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Kaarte van die gevegte van die oorloë van die rose

Kaarte van die gevegte van die oorloë van die rose



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Kaarte van die gevegte van die oorloë van die rose

Hierdie klikbare kaart toon die gevegte van die Wars of the Roses, van die eerste botsing in St. Albansin in 1455 tot die laaste gevegte van Bosworth in 1485 en Stoke in 1487. Soos hierdie kaart toon, het die oorlog groot dele van Engeland en Wallis direk geraak. , maar met trosse in die Midlands en die Noordooste.


Die dood van gentlemanly oorlog? Die gevegte van die oorloë van die rose 1455-1464

In die volgende in ons reeks oor die oorloë van die rose, kyk hierdie artikel na die belangrikste gevegte in die beginjare van die oorlog. Dit volg op ons inleiding tot die Roses Wars hier beskikbaar en ons artikel oor die afstammelinge van Edward III en die oorsake van die Wars of the Roses wat hier beskikbaar is.

Die groot ou hertog van York, hy het 3 000 man, hy het hulle na Londen opgeruk om te veg vir sy reg om koning te wees.

Richard Plantagenet het 'n ononderbroke manlike lyn tot by Edward III en het dus aanvaar dat hy meer geregtig was om Engeland te regeer as die mal koning en sy babaseun. Op 22 Mei 1455 marsjeer Richard, wat die Yorkistiese leër gelei het, na Londen. Koning Henry VI, wat die Lancastriese mag gelei het, het opgeruk om dit te onderskep en by St. Albans stilgehou en gedink dat 'n hinderlaag tot sy voordeel sou wees. Hy was verkeerd. Die Yorkiste het die Lancaster -mag in 30 minute verslaan. Henry was nou 'n gevangene en sy koningin en hul seun was in ballingskap. Dit was die eerste stryd van die Wars of the Roses, sy wreedheid sou die weg gebaan het vir die oorlog wat die gesig van Engeland verander het en die manier waarop die land geveg het, verander het. Dit was ook die eerste geveg waar Richard Neville - die graaf van Warwick - vrees in die vyand geplaas het. Warwick sou 'n byna perfekte strydrekord hê - sy teenwoordigheid was soos 'n geheime eliksir wat die Yorkiste tot oorwinning aangespoor het. Dit alleen moes gehelp het om die Lancastriese gees te breek, aangesien dit vier jaar geneem het om 'n weermag byeen te bring en 'n teenaanval op die been te bring. Die slag van Ludford Bridge het die Yorkistiese leër laat ontheilig en in die nag ingehardloop. Daar was inderdaad 'n volskaalse terugtog in die oggend onder leiding van Richard van York, wat na Ierland gevlug het. Soos u kan dink, het die graaf van Warwick nie hierdie geveg bygewoon nie. Kan dit die rede wees waarom die Yorkiste in die nag vertrek het en waarom die Lancasters met oorwinning weggestap het?

Shakespeare se koning Henry VI, deel III, handeling II. Warwick, Edward en Richard tydens die Slag van Towton

Nege maande later het die graaf van Warwick, sy pa en die graaf van Maart hul leër noordwaarts laat aanval op 'n Lancastriese leër wat suid marsjeer. Toe die twee leërs bymekaarkom, het Warwick eerder gesprek as stryd gekies en ure lank probeer om 'n skikking met die koning te bereik. Uiteindelik, uit frustrasie, val die Yorkistiese mag aan en wen. Die kroon was nou duidelik onder Yorkistiese beheer. Engeland het geglo dat die burgeroorlog verby was, maar die mal koningskoningin het 'n leër saamgestel en was van plan om vir haar erfgenaam te veg.

Die slag van Wakefield word beskou as die einde van ridderlike oorlogvoering. Tot op daardie stadium is diegene wat teruggetrek het, nie doodgemaak nie. Edele was ook nie. Daar was reëls vir oorlog. Op 30 Desember 1460 het hierdie reëls tot 'n einde gekom. Richard van York het na die stad York gereis en 'n verdedigende posisie in Sandal Castle ingeneem. Om een ​​of ander onbekende rede het Richard sy vesting verlaat en die Lancastriese mag direk aangeval, al was dit twee keer so groot as sy leër. Die Yorkiste is wreedaardig, terugtrekkende soldate is geslag terwyl hulle hardloop. En Richard van York, die man wat geveg het om homself koning te noem, is koelbloedig vermoor. Die Lancastrians het as oorwinnaars weggestap en om hul oorwinning te toon, het hulle die graaf van Warwick se pa en broer gevange geneem en tereggestel. Edeles was nie bedoel om doodgemaak te word nie, dit was nie die manier waarop ridderlike oorlogvoering plaasgevind het nie. Was die Lancastrians so wanhopig dat hulle ridderlikheid geïgnoreer het of was die moorde op Warwick se pa en broer vir hom 'n teken?

Daar was nog drie gevegte voor die slag van Towton - een van die belangrikste van die burgeroorlog. Hierdie drie klein verbintenisse het die woede in beide kampe aangewakker, veral omdat die Lancastrians daarin geslaag het om nog 'n geveg te wen. Interessant genoeg was die graaf van Warwick by hierdie verlowing. Omdat hy goed weet wat met sy broer en pa gebeur het, vlug Warwick en laat sy gyselaar koning Henry VI onder 'n boom. Die hartseer ou koning sou uiteindelik herenig word met sy koningin en seun.

Op 29 Maart 1461 val die Yorkistiese magte aan in 'n ryp sneeustorm, op 'n skuins heuwel by Towton. Deur die sneeu en wind as hulpmiddel te gebruik, kon die Yorkistiese boogskutters verder skiet as hul teëstanders. Die Lancastriërs, wat geglo het dat hul beste strategie was om aan te kla, het die Yorkistiese mag verswak. Na ure se intense gevegte kom die hertog van Norfolk met versterkings wat die Lancasters help verslaan het. Nadat hulle hul leër, hul wapens en hul gees verloor het, het koning Henry VI, sy koningin en hul seun na Skotland gevlug en 'n oorwinnende graaf van Maart agtergelaat om as koning Edward IV gekroon te word. Daar was nog twee gevegte op Hedgeley Moor en Hexham oor die volgende paar jaar, maar dit het niks anders gedoen as om die Lancastrian -saak verder te breek nie.

Edward IV was moontlik 'n woeste en slim vegter, maar as 'n koning en politikus het hy dit baie ontbreek. Die neef -oorlog sou geëindig het op die dag dat hy gekroon is en die Plantagenets sou waarskynlik nog dekades lank op die troon gewees het, indien nie eeue later nie, as Edward sy neus skoon gehou het en die manier waarop hy aangeraai is, regeer het. Maar helaas, die noodlot het ander idees. En ná slegs agt jaar van vrede het Edward se eie beleid die burgeroorlog gedwing om uit die dood op te staan. Hy het die huis van York en die huis van Lancaster gedwing om weer te veg.

En soos Shakespeare gesê het, Engeland was lankal kwaad en het self 'n letsel gemaak, die broer het die broer se bloed blindweg vergiet, die vader het sy eie seun, die seun, gedwonge slagter vir die vader doodgemaak: dit alles verdeel York en Lancaster.

Watter stryd uit The Wars of the Roses interesseer jou die meeste?

Deur M.L King, 'n geskiedenis-entoesias en deeltydse blogger.

Die volgende artikel in The Wars of the Roses -reeks is die Kingmaker, die graaf van Warwick - hier beskikbaar.


'N Lys van die gevegte van die oorloë van die rose.

Vir hierdie lys van die gevegte wat ons die Siege of Caister Castle in Augustus 1469 ingesluit het. Engeland, met plaaslike here wat hul eie ambisies wou bevorder terwyl die stryd om die troon om hulle voortduur.

U kan ook vanaf die kaartbladsy toegang tot die inligting en die skakels na die Paston -briewe en -dokumente verkry.

'N Brief van John Paston se neef John Crane van Wood Norton gee vroeë nuus van die geveg. Die Paston Letters bevat ook 'n amptelike, gedetailleerde verslag van die geveg en 'n lys van die deelnemers.

William Worcester (ook bekend as Botoner) skryf aan John Berney by Caister Castle en beskryf die voorval. Botoner skryf oor die voorval by Sandwich aan John Berney. Sy toon is 'n effense spot met Lancastriese pogings om die seevaartaanval op Sandwich te stuit.

Thomas Deynes het aan John Paston geskryf en herinner aan sy diens vir die Yorkiste onder die graaf van Warwick by die Slag van Northampton en later by die tweede Slag van St Albans. Deynes vertel van die gebeure rondom die twee gevegte. In die brief verwys Deynes na 'n paar persoonlike probleme en word die jaar daarna vermoor.

Na die Slag van Wakefield, het John Paston se broer Clement, geskryf om sterk voor te stel dat John 'n paar manne moet versamel en noordwaarts moet ry, om te sien hoe hy die Yorkiste kan ondersteun. 'N Clement skryf aan sy ouer broer en druk hom om by die koning aan te sluit. Destyds het John Paston eers onlangs Caister Castle van Sir John Fastolf geërf en sukkel hy om sy prys vas te hou.

Beide die seuns van John Paston was tydens die geveg in die Walliese optogte. John (II) was op reis saam met koning Edward se leër en sy jonger broer was saam met die hertog van Norfolk, wat ook in die omgewing was. John Paston II skryf uit The Marches. Die Yorkiste het bymekaargekom om die bedreiging van Jasper Tudor uit Wallis te stuit en die faksies wat by die Battle of Mortimers Cross vergader het.

John Paston se suster Elizabeth was getroud met sir Robert Poynings wat tydens die stryd om die Yorkistiese saak dood is. Clement Paston het aan John Paston geskryf oor die geveg. Poynings het Jack Cade se rebellie in 1450 ondersteun.

William Paston, die jonger broer van John Paston, het met 'n haastige verslag van die geveg en 'n lys van slagoffers geskryf. William Paston gee 'n eerste weergawe van die geveg

Die beleg van Caister Castle, wat op 21 Augustus begin het, was nie een van die belangrikste gevegte tussen die Lancastrians en die Yorkiste nie. Maar dit was 'n voorbeeld van die plaaslike vete wat plaasgevind het terwyl die land in beroering was terwyl Henry en Edward en hul volgelinge dit regeer. John Paston III het die verdediging van die kasteel gelei, die hertog van Norfolk het die kasteel beleër. Die balans tussen magte en wapens het John Paston uiteindelik gedwing om die Caister Castle oor te gee, hoewel die verdedigers etlike weke lank aangehou het. Margaret Paston skryf aan John Paston III met nuus oor die beleg

John Paston II en sy jonger broer John III het albei by Barnet geveg vir hul Lancastriese beskermheer John de Vere, graaf van Oxford. John Paston III skryf aan sy ma 'n verslag oor die geveg. Die jonger John het 'n pylwond aan die arm gekry en sy ouer broer het hul ma Margaret gerusgestel dat hy goed herstel.

Die Paston Letters bevat 'n volledige lys van die deelnemers aan die geveg en hul lotgevalle as 'n rekord van die geveg. Sir George Browne, derde eggenoot van Elizabeth Paston, was onder die ridders op die slagveld na hierdie beslissende Yorkistiese oorwinning. Sir George het later in 1483 sy jas omgedraai om die Tudor -opstand te ondersteun en is tereggestel weens verraad. Beide hy en Elizabeth is begrawe by Whitefriars in Londen.

Die hertog van Norfolk het aan die vooraand van die geveg aan John Paston (III) geskryf met instruksies vir John om hom by Bury St Edmunds saam met 'n geselskap van lang mans aan te sluit. Die hertog van Norfolk skryf aan John Paston III met sy versoek. Klaarblyklik het John nie gereageer nie en sy ou werkgewer is daarna in die geveg dood. Volgens die legende was die nuwe beskermheer van Pastons, die graaf van Oxford, verantwoordelik vir die dood van Norfolk.

John Paston (III) het tydens die Slag van Stoke saam met die graaf van Oxford geveg. Oxford, na sy sukses in Bosworth, was nou koning Henry VII se voorste ondersteuner. Henry VII het geseëvier in die stryd teen die Yorkistiese rebelle en John Paston was een van die wat later deur die dankbare koning op die slagveld geslaan is.


Kaarte van die gevegte van die oorloë van die rose - Geskiedenis

The Wars of the Roses was 'n lang tydperk van burgerlike onrus in Engeland, gefokus op 'n tydperk van net meer as dertig jaar waarin sewentien gevegte tussen mededingers plaasgevind het, terwyl die inisiatief vinnig tussen die kante swaai en die kroon vier keer van hande verander as 'n direkte gevolg van gevegte gewen en verloor. Een van die moeilikste vrae om te beantwoord, is watter een van die sewentien verbintenisse die belangrikste was om die verloop van die oorloë te bepaal?

Ek gaan my top vyf aftel en kyk hoe dit met joune kan vergelyk.

5. Die Slag van Ludford Bridge - 12 Oktober 1459

Ek weet - daar was nie eers gevegte nie, so hoe het dit my top vyf behaal? Hierdie geveg was 'n keerpunt in die toenemende konflik en was die eerste verlowing wat koning Henry VI werklik teen sy magtigste onderwerp, Richard, hertog van York, gewerp het. Henry was aan die hoof van 'n leër wat veel groter was as die van York, hoewel die getalle aan elke kant onbekend is. York het saam met sy swaer Richard Neville, graaf van Salisbury, 'n mag teëgekom wat deur koningin Margaret by Blore Heath gestuur is op pad na Ludlow. Ook in die pragtige vesting van Ludlow was die naamgenoot van Salisbury, die graaf van Warwick, wat onthou sou word as die Kingmaker en sy eie familie, sy twee oudste seuns Edward, graaf van Maart en Edmund, graaf van Rutland, gereed vir hul eerste smaak van die geveg.

Die magnate wat teen mekaar geklee was, was vier jaar tevore nie dieselfde as St Albans nie. Met die uitsondering van diegene wat by Ludlow ingeskryf is, was edele steun geheel en al die koning, onder leiding van Henry Beaufort, hertog van Somerset en Humphrey Stafford, hertog van Buckingham. Die groot verskil, en die rede vir Ludford se impak, was Henry VI se posisie aan die voorkant van sy leër onder sy baniere. Die afskeiding van die Calais -garnisoen onder Andrew Trollope gedurende die nag het die Yorkistiese mag ontbloot en veroorsaak dat hulle teruggetrek het in die nag. Ludlow is deur die leër van die koning afgedank ter straf vir die ondersteuning van die stad.

Die belangrikheid van Ludford lê in die konfrontasie tussen koning Henry en York. Dit het nie meer gegaan oor die beheer van die koning nie, 'n oorlog tussen magnate wat beweer dat hy weet wat die beste vir Henry was. York was genoodsaak om terug te keer nadat hy die koning self gekonfronteer het. Dit was moontlik die punt van die hoffaksie se pogings om Henry aan die hoof te plaas, en as dit die geval was, het dit perfek gewerk. Die werklike impak van Ludford lê in die nadraai daarvan. Selfs voordat die koninklike leër by Ludlow aangekom het, is 'n parlement ontbied, later bekend as die parlement van duiwels, om die rebelleheren te straf. York, sy twee oudste seuns, Salisbury, Warwick en selfs die vrou van Salisbury, is vir ewig van al hul titels en grond ontneem. Die skuif het die Yorkistiese here niks laat verloor nie en hulle in 'n hoek gedwing waaruit aanval hul enigste opsie was. Ludford, of ten minste die nasleep daarvan, was die eerste geveg wat die hele landskap van die konflikte in Engeland verander het en die burgeroorlog 'n dinastiese vraag oor die reg op die troon gemaak het.

Binne Bailey van Ludlow Castle

4. Die Slag van Stoke Field - 16 Junie 1487

Die opname van hierdie stryd kan sommige ook verbaas. Dit is dikwels slegs 'n voetnoot in die vertelling van die Roses Wars, wat gereeld beskryf word as twee jaar tevore. Dit pas by die jong Tudor -regime van Henry VII om die belangrikheid van Stoke Field te benadeel om afbreuk te doen aan die werklike bedreigings wat sy kroon oorgebly het, en Stoke Field is dus na die kleinste voetnote van die geskiedenis oorgedra, wat onder die mat gevee is.

Die belangrikheid van Stoke Field is tweeledig. Dit was die laaste gewapende konfrontasie van die Roses Wars. Bosworth het nie die geveg beëindig nie, maar Stoke Field. Nooit weer sou 'n Yorkistiese weermag die troon uitdaag nie. Hoe kan die Wars of the Roses moontlik in 1485 geëindig het toe daar in 1487 'n geveg tussen die invallende Yorkistiese en royalistiese magte was? Dit is waar dat die Yorkiste ongeveer 8 000 man by die Tudor se 12 000 gehad het en dat die meerderheid van die Yorkistiese weermag swak toegeruste Ierse kerns was wat vinnig onder pylvuur geval het, maar dit is belangrik om die ander rede te onthou dat Stoke Field belangrik was.

Die Yorkistiese leër is gelei deur John de la Pole, graaf van Lincoln, 'n kleinseun van Richard, hertog van York, neef van Edward IV en Richard III en neef van Elizabeth van York, koningin van Henry VII. Die doel van die invallende weermag het ietwat modderig geraak, maar hulle wou Edward, graaf van Warwick, die laaste kleinseun van Richard, hertog van York, deur die manlike lyn op die troon plaas. Die duisende Ierse soldate is gelei deur Thomas Fitzgerald, jonger broer van Gerald FitzGerald, 8ste graaf van Kildare, en hul teenwoordigheid was 'n kragtige herinnering aan die latente Yorkistiese simpatie wat nog jare in Ierland sou bly. Daar was 'n professionele element in die Yorkistiese weermag, ook Switserse huursoldate onder leiding van kolonel Martin Schwartz, dit was 'n baie groot bedreiging, hoewel kolonel Schwartz onder ongeveer 4000 ander Yorkistiese soldate by Stoke Field sou val. Hierdie duur huursoldate is befonds deur Margaret, hertogin van die Boergondië, 'n suster van Edward IV en Richard III. Margaret was ryk, invloedryk en volstrek daartoe verbind om Henry VII van die troon te verwyder wat hy op haar gesin se koste gewen het.

Stoke Field verdien meer aandag as wat dit gewoonlik ontvang, nie net omdat dit die laaste geveg van meer as dertig jaar burgeroorlog was nie, maar omdat dit die jong Tudor -dinastie herinner het dat dit verre van veilig was en dat dit omring was deur vyande, van Ierland, die kontinent en Yorkistiese bloed binne die koninkryk. Stoke Field is grootliks vergete omdat die vroeë Tudor -regering dit wou vergeet, maar Henry VII kon waarskynlik nooit die dreigemente wat dit hom te duidelik gemaak het, afskud nie.

3. Die Slag van Bosworth Field - 22 Augustus 1485

Een van die bekendste gevegte in die Engelse geskiedenis, die insluiting van Bosworth is nie omstrede nie. Die belangrikheid daarvan lê in die demonstrasie van teenkanting teen die kort heerskappy van Richard III onder die adel en die adel en aan die einde van die 331 jaar Plantagenet -bewind. Soos ons gesien het, was dit nie die einde van die Wars of the Roses nie, maar dit was die einde van die Plantagenet -bewind, die einde van die tyd van die Huis van York op die troon en die aanbreek van die Tudor -era, 'n tydperk wat sou 'n geweldige impak op Engeland (of dit goed of kwaad is, moet bespreek word).

Die nederlaag van Richard III by Bosworth het 'n groot impak op die Engelse geskiedenis gehad as gevolg van die vrae wat dit ook onbeantwoord gelaat het. Sou Richard III 'n goeie koning gewees het? Was hy sosiaal progressief? Sou 'n huwelik met die Portugese koninklike familie, wat Lancastriese bloed gehad het, die wonde genees wat Henry Tudor en Elizabeth van York se vakbond gesoek het? Sou die raaisel van die lot van die vorste in die toring opgelos gewees het as Richard 'n bietjie langer geleef het (en presies hoe sou dit opgelos gewees het?)? Bosworth Field het hierdie vrae aan ons gelaat, en dit is meer as 500 jaar later nog steeds 'n onderwerp vir debat.

Net soos Stoke Field Henry VII daaraan herinner het dat hy nie deur almal aanvaar is nie, het Bosworth ongeneesde wonde in 'n land ontbloot wat geglo het dat die oorloë lankal verby was. Daar was veertien jaar lank geen stryd nie, maar ontevrede Edwardiaanse Yorkiste het oorlog nog steeds beskou as die manier waarop hulle hul frustrasie kon uitblaas. Lancastriese simpatie, wat veertien jaar lank nie 'n figuurkop gehad het nie, het vinnig uit die skuilplek gekom en agter Henry Tudor bymekaargekom en ongelukkige Yorkiste na hulle toe getrek om teenstand teen Richard op te wek. Bosworth het dus getoon dat die toevlug tot die slagveld ingeburger was in die Engelse psige as 'n wettige manier om geskille op te los. Baie mense wat die veld aangepak het, het geleef en gegroei deur die probleme van vroeër jare, en dit was iets waarmee die Tudor -regime sou moes gaan, soos Stoke Field demonstreer.

Bosworth was 'n bepalende oomblik in die Engelse geskiedenis, maar haal slegs nommer drie in my lys van veldslae van die Wars of the Roses. Die impak daarvan op die breër geskiedenis kan groter wees as my ander twee voorstelle, maar in terme van hierdie burgeroorlog vind twee veldslae my meer belangrik.

Richard III ’s Kavalerie-aanklag by Bosworth Re-enactment 2013

2. Die Slag van Towton - 29 Maart 1461

Engeland se Apocalypse het regtig geen regverdiging nodig om die lys te maak nie. Vir baie mag Bosworth en Towton meeding om die nommer een -ranglys en daar is beslis 'n argument vir albei om die eerste plek te behaal. Towton is bekend as die grootste geveg wat ooit van Engelse bodem plaasgevind het, met ongeveer 100 000 man wat moontlik die veld ingeneem het, met moontlik iets meer aan die Lancastriese kant as die Yorkist. Edward, graaf van Maart (tans hertog van York en wettige troonopvolger), het ook 'n mag gelei wat bestaan ​​uit die graaf van Warwick en hertog van Norfolk. Die Lancastrians is gelei deur Henry Beaufort, hertog van Somerset en bevat Henry Holland, hertog van Exeter en Henry Percy, graaf van Northumberland.

Die geveg was katastrofies. Dit is op Palmsondag geveg in sneeu, die wind bevoordeel die boogskutters van York, maar die daaropvolgende gevegte was te naby om op te roep totdat die leër van die hertog van Norfolk laat opdaag en die besluit van Lancastrian breek. Heralds en ander berigte gee 'n skokkende syfer van 29 000 slagoffers toe die geveg geëindig het. Massagrafte moes in die bevrore aarde gegrawe word om die gehawende lyke wat die veld besaai het, te huisves.

Towton het die Lancastriese weerstand teen Edward gebreek en hom toegelaat om die troon op te neem met 'n mate van veiligheid wat byna 'n dekade duur (met uitsondering van twee van die minste belangrike konfrontasies van die burgeroorlog in Hexham en Hedgeley Moor). Die kroon van Engeland het 62 jaar op 'n Lancastriese kop gesit, maar is nou op die kop van die eerste koning van die Huis van York laat sak. Die meeste mense in Engeland het niks anders as Lancastrian se bewind geweet nie en Towton het die politieke landskap ingrypend verander. Dit het die idee van koningskap opnuut as goddelik en onbetwisbaar beskadig en beteken dat niemand weet wat om te verwag van 'n dinastiese verandering nie. Henry IV, die eerste Lancastriese koning, het nie sy kroon geniet nie en dit moes waarskynlik gelyk het dat Edward dieselfde voortdurende bedreigings en onsekerhede sou ondervind.

Watter stryd kon belangriker gewees het as Bosworth of Towton?

1. Die Slag van Wakefield - 30 Desember 1460

Nie 'n duidelike keuse nie, ek weet, maar ek dink ek kan dit regverdig. Ek moet waarskynlik hier belang stel, aangesien ek 'n biografie het van Richard, hertog van York wat op 15 April 2016 vrygelaat moet word, maar dit het my ondersoek gedoen om my te oortuig van Wakefield se belangrike posisie in die konflikte van die Roses Wars.

Wakefield sit tussen twee van die ander belangrike veldslae wat ek hierbo gelys het, wat plaasvind ná Ludford Bridge, maar voor Towton. Dit het ontstaan ​​as gevolg van die gevolge van Ludford Bridge, waarin Richard, hertog van York, na Engeland teruggekeer het om sensasioneel aanspraak te maak op die troon van sy neef. Die daad is nie verwelkom nie en het 'n dooiepunt opgelewer deur die onbevredigende parlement wat Henry VI toegelaat het om sy troon te behou, maar sy seun prins Edward onterf, wat Richard en sy nageslag wettige erfgename van die kroon van Engeland gemaak het. York en sy seuns het lojaliteit aan Henry gesweer en Richard het die toebehore ontvang wat verband hou met die posisie van prins van Wallis. Die belangrikste is dat dit verraad gemaak is om Richard en sy erfgename aan te val.

In die noorde het die koningin van Henry VI, Margaret van Anjou, 'n groot mag bymekaargemaak met die steun van Henry Beaufort, hertog van Somerset en ander. Dit was die begin van die massiewe mag wat na Towton sou kom om Richard se seun, Edward, te trotseer, maar dit was die hertog van York wat noordwaarts getrek het om hulle te konfronteer terwyl sy oudste seun versterkings op die Walliese grens versamel het. Richard het by sy noordelike vesting van Sandal Castle in Wakefield gestop toe dit duidelik word dat hy hopeloos minder is.

Bronne is onduidelik presies wat daarna gebeur het, maar dit is waarskynlik dat 'n wapenstilstand vir die Kerstyd ooreengekom is. Dit lyk asof Richard mislei is om te glo dat mans hom by sy kant voeg, terwyl hulle eintlik meegevoel met die koningin gehad het, sodat hy gedink het dat hy meer mans het as wat hy ooit gehad het. Daar was moontlik 'n aanval op 'n soekende party van Sandal Castle, wat veroorsaak het dat Richard die Lancastriese weermag konfronteer wat waarskynlik die wapenstilstand gebreek het. Diegene wat hy geglo het, was onmiddellik by Richard, en die stryd was kort en beslissend. Richard is dood, net soos sy 17-jarige seun Edmund. Die graaf van Salisbury is gevang, maar die volgende dag onthoof. Die drie koppe is beroemd op spykers buite York, op Micklegate Bar, geplaas, met 'n papierkroon wat spottend op York se kop vasgemaak is.

Dit is moontlik belangrik dat Richard, hertog van York, in Wakefield geval het. Hy was die magtigste man in Engeland en wettiglik die troonopvolger, maar die impak was veel groter as dit. Die Slag van Wakefield het plaasgevind in 'n tyd toe sake op hul kompleksste was. Richard, hertog van York, het die wettige reg, toegestaan ​​deur die parlement en vervat in die statuut. Koningin Margaret het beslis gevoel dat sy die morele reg het. Haar seun is deur die krag van York se wil onterf en was nog steeds die regmatige erfgenaam.

Margaret het moontlik opgetree om haar seun te beskerm, maar wetlik was haar aanval op Richard verraad. Dit het haar en haar weermag verbied, wettige teikens vir vergelding en dit het hul posisie en saak beskadig. Die eerste verlowing van die Wars of the Roses in St Albans het die seuns van die hertog van Somset, graaf van Northumberland en Lord Clifford, laat sweer om wraak te neem. Vyf jaar later het hulle elkeen dit gekry. Somerset het gesien hoe York vermoor word. Northumberland se ou vyand Salisbury is tereggestel en Clifford het vermoedelik baie genot daaroor om die sewentienjarige Edmund dood te maak. Deur hul lang soeke na wraak te bevredig, het hierdie mans meer seuns losgelaat wat wraak neem. Edward, graaf van Maart, sou probeer om sy vader en broer te wreek. Richard Neville, graaf van Warwick, wou wraak neem vir die behandeling van sy vader. Mans moes ook nie vyf maande wag nie, wat nog te sê vyf jaar, op wat hulle wou hê.

Towton was 'n direkte gevolg van Wakefield. Edward en Warwick was in die wiele gery en het die wet aan hul kant. Wakefield het die konflik tot 'n nuwe vlak toegeneem en Edward toestemming gegee, soos hy dit gesien het, om Henry af te sit en sy volgelinge te slag. Margaret het geglo sy het die inisiatief gehad nadat sy 'n vyand vernietig het waarvoor sy 'n dekade of langer gevrees het, seker dat die reg haar kant toe was toe sy probeer om haar seuntjie se geboortereg terug te wen. Dit was Wakefield wat Edward veroorsaak het dat hy homself as koning van Engeland uitgeroep het en die dinastiese wedywering onbevredigend deur sy pa laat val het.

Beide kante het 'n mate van regs aan hul kant gehad, maar nie een wou terugtrek nie. Dit was nou 'n oorlog om die kroon tussen Lancaster en York op 'n manier wat dit nog nooit was nie. Die impak van Wakefield het egter nie daar geëindig nie. York is byna seker dood tydens die gevegte. Sy liggaam is daarna postuum onthoof en met die papierkroon bespot. Edmund is gevange geneem, maar eerder as om vasgehou en losgekoop te word, word hy doodgemaak in 'n daad van eenvoudige wraak. Na verneem word, is Salisbury deur 'n skare uit sy gevangenis gesleep en onthoof sonder verhoor of die ingryping van 'n edelman uit Lancastria om hom te beskerm. Oorlogvoering is radikaal verander deur die leër van die koningin. Ridderlikheid het 'n noodlottige slag op Wakefield gekry. Die liggame van die edelste dooies word nie meer gerespekteer nie - dit was wapens in 'n propaganda -oorlog. Capture het nie waardevolle individue die beskerming van hul gevangene verleen nie, maar gevaarlike summiere moord. Selfs diegene wat gevange geneem is, kan aan die geregtigheid oorgelaat word op 'n tydstip toe tradisionele ridderlikheid hul kaptein vereis om hulle te beskerm. Edeles, wat voorheen doelwitte was vir gevangenskap eerder as om dood te maak, was bo die gewone soldaat op die dood gerig. Wakefield was 'n duidelike demonstrasie van die veranderende aard van oorlogvoering in Engeland in die middel van die vyftiende eeu.

So daar het jy my top vyf veldslae van die Wars of the Roses. Ek stel nie voor dat my keuses definitief is nie, en ek hoor graag wat u dink. Waarskynlik die belangrikste weglatings, onderskeidelik op nommer ses en sewe, is Tewkesbury en Barnet. Hulle het die dood van uiters belangrike figure gesien - prins Edward in Tewkesbury, wat die Lancastrian -manlyn beëindig het, en die Kingmaker Earl of Warwick in Barnet, 'n man wat die politiek in Engeland meer as 'n dekade lank oorheers het. My keuses is gemaak binne die konteks van die burgeroorlog, met inagneming van die groter impak daarvan op die politieke situasie, en dit is duidelik dat sommige van die minder bekende ontmoetings waarskynlik die grootste invloed op toekomstige gebeure gehad het.

Wat sou u beskou as die belangrikste stryd van die Roses Wars?

Matt se nuutste boek, Richard, Duke of York, King By Right, word op 15 April 2016 deur Amberley Publishing vrygestel en onthul 'n heel ander man as die een wat in die verhale van die Wars of the Roses in 'n mite oorgegaan het.

Matthew Lewis het The Wars of the Roses (Amberley Publishing) geskryf, 'n gedetailleerde blik op die belangrikste spelers van die burgeroorlog wat Engeland in die vyftiende eeu verskeur het, en Middeleeuse Brittanje in 100 feite (Amberley Publishing), wat 'n rondleiding bied die Middeleeue deur feite te verduidelik en die rekord reg te stel oor algemene wanopvattings.

Matt is ook die outeur van 'n kort biografie van Richard III, 'n blik op koning Richard III, saam met 'n kort oorsig van die Wars of the Roses, 'n blik op die Wars of the Roses.

Matt het ook twee romans beskikbaar: Lojaliteit, die verhaal van die lewe van koning Richard III, en eer, wat volg op Francis, Lord Lovell in die nasleep van Bosworth.

Die Richard III Podcast en die Wars of the Roses Podcast kan op iTunes of op YouTube ingeteken word.


MajEvent: War of the Roses

Jaar GebeurtenisVertellingLigging
1435Die dood van John Beaufort, hertog van Bedford. 14 SepNa die dood van koning Henry V, het sy broers John van Lancaster (Beaufort) hertog van Bedford en Humphrey, hertog van Gloucester meegeding om beheer oor Engeland. John word regent, maar sorg veral vir sake in Frankryk en Humphrey word Lord Protector van die jong Henry VI. Die land voel die verlies van so 'n sterk regent.St Katherine's by the Tower Londen
1441Richard 3de hertog van York aangestel as luitenant -generaal van Normandië. 1 JunieIn 1439 word Richard 3de hertog van York aangestel as luitenant -generaal van Normandië, 'n maatreël wat getref is om 'n paar van die Franse gebiede te probeer behou. Hy was daar in 'n baie moeilike situasie, met onvoldoende geld om sy troepe te betaal, en hy moes sy eie geld gebruik om vir baie uitstaande skulde te sorg, en sy ampstermyn daar is aansienlik verleng. In 1441, na mislukte onderhandelinge met die Franse, stuur Henry hom terug na Normandië. Hierdie keer is sy posisie onder druk geplaas deur die koning wat hulpbronne na Somerset in Gascogne oorgedra het. Normandië
1442Edward IV gebore. 28 AprEdward IV is in Rouen in Frankryk geboreRouen Frankryk
1444Verdrag van toere tussen Hendrik VI en Karel VII. 1 MeiTydens die onderhandelinge wat tot die wapenstilstand in 1444 gelei het, het die Engelse belangrike toegewings gemaak deur te sê dat die aanspraak op die Franse kroon verhandel kan word in ruil vir soewereiniteit in Normandië In Desember 1445, in Maart 1448, het die hoofstad Le Mans uiteindelik oorgegee . Dit het beteken dat Henry VI begin het met die onteiening van Engelse soldate wie se huise en lewensbestaan ​​in Maine wasToere in Frankryk
1445Henry VI trou met Margaret van Anjou in die Titchfield Abbey. 23 AprHenry se huwelik met die pragtige jong Margaret, sy was slegs 15 op die tydstip van haar huwelik, is interessant. Sy was nie besonder hoog nie en het min waarde vir die Engelse monargie gebring. Henry het destyds ook die Koninkryk Frankryk geëis en verskillende dele van Noord -Frankryk beheer. Henry's uncle King Charles VII of France, also claimed the crown of France He agreed to the marriage of Margaret to Henry on the condition that he would not have to provide a dowry and would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English. Henry at this time is thought to have been in an unstable mental condition and agreed tothis. But why was it allowed to proceed? The English government, fearing a highly negative reaction, kept the fact of the relinquishing of the French lands secret from the English public.Titchfield Hampshire
1445Margaret is crowned Queen. 30 MeiMargaret of Anjou is crowned Queen at Westminster AbbeyWestminster Abbey
1445Henry VI secret deal to surrender Maine to the French. 1 Dec In December 1445, Henry VI secretly undertook the surrender of Maine, in so doing he appeared to renounce sovereignty over it. The implication of this was that the English might yield to further military or diplomatic pressure. Charles VII threatens to attack English Garrisons, Henry has to make secret deal to surrender Maine. He is perpetually on his back foot and concedes far too much ground to France.
1447Humphrey Duke Of Gloucester dies having been imprisoned. 1 FebHumphrey had run England as co-regent with his brother John of Bedford. Their partnership had been successful and Humphrey was a popular leader. He made an unfortunate second marriage with Eleanor of Cobham who was arrested for sorcery in 1441 and he himself became tainted by her alledged wrong doings. The problems mount as Henry VI takes over in his majority and in 1447 was tried with treason and then died just three days after his arrest in Bury St Edmunds.Bury St Edmunds
1447Death of Cardinal Beaufort. 11 AprCardinal Beaufort was a steadying hand throughout the period of King Henry IV and V's reign. His death removes a very important player in the politics of the day.Winchester
1447York exiled as Lieutenant of Ireland. 1 DecYork is posted as Lieutenant of Ireland. An insult to York, a demotion but actually a political convenience as it removes York from the disastrous capitulations and appeasements by Henry and Somerset in FranceIerland
1448England surrenders Le Mans to the French. 15 MarMaine had been English since 1425 when John Duke of Bedford seized it's capital Le Mans. By Feb 1448 the French laid seige to it and on 15 March the English surrendered it. Henry VI had made secret commitments to surrender Maine as part of the Treaty of Tours. Many English nobles resented such weakness and whilst in modern opinion peace would be preferable, in this period War creates commercial opportunity and revenue raising capabilities. War was about land in effect property rights. Henry VI had also sold short and dispossesed his Soldiers who lived and earnt their living from their lives in Maine.Le Mans France
1448Henry VI promotes some main players. 1 MarKing Henry decides to promote some of the main protagonists in the period and they start jostling for power. He promotes William de la Pole as Duke of Suffolk and Edmund Beaufort as Duke of Somerset. Richard of Yorks styles himself as a Plantagenet promoting his close Royal Family connections.
1449Richard Neville succeeds as Earl of Warwick. 1 JulieRichard Neville married Anne Beauchamp, who, when her brother's daughter dies, brings her husband Richard Neville the title and chief share of the Warwick estates, making him a very wealthy man.
1449English surrender Rouen and have lost Normandy. 1 OctIn English hearts the loss of Normandy is devastating. This was a view shared amongst the public not just the nobles. A weak king with a pious approach always seeking peace and appeasement was contrary to what the English valued amongst its majority.Rouen France
1450Bishop Moelyns Murdered in Portsmouth explaining Misdemeanours of Suffolk. 9 JanBishop Moleyns had both a political and religious career but was keen to exticate himself from the former as he became involved in a dispute with Richard, duke of York who claimed that Moleyns had accused him of financial irregularities, defamed his reputation, and blamed him for endangering the security of Normandy. Moleyns denied this. Soon after, York was removed from the post of lieutenant-general in France and as the situation there deteriorated Moleyns found himself exposed to criticism, particularly because of his close association with the Duke of Suffolk, but also because he advocated giving up French territory. He attempted to concentrate on his religious career and came to Portsmouth possibly to go oon pilgrimage. Some stories say he came with money to pay the troops in Portsmouth. He was set upon by a mob and murdered but quite who these mobsters were or their motives is still not certain. As a result the city of Portsmouth was excommunicated.Church Old Portsmouth Hampshire
1450The Hundred Years War- Battle of Formingy. 15 AprThe Hundred Years War with France was becoming an expensive and wearying burden on the English population and levels of intolerance are running high. A further defeat of the English at the Battle of Formingy, leaves the English people looking for a scapegoat.ent and the Bishop is murdered. Given the intensity of events was this mob action or a convenient assassination?Formingy France
1450Insurrection in many parts of EnglandInsurrection broke out in this year in various parts of England. It was directed against the Duke of Suffolk and his supporters who were governing the country under King Henry VI.Dover Kent
1450Duke of Suffolk Impeached and Murdered/Executed. 28 JanWilliam de la Pole the Duke of Suffolk was identified as that scapegoat. He was impeached because he was suspected of being an accomplice in the murder of Humphrey Duke of Gloucester.It was a popular decision because the public felt he should shoulder the blame for a number of things including the many lands lost to the French. He had received many appointments including, the earldom of Pembroke,Lord Chamberlain, and Lord High Admiral of England, and in 1448 was created Duke of Suffolk. Suffolk was committed to the Tower and sentenced, without trial, to five years' banishment. He declared his innocence and then got on a boat at Ipswich. The Duke of Exeter, Constable of the Tower took another vessel and boarded Suffolk's ship. He ordered him to be beheaded and his body was returned to Dover and laid out on the sands.

Decimation of a generation, the relative casualties would have a profound impact on a generation. Britain would not face such a scale of loss again until WW1.

Blood ties were close, the War of the Roses was not so much an outright continuous war but a series of phases and events that would ebb and wane as one or more families and political figures fought for their own self-interests. The days of actual fighting were not as protracted as we might have thought. But the impact on the life of a nation was great. It would be a very long time until there would be any such event that would so disrupt British society and proportionally decimate the younger generations and that would be the horrors of a the WW1 (World War 1).

Out of this confusion and bitter disputes, motivated largely by self-interests, would emerge the House of Tudor but the right to be Kings of England was at least tenuous, as much as it had been with those that went before them. A convenient marriage between Henry Tudor and Elizabeth of York seems to bring hostilities to an end, but for how long would that last? Was this a unique event or really just a repeat of violent wealthy families pursuing their own agendas, which had gone on from the earliest of our fledgling British Monarchs and would this be an end to the traumas such disputes created.

Look to the Tudor Dynasty and you just might think that this was the continuance of feuding that is almost inevitable when a country is ruled by a single individual and the success or failure of that king or queen as much depends on the strength of a single character? But with the arrival of the Tudors a whole new series of events transpires equally as divisive and driven by the desire for power wealth and supremacy at almost any price.

War of the Roses Timeline and Chronology with interactive map and narrative

This is a series of events that transpire with the build-up stretching as far back as 1399 and continuing to its conclusion around 1485. Many will shorten that start date back to 1450 but the importance of events before 1450 should not be underestimated. Hence we are bulding an interactive timeline and map plus family trees to help us all explore and unravel some of the intriguing connections in this complex vilent and ruthless series of events.

War of the Roses Collection

You will also find links and connections to the events explored in more detail linked to this page below. These articles aim to help extend the connections and reveal some more intriguing people, their families, roles and significance in this massive series of events. We try to identify existing physical places and map those to the events and people who participated together with the relevance across the broader sweep of our history in the 15th century and for the specific royal houses that are connected to this series of events. For more on the Plantagenets, the House of Lancaster, House of York and the emergence of the Tudors (click on the related links.

In the extraordinary evidence that has been scientifically researched by the University of Tudor we now learn that whilst the research team are more than 99.99% certain that the remains recovered in Leicester are Richard III, they have also discovered a complex issue that there is a non-paternity event (an illegitimacy) compared to the established genealogies which traverses over some 13 links. This brings into question the possibility that one or more of these factions connected to Richard’s genealogy was in fact invalid, incorrect and may have mean’t that the often cited smear of illegitimacy on a child of the royal family may well have had some substance and changed the course of history. Find out more here about Richard III’s DNA and new eveidence here and make your mind-up. Was the War of the Roses , more of what had gone before and would follow again with the Tudors whilst England suffered the rule and absolute power of an anointed monarch or was it the lesser of two evils when Civil War challenged the Monarchy and put a Commoner at the head of a nation. When would Parliament get some real diplomatic teeth and govern by consent and democracy? Who would rid us of these despotic dynastic kings?


Online Sources

There are many online versions of fifteenth and sixteenth century texts available and the easiest places to access them are often archive.org, Project Gutenberg, the Hathi Trust or Medieval Genealogy. Throughout this website you will find images taken from the British Library’s Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts. Some of their original manuscripts are available in full online. You can also find a number of sources specifically about Richard III on the website of the American Branch of the Richard III Society. There are dedicated projects on certain texts which provide especially useful editions. If you are aware of a better edition of any of the following texts, please do let us know so that we can share them with others.

If you are examining sources in Middle English, you may find it helpful to refer to an online dictionary of Middle English. And if you are trying to work out a calendar date the Medieval Genealogy calendar page is very useful

Some important Primary Sources that were published by the Richard Society are now available online here. Dit sluit in

  • Richard III’s signet book: BL MS Harley 433
  • Records of royal funerals, a christening and a coronation pageant
  • Contemporary reports of events in England by Caspar Weinreich (in Danzig), Niclas von Popplau (a visiting Silesian knight), Gerhard von Wesel (from Cologne), and others
  • Some chancery warrants from Richard III’s reign
  • and the inventory of a fifteenth-century necromancer!

Other especially useful online sources, in approximate chronological order, include:

Statutes of the Realm, these are the versions of the statutes that were circulated after the relevant parliament. The original French in which they were first published is given alongside an English translation. Henry VI’s start at 237 (p. 213), Edward IV’s at 404 (p. 380) Richard III’s start at 503 (p. 477).

The Paston Letters are a fantastic archive of family correspondence over a period of 70 years. Many are about domestic matters and local events while others provide unique details about national politics. The online version is not the most up to date but the correspondence has been digitised by the British Library.

An English Chronicle for the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI is a continuation of a Brut chronicle which is commonly called Davies’ Chronicle after the name of its first editor. A better manuscript has since been found and edited, but that is not online and the most significant differences relate to Richard II’s reign. The last part of the work (1440-61) was written by an ardent Yorkist.

The Edward IV Roll: an illustrated genealogy celebrating Edward IV’s claim to the English, French and Castilian thrones and his position as King Arthur’s heir.

The Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV was written to celebrate Edward IV’s return to England in 1471. Find out more here. The manuscript image in the headers of this website comes from the frontispiece to Ghent University Library’s manuscript of this book.

Warkworth’s Chronicle of the first thirteen years of Edward IV’s reign, written in 1484, is unusual for its northern focus. It expresses some sympathy for Henry VI but is fairly balanced. It is often attributed to John Warkworth, an Oxford academic and clergyman from Northumberland, but this is only because he owned one of the two known manuscripts.

John Blacman’s Compilation of the Meekness and Good Life of Henry VI was probably written shortly before Henry VI’s body was moved from Chertsey to Windsor by Richard III. Blacman was a fellow at Eton and Henry VI’s confessor.

The Crowland Chronicle. The Second Continuation of this chronicle was written in 1486 by someone close to the centre of events, although their identity remains a matter of great debate. The online edition is a nineteenth-century version. A more up to date edition of the continuations, in parallel with its Latin original, was produced by Nicholas Pronay & John Cox in 1986 and is worth getting hold of if you can. There is more about the chronicle here.

Philippe de Commynes was a Franco-Burgundian diplomat who wrote a very useful, albeit sometimes rather colourful, memoir of his experiences which can be found in several versions. The most recent editions (by Blanchard or Dufournet) are not online. Volume 2 of Dupont’s edition covering the period from the mid 1470s is here. There is a nineteenth-century English translation of Dupont’s version volumes 1 and 2 and a more modern translation of the early books of the Calmette and Durvelle (1920s) edition here. This last includes a valuable introduction about Commynes.

John Rous was a Warwickshire antiquary who wrote beautiful rolls on the history of the earls of Warwick during Richard III’s reign. He also wrote a History of the Kings of England over the period 1480-86. The history is not especially useful for understanding the events of the Wars of the Roses but it does show one clergyman’s view of things. It is notable for the violent hostility of his account of Richard III compared with the panegyric in the Rous Roll. Online you can find the Latin text of his Historia Regum Angliae a translation of the section on Richard III is in Alison Hanham’s Richard III and his Early Historians and the manuscript itself is in the British Library. The British Library have fully digitised The Rous Roll.

The Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York have recently been edited as part of the Tudor Chamber Books project.

Robert Fabyan‘s New Chronicles of England and France were published in 1516. Fabyan was probably born in the late 1450s and was a draper, sheriff, mayor and alderman of London. He died in 1513.

Polydore Vergil was an Italian scholar and papal employee (an agent of Adriano Castellesi da Corneto), who arrived in England in 1502. Henry VII encouraged him to write his Anglica Historia in about 1506. It was completed in 1513 although not published until 1534. He revised it for new editions in 1546 and again in 1555. This last is the online version, edited and translated by Dana Sutton.

Raphael Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland are actually an early secondary source since Holinshed was not born until 1525. His chronicles were nonetheless an important source for many later histories and for Shakespeare. Find out more on the British Library’s website.


Wars of the Roses

Yorkists and Lancastrians taking white and red roses in the Inner Temple Garden: First Battle of St Albans, fought on 22nd May 1455 in the Wars of the Roses: allegorical picture from William Shakespeare by Henry Arthur Payne

First Battle of St Albans: The First Battle of the Wars of the Roses, fought in the streets of St Albans on 22 nd May 1455.

Battle of Blore Heath: The battle fought on 23 rd September 1459, at which the Earl of Salisbury’s Yorkist army defeated a larger Lancastrian army, enabling it to join the Duke of York at Ludlow.

Battle of Northampton: King Henry VI, captured for a second time by the Yorkists, after the crushing defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Northampton, fought on 10 th July 1460.

Battle of Wakefield 1460: Queen Margaret of Anjou’s crushing defeat of the Yorkists on 30 th December 1460, with the death of the Yorkist leader, Richard, Duke of York and his young son, the Duke of Rutland.

Battle of Mortimer’s Cross: Edward, Earl of March’s decisive defeat of Jasper Tudor, on 3 rd February 1461, on the Welsh Border

Second Battle of St Albans: The second battle of St Albans, fought in and to the north of the City of St Albans, on 17 th February 1461.

Battle of Towton: Edward IV’s crushing defeat of the Lancastrians on 29 th March 1461, leading to his coronation as King of England

Battle of Barnet: King Edward IV’s victory over his erstwhile ally, the Earl of Warwick, on 14 th April 1471

Battle of Tewkesbury: Final defeat of the Lancastrians on 4 th May 1471, with the death of Edward Prince of Wales and the murder in the tower of King Henry VI, leaving the Yorkist King Edward IV free to continue his reign unopposed.

Battle of Bosworth Field: Henry Tudor’s historic victory over King Richard III on 22 nd August 1485, with the death of Richard and the establishment of the Tudor Dynasty as Kings and Queens of England.

Murder of the Duke of Rutland by Lord Clifford, at the Battle of Wakefield on 30th December 1460 in the Wars of the Roses: picture by Charles Robert Leslie


The Wars of the Roses

The Plantaganet King Henry VI was a weak king, married to an ambitious French princess, Margaret of Anjou. At this time, there was a complex series of rivalries and jealousies at court between powerful noble families. The Queen and her circle of nobles were known as Lancastrians after Henry’s surname of Lancaster. The party of nobles who opposed the Queen and the Lancastrians was led by Richard, Duke of York, Henry’s cousin, who was also descended from King Edward III and therefore also had a claim to the throne of England. They were known as Yorkists.

Henry VI suffered from periods of insanity. During one of these periods in 1454, Richard of York was appointed ‘Protector of the Realm’. His first act was to dismiss some of the Queen’s Lancastrian advisors which caused great bad feeling. The King recovered some months later and York was summarily dismissed.

The weak, sick king was unable to control his ambitious queen on one side, and the Yorkist Earl of Warwick, the ‘kingmaker’, on the other side.

Both sides started to recruit soldiers and prepare for war. Many soldiers had just returned from the Hundred Years War in France, so recruiting trained men to fight was easy. Each side chose a badge: the Red Rose for Lancaster and the White Rose for York.

In 1455, just two years after the end of the Hundred Years War, this dynastic civil war broke out. There was tremendous bloodshed as defeated forces on both sides were brutally murdered by the victors.

A Chronology of the Wars of the Roses

22 May 1455: First Battle of St Albans. A Yorkist victory during which the Duke of Somerset (one of the Lancastrian leaders) was killed. The Duke of York was re-appointed Protector, then dismissed again in 1456. Queen Margaret fuelled anti-Yorkist sentiment at court. Richard, Duke of York’s influence was undermined and he was excluded from the royal council.

23 September 1459: Battle of Blore Heath. A Yorkist victory.

12 October 1459: Battle of Ludford Bridge. This time, a Lancastrian victory. The Queen declared Yorkist property and lives forfeit. Richard of York fled to Ireland.

10 July 1460: Battle of Northampton. A Yorkist victory King Henry VI captured. Massacre of prisoners ordered by the Earl of Warwick. The Queen fled to Wales.

10 October 1460. The return of Richard of York who was declared heir to the throne. In response, the Queen raised a new army.

30 December 1460. Battle of Wakefield. The Yorkists were defeated and Richard, Duke of York, was killed. He was succeeded by his son Edward.

2 February 1461: Battle of Mortimer Cross. Richard of York’s son Edward, Earl of March was victorious.

17 February 1461: Second Battle of St Albans. A victory for the House of Lancaster. Henry VI rescued.


from left to right:
Henry VI, Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III

4 March 1461. Edward of York, Edward IV, proclaimed king in London.

9 March 1461. Battle of Towton. Another Yorkist victory for The Earl of Warwick. Flight of King Henry, Queen Margaret and the Prince of Wales to Scotland.

24 June 1465: Henry VI captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

1 May 1470. After quarrelling with Edward IV, Warwick the Kingmaker fled to France There he joined forces with Queen Margaret before returning to England and restoring the Lancastrian Henry VI to the throne on 13th October.

14 March 1471. The Yorkist King Edward fled to France, returning with a small army.

14 April 1471. Battle of Barnet. A victory for Edward’s Yorkist army. Warwick the Kingmaker killed.

4 May 1471. Battle of Tewkesbury. A defeat for the Lancastrian army, led by Queen Margaret and the Prince of Wales. The Prince of Wales was killed and the queen was captured.

21- 22 May 1471. Henry VI was killed in the Tower of London. Henry Tudor, the Earl of Richmond and Lancastrian claimant to the throne, fled to France.

The Yorkist Edward IV was now the undisputed king.

9 April 1483. Death of Edward IV, succeeded by his young son Edward V.

June 1483. Edward V and his brother declared illegitimate by Parliament. Richard Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV, asked to take the throne as Richard III


Probably summer of 1483. Murder of Edward V and his brother in the Tower of London.

7 August 1485. Henry Tudor, last of the Lancastrians, landed at Milford Haven in Wales.

22 August 1485. Battle of Bosworth. King Richard III killed and the Lancastrian Henry Tudor became King Henry VII.

Henry married Elizabeth of York thus uniting the two houses, and founded the Tudor dynasty. The Tudor Rose includes both red and white roses to symbolise the uniting of the Houses of York and Lancaster.


History Jar Challenge week 9 answers. Battles of the Wars of the Roses

Map showing Wars of the Roses battles

22 May 1455. First Battle of St. Albans— York and his allies, the Neville earls of Salisbury and Warwick, win control of the king and kill their chief enemies: Somerset, Northumberland, and Clifford.

23 September 1459. Battle of Blore Heath—Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, defeats a Lancastrian force trying to block his junction with York.

12-13 October 1459. Heavily outnumbered, the Yorkist lords abandon their men and flee from the royal army at Ludford Bridge Richard of York goes to Ireland whilst the earls of Warwick, Salisbury, and Edward Earl of March go to Calais. The Battle of Ludford Bridge is virtually bloodless. The sack of Ludlow followed.

10 July 1460. Battle of Northampton— Warwick captures Henry VI and control of the government.

30 December1460 Battle of Wakefield— defeat and death of Richard of York, Earl of Salisbury, and York’s second son, Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland.

2 Februarie 1461 Battle of Mortimer’s Cross—Yorkist victory in Wales.

17 February 1461. Second Battle of St. Albans—Margaret of Anjou defeats Warwick and reunites herself and her son with Henry VI.

27-28 March 1461. Battle of Ferrybridge—Lancastrian attempts to prevent a Yorkist crossing of the River Aire.

29 March 1461. Battle of Towton— Edward IV wins throne and Henry VI and his family flee into Scotland.

16 October 1461. Battle of Twt Hill— Yorkist victory in Wales

25 April 1464. Battle of Hedgeley Moor—Yorkist victory in the north.

15 Mei 1464. Battle of Hexham— Yorkist victory leads to the execution of Henry Beaufort, the Lancastrian duke of Somerset.

26 July 1469. Battle of Edgecote Moor—William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and other Yorkist lords are defeated and executed by the Earl of Warwick who turned against Edward IV.

12 March 1470. Battle of Losecote Field—Edward IV defeats rebels operating under the direction of the Earl of Warwick and George Duke of Clarence. Both men will now flee to France where Warwick will reach an agreement with Margaret of Anjou – fully turning his coat.

14 April 1471. Battle of Barnet—Warwick is defeated and killed Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward of Lancaster land in England at Weymouth.

4 May 1471. Battle of Tewkesbury— Prince Edward of Lancaster is killed on the field. Henry VI, a prisoner in the Tower, is murdered shortly afterwards.

22 August 1485. Battle of Bosworth Field—Richard III is defeated and killed accession of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, as Henry VII.

16 June 1487. Battle of Stoke—Henry VII defeats Yorkist supporters of Lambert Simnel.


10 Essential Facts About the Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses were a series of battles to secure the throne of England. It was a domestic feud, which enacted between the supporters of two rivaling families of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster and York. The Wars of the Roses were first fought in episodes from 1455 till 1487, but there were also occasional battles before the designated historic period. The first and most important cause of the conflict were the social and financial hardships, which England had to deal with in the aftermath of the Hundred Years’ War. The contemporary ruler of England, Henry VI, had also shown many signs of incompetence. This triggered a spark in Richard, Duke of York, who put forward his claim to the throne.

1. The Wars started with the Battle of St. Albans.

On May 22, 1455 Richard, Duke of York decided to act and confronted King Henry VI and his forces at the First Battle of St. Albans. There were, all in all, two battles at this location during the Wars of the Roses, but the first one marks the formal start of the conflict. The First Battle of St. Albans featured Richard showing up with his allies his allies, the Neville Earls of Salisbury and Warwick . He had a strong force and the royal army commanded by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset , was soon defeated. King Henry VI also was captured as a result of the battle, and the Government proclaimed Richard of York Lord Protector.

2. Both the Yorks and the Lancasters had a common ancestor.

Although the houses were pitted against one another in a fierce military conflict, it still did not change the fact that they both descended from the same family tree, namely the Plantagenets. Both Yorks and Lancasters could trace their roots back to Edward III of the House of Plantagenets. The Yorks were then descended from the female kin of Edward’s second son and fourth son, whereas the Lancasters were descendants of John of Gaunt, Edward’s third son. Modern historians tend to believe that the Yorkists claim was more legitimate, but of course no one paid much attention to that during the Wars.

Battle of Barnet

3. The Wars might not have happened if it wasn’t for the Hundred Years’ War.

The state of England in the 1450s was far from ideal. The people’s morale was low, the treasury was depleted and scores of unemployed soldiers had nowhere to go. At the same time, King Henry VI, was a weak ruler, not only due to his political indecision, but also due to a severe mental illness, which left him oftentimes in quite a vegetative state, unable to rule at all. All the above factors sparked the will in the Yorks and Lancasters to shake things up and try to fix their country. Of course, power and splendor came along with it. Who would have said no?

4. Rose was not used as a primary symbol by any party.

Today at school we often learn that the Wars of the Roses got their names from the red Lancaster rose and the white York rose, because those were the symbols proudly displayed by the two houses. In fact, both Lancasters and Yorks had their own coat of arms, which they displayed much more often than the alleged rose symbol. It was simply one of the many badges used for identification. The white rose was an earlier symbol as well, because the red rose of Lancaster was apparently not in use until the late 1480s, that is not until the last years of the Wars. It seems also that the historic term ‘Wars of the Roses’ was not invented until the 19th century. The contemporaries simply called them ‘Cousins’ Wars’.

Battle of Stoke Field

5. The Lancasters had a gifted strategist, and it was a woman.

This exceptional title has to go to Queen Margaret of Anjou. Although, in theory, it was King Henry VI, who led the party, his deteriorating health stood in the way of effective military planning. This role was then taken over by Queen Margaret of Anjou. Her achievements include commanding an army, which prevailed over Richard of York, subsequently killing the poor old Duke and recovering King Henry from captivity. But, as the tides have turned, Margaret was forced to leave England for France. This, however, did not stop her from further skillful planing against the Lancasters and she even managed to reestablish Henry VI briefly on the throne in 1470. She was also known to execute her enemies asking her 7-year-old son for his opinion on how they should be killed.

6. The Wars of the Roses were pretty much like ‘musical chairs’.

Everyone who knows the game, knows what it’s like. Once you score and once you miss, and the chair gets occupied by someone else. The English throne during the time of the Wars of the Roses was much like such a musical chair. Richard of York nearly managed to secure his position as the King of England in 1460, and later he was killed. Ten years later, Richard’s son, Edward IV, claimed the throne bu t became deposed almost immediately after. And then he died, in 1483, leaving space for Richard III of Yorks and Henry Tudor of Lancasters to haggle over the throne of England once again. In total, England had five rulers in a span of mere 25 years, and three of them were executed as well. That is your brutal version of the ‘musical chairs’.

Battle of Towton

7. The Battle of Towton was the bloodiest battle ever fought in England.

The Wars of the Roses saw a total bloodshed happening on the English territory. In March 1461, the York forces led by Edward IV met the Lancaster forces under the command of Margaret of Anjou near a small village of Towton. What happened next, involved slaying over 40,000 men by means or archery and individual close combat. The Battle of Towton lasted for 10 hours, and the ones whose written records we find today, mention that the ‘river ran red with blood’. Edward IV won the battle, but its cost was significant to both of the combating sides.

8. Treachery was very common during the Wars of the Roses.

In the times of uncertainty as to who the next ruler will be, everyone wants to be close to the prospective King. And some of the York and Lancaster nobles treated the whole conflict much as one would a betting game. They simply became allies with whoever was stronger in a given moment. Such is the case of the Earl of Warwick, who in 1470 suddenly decided to drop his allegiance to Richard, Duke of York. This was more shocking still, due to the fact that he helped Duke’s son Edward IV ascend to the throne. But, apparently the Earl of Warwick wanted to support Edward’s brother, the Duke of Clarence now, instead. When their mutual coup proved unsuccessful, they even teamed up with the Lancasters under Queen Margaret in France. This tribulations however, proved ineffective once Clarence decided to head back to the Yorkists and the Earl of Warwick was killed in battle. They managed to briefly depose Edward off his throne, though.

Battle of Northhampton

9. The Wars of the Roses contributed to a famous missing persons case.

When Edward IV of York died in 1483, Edward V, his son became the new King of England. By the time of the coronation, Edward V was only 12, and his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was ruling as his regent. Edward V and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury were offered to stay at the Tower of London, which by then was not a prison yet. They were both assured that they would be guests, but things escalated quickly and they were soon locked up after the good uncle Richard declared them illegitimate. Richard of Gloucester went even further, crowning himself as Richard III shortly after the incident. As to the boys, both of them vanished from historic records forever. In 1674, a pair of skeletons was found under one of the Tower’s staircases leading many to think that Edward V and his brother shared a cruel fate by their uncle’s orders.

10. The last battle of the Wars of the Roses was the Battle of Bosworth Field.

Richard III’s move might not have been the smartest, as many of his Yorkist allies decided not to support him any more afterwards. Some even decided to turn to Henry Tudor instead. Henry Tudor found himself in England in 1485 and faced Richard on August 22, 1485 in the epic and decisive Battle of Bosworth Field. Richard III suffered a deathly blow to the head, and Henry Tudor was the undisputed winner. He was then crowned to rule as King Henry VII, and the Tudor dynasty held its royal position for some good 200 years. Henry VII also united the York and the Lancaster houses, by marrying Elizabeth of York, Edward IV’s daughter. The symbolic end to the Wars of the Roses was the adoption of a new emblem, the Tudor rose, white in the middle and red on the outside.

Battle of Bosworth Field


Kyk die video: Songs of War: FULL MOVIE Minecraft Animation (Augustus 2022).