. Een van die minder vrolike tonele wat hulle teëgekom het, was die vierde Pennsylvania-infanterie en die agtste New York-battery wat op die rand van die geveg weggeloop het omdat hulle 90 dae se aanmeldings opgedaag het. Die volgende twee dae het McDowell bly sit, hervoorsien en beplan. Dit was 'n noodlottige vertraging.

Kort nadat Johnston se troepe op 18 Julie uit Winchester vertrek het, stuur hy 'n mededeling aan elke regiment. Beauregard word aangeval deur oorweldigende magte, en#8221 het hy geskryf. Elke oomblik is nou kosbaar. want hierdie optog is 'n gedwonge optog om die land te red. ” Aan die voorkant het Jackson se brigade die Shenandoah -rivier verbygesteek en die Blue Ridge deur Ashby Gap geswoeg voordat hy die aand in die dorpie Parys gaan lê het. Van daar af was dit ses kilometer verder bergaf na die Manassas Gap-treinstasie in Piemonte (nou Delaplane). Omstreeks 08:30 kom die troepe in vragmotors vas, en oorwerkte lokomotiewe neem nog agt uur om hulle die laaste 34 kilometer na Manassas Junction te bring.

Die res van die leër van Johnston ’ het die volgende 24 uur ingetrek. Johnston self het Manassas ongeveer die middag bereik. Om verwarring te voorkom, het hy president Davis gevra om duidelik te maak dat hy senior in rang van Beauregard was. Later het die twee offisiere ooreengekom dat, aangesien Beauregard meer vertroud was met die onmiddellike situasie, hy die bevel op taktiese vlak sou behou terwyl Johnston die algehele veldtog bestuur.

Daardie dag, 20 Julie, sit twee opponerende generaals opdragte wat hul aanvallende leërs om mekaar sal stuur as hulle deurgevoer word. Beauregard was van voorneme om McDowell ’s links te slaan, en gooi die grootste deel van sy leër na Centerville om die Federals van Washington af te sny. McDowell was gereed om Bull Run bo Stone Bridge oor te steek en op Beauregard af te kom. Sy plan het op papier goed gelyk, maar was nie verantwoordelik vir die aankoms van versterkings deur Johnston nie. Die plan van Beauregard was 'n goeie idee, maar nie in detail nie: dit het vertel watter brigades waar sou aanval, maar nie presies wanneer nie. Hy het Johnston wakker gemaak om dit om 04:30 op Sondag 21 Julie te onderskryf. Teen daardie tyd het die leër van McDowell reeds beweeg.

Die Tyler -afdeling marsjeer na Stone Bridge, waar dit 'n sekondêre aanval sou oopmaak om die Konfederate se aandag af te lei. Intussen het Union Brig. Gens. David Hunter en Samuel Heintzelman begin hul afdelings langs die Warrenton Turnpike, en maak 'n breë boog noord en wes in die rigting van 'n onverdedigde Ford by Sudley Springs, twee kilometer bo die brug. Hulle sou Bull Run daar oorsteek en aan die teenoorgestelde kant ry, en die pad oopmaak vir ander bevele om oor te steek en by 'n massa -aanval op Beauregard se niksvermoedende linkerflank aan te sluit.

Die gang was traag, want die brigades van McDowell het in mekaar vasgedrompel en troepe het langs donker, ongesoekte paaie gegryp. McDowell self was siek van 'n blikkie vrugte wat hy die vorige aand geëet het. Maar die hoop was groot.

In die 11de New York Infanterie, bekend as die Zouaves, het Pvt. Lewis Metcalf het die jongste nuus gehoor, waarvan die heel laaste blyk te wees dat generaal [Benjamin] Butler Richmond gevange geneem het en die rebelle omring was deur generaal Patterson, en#8221 het hy later geskryf. Al wat ons moes doen, was om Beauregard 'n blaaskans te gee om al die probleme te beëindig. deur Konfederate te ontvlug en 'n lewendige geskreeu op te stel. ”

Ongeveer 5:30 die oggend het die eerste dop, 'n massiewe federale 30-ponder, deur die tent van 'n Konfederale seinstasie naby Stone Bridge geloop sonder om iemand seer te maak. Daardie ronde het Tyler se vordering aangekondig, maar die Konfederate sou McDowell se hoofpoging nog drie uur lank nie opspoor nie totdat kaptein Porter Alexander, ver terug by die bevel van Beauregard, 'n metaalflits verby die draaipaadjie. Toe pluk hy 'n glans bajonette naby Sudley Springs. Hy het vinnig 'n brief aan Beauregard gestuur en 'n sein aan kapt. Nathan Evans, wat met 1100 infanterie en twee gladde kanonne aan die verste punt van die Konfederale lyn gepos het, 'n sein gemerk, terwyl hy Stone Bridge bekyk het. Kyk uit vir u linkerkant, en#8221 het hy gewaarsku. “Jy word geflankeer. ”

Sonder om op bevele te wag, jaag Evans saam met twee van sy regimente oor die draai, en kyk noordwaarts om die dreigende Federals te blokkeer. Union Col. Ambrose Burnside ’s brigade, vooraanstaande Hunter ’s afdeling, het by Sudley Springs naby 9:30 oorgesteek na 'n benaderingsoptog van meer as tien myl. Daar beveel Burnside 'n stop vir water en rus, wat Evans tyd gee om sy skraal verdedigers in 'n bos langs Matthews Hill te plaas. Toe die Yankees binne ongeveer 600 meter kom, het Evans die bevel gegee om te vuur.

Burnside vorder naby sy skermutselinge, gevolg deur kolonel Andrew Porter se brigade. Kort na die eerste vuur, het Burnside David Hunter teëgekom, ernstig gewond teruggery, wat hom aangesê het om die bevel oor die afdeling te neem. Die mans van Evans en#8217 het hardnekkig baklei toe die veel swaarder Unie -mag hulle terugdraai na die draai. Konfederale brig. Genl Barnard Bee, wat deur Beauregard aan die linkerkant beveel is, het 'n verdedigingslinie begin sit naby wat nou die Henry House genoem word, op 'n heuwel net suid van die draai. Maar toe Evans om hulp smeek, neem Bee sy brigade vorentoe om by hom aan te sluit. Kol. Francis Bartow en die brigade van Georgië het langs hulle opgetrek. Na 'n uur se harde geveg kom die afdeling Heintzelman se unie. Hy het kolonel William B. Franklin se brigade vooruit gestuur, en die aanval van die Unie het begin strek om die Evans -lyn. By die kruising naby Stone Bridge het kolonel William Tecumseh Sherman se brigade by die offensief aangesluit. Aan albei kante het mans, Evans, Bee en Bartow's, byna 'n kilometer teruggebreek en waggelend oor Henry House Hill geloop.

Tydens hierdie stygende rumoer was Johnston en Beauregard naby Mitchell's Ford, meer as vier myl daarvandaan. Hulle wag twee uur lank om te hoor hoe die beplande Konfederale teen die Unie -linkerflank beweeg. Maar dit het nooit gerealiseer nie. Die toekomstige hoofbrigade het Beauregard se bevel nie gekry nie, en ander het tevergeefs geluister na sy vooruitgang. Dit was omstreeks 10:30 toe Beauregard en Johnston uiteindelik besef het dat die geraas heel links die ware stryd was.

Deur vinnig meer troepe op die pad te stuur, galop hulle na die vuur. Toe hulle Henry House bereik, bring Jackson sy brigade op deur die ongeorganiseerde troepe wat terugval. Tensy hy hier vasgehou het, kon die Yankees in die agterkant van die Konfederate sweef en hul hele leër in duie stort. Jackson gooi 'n verdedigingslinie net agter die kruin van die heuwel op, waar die Federals dit nie kon sien toe hulle bymekaarkom om aan te gaan nie. 'N Koeël- of skulpfragment het sy linkerhand pynlik gewond terwyl hy heen en weer sy manne vasgehou het, artilleriestukke sit en Jeb Stuart vra om die flank met sy kavalerie te beskerm. Barnard Bee, wat sy geskudde brigade probeer laat herleef, wys en skree woorde wat nog lank na hom sal lewe:

“Daar staan ​​Jackson soos 'n klipmuur! Tydren agter die Virginians! ”

Of Bee presies daardie woorde gesê het of nie, dit was een van sy laaste dae, en toe kry Jackson die bynaam waarmee hy altyd bekend sal wees. Hy verdien dit in die volgende paar uur, aangesien meer versterkings van agter af haastig is, deur Johnston vorentoe gestuur en deur Beauregard op sy plek gerig is. McDowell het twee batterye met 'n gewone kanon van die Amerikaanse weermag ver vorentoe gestoot om Jackson oor te steek. Stuart, wat die flank dopgehou het, het Jackson gewaarsku en daarna aangekla, terwyl sy ruiters die infanterie verstrooi en die Yankee -gewere beskerm. Skielik kom die 33ste Virginia -regiment uit die kwas en laat 'n sarsie los wat die kanonne weggevee het. 'Dit het gelyk asof elke man en perd van die battery net neergelê en dadelik gesterf het,' het 'n burgerlike getuie gesê.

Die Konfederate gryp die federale gewere en draai dit teen die aanvallers, maar in hewige wipplankgevegte het die Yankees dit tydelik teruggeneem. Beauregard se perd is onder hom geskiet. Heintzelman is gewond toe hy sy mans vorentoe jaag. Drie keer het die Federale binne 'n paar meter van die Jackson ’ -lyn gestry en is hulle deur 'n vuurblad teruggegooi. Toe die laaste poging wankel, het Beauregard die aanval gedoen. Jackson het sy troepe vorentoe gegooi en hulle beveel om soos furies te skreeu! ” — en hulle het dit gedoen, en het sodoende die Rebel -geskreeu as 'n oorlogswapen bekendgestel. Francis Bartow is dood en Bee is dodelik gewond toe die rebelle vooruitstorm.

Die geveg het omgedraai, maar dit sou weer draai, en nogmaals.

In die chaos om die Federals afdraand na die draai te ry, het die Konfederate albei hul flanke blootgestel. McDowell stuur meer troepe op hulle af en stoot die heuwel op. Maar sodoende het hy sy eie flank blootgestel. Omstreeks 4 uur het twee nuwe Rebel -brigades onder brig. Genl Kirby Smith en kolonel Jubal Early verskyn skielik van agter. Smith, wat pas uit die Shenandoah -vallei aangekom het, is byna onmiddellik ernstig gewond. Onder leiding van kolonel Arnold Elzey, het sy troepe bly beweeg en die Konfederale lyn na links gestrek. Toe kom Early in 'n warm haas, nou deeglik toegewyd aan die oorsaak van Virginia en sy brigade nog breër om die Unie -flank.

As gevolg van hierdie nuwe golf van rebelle, begin McDowell se uitgeputte troepe aan die kant terugval. Beauregard sien hulle opgewonde en waai sy hele lyn vorentoe. Die Konfederate het weer aangekla en die Federale teruggestuur na Bull Run. McDowell en Burnside het probeer om dit nie te stop nie. Aanvanklik was die toevlug doelbewus, asof die manne net moeg was om te baklei soos die historikus John C. Ropes geskryf het, maar hulle het stil, maar definitief geledere gebreek en op pad huis toe begin. hulle, en toe hulle verby Stone Bridge loop, het die Rebel -kanon op die draaipunt geloop. Toe, volgens kapt James C. Fry van die personeel van McDowell, begin die paniek. totale verwarring het plaasgevind: plesierwaens, geweerwaens en ambulanse. was verlate en het die pad versper, en agtervolgers het hul muskiete gebreek en eenkant gesny en perde uit hul tuig gesny en op hulle gery. gevang in die stormloop en skaars ontsnap aan die teregstelling deur 'n woedende kolonel in Suid -Carolina, wat deur kaptein Alexander teëgehou is.

Terwyl die Rebel -artillerie die leër van McDowell geteister het, het mans van woede en skrik geskreeu toe hul pad versper is, het Russell, die Britse korrespondent, geskryf. Gesigte swart en stowwerig, tonge in die hitte en oë staar. Bestuurders het hul perde geslaan, gestamp, aangespoor en geslaan. By elke skoot 'n stuiptrekkings. beslag gelê op die morbide massa. ”

McDowell self was net so eerlik, indien nie so beskrywend nie. Nadat hy probeer het om 'n standplaas in Centerville te organiseer, is hy meegesleur deur sy vlugtende leër. Hy het die aand by Fairfax stilgebly en aan die slaap geraak te midde van die beriggewing dat sy mans sonder kos en artillerie -ammunisie was, en dat die meeste van hulle heeltemal gedemoraliseer is. ” Hy en sy offisiere, het hy geskryf, was dit eens dat “no staanplek aan hierdie kant van die Potomac gemaak kan word. ”

Op die donker, stormagtige oggend van 22 Julie het duisende mans van McDowell, wat deurdrenk en honger was, in Washington gestruikel en in deure ineengestort. Die gesig was soos 'n afskuwelike droom, het Mary Henry, dogter van die sekretaris van die Smithsonian Institution, in haar dagboek geskryf. Die nuus oor die roete het paniek veroorsaak: Rebelle gaan Washington binnekom! Maar die Rebelle was nie naastenby nie. Beauregard het die terugtog gevolg in posisies wat hy 'n week tevore beklee het, maar sy leër was te ongeorganiseerd om 'n ernstige poging teen die hoofstad self te doen.

So eindig die “Stuur na Richmond! ” veldtog van 1861.

Bull Run — of Manassas, soos die Suidlanders dit noem, en verkies om burgeroorloggevegte vir dorpe te noem in plaas van waterlope, en was 'n hewige stryd, maar nie groot in vergelyking met dié wat later sou kom nie. Die getalle wissel, maar die Unie het ongeveer 460 mans verloor, 1,125 gewond en 1,310 vermis, waarvan die meeste gevang is. Die Konfederate het ongeveer 390 dood, 1,580 gewondes en slegs 13 vermis gely omdat hulle die veld beset het. Altogether, both sides lost about 4,900—fewer than a fifth of the casualties counted when they fought on the same ground a year later, and fewer than a tenth of those at Gettysburg in 1863. Regardless of numbers, the psychological effect on both sides was profound.

Jefferson Davis arrived at Manassas after the contest was decided and set off celebrations in Richmond with a message saying, “We have won a glorious though dear-bought victory. Night closed on the enemy in full flight and closely pursued.” His speeches en route back, plus rumors from the front, made it sound as if he had gotten there just in time to turn the tide of battle. “We have broken the back bone of invasion and utterly broken the spirit of the North,” the Richmond Examiner exulted. “Henceforward we will have hectoring, bluster and threat but we shall never get such a chance at them again on the field.” Some of Beauregard’s soldiers, feeling the same way, headed home.

A more realistic South Carolina official said the triumph was exciting “a fool’s paradise of conceit” about how one Rebel could lick any number of Yankees. Among Union troops, he told diarist Mary Boykin Chesnut, the rout would “wake every inch of their manhood. It was the very fillip they needed.”

Most of the North woke up Monday morning to read that the Union had won: news dispatches filed when McDowell’s troops were driving the Confederates back had gone out from Washington, and War Department censors temporarily blocked later accounts. Lincoln, first buoyed and then struck hard by reports from the front, had stayed awake all Sunday night. When the truth came, his cabinet met in emergency session. Secretary of War Simon Cameron put Baltimore on alert and ordered all organized militia regiments to Washington. Generals and politicians competed in finger-pointing. Although McDowell with his green troops had very nearly won at Bull Run, after such a disaster he clearly had to go. To replace him, Lincoln summoned a 34-year-old Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who had won a series of minor clashes in western Virginia.

After days of alarm among citizens and public drunkenness among many of the Union’s disheartened soldiers, calm returned and the North looked ahead. Few there could agree at first with the anonymous Atlantic Maandeliks correspondent who wrote that “Bull Run was in no sense a disaster. we not only deserved it, but needed it. Far from being disheartened by it, it should give us new confidence in our cause.” But no one could doubt the gravity of the situation, that “God has given us work to do not only for ourselves, but for coming generations of men.” Thus all the North could join in vowing that “to gain that end, no sacrifice can be too precious or too costly.” Not until the following spring would McClellan take the rebuilt Army of the Potomac again into Virginia, and not for another three springs would the immensity of that sacrifice be realized.

Ernest B. Furgurson has written four books on the Civil War, most recently Freedom Rising. He lives in Washington, D.C.

About Ernest B. Furgurson

Ernest B. Furgurson is the author of Freedom Rising: Washington in the Civil War en Ashes of Glory: Richmond at War, plus other books about war and politics.


Bull Run

Bull Run was the first full-scale battle of the Civil War. The fierce fight there forced both the North and South to face the sobering reality that the war would be long and bloody.

Hoe dit geëindig het

Confederate victory. After this stinging defeat for the Union, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, the commander of the Union Army of Northeastern Virginia, was relieved and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training what would become the Army of the Potomac.

In konteks

Although the Civil War officially began when Confederate troops shelled Fort Sumpter on April 12, 1861, the fighting didn’t commence in earnest until the Battle of Bull Run, fought months later in Virginia, just 25 miles from Washington D.C. Under public pressure to end the war in 90 days, President Lincoln had pushed the cautious Gen. McDowell to embark on a campaign to capture the Confederate capital in Richmond, but McDowell’s troops were stopped at Bull Run by Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard’s Rebel forces. The Federals retreated to Washington, where the Lincoln administration retooled for a war that would be waged at great human and financial cost

On July 16, the Union 90-day volunteer army under McDowell—around 35,000 troops with great enthusiasm and little training—sets out from Washington, D.C. The Confederates under Beauregard, equally green, are positioned behind Bull Run Creek west of Centreville. They aim to block the Union army advance on the Confederate capital by defending the railroad junction at Manassas, just west of the creek. The railroads there connect the strategically important Shenandoah Valley with the Virginia interior. Another Confederate army under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston operates in the Valley and is poised to reinforce Beauregard. McDowell’s plan is to make quick work of Beauregard’s force before Johnston can join him.

On July 17, both sides skirmish along Bull Run at Blackburn’s Ford near the center of Beauregard’s line. The inconclusive fight causes McDowell to revise his attack plan, which requires three more days to implement. Meanwhile, Johnston’s men in the Valley manage to elude the Federals and board trains headed for Bull Run. They arrive at the scene on July 20.

July 21. McDowell’s early morning advance up Bull Run Creek to cross behind Beauregard’s left is hampered by an ambitious plan that requires complex synchronization. Constant delays on the march by the green officers and their troops, as well as effective scouting by the Confederates, give McDowell’s movements away. Later that morning, McDowell’s artillery shells the Confederates across Bull Run near a stone bridge. Two divisions finally cross at Sudley Ford and make their way south behind the Confederate left flank. Beauregard sends three brigades to handle what he thinks is only a distraction, while planning his own flanking movement of the Union left.

The Federals have the upper hand throughout the morning as they drive Confederate forces back from Matthews Hill. The retreating Confederates rally on an open hilltop near the home of the widow Judith Henry, where a brigade of Virginia regiments led by Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson assembles. Jackson forms the scattered Confederate artillery into a formidable line on the eastern slope of the hill with his infantry hidden in the tall grass behind the guns.

As the Confederates reinforce their lines, McDowell pauses his attack. Consolidating his own forces, he moves more divisions across Bull Run and occupies Chinn Ridge, west of Henry Hill. Then McDowell blunders. He places two rifled artillery batteries on the western side of Henry Hill within 300 yards of Jackson’s guns. Union infantry regiments soon become targets of Jackson’s nearby artillery. A contest between infantry and artillery erupts, causing havoc and accidentally killing Judith Henry in the crossfire as she hides in her home.

Jackson’s men hold firm. Sometime during the fighting, Confederate Brig. Gen. Bernard Bee calls encourages his own brigade to rally with Jackson, who, he declares, is standing like a “stone wall.” Although he is killed in action, Bee's statement lives on, and from that moment Jackson is known as “Stonewall.”

Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements under Col. Jubal Early extend the Confederate line and attack the Union right flank on Chinn Ridge. Jackson’s men advance across the top of Henry Hill and push back the Federal infantry, capturing some of the guns. The withdrawal of the Union center quickly spreads to the flanks. Virginia cavalry under Col. James Ewell Brown “Jeb” Stuart arrive on the field and charge into a confused mass of Union regiments. The Federals retreat.


Stonewall Jackson And The Battle Of Bull Run

The Union referred the battle as the Battle of Bull Run, while the Confederates named it the Battle of Manassas. It was during this battle that Thomas Jackson got his nickname, Stonewall. The Battle of Bull Run was fought between the Union and Confederate soldiers on 21st July 1861. It was one of the first serious fights between the two sides during the American Civil War.

Union were under the leadership of General Irwin McDowell, while the Confederates were under the leadership of Pierre Beauregard. When the northern states wanted to end the rebellion started by the Southern states, General McDowell marched the Union army towards Richmond in Virginia. This was the capital of the Confederates. However, the Confederate army was based at Manassas Junction, which was around twenty-five miles from Washington, and was planning to fight the Union forces. However, the Confederates did not expect McDowell’s forces and were reassigned to repel this attack.

Right from the very beginning, the Confederates were on the back foot. However, there was one Confederate brigade led by General Thomas Jackson that was not retreating and fighting the Union onslaught. Jackson’s stubborn and his ability to be calm in such a stressful situation made him seem like a stone wall and thus earning him the nickname Stonewall Jackson.

Jackson held his ground till reinforcements in the shape of 9,000 soldiers led by General Johnson arrived. This arrival of reinforcements changed the far of the battle and now the Union army was at the receiving end. The Union soldiers began running away from the battlefield.

The Union army and its supporters were certain that during the Battle of Bull Run, the Union army would be victorious and quickly overpower the Confederate army. However, this was not to be. The Union was miserably defeated during this battle and only because the Confederate army was too disorganized, Beauregard could pursue the fleeing soldiers. However, this victory motivated the Confederates and the Union army and its supporters had to eat humble pie.

Due to the Battle of Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson turned into a legend. Had it not been for his stand, the Confederates would have lost the battle and soon Richmond would have been taken over by the Northern states. Instead, many more battles were still to be fought in Shiloh, Gettysburg and Wilderness before the Southern states were routed by the Northern states and calls for secession were put to an end.

ThinkQuest: The Battle Of Bull Run
http://library.thinkquest.org/3055/netscape/battles/bullrun.html

Stonewall Jackson was born Thomas Jonathan on 21st January 1824. His birth took place in the city of Clarksburg in modern-day West Virginia. When young Thomas was just 2 years old, his father passed away. His mother was left handling debts and no money. To support her 3 children, Mrs. Jackson began taking orders to sew and also teach. However, she was forced to sell her home and property due to shortage of money. And, then after 4 years, Mrs. Jackson got married again and the family relocated to another county. More..


Die Wildernis

Battle of the Wilderness deur Kurz en Allison.

In Mei 1864 het meer as 100,000 Unie -troepe kop aan kop gegaan met slegs 60,000 Konfederate. Met Ulysses Grant wat nuut in beheer was van die hele leër van die Unie, was hy van plan om Robert E. Lee aan te val in 'n historiese tragiese geveg. Die Unie het ongeveer 17,666 mans verloor en die Konfederasie het ongeveer 11,000 verloor vir 'n totaal van meer as 28,000 slagoffers. Erger nog, op 'n nag, met baie van die dooies en sterwendes wat oor die slagveld en kampe gelê het, het 'n brand oor die landskap uitgebreek en diegene doodgemaak wat nie kon ontsnap nie. Die gevolglike toneel van die Slag van die Wildernis word as een van die verskriklikste van die oorlog uitgebeeld.


20 Historical Facts about the First Battle of Bull Run

The First Battle of Bull Run was the first major clash of the American Civil war, which took place between the Confederate and Union armies on July 21, 1861. The battle started when Abraham Lincoln ordered General Irvin McDowell to attack the Confederate forces located in the city of Manassas, Virginia.

With the offensive strike, the Union government wanted to show Confederates that they were playing with fire. However, Confederates won that battle and made the Union forces to retreat to Washington DC. Concisely, the First Battle of Bull Run showed both sides that the war will be long, bloody, and costly.

To explain the history of the First Battle of Bull Run in a more readable and clear fashion, we provided 25 facts about the battle. Each fact includes informative statements so you will have broader knowledge about the subject.

Confederates called it the First Battle of Manassas because the battle took place near the city of Manassas in Virginia.

The Union Army called it Battle of Bull Run because when General Irving McDowell marched out of Washington DC, he was aimed at crushing the confederate forces located near the Bull Run creek.

  1. People of the Union believed the Union forces would gain an easy victory in a short time, so people set up a picnic on nearby hills to watch the First Battle of Bull Run.

However, the battle destroyed the illusions of the northerners. The confederate forces not only showed them that the war will be long and costly, but they also won the battle, which dissipated the hopes of northerners.

  1. At first, the Union forces started with successful offensive attacks, however, confederates could stop their advances at the Henry House Hill.

The battle at the Henry House Hill is considered the most important part of the First Battle of Bull Run. Because, under the command of Colonel Thomas Jackson, the confederates could hold the Union army from further advancing.

According to some stories, colonel Thomas Jackson held that area as a stonewall, and that brave action has earned him a nickname “Stonewall”. In the civil war history, you will hear more about this famous Confederate colonel, but under the name “Stonewall” Jackson.

  1. Both the Union and Confederate forces were inexperienced during the First Battle of Bull Run.

For example, the Union side had so many volunteer soldiers who neither got proper training nor experience. Plus, the hopes and expectations of the Union Generals were too complex and hard for the inexperienced Union soldiers to handle. On the other hand, the confederate army encountered communication issues which resulted in poor coordination.

  1. A day after the battle on July 22, 1861, retreated confederate forces get back to Washington DC.

When the northern army got back, the government understood that they underestimated the Confederate forces. They understood that they need more precise strategies and more soldiers to gain victory over the Confederate troops

  1. After the First Battle of Bull Run, President Abraham Lincoln authorized the enlistment of new soldiers to suppress the southern rebellion.

Soon after the battle, Abraham Lincoln authorized the enlistment of 500,000 new soldiers. Also, the Union government allowed African Americans to join the military. By the end of the Civil War, 10% of the Union army consisted of Black men.

  1. Abraham Lincoln was the President of the Constitutional government of the United States during the First Battle of Bull Run.

Lincoln was an opponent of slavery and he wanted to abolish it from American territory. Therefore, he took military action against Southern states with great determination. Although he did so much for the success of the Civil war, he could not see the victory of his army.

When the Union army was approaching its victorious days, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, who was a Confederate sympathizer.

Because of his contributions to the Civil war, Americans considered him a martyr of liberty. Therefore, many remember him as one of the greatest presidents of the United States.

Davis was a Mexican war hero. Although he could unite Confederate forces against the northern states, he struggled to manage the new nation and its economy effectively.

According to some historians, due to his contentious personality, Davis was at the conflict with his military and political personals.

  1. Due to the high number of injured, nearby schools and homes were turned temporary hospitals after the First Battle of Bull Run.

When there is a war, there are also human casualties. To save the lives and relieve pains of wounded, temporary hospitals were created inside nearby schools and homes treated.

After the battle, first-hand witnesses described the battlefield as a “horrifying site” where many soldiers laying injured begging for help.

  1. During the first Battle of Bull Run, 35,000 Union troops attacked 20,000 confederates.

Despite being outnumbered and well-equipped with weapons, the Union army failed to secure its victory over the Confederates. Instead, they faced a defeat which caused a political controversy back in Washington DC.

  1. The victory in the First Battle of Bull Run gave confidence to the Confederate forces so they continued to pursue their goals.

The First Battle of Bull Run helped the Confederate government to gain confidence. Their confidence was based on the idea that if they continue to show resistance to the Union forces, they may be victorious at the end. However, they did not know that they will lose the civil war after 4 years of bloody battles.

  1. Generals Joseph E. Johnston commanded the Confederate army during the First Battle of Bull Run

General Joseph Johnston (1807-1891) was the highest-ranking military official to join the Confederate forces during the civil war. However, he was replaced by Robert E. Lee in 1862 after the Battle of Seven Pines, where he was severely wounded.

After the civil war, Johnston worked in the railroad commission and served a term in the U.S. Congress. He died at the age of 84.

  1. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (1818-1893) was another General who commanded the Confederate army during the First Battle of Bull Run.

He commanded the First Battle of Bull Run and several other battles. Since he had a pretty long name, he was known with the name P.G.T Beauregard. Overall, he was a good commander. However, his outspoken personality prevented him to have a warm relationship with Confederate President Jefferson Davis.

As a result of a poor relationship, Davis removed him from his post in 1863 and appointed him a commander to defend Charleston, South Carolina. After the civil war, he worked as a railroad director and managed the Louisiana lottery. He died at the age of 74.

  1. Although the Union government knew that their militia was ill-repapered, they sent the soldiers to the First Battle of Bull Run anyways.

Abraham Lincoln reasoned that Confederate soldiers were also ill-prepared. Therefore, he thought that his army poorly trained army could crash another amateur army.

  1. Joseph E. Johnston came as reinforcement to Beauregard’s troops during the First Battle of Bull Run.

Reinforcement troops under the commanded of Johnston contributed to the victory of the First Battle of Bull Run. 11,000 reinforcement troops could march towards Manassas to join Beauregard’s troops, avoiding resistance from the Union forces.

  1. Confederates screamed as they make their advances towards the Union army, which was later known as “Rebel Yell” for the Union troops .

The Confederates organized a soundly offensive during the afternoon hours when confederate forces gained their position. That sound became the infamous “Rebel Yell” for the northerners. The term was used during the rest of the civil war.

  1. The Union army suffered around 3000 casualties, while the Confederates won the First Battle of Bull Run with 1,750 casualties.

Both sides suffered great losses in the battle. However, neither sides were too far from quitting the war. The First Battle of Bull Run brought to the serious of other civil war battles. In other words, the battle led to the full-scale civil war.

  1. The Union and Confederate armies used different strategies during the First Battle of Bull Run.

The battle strategies of the Union were to conduct a series of offensive strikes to destroy the rebellion before it could grow to an uncontrollable force. Concisely, the Union army wanted to prevent confederates from gaining strength.

The Confederate strategy was to win the battle by withstanding or not losing the battle and by striking whenever there is a chance. That is what exactly happened during the First Battle of Bull Run. The Confederate forces first fought at the defensive end. And when the Union army could no longer make offensive moves, they counter strike and made them retreat.

  1. People can read the first-hand description of the First Battle of Bull Run from the letters written by the Civil War soldiers.

One of those letters was written by James Keen Munnerlyn Jr. He described his experience in the First Battle of Bull Run in the letter addressed to her sister. You may read his complete paper here.

There are many other letters written by first hand witness. You may find them and read them here.


Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War

This new and revised edition of Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War (first published in 1977) offers the reader a splendid narrative of the first major battle of the American Civil War. On the 21st of July 1861, 60,000 American soldiers from the North and South met along the banks of Bull Run. In the fighting that followed the Union forces lost 2,900 out of the 20,000 men engaged while the Confederates lost 2,000 out of about 17,000 engaged.

This new and revised edition of Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War (first published in 1977) offers the reader a splendid narrative of the first major battle of the American Civil War. On the 21st of July 1861, 60,000 American soldiers from the North and South met along the banks of Bull Run. In the fighting that followed the Union forces lost 2,900 out of the 20,000 men engaged while the Confederates lost 2,000 out of about 17,000 engaged.

The first half of the book describes the Union and Confederate forces as they muster their men into the first armies of the Civil War. It continues with an outline of the events' leading up to the battle and gives you a feeling for, and an understanding of, the main characters involved. Future heroes and leaders of the Civil War come to the fore, such men as `Stonewall' Jackson, Jeb Stuart, A.P. Hill, Jubal Early and Joseph E. Johnston for the Confederacy and men like William T. Sherman, Ambrose Burnside and Irvin McDowell for the Union.

The final chapters describe the fighting from Blackburn's Ford to the final rout of the Union Forces on the evening of the 21st. The author's description of the intense fighting is gripping and written in such a fluent style that it holds you to the narrative. Although the casualties for this engagement were not significant when compared to those bloody battles that followed you still feel for the individual soldiers who were caught up in this terrible War.

This book is an enjoyable and easy to read story and is well presented by a number of photographs taken at the time of the battle or shortly after. The author has included 8 small, but easy to read maps that help you follow the outline of events during the battle. This book is recommended to any body who has a love for this period of history or to the general reader who likes a good story.
. meer


The First Battle of Bull Run

The First Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21 st 1861. Bull Run was the first major battle of the American Civil War and the area also saw the Second Battle of Bull Run in 1862. Union forces referred to the battle as Bull Run whereas the Confederacy called the battle the Battle of Manassas.

The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with the attack on Fort Sumter. There was a general desire in the North for the Union army to advance south to Richmond and engage the Confederacy in combat. A Union victory was expected by those in the North as a matter of course. The North also held the belief that the war would not last long and that the South would crumble after its first major military defeat.

Abraham Lincoln ordered Brigadier General Irwin McDowell, commander of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, to march south and engage the Confederate force, commanded by Brigadier General Beauregard. McDowell was cautious of his commander-in-chief’s order, as he was aware that his army was inexperienced in combat. Many had volunteered for the cause by few had battle experience. He was also aware that his subordinate officers were also untried in a major battle.

Beauregard also had the same issues.

McDowell gathered together the largest military force seen in America up to that time. 35,000 inexperienced men marched towards Richmond.

Beauregard had an army of nearly 22,000 that gathered at Manassas Junction.

McDowell’s plan was to use two-thirds of his men to make a diversionary frontal attack on Beauregard’s men at Bull Run while at the same time launching a surprise attack with a third of his army against and behind his right flank. McDowell planned to get behind Beauregard’s men and ensure that they could not retreat back to Richmond.

However, his plan had one weakness. It had to be carried out accurately if it was to be successful. Each part of his army had a specific task to complete. For experienced combat officers, moving men around on the battlefield may have been a reasonably simple task. His inexperienced officers found it all too much. McDowell did not help his cause by delaying giving out his orders. This gave Beauregard time to establish his lines and consolidate his positions.

McDowell started his attack at 02.30 and it went wrong from the start. The attack was by 12,000 men commanded by Brigadier Generals David Hunter and Samuel Heintzelman. In the darkness they marched into a large Union force of 8,000 men who blocked their advance. It took the 12,000 men seven hours to reach their target just miles away.

McDowell’s army then ‘announced’ that their attack had started at 05.15 when they fired some artillery rounds at the Confederate positions.

Beauregard ordered a counter-attack by three units of men commanded by Richard Ewell, D R Jones and Theophilus Holmes. In a breakdown of communication, Ewell interpreted the order differently – he believed that he had been ordered to hold his line in readiness to attack. Holmes never received any orders. Jones advanced his men as ordered but found that he was by himself and not supported by Ewell and Holmes.

The only obvious success in the early hours of the battle was by Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman who had managed to find an unguarded ford at Bull Run, which he crossed and then engaged the right flank of Beauregard’s army. Sherman’s assault was completely unexpected and caused the Confederate defenders facing them to retreat. However, McDowell did not exploit this success and put his faith in his artillery bombarding Confederate positions as opposed to building on Sherman’s success.

The Confederate army at Bull Run may have retreated in disarray at this point but it did not. What stemmed their retreat was the example set by Colonel Thomas Jackson whose men from Virginia refused to retreat from their positions. This example seemed to inspire the Confederates and led to the legend developing that Jackson’s Virginians refused to retreat. It also led to Jackson himself receiving the nickname ‘Stonewall’ – as it is stated that he and his men stood as solid as a stone wall and refused to surrender or withdraw.

The shape of the battle changed when in mid-afternoon, Jackson captured some Union artillery guns. These had been used to fire on the Confederate flanks. Now at the very least, Jackson had neutralised them in terms of their use against Confederate forces. At around the same time, two Confederate brigades arrived at Bull Run from the Shenandoah Valley and joined the battle. Union forces fell back in disarray, as their inexperienced officers did not know how to control the situation. As they withdrew Confederate artillery fired on them and created panic in places. The Union’s one saving grace was that the Confederate force was equally disorganised and failed to take advantage of the situation. Jefferson Davis had arrived at the battle and urged Beauregard to press home the attack but senior Confederate officers argued about how this could be done and could not agree on a strategy. As a result nothing was done and McDowell’s force was allowed to withdraw towards Washington free from attack.

Many in Washington expected a Confederate attack on the capital but this never occurred.

McDowell was blamed for the defeat and was replaced by George McClellan. Beauregard was promoted to full general.

The Battle of Bull Run was an indicator of what was to come. Both sides clearly needed more experienced officers but this experience could only be won in battle and more battles obviously meant more casualties. At the time, the Battle of Bull Run led to more casualties than any battle yet experienced in America.

The North lost 2,896 men: 460 killed (16%), 1,124 wounded (39%) and 1,312 (45%) missing or held prisoner.

The South lost 1,982 men: 387 killed (19.5%), 1,582 wounded (80.5%) and 13 missing (0%).

However, these figures were to be eclipsed in later battles such as Gettysburg.


Kyk die video: Second Battle of Bull Run, Full Video. Animated Battle Map (Augustus 2022).