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Manzanita ScStr - Geskiedenis

Manzanita ScStr - Geskiedenis



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Manzanita

'N Voormalige naam word behou.

(ScStr: t. 677; 1. 190 '; b. 30'; dr. 1017 "; s. 13 k .; kpl. 25)

Manzanita, 'n vuurtoring -tender wat in 1908 in Camden, N.J. gebou is, is met uitvoerende bevel 11 April 1917 met die hele vuurtoringdiens na die vloot oorgeplaas. Sy is op 1 Julie 1919 terug by die departement van handel.


Die Manzanita

Een van die grootste vreugdes as ontwerper van inheemse tuine in Kalifornië werk mee Manzanita (Arctostaphylos). Ek kan my belangstelling in hierdie plante terugspoor tot in my vroeë kinderjare. Een van my gunsteling tydverdrywe in hierdie vroeë stadium van die lewe was om saam met my oupa saam met my oupa na die agterland van San Diego County te gaan. Ons ry Old Highway 80 na 'n bron langs die pad, bekend as Ellis Wayside, waar ons middagete by 'n piekniektafel onder die eikebome sou eet.

Ons kan manzanitas gebruik om ingevoerde plante te vervang.

Ek was gefassineer deur die geskiedenis van die kronkelende ou betonweg en die kronkelpaadjie wat dit deur reuse -rotsblokke uit die kapel loop. Manzanita het die heuwels bedek, en ek onthou dat ek geboei was deur die gladde rooi bas en hoe groen die platteland die hele jaar deur was.

Tans wissel skattings met betrekking tot hoeveel manzanita -spesies in die Floristiese Provinsie van Kalifornië bestaan, van veertig tot honderde as u kultivars, subspesies en basters insluit.

Arctostaphylos is 'n diverse groep met variëteite wat voorkom in Mediterreense gebiede met oorwegend kleigrond, sandstrande en kouer bergagtige streke wat uit rotsagtige suur grond bestaan. Manzanitas is tipies geleë in streke waar die hitte en droogte van die somer deur koel lug in die aand gekombineer word, tesame met hoër reënval in die winter. Dit geld veral vir die meeste kultivars en hibriede spesies wat in Kalifornië vir landskapdoeleindes verbou word.

Die gebruik van kultivars en basters in inheemse tuine is 'n gesonde verstandsbenadering ten opsigte van beskikbaarheid, sowel as 'n manier om die mense wat die gebruik en bewaring van die inheemse flora van Kalifornië beywer het, te eer.

'N Perfekte voorbeeld is vine hill manzanita ‘Howard McMinn manzanita ’ (Arctostaphylos densiflora). Hierdie plant was 'n seleksie wat deur die Saratoga Horticultural Foundation in 1955 bekendgestel is. Die oorspronklike plante is aan hulle verskaf deur Howard McMinn, wat saad ontdek en versamel het uit 'n stand van wingerdheuwel manzanita naby Sebastopol, CA. Dit is gepas dat hierdie uitstekende keuse na hom vernoem is, weerspieël deur die Award of Merit van die California Horticultural Society in 1956. Howard McMinn manzanita is ook 'n nektarbron vir die Monarch Butterfly en 'n uitstekende toevoeging tot die vlindertuin.

Arctostaphylos Lester Rowntree ’ is nog 'n baster met 'n ryk geskiedenis. Sy ouerskap sluit in pajaro manzanita Arctostaphylos pajaroensis, en dit is bekendgestel deur Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden en vernoem na die vroeë inheemse plantpionier Lester Rowntree. Rowntree was bekend daarvoor dat sy sterk berus op haar uitgebreide veldwerk en geskrifte rakende ons inheemse flora se natuurlike geskiedenis en hoe hierdie plante hulle in huistuine sou gedra.

'N Ander uitstekende keuse vir die tuislandskap is Baker's manzanita (Arctostaphylos bakeri 'Louis Edmunds'). Soos die bogenoemde, is Louis Edmunds 'n regop variëteit wat by baie klimate kan aanpas, wat dit 'n uitstekende keuse maak vir 'n skerm of as 'n fokuspunt. Die oop gewoonte van hierdie manzanita pronk met sy pragtige sjokolade -vertakkingsgewoonte, wat goed kontrasteer met glansblare. Groepe ligpienk urnvormige blomme blom in die laat winter of vroeë lente, wat kolibries 'n goeie nektarbron bied as min ander inboorlinge blom.

Mexikaanse manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens) Foto: Rob Moore

Louis Edmunds Manzanita is 'n tuinboukundige keuse van Arctostaphylos bakeri van die noordelike kus wat deur plantman Louis Edmunds ontdek is en deur die Saratoga Tuinbou -stigting in 1962 bekendgestel is. Hierdie stewige keuse werk goed in die son tot skaduwee en kan meer water verdra as die meeste manzanitas.

Ek sal beslis nalaat om dit te vergeet John Dourley manzanita (Arctostaphylos ‘John Dourley ’). Hierdie baster, 'n persoonlike gunsteling van my, is 'n betroubare grondbedekking met 'n heuwelgewoonte van 2 'lank by 6' breed. Nuwe blare het 'n aantreklike rooi tint wat gedurende die somermaande grysgroen word. Die trosse pienk blomme kom volop voor gedurende 'n lang blomseisoen, gevolg deur persrooi vrugte. A. 'John Dourley' is vernoem na John Dourley (tuinboudirekteur by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden gedurende die 1970's) deur inheemse plantkampioene Mike Evans en Jeff Bohn van Tree of Life Nursery -faam.

Manzanita het 'n ryk geskiedenis in Kalifornië. Behalwe die bogenoemde historiese figure wat hierbo uiteengesit is, het die inheemse Amerikaners van Kalifornië die dekoratiewe bessies en blare gebruik vir drankies soos tee, uittreksels vir hoofpyn en lotion vir die verligting van gif eikebome.

As vooruitdenkende landskappersoneel en huiseienaars kan ons vandag manzanitas gebruik om ingevoerde plante te vervang. Hier is 'n paar algemeen gebruikte, nie-inheemse landskapsplante en inheemse manzanitas om eerder te probeer:

Algemene, nie-inheemse landskapplant Inheemse manzanita -alternatief
Indiese meidoorn (Rhaphiolepis) ‘Howard McMinn manzanita ’ (Arctostaphylos densiflora)
Liguster (Ligustrum) Mama beer manzanita (Arctostaphylos ‘Mama Bear ’)
Escallonia ‘Howard McMinn manzanita ’ (Arctostaphylos densiflora) of wagwag manzanita (Arctostaphylos densiflora 'Sentinel')
Caprifoliaceae formeel Abelia Sonoma manzanita (Arctostaphylos 'Sonoma')

Van kind tot volwassene het Manzanita steeds 'n spesiale plek in my hart beklee. Ek was en sal altyd dankbaar wees vir die geskenk van Moeder Natuur aan Kalifornië, die manzanita!

Rob Moore is lid van die CNPS Orange County Chapter en spesialiseer in die ontwerp van ekologies gebalanseerde tuine/landskappe in Suid -Kalifornië, waar hy die eienaar is van California Native Garden Design. Hierdie artikel verskyn die eerste keer in sy blog.


Kroonjuweel van Phoenix -snitte

Maar veral een Phoenix -baan op die suidoostelike hoek van 35ste Laan en Broadwayweg het ons byna 60 jaar lank verbeelding gevang: Manzanita Speedway.

"Vir die grondreners was Manzanita hul juweel in die woestyn," sê Rich Reininger, 'n jarelange renliefhebber en plaaslike bestuurderafrigter van Pro AutoSports of Mesa. 'Destyds was die pad na die Indianapolis 500 deur 'n organisasie bekend as die United States Auto Club. (The USAC) het 'n baie sterk geskiedenis wat teruggaan na die vroeë dae van A.J. Foyt, Mario Andretti en Johnnie Rutherford het deelgeneem aan die reeks. ”

'En baie grootes uit die historiese tydperk het deur Manzanita gegaan as deel van die USAC -kampioenskap,' sê hy.


Laerskool distrik Manzanita

1868-1900

Op 26 Augustus 1868 word die Manzanita -skool gestig. Dit was voorheen deel van 'n distrik genaamd die Live Oak District met 'n skool aan die Ord Ranch Road. Die vroeë skoolgebou wat tot 1915 gebruik is, is in 1873 gebou en word in 'n ou verslag beskryf as pragtig geleë in 'n bos eikebome. Daar is ook gesê dat die "distrik harmonie en voorspoed geniet".

Tot ongeveer 1908, toe nog 'n kamer bygevoeg is, was die skool 'n eenkamer reghoekige struktuur met vensters aan elke kant. Daar was twee vensters sonder vensters van die voorstoep af - een vir die meisies en een vir die seuns. Middagete, jasse, oorskoene, ens. Is daar gehou. Daar was 'n pomp aan die agterkant van die gebou met 'n koppie daaraan vasgeketting. In die vroegste dae was daar geen lampe of ligte van enige aard nie. In die middel van die kamer staan ​​'n groot gietyster-stoof wat oor die algemeen omring is deur groot stukke eikehout waarop die kinders gereeld sit om warm te bly of om droog te word.

Fakulteit
Mev Wash Hinshaw, V.P. Richards, me. Calhoun, mej. Cook, mev. Baker, Fred Hackett, Jennie C. Gail, mej. Collins, Myrna Pottle, Fred

1900-1915

'N Paar vroeë familiename in die omgewing was Weber, Gum, Cox, Fagan, Richards, Krusick, Campbell, Barker en Harkey.

Toe kolonisasie ongeveer 1906-1907 begin, het die skoolregister name gehad soos Moreland, Gilstrap, Cowee, Burns, Lewis, Corcoran, Adams, Nielsen en Wiser.

Een van die onderwysers in die vroeë 1900's, mev. Josephine Mansfield, kom elke dag van haar huis in Oroville met die Northern Electric -trein. Omdat daar soveel water oorkant die pad was, tussen die baan en die skool, het sommige van die ouer seuns 'n plankpaadjie langs die pad gebou. Die stap het etlike jare gebly.

1915-1945

In 1915 is 'n nuwe skoolgebou gebou om die groeiende aantal nuwe studente te huisves.

Die woord van die onderwyser was wet en is toegepas deur die gebruik van skakelaars, liniale, skud en klap.

Sommige fakulteitslede was Dorothy Doll, Virginia Lemberg, Edytha Nelson, Mildred DeVore, Joseph D. Craig, Avis Cowen, Elizabeth Jean Channon en Loren L. Wilbur.

1945-1960

Sommige onderwysers
Ronland Campos, Clifford Speegle, Ethelta Biggs, Leona Lewis Speegle, Elsie Detling, Pete Skuris, Loren Wilbur, Frank Finley, Winnie Enos, Hugh Cox, Fred Berkley, Oleta Taber, Karen Dingle, Mrs. Speery, Kathrine Pitt, Grace Hartman, en Beulah Peck.

1960-1975

In 1968 bestaan ​​die Manzanita School uit twee aantreklike, moderne geboue met nege klaskamers, 'n veeldoelige kamer en biblioteek, kantoorruimte, kombuis en speelplekke. Die skool was omring deur goed versorgde grasperke en bome. Die studente het busvervoer en 'n warm middagete -program gehad.

1975-1990

Studente en personeel het okkerneute geoes van bome wat op die kampus groei. Dit was 'n geldinsamelingsgeleentheid wat die meeste studente regtig gehaat het! Die bome is sedertdien verwyder en vervang met grasperk !!

1990-2001

In 1992 sterf Lisa Argetsinger aan 'n breingewas. Lisa was in die 2de klas toe sy dood is. Ter nagedagtenis aan Lisa Argetsinger het die skool 'n nuwe basiese speelgrond gebou. In 1998 het die Manzanita Booster's Club geld ingesamel om 'n nuwe glybaan by die speelgrond te voeg. Almal onthou Lisa as hulle op die speelgrond speel.


In 1996 laat die dakke van Manzanita die dakke herstel en vervang. Onvoorsiene vertragings het beteken dat die dak van die hoofgebou nie voltooi is toe die winterreën "El Nino" begin val het nie. Lekkasies het plaasgevind wat skade aan die mure en plafonne in baie van die klaskamers veroorsaak het. Die skool is verskeie kere gesluit weens die dak wat lek. Baie vrywilligers in die gemeenskap het gedurende reënerige dae en nagte baie ure lank probeer om water uit die gebou te hou deur middel van plastiekseile en tonne sandsakke! Met die koms van die lente is die werk weer op die dak hervat en die skool is nou weer waterdig!

In 2000 moes mev Walther en mev Lindsay uit hul klaskamers verhuis vir renoverings. Mevrou Lindsey het haar klas in twee verdeel. Die een helfte is saam met mev. Walther en die ander helfte saam met me. Leonard. Mev. Walther se klas gaan na die biblioteek. Die klaskamers was klaar na baie lang, stresvolle maande !!

Mnr Fivelstad was die Superintendent/Skoolhoof by die Millennium. Gedurende sy twee jaar het ons staatsstandaarde aangeneem in taalkuns, wiskunde, wetenskap en geskiedenis/sosiale wetenskap. Ons het ook 'n elektroniese biblioteekstelsel gekry en 'n verbandverkiesing vir 'n nuwe gimnasium geslaag. Mnr. Fivelstad sê daar is 'n nuwe bus vir saamgeperste aardgas (CNG) op pad. Dit behoort in November 2001 te kom. Sterkte, meneer Fivelstad, in Union Hill. Ons sal jou sang mis.

2001 tot hede

Manzanita het 'n obligasie -uitgifte goedgekeur om 'n nuwe, broodnodige gimnasium met ekstra kamers vir klasse te finansier. Mnr. Roberts het in 2001 die superintendent/skoolhoof geword.

Verskeie veranderinge het die afgelope tien jaar plaasgevind, akademies en fisies.

Die implementering van, meting en ondersteuning aan die standaarde van die staat in Kalifornië het akademies die fokus geword. Dit het daartoe gelei dat California Distinguished School Awards en vyf (5) agtereenvolgende Title I Academic Acievemtn Awards toegeken word.

Manzanita Elementary gekies as top 2004 en 2008 California Distinguished School
Elke jaar identifiseer en eer die California School Recognition Program die staat se mees voorbeeldige en inspirerende openbare skole. Ongeveer vyf persent van die openbare skole in Kalifornië word jaarliks ​​gekies, en nie minder nie as 40 provinsies word gewoonlik verteenwoordig.

In Mei 2004 en 2008 is die Laerskool Manzanita gekies as 'n California Distinguished School. Dit was in 2004 die enigste Butte County -skool wat die afgelope vier jaar gekies is sedert die streng staatsstandaarde aanvaar is en hoë akademiese tellings nodig was om skole as 'n uitnemende skool te kwalifiseer.

Staatsuperintendent vir openbare onderrig, Jack O'Connell, het aangekondig dat slegs 302 van die 5500 basiese skole in Kalifornië gekies is as onderskeidende skole in Kalifornië in 2004. "Die skole in Kalifornië wat as uitnemende skole erken word, is die beste van die beste." Die gesogte toekenning word beskou as die staat se oorheersende erkenning van 'n skool se totale opvoedingsprogram, insluitend hoë verwagtinge vir al sy studente, die implementering van standaarde wat deur die staat aangeneem is, en visioenêre en gesamentlike leierskap.

  • Hoë akademiese verwagtinge vir alle studente
  • Implementering van standaarde wat deur die staat aanvaar is
  • Visioenêre en samewerkende leierskap
  • Gevarieerde onderrigstrategieë wat uitdagende leerervarings vir alle studente bied
  • 'N Sterk kernkurrikulum in alle vereiste vakgebiede en handboeke wat deur die staatsraad aangeneem is en kernkurrikulummateriaal wat aan alle studente verskaf word
  • Akademies bekwame en omgee onderwysers en sterk professionele ontwikkeling fokus op onderrigstandaardgebaseerde materiaal
  • Sterk biblioteekmediadienste en gepaste tegnologie wat leeraktiwiteite ondersteun
  • Omvattende leidings- en beradingsprogramme vir alle studente
  • Leerondersteuningsdienste, insluitend intervensieprogramme wat deur die Staatsraad aangeneem is vir studente wat die Engelse taal leer, wat 'n risiko loop, of wat fisieke of leergestremdhede het
  • Ondersteuning vir studenteleer deur gesinsbetrokkenheid en vennootskappe met sake- en gemeenskapsgroepe
  • 'N Veilige skoolkultuur wat die insluiting van alle studente ondersteun en positiewe karaktereienskappe bevorder, soos omgee, burgerskap, regverdigheid, respek, verantwoordelikheid en betroubaarheid
  • Programme wat gesondheid en gesonde gedrag bevorder
  • 'N Goed onderhoude leeromgewing wat die belangrikheid van opvoeding in ons samelewing kommunikeer

'Onderskeidende skole is uitnemendheidsmodelle', het Jack O'Connell, staatsinspekteur van openbare onderrig, gesê. "Hierdie skole het hoë verwagtinge vir hul studente en hou hulself aanspreeklik vir die vordering. Deur streng standaarde te aanvaar en doelgerigte ondersteuning te bied, is dit 'n bewys van wat in openbare onderwys bereik kan word en 'n bevestiging dat gefokus en op koers bly 'n formule is vir sukses. "
Manzanita stuur ses skoolverteenwoordigers om op 21 Mei tydens 'n prysuitdeling en ete in die Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim vereer te word.
Baie geluk aan die Manzanita -studente, personeel, ouers, gemeenskap en skoolraad!

Die afgelope elf jaar het die Academic Performance Indicator (API) gestyg en is een van die hoogste in Noord -Kalifornië.

2009-2011 Manzanita Goes Solar

Op Vrydag 16 Desember 2011 vergader die Manzanita -gemeenskap in hul gimnasium vir 'n oop huis om die nuwe sonkragveld te vier. Studente het die bleikers saam met personeel en administrasie gevul om te hoor van die superintendent/skoolhoof Brad Roberts, die direksie, president Colleen Dugan, president van die studenteliggaam Marcella Anderson en die vise -president van Tioga Energy, Mark Roper.

Almal is toe buitentoe na die lintsny -seremonie. Die beamptes van die Manzanita Student Body het die lint gehou met die opskrif "The New Solar Electric System at Manzanita School". Mnr. Roberts het opgewonde 'die lint gesny' en die deur oopgemaak vir energie -onafhanklikheid vir Elementary Manzanita. Die agtste leerlinge het 'n toer deur die hele sonveld gegee om elke aspek van die werking van die sonveld te verduidelik.

Die totale koste van die sonenergieveld is $ 600,000. In die jaar 2017 kan Manzanita die sonnestelsel teen ongeveer die helfte van die aanvanklike koste teen $ 270,000 koop. Die Manzanita -skool is teen 2022 heeltemal onafhanklik van energie en die geld wat bespaar is op voorafgaande elektrisiteitskoste, word in die student se opleiding belê. Die geraamde begroting van $ 45,000 - $ 50,000 vir energie kan dan gebruik word vir handboeke, bygevoegde tegnologie of personeel.

Manzanita Solar Field het amptelik aanlyn begin met die sonkrag wat op 21 Desember 2011 ingedien is.

2001-2012

Laerskool Manzanita het een van die voorste skole in die noordelike staat geword. Meer as 54% van sy studente het interdistriksversoeke, terwyl 150 studente op waglyste is om by die skool in te gaan.

Gedurende die skooljaar 2012/13 neem die Manzanita Skoolraad en die Strategiese Beplanningspan 'n nuwe moedige skoolmissie aan:

Laerskool Manzanita, 'n innoverende K-8 enkelskool distrik in 'n landbou-omgewing, gegradueerdes selfversekerde, verantwoordelike, entrepreneuriese leerders met sterk akademiese en persoonlike lewensvaardighede, wat die mag het om hul eie toekoms te bepaal ons bereik dit deur boeiende, dinamiese onderrig wat in 'n veilige en sorgsame omgewing gelewer word deur gebruik te maak van relevante tegnologieë en 'n streng kurrikulum in 'n studentgesentreerde vennootskap met familie, gemeenskap en 'n passievolle, buitengewone personeel.

Gedurende hierdie skooljaar is 'n nuwe meesterplan vir fasiliteite aanvaar, insluitend 'n plan om die primêre en kantoorvleuel te moderniseer, tesame met die bou van 'n nuwe middelbare skool.


Die geskiedenis van die Nehalem -vallei floreer in Manzanita

As u nie weet dat dit daar is nie, kan u maklik deur die Nehalem Valley Historical Society in Manzanita loop. En dit sou jammer wees, want u mis 'n versameling artefakte waarin enkele van die mees fassinerende verhale in die omgewing uiteengesit word. Verhale soos die tragiese lot van Bayocean, die luukse oord wat die skeepswrak van die Spaanse Galleon met 'n vrag byewas in die see uitgespoel het - waarvan sommige te sien is en artefakte wat die plaaslike oortuiging ondersteun dat dit hier op die Nehalembaai was Sir Frances Drake land toe hy die wêreld in 1579 omseil.

Byewas uit die vrag van 'n Spaanse Galleon

U kan ook Tom Mock byderhand vind om die besonderhede van die verhale in te vul.

'Dit is iets wat ek nog altyd geniet het,' sê Mock. 'Dit is regtig lekker om die geskiedenis te hê. Daar is soveel van ons inwoners wat al so lank hier was. As hulle deurgee, as u nie 'n argief of plek het waar u dit kan ophoop nie, verdwyn die geskiedenis. Dit verdwyn en jy mis jou erfenis mis. ”

Gelukkig ontmoet Mock baie mense wat bereid is om te help om seker te maak dat dit nie gebeur nie.

"The Reed Family was een van die bekende vroeë, vroeë gesinne hier," sê Mock. 'Ons het die familiebybel. Dit is vir my net 'n wonderlike stuk geskiedenis. In daardie dae sou u u afstamming daar plaas. Dit is 'n groot Bybel, wat per ongeluk by 'n motorhuisverkoping gevind is. Iemand wat dit herken het, het dit vir $ 10 gekoop en dit aan ons geskenk. Die geskrifte gaan terug tot 1884. Dit wys hoe sommige intrinsieke waardevolle stukke uit ons geskiedenis op die stortingsterrein beland. ”


Me-Wuk Manzanita-'n Sierran-struik met 'n komplekse geskiedenis

Die Amerikaanse vuur van 2013 het meer as 27 000 hektaar terrein verbrand op die geïsoleerde Amerikaanse rivierrivierdistrik van Tahoe National Forest, tussen Foresthill en die Lake Tahoe -kom. Die werklike werk het begin vir die US Forest Service (USFS) nadat hierdie brand volledig geblus is. Hul reaksieprotokol na die brand was daarop gemik om die veiligheid van openbare toeganklike gebiede te verseker, eiendom te beskerm, biologiese en kulturele hulpbronne te beveilig en die integriteit van skoon waterbronne aan te spreek. Sulke projekte bied ook werkgeleenthede vir jong professionele persone wat hul vaardighede wil toepas onder leiding van ervare agentskapspersoneel. Vir twee seisoene het ek die geluk gehad om aangestel te word as 'n seisoenale veld -plantkundige wat hierdie pogings kon bevorder. Ek was geïntrigeerd deur die plaaslike manzanita -spesies.

Die ryk wêreld van Manzanitas
Onder die talle spesiale-status-aanlegte wat ons span tydens ondersoeke na die American Fire geteiken het, was True's manzanita (Arctostaphylos mewukka subsp. Truei). Soos baie weet, is manzanita die algemene naam vir 'n spesieryke groep struike in die genus Arctostaphylos. Hulle is sklerofilies (met veerkragtige immergroen blare met dik selwande) struike wat nou aan vuur gekoppel is en ikoniese elemente van die kapel van Kalifornië is. Min groepe simboliseer die flora van Kalifornië beter. Van sy meer as 60 spesies kom die meeste voor in die Kaliforniese Floristiese Provinsie (die gebied in die Middellandse See-klimaat in die weste van Noord-Amerika, wat die grootste deel van Kalifornië insluit, behalwe die woestyngebiede, plus klein hoeveelhede Oregon en Baja). Hierdie groep het geslagte lank die verbeelding van betwisende plantkundiges veroorsaak. Die bewys hiervan lê in die duiselingwekkende aantal nomenklatuurveranderinge - dikwels naamsveranderinge en wysigings in taksonomiese rangorde, soos die verhoging van 'n subspesie tot volle spesiestatus, of andersom - en hipoteses rakende die hibriede oorsprong van verskillende spesies. Arctostaphylos was 'n bron van twis en nuuskierigheid, so lank as wat plantkundiges die flora in Kalifornië bestudeer het.

Wat maak my-Wuk Manzanita so interessant?

Een so 'n spesie, Me-Wuk manzanita (A. mewukka), het 'n kleurryke geskiedenis in die literatuur. Dit is al lank bespiegel oor moontlike hibriede oorsprong. Dit is een van die agt manzanita -spesies wat in die bergreeks Sierra Nevada voorkom. Die Sierran -groep manzanitas is morfologies uiteenlopend en het verspreidings wat grootliks oor die hoogte, plantgemeenskappe en temperatuurstelsels skei. Me-Wuk manzanita is veral interessant omdat dit morfologiese eienskappe vertoon wat tussendeur is ten opsigte van die laer hoogte whiteaf manzanita (A. viscida) en die bergagtige groenblaar manzanita (A. patula). Me Wuk manzanita is ook 'n tetraploïed (vier stelle chromosome, twee van elke ouer), terwyl witblaar- en groenblaarmanzanitas diploïed is (twee stelle chromosome, een van elke ouer). Die spyker in die kis vir die hipotese oor die hibriede oorsprong van Me-Wuk manzanita, is die feit dat dit 'n verspreiding het wat groenblaar en witblaar manzanita oorvleuel, en verkies habitat waar beide hierdie spesies groei.

GROEN = Me-Wuk manzanita
BLOU = witblaar manzanita
ROOI = groenblaar manzanita

Soveel variasie
Ons bemanning op die Tahoe het geweet dat die spesiale status True's manzanita een van twee subspesies van die Me-Wuk manzanita (A. mewukka) is. Sommige manzanitas het borrelweefsel (waaruit hulle na die brand weer kan spruit), en sommige nie. Gebaseer op die literatuur, het ons geweet dat die tipe monster (modelvoorbeeld) van Me-Wuk manzanita borrelweefsel het (soos baie groenblaar-manzanita-eksemplare), en die tipe monster van True's manzanita het dit ontbreek (in ooreenstemming met whiteaf manzanita).

As veldbioloë verlang ons na hierdie soort binêre onderskeidings om 'n lang opname te vereenvoudig. Dit was egter 'n te rigiede interpretasie in die geval van Me-Wuk manzanita, soos ek later geleer het toe ek hierdie Sierran-spesiekompleks vir my meestersproefskrif aan die San Francisco State University besoek het. Die American Fire brand litteken word aangetref op lae en middelhoogtes van die Tahoe National Forest, en oorvleuel baie van die kontakgebied waar witblaar- en groenblaarmanzanitas mekaar ontmoet. Hierdie sone is waar Me-Wuk manzanita voorkom en waar ons die soeke na die spesiale status True's manzanita gefokus het. Ek was gereeld aangetrokke tot die habitat waar Me-Wuk, witblaar en groenblaar manzanitas saam voorkom.

My verbeelding was oorweldigend, want ek het twee seisoene probeer om sin te maak van al die variasie wat ek op hierdie middelhoogtesone gesien het. Gedurende hierdie tyd ontdek ek die werk van botaniste in Kalifornië wat geïnspireer is deur soortgelyke waarnemings en patrone wat verband hou met hierdie spesiekompleks. Ek het gevoel ek het 'n papierspoor ontsluit wat lei tot 'n ryk verhaal wat nie die laaste hoofstuk bevat nie.

Waarom plantspesies basters produseer
Bioloë het deesdae die belangrikheid van hibridisering besef, veral met betrekking tot die oordrag van voordelige genetiese materiaal onder vinnig uiteenlopende spesies. Plantgroepe wat bekend is vir hul potensiaal om te verbaster, is dikwels jonk, vinnig ontwikkelend en het 'poreuse' spesiegrense. Anders as mense en die meeste ander diere, oorleef plante met oortollige stelle chromosome. Terwyl ek en jy twee stelle chromosome in elke sel het (een van ma en 'n ander van pa), wat ons diploïede maak, het plante 'n fassinerende vermoë om te floreer met vier, ses, agt, twaalf of baie meer stelle chromosome.

Plante met oortollige stelle chromosome staan ​​bekend as polioploïede. En as twee diploïede spesies hybridiseer en ongereduceerde gamete verkeerdelik oordra (elke ouer gaan langs diploïede gamete), kan dit lewensvatbare tetraploïede basters tot gevolg hê. Hierdie tipe verbastering kom gereeld in die plantryk voor (dikwels met nadelige gevolge). As dit suksesvol is, kan dit lei tot 'n stabiele tetraploïede hibriede entiteit waarna verwys word as 'n allopolyploïed. Hierdie allopolyploïede word grootliks reproduktief van hul ouers geïsoleer en kan sterk spesiegrense hê.

Me-Wuk Manzanita word lank vermoed dat hy baster is
Daar word al lank vermoed dat Me-Wuk manzanita 'n allopolyploïed is as gevolg van hibridisering tussen die diploïede groenblaar- en witblaasmanzanitas. Kristina Schierenbeck het hierdie vraag in die 1980's aangespreek onder leiding van wyle G. Ledyard Stebbins.

Kristina het data versamel deur gebruik te maak van morfologiese metings en fisiese chromosoomkenmerke wat die idee ondersteun dat Me-Wuk manzanita die gevolglike allopolyploïed is tussen witblaar en groenblaar manzanita, al het dit vroeër ontstaan ​​en uit evolusionêr jonger vorms van die onderskeie ouers. Ek en Tom Parker het Kristina genader en voorgestel dat ons hierdie klassieke studiesisteem weer met meer moderne instrumente besoek.

Is Me-Wuk Manzanita eintlik 'n baster?
Navorsing oor die biologie van allopolyploïede dui daarop dat hierdie entiteite nie ontstaan ​​uit 'n enkele hibridisasiegebeurtenis nie, maar eintlik uit 'n groot aantal hibridisasiegebeurtenisse tussen die onderskeie stamvaders. In die geval van Me-Wuk manzanita sou dit daarop dui dat as witblaar en groenblaar manzanita die stamvaders is, Me-Wuk manzanita by verskillende geleenthede onafhanklik sou gevorm het op afsonderlike plekke waar witblaar en groenblaar manzanita saam voorkom. Hierdie reëling het die potensiaal om 'n spesie met 'n groot hoeveelheid genetiese diversiteit op te lewer. Dit bied ook 'n moontlike verklaring vir die indrukwekkende morfologiese variasie van Me-Wuk manzanita in sy verspreiding.

Hierdie hibridisasiegebeurtenisse wat tot die vorming van allopolyploïede lei, kan wedersydse ouerskap toon. In hierdie geval dui dit daarop dat witblaas manzanita die moeder op een plek kan wees, en dit kan die vader op 'n ander plek wees. Ons het data van die chloroplast-volgorde gebruik (chloroplast is die selle wat in die meeste groepe blomplante oorgedra is) om te toets vir afstamming op verskillende plekke gedurende die verspreiding van MiWuk Manzanita. Ons resultate het geen ondersteuning vir die hybridiseringshipotese nie. Dit was hoofsaaklik omdat ons nie in staat was om moeder-oorerfde chloroplast-DNA van witblaar- of groenblaarmanzanita op te spoor in enige van die Me-Wuk-manzanita-monsters wat oor die verspreiding daarvan versamel is nie.

Gewone manzanita (A. manzanita) wat groei in Sierran, aan die voet van die habitat van eikebome

Insigte oor my-Wuk Manzanita en sy familielede
In plaas daarvan het ons gevind dat Mi-Wuk manzanita 'n chloroplast deel met die gewone manzanita (A. manzanita), 'n wydverspreide tetraploïed wat die bos en die habitat van die savanne op 'n laer hoogte verkies. Dit was 'n volledige verrassing. Wat het die chloroplast van 'n uiteenlopende spesie in hierdie Sierran tetraploïed gedoen?

Dit blyk dat gedeelde chloroplaste onder afsonderlike spesies gereeld voorkom in die uitkruising van meerjarige plante. Hierdie verskynsel, bekend as chloroplastopvang, is gedokumenteer onder groepe soos die eikebome (Quercus), else (Alnus), beuke (Fagus), penstemons (Penstemon), heucheras (Heuchera) en ander. Chloroplastopname is 'n kenmerk van verbastering. Die meganismes hiervan behels gewoonlik 'n aanvanklike hibridisasiegebeurtenis, herhaalde terugkruising met een van die ouers, en die omkering van die fenotipe terug na een van die ouers deur stuifmeel-gemedieerde gene-vloei. In hierdie geval dui dit daarop dat Me-Wuk manzanita op 'n stadium moontlik die chloroplast van gewone manzanita opgetel het, of andersom.

Besonderhede oor die oorsprong van die Me-Wuk manzanita bly onseker. Gereedskap met hoë resolusie wat patrone wat in die kerngenoom voorkom, kan ontrafel onder lede van hierdie Sierran-spesiekompleks, bied die potensiaal om insig te lewer. Wat nog seker is, is dat jy nooit weet waarheen veldreise jou sal neem nie en watter skatte dit sal onthul as dit gepaard gaan met 'n gevoel van nuuskierigheid. In die woorde van CNPS San Luis Obispo -hooflid Charlie Blair, "Hou aan om uit te gaan."

'N Model vir chloroplastopname en interaksies tussen Me-Wuk
en gewone manzanitas

______
Baie dankie aan Tom Parker, Kristina Schierenbeck, Mike Vasey, Bob Patterson, Greg Spicer, Felipe Zapata, Frank Cipriano, Scott Roy, Dave Graber, Kathy Van Zuuk, Bart O’Brien en vele ander wat by hierdie onlangse werk betrokke was. Hul inspirasie en entoesiasme het die nuuskierigheid rondom hierdie klassieke studiesisteem weer wakker gemaak.

1 Die volgende artikels het bygedra tot verskeie aspekte van ons begrip hiervan
belangrike Sierran -spesiekompleks:

Ball, C. T., Keeley, J., Mooney, H., Seemann, J., & Winner, W. 1983. Verhouding tussen vorm,
funksie en verspreiding van twee Arctostaphylos -spesies (Ericaceae) en hul vermeende baster.
Acta Oecologica-Oecologia Plantarum.

Boykin, L. M., M. C. Vasey, V. T. Parker en R. Patterson. 2005. Twee afstammelinge van Arctostaphylos
(Ericaceae) Geïdentifiseer deur gebruik te maak van die interne transkribeerde afstandhouer (ITS) gebied van die kern
Genoom. Madrono, 52: 139–147.

Dobzhansky, T. 1953. Natuurlike basters van twee spesies Arctostaphylos in die Yosemite -streek van
Kalifornië. Oorerwing, 7 (1), 73–79.

Ellstrand, N. C., Lee, J. M., Keeley, J. E. en Keeley, S. C. 1987. Ekologiese isolasie en
introgressie: biochemiese bevestiging van introgressie in 'n Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae)
bevolking. Acta Oecologica-Oecologia Plantarum 8: 299-308.

Roof, J. B., 1967: Arctostaphylos mewukka, 'n baster. – Four Seasons 2: 16.

Schierenbeck, K. A., Stebbins, G. L., & Patterson, R. W. 1992. Morfologiese en sitologiese
bewyse vir polifiletiese allopolyploidie by Arctostaphylos mewukka (Ericaceae). Plant
Sistematika en evolusie, 179 (3–4), 187–205.

Stebbins, G. L. 1950. Variasie en evolusie in plante. New York: Columbia University Press.
Van Valen, L. 1976. Ekologiese spesies, meer spesies en eike. Taxon 25: 233–239.

Wells, P. V. 1968. Nuwe taxa, kombinasies en chromosoomgetalle in Arctostaphylos
(Ericaceae). Madroño 19: 193–210.


Architectural Record: Manzanita Hall at Arizona State University

Manzanita Hall makes a striking statement on the northern edge of the Arizona State University, Tempe, campus, across from the Sun Devil Stadium and blocks from the downtown. Climbing up the 15-story dormitory's curved facades is a precast structural diamond-shaped lattice that was innovative for its time—Cartmell and Rossman designed the 1967 building—and still looks radically cool. If Sally Draper, Don Draper's daughter on Mad Men, went to ASU, she probably would have lived in Manzanita, originally a women's dorm.

Though Manzanita (“Manzy”) was a beloved campus icon, with its groovy Y-shaped plan, by the time Solomon Cordwell Buenz (SCB) conducted a feasibility study in 2007 to determine whether the building could or even should be renovated, it had badly deteriorated and was not up to code or serving the needs of students. Jim Curtin, SCB principal, gathered university engineers who worked in the building to talk about which of the mechanical systems could be salvaged. “My focus group, scheduled for 45 minutes, turned out to be five minutes. They basically said nothing could be preserved,” he says.

But the building had sentimental value and good bones—it featured the first use of post-tension concrete in Arizona when it was constructed. Initially, Manzanita's developer-manager, American Campus Communities (ACC), wanted to raze Manzanita and build new dormitories, but ASU was able to negotiate a financial scenario with ACC to support the renovation. The project's architect of record, Phoenix-based Studio MA, has had a long-standing presence on campus. Principal in charge Christiana Moss worked on ASU buildings at other firms, and Studio MA principals Dan Hoffman and Christopher Alt both taught at ASU. (For Manzanita, Studio MA worked with SCB as associate architect and Sixthriver Architects on interior design.) The dormitory reopened in the fall of 2013 to house freshmen in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

To bring the building into the 21st century, Moss and her colleagues felt they had to first redo the skin, relieving the precast lattice of infill. Originally, the dorm's windows and frame walls were set into the lattice. Today, a system with alternating glass and copper-toned vertical metal panels is set back 6–12 inches from the lattice (mimicking the reddish color of the indigenous Manzanita tree's new growth). The panels help with thermal performance, and also make the pale frame pop. “To accentuate the lattice and really articulate it was part of making the building modern again,” says Moss.

This signature move almost didn't happen. When work began, the architects didn't realize that a chamfer surrounding the original windows—making them look like Superman's insignia—had also been cast into the lattice. “There was a moment [when the contractor began demolishing the first window bay], we were standing there like, 'I can't believe this,' ” says Moss. “We had to literally cut out, grind out, every single 'fillet.'”

That was a defining moment for Moss, and one that set the tone for the rest of the project. “Midcentury modern buildings should be kept modern, but how do you do that?” vra sy. “You can't be timid. You can't have a preservationist view, necessarily, because it keeps them in the past. Ultimately we said, 'Let's just get in there and grind the suckers out!' ”

While Manzanita remains a residence hall, its program might as well be brand-new—student housing has changed so completely since it was built. “It's far more of a destination as opposed to a necessity,” says Curtin, of dorm life. Students want flexibility and personal space, but, most importantly, they want connection and community. In the “old” Manzanita, students complained about never encountering classmates who lived on the same hall, recalls Curtin. The architects remedied this by creating two-story lounges in the northeast leg of the Y. Each lounge serves two floors of dorm rooms. To create space for the lounges, the architects pushed out the original northeast exterior wall, just shy of two L-shaped shear walls, adding floor-to-ceiling glazing. The original muscular X-bracing of the lattice is now part of the interior, demarcating the lounge mezzanines. Kitchenettes and laundry rooms are on the lounges' lower floors, connected by a stair to the mezzanine levels, where students can watch television and relax.

To accommodate the new floor plan, which also has larger room suites lining the perimeter walls (the bed count went down in number, from 1,000 to 814), the architects had to gut the interior, including all systems. Before new plumbing risers and mechanical chases could be inserted, every penetration in the post-tensioned slabs had to be x-rayed, on every floor, says Moss. Because the post-tensioning cables were not laid out consistently on each floor, they did not align, and flexible plumbing risers were installed to account for the irregularity.

In addition to the replacement of the frame wall, the other big structural move at Manzanita was to demolish one of the four 12-inch-thick, 15-story, cast-in-place shear walls. This allowed the architects to insert two new code-compliant elevators. (Robotic demolition machines removed the walls after the building's exterior skin had been removed, in order to avoid full wind loading.) A new shear wall was then installed, 4 inches back from its original location. Studio MA and SCB also enclosed two sets of open-air stairs on the east and west sides of the building, glazing the shafts and mechanically ventilating them for required smoke evacuation.

Manzanita's lobby—just like its original dormitory floors—was isolating, dark, and uninviting, entered through a long, narrow, cast-in-place Corbusian ramp. “It was so depressing,” says Moss. She and her colleagues raised the entire surrounding plaza and created a shade canopy, whose lattice mimics the facade. To flood the lobby with daylight, they removed stucco fasciae from exterior window walls and added skylights. Inside, they exposed original terrazzo that had been buried under vinyl tile, and inserted offices, a multifunctional classroom, and a computer center, giving the lobby an airy, cheerful atmosphere.

Restoring Manzanita is in line with two of ASU's major goals, says university architect Edmundo Soltero: providing the infrastructure for a desired 100,000 students by 2020 across all campuses, and changing what had traditionally been a commuter campus into one that students call home. To do that, the campus and its buildings “have to speak to a harsh desert environment,” says Soltero. Moss agrees, noting that there is something disturbing about all-glass buildings—not an uncommon sight in Tempe—for a place where temperatures often reach 120 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer. At Manzanita, though the architects increased glazing by 15 percent, simulations showed that they are able to achieve a 12–18 percent performance increase simply by pushing the skin back from the lattice. “The R value of the original wall—we analyzed each layer—came out to 3.5. It was a real energy hog,” says Moss. Now the opaque walls have an R value of about 22.

On a recent tour of Manzanita on a 100-degree fall day, a student sat on the comfortable north-facing shade terrace, next to a sand court for volleyball and a barbeque lawn. He talked on his cell phone while music bounced softly from a sound system. The pop star Pink sang her hit “Just Give Me a Reason,” whose words seemed particularly apt for Manzanita's rebirth—“. . . We're not broken, just bent, and we can learn to love again.”


Manzanita memories, a fond farewell

According to Allan Brown's "History of America's Speedways," there have been a total of 5953 oval speedways in the United States, with 1040 of them still active. After this weekend, that total will be 1039. Or maybe 1038, depending on how you count your tracks.

Manzanita Speedway is a half mile dirt oval west of Phoenix, just south of the Salt River. It's two tracks in one, with an inner third mile sharing the front stretch. The half always looked a bit on the big size, and the third always looked a bit on the small size, but we don't go to places like that to measure it. We go for the racing.

You're probably seeing a lot of stories about Manzanita these days, with its final race scheduled for April 11 (postponed to April 12*). The facts are all out there: converted from a dog track to a car track in 1951, expanded to a half mile in 1954, the inner third mile added in the 80s. Years of ownership, growth and promotion by Keith Hall. A roster of racers that makes any Hall of Fame jealous. The final World of Outlaws race was March 28. Chad Kemenah won it, and scooped up some dirt to take home. The Outlaws have fond memories of the place. WoO King Steve Kinser first ran there in 1977, and went on to seven wins, with and without wings. Sammy Swindell first ran there in the early 70s, and has 18 wins over the decades.

But there is a lot more to a track where the Outlaws have run than the Outlaws. I think more of the wingless sprint cars that regularly ran there, and of all of the other classes from modifieds through midgets through dwarfs. The final event is scheduled to be a three-night affair with a typical Manzanita mix of at least half a dozen different cars. With that mix, my head has been filling with a random collection of reminiscences of my visits to Manzy. I'd like to share them.

I knew about Manzanita before I ever saw it. I live on the east coast, but through the 70s and 80s I traveled to California a lot and my home track was Ascot. I remember special nights when the Arizona cars towed west to join the CRA regulars. In the 80s my travels started bringing me to Phoenix every now and then, and I just had to see where those guys came from. I've managed to get there a number of times. Details fade with time, but the memories are strong.

My first visit to Manzanita was in 1986 or 1987. There was a CRA show, the flip side of Arizona cars towing to California. Winner of the feature race was Lealand McSpadden. Quite a thrill, going to a track for the first time and seeing the Tempe Tornado himself win. Kind of like my one visit to Nashville Speedway in the 70s and seeing Charlie Glotzbach win a big LMS race, but even better because this was on dirt. I remember McSpadden's victory interview. It was as gracious a speech as I'd ever heard. The customary thanking of the car owner was a tale of how he made a last minute decision to enter this race, and how the owners pulled out all the stops to prepare the car in time.

Manzy was the first place I saw winged sprint cars. In those days I liked to sit toward Turn 1. I was accustomed to the feel of regular sprint cars and modifieds entering a turn. I had my share of watching pavement modifieds on fast half miles. But nothing had prepared me for winged sprinters. Nothing can - you've just got to see it. The race that evening - late 80s or early 90s - was won by Australia's Mad Max Dumesny. Afterwards I went into the pits. I just had to see this madman who hurtled the Gil's Well Drilling Special around the dirt at those fantastic speeds.

I was expecting someone like Mel Gibson, but much tougher. I was startled to meet a youngster who looked like he just stepped out of a Cub Scout pack. Very pleasant, quiet voiced, no fire bellowing from his nostrils, and happily signing autographs for his fans. I bought the last T-shirt he had for sale that evening, and he insisted on cutting the price in half because there was a small stain on it.

I first saw the inner track in action for midgets during a Sprint-Midget double header. A more memorable time was a Thursday or Friday night show with half a dozen classes of cars, including Dwarf cars. I spent a lot of time in the 60s watching modifieds on half mile ovals, and those Dwarf cars on the third (or was it quarter?) mile brought me back to those times. The sound was different, but the racing was every bit as good. As were the racers. An early leader in the Dwarf feature tangled with a lapped car, and I thought he broke his suspension. At least the right front wheel seemed to point randomly in odd directions. But he held on and eventually finished a solid second. Later on in the pits I found the car and driver. Yes, the right tie rod was broken. He was a former motorcycle racer who had just moved to cars, and figured out on the fly that three wheels was a reasonable enough transition.

I've seen Legends cars at other tracks, and they look kind of like Dwarf cars, but they're just not the same.

Every fall Manzanita hosted the Western World Championships. I was fortunate to have business in Phoenix in the fall of 2002, and I stretched my visit to cover all three nights. Three kinds of cars: SCRA non-wing 410 sprinters, Arizona 360 sprinters, and mini-sprints. On Friday night all three were in action, and the pre-race mud-packing by well over 100 sprint cars and mini-sprints rolling around both tracks blew me away almost as much as Mad Max's winged sprinter years before.

Bud Kaeding won the Western World on the big track that year, with Jeremy Sherman taking the 360 feature on the one-third mile, and Terry Palmer capturing the mini sprint event. As usual the racing was excellent all three nights. But even more memorable was sitting in the same spot three nights in a row and hanging out with the fans around me. I like to take notes at races, which at first got some odd stares. But as the three nights progressed, people started checking with me on the lineups and heat results. I soon learned that they were more than fans checking on a favorite - I was sitting amongst family members of some of the local drivers. By the time the final night ended, I felt like I was a regular who went every week.

From 2001 through 2005 several friends and I traveled to Phoenix in the spring to attend the Indy car race. A big draw was that the Indy weekend coincided with the Gary Sokola Classic - two nights of non-wing SCRA sprint car action. As much as the winged sprints impressed me, there is nothing like watching non-wing sprint cars sliding through the turns. By then I learned that the best place to sit was at the Turn 4 end of the front stretch, where I could look across the turn and see those beautiful slides. And the rooster tails of dirt sprayed over the Turn 4 wall, and not into our beer.

In those five visits to the Gary Sokola classic, my friends and I saw Tony Jones, Jeremy "Sherminator" Sherman, Cory Kruseman and Mike Kirby take the Classic, Sherman taking it twice.

Not all of the drivers had nicknames, but the ones who did had great ones. Besides Sherminator, there were Gas man, Ripper, and Demon. I go to the central Pennsylvania sprint tracks these days. There are nicknames like Fast Freddy, The Edge, and Cricket. Just not the same.

I'm not sure if "ambiance" is the right word to use in describing a dirt track, but Manzanita had it. Its location at 35th and Broadway was just what you wanted. East of the cattle feed lots. Next to a river that was usually dry and dusty. Junkyard behind the third turn wall. If the main parking lot was full, we learned to not try to park out on the street, but to pay $5 to the nice couple working the big vacant lot next to the liquor store. I understand that the track is being sold for development, and really wonder what will be developed there.

Once you entered through the adobe arches and the flanking palm trees, the track and concession areas were perfect. It had some of the best food I've found at short tracks. BBQ ribs, green chili burritos. A great sub stand outside Turn 4 that I'd hit if the line at the rib place was too long. A beer stand. Once settled into the wooden grandstands, the place felt right. One of my Manzy-going buddies described it as hallowed ground, and I'm sure he was right. You could look out across the track and sense Foyt, Boat, Thompson, Kenyon, Wilkerson, Bettenhausen, et al., making their marks in the dirt.

Perhaps the best part of Manzanita was its legendary track announcer Windy McDonald. He worked the PA off and on for half a century, and I was fortunate that he was on the mike for all of my visits. He kept the sound cranked up so he could be heard above the sound of the cars, and was one of the few announcers who you would want to hear. Great play-by-play during the races, and he always had good tales to fill the breaks.

Windy was the key player in the ceremonies leading up to the start of the feature race. The cars would line up, either in their two rows or parked diagonally along the edge of the front stretch. Each driver was then introduced by Windy in full - and I mean full - voice. I suspect that folks in downtown Phoenix learned the names of all the drivers.

Once the cars were rolling, Windy told the crowd about his special rule. As spectators, we were expected to make as much noise as possible for the start. Scream, stomp the stands, slug the guy next to you, as long as we made noise. I worried about the wisdom of stomping those wooden stands, but I was more fearful about not obeying that big booming voice from above.

One on one, of course, Windy spoke in a normal voice and was thoroughly charming. I had the pleasure of chatting with him on my last trip to Manzanita in 2005. He had just finished the first volume of "Thunder in the Desert," his history of racing in Arizona. The book is great, his autograph is great, but best of all was meeting the man who saw all of it.

Redakteur se nota: The final event, the Donnie Davis Memorial featuring the Discount Tire Co. ASCS Canyon Region, had been postponed to Sunday afternoon, April 12, due to lingering showers.


Guadalupe Mountains National Park - Frijole Ranch - Desert Paradise

The six springs within a three mile radius of the Frijole Ranch made it a magnet for early travelers and settlers.

Frijole Ranch is a delightful oasis on the edge of the dry, lower slopes of the Guadalupe escarpment which truly captures the rugged sprit of the American West. Today the Frijole Ranch History Museum occupies the old ranch headquarters, and displays the sequential human history of the Guadalupes from Native Americans and the early ranching community to the establishment of a national park. Just outside is a tiny one-room schoolhouse and spring house that was constructed for water protection and storage. The cold, spring water which is channeled through the courtyard (once essential for subsistence and farming) provides precious moisture for the large shade trees and the grass that surrounds them. Shade and water, both scarce commodities in the desert, are coveted by a variety of species that frequent the area at dawn and dusk. As you look around, imagine what life may have been like in this remote West Texas locale.

Frijole Ranch is located 1½ miles northeast of the Pine Springs Visitor Center. The Frijole Ranch Museum is operated by volunteers, and is generally open from 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM. The grounds are always open, with picnic tables under the large shade trees in the courtyard. Bring your binoculars this is and excellent location for birding and wildlife observation. The Smith Springs loop trail begins here as well.

Smith Spring Trail

You may follow this loop trail in either direction, but please sign in at the trailhead, and pay your entrance fee before beginning your hike. A trail guide is available for this walk. The trail is rated moderate, with a round-trip distance of 2.3 miles. Allow one to two hours.

Look for lizards, mule deer, javelinas, and elk as you walk this loop trail to the shady oasis of Smith Spring. Here, nature weaves a tapestry of life with green and silver threads. Rainfall and snowmelt from the higher elevations flows through a series of cracks in the limestone beds to emerge near the base of the eastern escarpment, forming a shallow creek lined with ferns and sedges, and watering a grove of trees including maples, choke cherry, chinkapin oaks, Texas madrones and ponderosa pines. Take a break here and look for birds such as Cooper's hawks, sapsuckers, and hummingbirds as you enjoy the water that splashes around the rocks creating this incredible desert paradise.

Manzanita Spring (only)
Begin this relaxed walk by turning right behind the Frijole Ranch History Museum and follow the short, paved trail to Manzanita Spring (.2 mile). Return to Frijole Ranch on the same path. The trail is wheelchair accessible. Manzanita Spring is an excellent desert watering hole for park wildlife and a great birding location.

Please: Water is precious for park flora and wildlife species. Do not disturb the water in any way.

A .2 mile paved path leads to Manzanita Spring, a beautiful desert oasis that supports a variety of plants and animals.

Het Nieuwsblad covers the Sri Chinmoy Self-Transcendence 3,100-Mile Race

Oor die skrywer:

The Flemish newspaper Net Nieuwsblad, details the 23rd Annual Sri Chinmoy Self-Transcendence 3,100-Mile Race.

"16 uur per dag lopen rond hetzelfde blokje, 52 dagen lang: acht atleten lopen 5.649 rondjes in New York".18/07/2019 om 14:08 door Marc Vermeiren

Google translation of article:

"Even De Cauwer and Wuyts do not get this completely talked about. Running circles increasingly tend to be longer, heavier and crazier. And the greatest madness is currently taking place in New York, where eight brave people have been working on the 23rd Sri Chinmoy Self-Transcendence 3,100 Mile Race since 16 June. Their trajectory? A total of 5,649 tours of 880 meters around the same block of houses in the Queens district, accounting for almost 5,000 monotonous kilometers."

"With its 4,989 kilometers, the Self-Transcendence is considered the world's longest official running race. That is from Antwerp to Omsk, deep in the Siberian steppe. Or to Kuwait, far on the Arabian Peninsula. Anyone who would undertake such a trip traverses beautiful landscapes and enjoys changing views. Anyone who completes the Queens block almost 6,000 times will always see the same thing: a playground, the busy Grand Central Park-way, the Thomas Edison High School, a baseball field and a series of anonymous homes. And again. And again. And again."

"The runners have time to reach the finish between June 16 and August 6, accounting for an average of 95 kilometers per day. This edition is over halfway. Ashprihanal Aalto leads the way, a Finnish postman with a lot of breath and few friends. He is being followed by Nirbhasa Magee, who is 35 kilometers behind. Aalto has held the course record since 2015, when he needed 40 days and a handful of hours to reach the finish line. The 48-year-old mileage eater reached the finish fourteen times, winning eight times. His motivation? “If you run a marathon, you feel good. You will feel better if you have completed 100 kilometers. And when you have reached the 5,000 kilometers, you feel even better. Along the way you end up in a special zone. "

"And let that be precisely the intention of founder and name giver Sri Chinmoy, the half-sole behind this madness. He wants to give participants the opportunity to break through their physical and mental limits. Hence the name Self-Transcendence. Freely translated: self-transcendence. Sri Chinmoy (1931-2007) was a spiritual leader, athlete, musician, poet and philanthropist. His interest in self transcendence and the power of the human mind permeates the competition. When the physical forces have reached their limit, the good man thought, the spiritual energy must take over. And that is infinite. Sri Chinmoy set a good example herself. After he moved from India to the States in the 1960s, he started ultralooping and weightlifting. Sri Chinmoy claims that he has composed 6,000 songs, written 1,100 books and made a few thousand paintings. For a man with so many high-minded ideals, Sri Chinmoy used a pretty prosaic reason for the location of his race. He simply lived near the trail."

"Is the Sri Chinmoy Self-Transcendence 3,100 Mile Race more difficult than climbing the Everest or swimming across the Channel? The harassment of Queens has so far only been successfully completed by 43 people, while more than 4,000 people have already conquered the Himalayan giant and nearly 1,500 swimmers have crossed the straits. Per lap, an altitude difference of around eight meters must be overcome, which after 5,000 kilometers rises to around six times the Everest. Every day the walking direction changes, so that ankles, knees and hips in the turns are loaded alternately. The whimsical New York summer causes additional problems. Temperatures sometimes rise to forty degrees, the humidity can be stifling and rain showers soak the participants. Because the competition takes place on public roads, the athletes have to navigate through passers-by. The neighborhood has meanwhile undergone an upgrade, but in the early years the runners had to brave beggars, homeless people and drug dealers and were pelted with all kinds of projectiles."

"Race director Rupantar LaRusso labels the first three weeks as the most difficult. "Afterwards, the athletes come to their rhythm." If that is no reassurance. The mental pressure on the runners weighs even more than the physical strain. "The human brain craves variety," said Nirbhasa Magee, the first finisher from Ireland. “But there isn't, of course. So you have to ignore the mind and go deeper into yourself. Those who have a low pain threshold, are easily bored and need more than four hours of sleep per night should stay at home. “

"The Welshman Abichal Watkins is one of the big misfortunes in the history of the spectacle. He once had to stop halfway through his efforts because his visa had expired. Fortunately, he had already reached the finish line twice before. Watkins stayed up spiritually by listening to Fix you from Coldplay. On repeat, two days long. "That song has something special," he said."

"The course is run between 6 a.m. and midnight, whereby the participants can choose their own breaks. The route closes at night. The remaining six hours are for eating, showering and taking care of the body. The longer those activities last, the less sleep there is left. Volunteers take the participants to apartments in the area to spend the night. The race is so long that a hairdresser is available. Some wear twelve pairs of shoes. The trotters consume around 10,000 calories a day, which means they have to eat constantly. The organization offers vegetarian meals, braised together in a converted garage, but it is just as good to grab high-calorie sweets. One participant ate three liters of vanilla ice cream per day."

(Photo: Ashprihanal Aalto receiving victory garland from Sri Chinmoy, circa 2007)

"The STR is a kind of holiday for the mind, a mental detox. For almost two months, life has been reduced to the simplest: walking around a block. The American Yolanda Holder left herself during her participation. She calls it a transcendental experience. “I saw myself ahead. And it happened again at night. It was frightening. I descended deep into my own spirituality. ”At an event where experience is so important, you should not expect young legs. Most participants are in their forties, but the Scottish sixties Williams Sichel also reached the finish in 2014."

"The organization limits the number of participants to a maximum of fifteen. These men and women are chosen, among other things, based on their previous performances in ultra-runs and pay a $ 1,250 registration fee. Sri Chinmoy and his followers like to keep it simple. The scoreboard consists of the number of the participants, which is hung on a chain. The finishers will receive a T-shirt, a DVD and a small trophy. Self transcendence therefore does not really pay."