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Kingfisher III AM -25 - Geskiedenis

Kingfisher III AM -25 - Geskiedenis



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Kingfisher

III

(AM-25: dp. 950; 1- 187'10 "; b. 35'6"; dr. 9'10 "; s. 14 k. Cpl. 78; a. 2 3", 3,50 cal. Mg. )

Kingfisher (AM-25) is op 30 Maart 1918 gelanseer deur Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Puget Sound, Wash .; geborg deur juffrou Nancy Griswold; en in opdrag van 27 Mei 1918, Lt. (j.g.) C. L. Greene in bevel.

By vertrek uit Bremerton, Wash., 17 Junie, het Kingfisher na Philadelphia gestoom, waar sy op 8 Augustus aangekom het as 'n mynveër van Kaap Mei, N.J. Op 5 April 1919 vertrek sy uit Boston na die Noordsee, en arriveer in Inverness, Skotland, 20 April. Sy was aangewys by die North Sea Detachment in Kirkwall, Orkney -eilande, en het myne van die Northern Barrage opgevee tot in Oktober toe sy na die Verenigde State gevaar het. Stomend via Frankryk, Portugal en die Azore bereik sy New York op 19 November.

Kingfisher, wat aan die Train Force, Pacific Fleet toegewys is, het op 9 Augustus 1920 na Hampton Roads, Va., Vertrek na die Weskus. By die aankoms van San Diego op 3 Oktober begin sy diens as 'n vloot sleepboot en mynveër. Oor die volgende 19 jaar het vlootmaneuvers en toevoer-, sleep- en mynevee -operasies haar na die ooskus, Puerto Rico, Kuba, die Canal Zone en Hawaii gestuur. Gedurende die somers van 1933, 19.34 en 1935 het sy vlootskepe en basisse in Alaskan -waters verskaf vir die Aleutian Islands Survey Expedition.

Sy vertrek uit San Diego op 4 Oktober 1939 en vaar sy na Pearl Harbor vir diens by die Base Force, Hawaiian Detachment. Toe sy op 19 Oktober aankom, sleep sy teikenvlotte en oefen kanonne en mynevee totdat sy op 26 Oktober 1941 na Samoa vaar. Kingfisher bereik Tutuila 5 November en was op 7 Desember op stasie toe sy hoor van die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor.

Met lt.kom. C. B. Schiano in bevel, Kingfisher het begin met verdedigingspatrollie en mynopleggings by Samoa.

Op 19 Februarie 1942 vertrek sy Tutuila vir soortgelyke diens in die Fidji's en arriveer op 23 Februarie by Viti Levu. By terugkeer na Samoa op 12 April, is sy op 1 Junie herklassifiseer AT-135; sy vaar daarna 28 Julie na Wallis Island vir 'n maand se vliegtuigwag en reddingsdiens. Met 'n aansteker op sleeptou vertrek sy op 12 September uit Suva, Fidji, na Noumea, Nieu -Caledonië. Toe sy op 18 September aankom, dien sy onder bevel van die hawe -direkteur totdat sy op 8 Oktober na Hawaii vertrek het.

By aankoms in Pearl Harbor 30 Oktober, dien Kingfisher as 'n sleepboot en torpedo -herstelskip tot 23 September 1943 toe sy na die Ellice -eilande vaar. Sy het Funafuti op 5 Oktober bereik en sleepdiens tussen die Ellice- en Phoenix -eilande onderneem. Op 8 Desember vaar sy na die Gilberts en arriveer op 13 Desember by die Tarawa -atol. Hoewel hy onderhewig was aan vyandige bombardemente, het Kingfisher antisubmarine -nette gesleep en telefoonkabels in die Betio -hawe gelê voordat hy op 27 Desember na Funafuti vertrek het. Van 30 Desember tot 15 April 1944 het sy voortgegaan met sleep-, stasie- en hawe -operasies in die Ellice-, Gilbert- en Marshall -eilande; daarna vertrek sy 16 April uit Kwajalein na Pearl Harbor, en arriveer op 29 April.

Op 15 Mei, herklassifiseer ATO-135, vertrek Kingfisher op 19 September vir verdere sleepwerk in die Stille Oseaan. Sleepbane het haar na Palmyra, Ellice, Solomon, Admiralty en Marshall -eilande gestuur voordat sy 14 November na Pearl teruggekeer het. Op 18 November vaar sy na die Weskus en arriveer San Diego op 29 November. Sy keer terug na Pearl 29 Januarie 1945 en hervat sleep- en sleep sleepdienste. Op 21 April het sy bygestaan ​​by die bergingsbedrywighede van die gegronde handelaar Sarensen. En terwyl sy 'n skietdoel op 4 Mei sleep, het sy die vlieënier van 'n Army P-47 wat tydens 'n oefenvlug gespat het, gered.

Kingfisher vaar 30 Oktober na San Francisco en arriveer 9 November. Sy bly in die San Francisco Bay -gebied en het 6 Februarie 1946 uit diens geneem en die Pacific Reserve Fleet binnegegaan. Op 3 Junie 1947 oorgeplaas na die Maritieme Kommissie, is sy dieselfde dag verkoop aan M. E. Baker in Suisunbaai, Kalifornië.

Kingfisher het een gevegster ontvang vir diens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.


Die grootste versameling bootbrosjures ter wêreld

Sedert die 1950's het die Dawsons 'n groeiende biblioteek met meer as 14 000 bootbrosjures van Noord -Amerikaanse bootbouers onderhou, wat meer as 300 rakvoete strek. Nou is die biblioteek beskikbaar vir bootvaarders regoor die wêreld.

Om die versameling in takt te hou (ons het slegs een van elk), ons skandeer bootmodelle en e -pos PDF -lêers vir slegs $ 45.

Doelwitstelling vir 'n nuwe boot

Dit lyk asof die meeste van ons een of ander tyd 'twee voet-itis' kry en 'n groter boot wil hê. Dit is die beste om u drome uit te haal en 'n afskrif van die brosjure te gebruik om u doel te stel.

Verkoopshulp vir verkoop

'N Brosjure -kopie is 'n uitstekende hulpmiddel vir verkoop wanneer dit tyd word om u boot te verkoop. Al die inligting is daar, spesifikasies, standaardtoerusting, opsionele toerusting, foto's, kopieë, vloerplanne en meer. 'N Voornemende koper sal beïndruk wees met die detail.

Akkurate spesifikasies om te koop of te verseker

As dit tyd is om te koop of in te ruil, het u die spesifikasies en brosjure -besonderhede voor die verkoopspersoon. Dit is ook handig om hierdie inligting vir u versekeringsmaatskappy en landmeter te hê.

As u 'n sleepwa koop, benodig u die presiese gewig van die boot. As u om 'n ou bootvaartuiglisensie aansoek doen, benodig u akkurate perdekragwaardes en laaivermoë vir die departement van vervoer. Al hierdie inligting is in die oorspronklike brosjures.

Landmeters en marina's

Landmeters wat die oorspronklike spesifikasies en vervaardigerinligting benodig vir bote wat hulle ondersoek, vra kopieë vir hul lêer. Jachthavens benodig brosjure -inligting om akkurate spesifikasies te skep.

Opknapping

As u ouer boot opgeknap of gerestoureer moet word, sal 'n ou bootbrosjure u wys hoe dit voorheen was voordat 'n vorige eienaar dit 'aangepas' het en dit van die oorspronklike toestand verander het.

Voeg by gesinsgeskiedenisalbum

Kry een vir elk van die bote wat u besit, om u spesiale nautiese album te voltooi-'Bote wat ek gedurende my leeftyd geniet het'

Geskenke

As u 'n geskenk nodig het vir 'n bootvriend of familielid wat alles het, oorweeg dit om die bladsye van die oorspronklike brosjure van sy bootmodel te lamineer.

Bootvervaardigers

Selfs bootvervaardigers het na ons gekom om verlore brosjures van hul eie bote te vind!


Kingfisher III AM -25 - Geskiedenis

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Fase 2 CKD: eGFR Tussen 60 en 89

Fase 2 CKD beteken dat u ligte nierskade en 'n eGFR tussen 60 en 89 het.

Meestal beteken 'n eGFR tussen 60 en 89 dat u niere gesond is en goed werk. Maar as u fase 2 -niersiekte het, beteken dit dat u ander tekens van nierskade het, selfs al is u eGFR normaal. Tekens van nierskade kan proteïen in u urine (piepie) of fisiese skade aan u niere wees. Hier is 'n paar maniere om die skade aan u niere in fase 2 -niersiekte te vertraag:

  • Beheer u bloedsuiker as u diabetes het
  • Beheer u bloeddruk
  • Eet 'n gesonde dieet of gebruik tabak
  • Wees aktief 30 minute per dag, 5 dae per week
  • Hou 'n gesonde gewig as daar medisyne is om u niere te beskerm
  • Maak 'n afspraak met 'n nefroloog (nierdokter), selfs al het u reeds 'n algemene dokter

Diagnostiese toetsing

Omdat die meeste waterige diarree self beperk is, word toetsing gewoonlik nie aangedui nie.1, 16 In die algemeen kan spesifieke diagnostiese ondersoeke gereserveer word vir pasiënte met ernstige dehidrasie, ernstiger siekte, aanhoudende koors, bloedige stoelgang of immuunonderdrukking, en vir gevalle van vermoed nosokomiese infeksie of uitbraak.

OKKULTE BLOED

Dit is onduidelik hoeveel fekale okkultiese bloedtoetse die waarskynlikheid van die voortoets beïnvloed. Dit is nietemin 'n vinnige en goedkoop toets, en as toetse positief is vir fekale okkultiese bloed in kombinasie met die aanwesigheid van fekale leukosiete of laktoferrien, is die diagnose van inflammatoriese diarree meer algemeen.17 Daarbenewens is fekale okkulte bloedtoetse 71% sensitief en 79% spesifiek vir inflammatoriese diarree in ontwikkelde lande, maar die sensitiwiteit daal tot 44% en spesifisiteit tot 72% in ontwikkelende lande.18

LEUKOSITE EN LACTOFERRIN

Die toets van ontlasting vir leukosiete om te kyk vir inflammatoriese diarree, bied verskeie uitdagings, insluitend die hantering van monsters en die standaardisering van laboratoriumverwerking en interpretasie. Daar is 'n groot variasie in sensitiwiteit en spesifisiteit. Daarom het hierdie toetsing in die onguns geval

Lactoferrin is 'n merker vir leukosiete wat vrygestel word deur beskadigde of verslegtende selle, en neem toe in die opset van bakteriële infeksies. meer as 90% en 'n spesifisiteit groter as 70% .20 Alhoewel daar twyfel bestaan ​​oor of fekale laktoferrien duidelik beter is as fekale leukosiete, is die snelheid en eenvoud van laktoferrintoetsing die voorkeurmetode om te kyk of leukosiete teenwoordig is, indien aangedui. .21

STOELKULTUUR

Die onoordeelkundige gebruik van ontlastingskulture by die evaluering van akute diarree is ondoeltreffend (resultate is positief in slegs 1,6% tot 5,6% van die gevalle) 1 en duur, met 'n geskatte koste van $ 900 tot $ 1,200 per positiewe ontlastingskultuur. pasiënte met siftingstoetse positief vir leukosiete verlaag die koste tot $ 150 per positiewe kultuur.23 Die verkryging van kulture slegs by pasiënte met erg bloedige stoelgang verhoog die opbrengs vir positiewe kultuurresultate tot meer as 30%.24

Alhoewel daar geen konsensus is oor watter pasiënte 'n kultuur benodig nie, is dit redelik om 'n kultuur uit te voer as die pasiënt erg bloedige stoelgang het, ernstige dehidrasie, tekens van inflammatoriese siektes, simptome wat langer as drie tot sewe dae duur, of immuunonderdrukking. Kulture word dikwels verkry vir reisigers se diarree, maar empiriese behandeling is ook 'n opsie. , die pasiënt het 'n menslike immuungebrekvirusinfeksie of neutropenie, of die pasiënt is ouer as 65 jaar met 'n beduidende komorbiditeit (bv. eindstadium lewer-, nier- of longsiekte leukemie hemiparese veroorsaak deur kardiovaskulêre ongeluk inflammatoriese dermsiekte) .25

CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOETSING

Toets vir Clostridium difficile -gifstowwe A en B word aanbeveel vir pasiënte wat na drie dae hospitalisasie onverklaarbare diarree kry, die toets sal positief wees by 15% tot 20% van hierdie pasiënte.25, 27 Verder verhoog die risiko dat C. difficile infeksie opdoen sewe tot tien keer gedurende elke periode van antibiotiese behandeling en vir die eerste maand na die staking van antibiotika, en hierdie risiko is steeds drie keer hoër in die tweede en derde maande na die staking van antibiotika. by pasiënte wat onverklaarbare diarree ontwikkel terwyl hulle antibiotika gebruik of binne drie maande nadat antibiotika gestaak is. C. difficile -toetsing kan oorweeg word in sekere bevolkingsgroepe met beduidende comorbiditeite, insluitend ouer persone en diegene wat immuungekompromitteer is.

OVA EN PARASITEITE

Roetine-ontleding vir eiers en parasiete by pasiënte met akute diarree is nie koste-effektief nie, veral in ontwikkelde lande.29 Aanduidings vir eier- en parasiettoetse sluit in aanhoudende diarree wat langer as sewe dae duur, veral as dit geassosieer word met babas in die dagsorg of reis na bergagtige streke diarree by persone met VIGS of mans wat seks het met mans gemeenskap uitbrake in die water of bloedige diarree met min fekale leukosiete.11 Die voordeel van die versending van veelvoudige monsters om die toetsopbrengs te verhoog, is aanvegbaar.

ENDOSKOPIE

Die rol van endoskopie by die diagnose en hantering van akute diarree is beperk. Endoskopiese evaluering kan oorweeg word as die diagnose onduidelik is na roetine -bloed- en ontlastingstoetse, as empiriese terapie ondoeltreffend is, of as die simptome voortduur. kolitis (soos by C. difficile kolitis) en by die bepaling van nie-aansteeklike oorsake van akute diarree, soos inflammatoriese dermsiekte, isgemiese kolitis, enteropatie wat verband hou met nie-steroïdale anti-inflammatoriese medisyne en kanker.31


Huidige vestigings by die Royal Navy [wysig | wysig bron]

Vlootbasisse [wysig | wysig bron]

Lugstasies [wysig | wysig bron]

Opleidingsinstellings [wysig | wysig bron]

    (Fareham, Hampshire) (Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, Devon)
    • Sluit in Hindostan as 'n statiese opleidingsskip
    • Sluit in Bristol as 'n statiese opleidingsskip
    • Sluit in Brecon as 'n statiese opleidingsskip

    Ander [wysig | wysig bron]

      , Rosyth Dockyard, Rosyth, Fife, Skotland Administratiewe samevoeging van personeel van die Royal Navy in die Verenigde State NATO se hoofkwartier Geallieerde magte Suid -Europa, Napels
    • Institute of Naval Medicine (Alverstoke, Hampshire) INM (Northwood, Middlesex, Engeland), voorheen HMS Kryger. Operasionele hoofkwartier vir hoofkommandant

    Munisipale sentrums vir verdediging [wysig | wysig bron]

    Toetsinstellings [wysig | wysig bron]

    De facto kusondernemings [wysig | wysig bron]

    • Sembawang -werf in die voormalige HMNB Singapore (HMS Sembawang) het steeds RN -personeel in 'n gebou in 'n huidige werf. Hierdie RN -teenwoordigheid is behou toe die Britse magte in 1971 uit Singapoer onttrek het, en die Amerikaanse vloot- en Five Powers Defense Arrangements -skepe wat hierdie werf gebruik (behalwe dié van die Republiek van Singapoer se vloot self) word almal aangevuur deur die Britse Ministerie van Verdediging Fuels Group . Ώ ]

    Ontvang vanaf nou tot 23:59 uur Amerikaanse sentrale tyd Sondag 20 Junie 2021 'n ekstra 35% afslag op alle SABOT -publikasies, Verlinden en amp Warriors -items*.

    Geen koepon nodig nie - voeg net by die winkelwa en die afslag word outomaties toegepas. Afslag is slegs van toepassing op aanlynbestellings wat gedurende die afslagperiode geplaas word en op voorraaditems. Soos altyd geld ons beleid vir verkoop/afslag/spesiale aanbiedinge ook. Odds en eindes -items is NIE by hierdie verkoop ingesluit nie.

    LET WEL - met die nuwe sagteware verskyn die verkoopprys in die inkopiemandjie. Om die verkoopprys te sien, voeg net die verkooppunt in die winkelwa, gaan dan na die inkopiemandjie en u sal sien wat die verkoopprys is.


    Hoeveel slawe het in die VSA geland?

    Miskien is u, net soos ek, in wese opgewek om aan die slawe -ervaring te dink, veral in terme van ons swart voorouers hier in die Verenigde State. Met ander woorde, slawerny het hoofsaaklik gegaan oor ons, regs, van Crispus Attucks en Phillis Wheatley, Benjamin Banneker en Richard Allen, tot by Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth en Frederick Douglass. Beskou dit as 'n voorbeeld van wat ons kan dink Afro-Amerikaanse uitsonderlikheid. (Met ander woorde, as dit in die swart ervaring is, sal dit oor swart Amerikaners gaan.) Dink weer.

    Die mees omvattende ontleding van versendingsrekords gedurende die slawehandel is die Trans-Atlantiese slawehandeldatabasis, geredigeer deur professore David Eltis en David Richardson. (Alhoewel die redakteurs versigtig is om te sê dat al hul syfers skattings is, glo ek dat dit die beste ramings is, die spreekwoordelike “goue standaard ” op die gebied van die studie van slawehandel.) Tussen 1525 en 1866, in die hele geskiedenis van slawehandel na die nuwe wêreld, volgens die Trans-Atlantiese slawehandeldatabasis, 12.5 miljoen Afrikaners is na die nuwe wêreld gestuur. 10,7 miljoen het die gevreesde middelpaadjie oorleef en aan boord gegaan in Noord -Amerika, die Karibiese Eilande en Suid -Amerika.

    En hoeveel van hierdie 10,7 miljoen Afrikane is direk na Noord -Amerika gestuur? Slegs ongeveer 388 000. Dit is reg: 'n klein persentasie.

    Diagram van 'n slaweskip uit die Trans-Atlantiese slawehandel, 1790-1 (Public Domain)

    Vyftig van die 100 wonderlike feite sal op die webwerf The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross gepubliseer word. Lees al 100 feite oor Die wortel.


    Identifiseer u Fisher -houtstowe

    Fisher Wood Stoves vervaardig deesdae nie meer stowe nie, hoewel baie van die ou stoof nog steeds werk en goed werk. Dit kan soms gevind word in huisopruimings of roes in ou skure. As u met robuuste staal- en gietysterdeure gebou is, is daar min fout met enige stoof wat u vind, en met 'n bietjie tlc en 'n herverf kan u waarskynlik een maklik weer aan die gang kry. Hou egter in gedagte dat hierdie ou stowe nie noodwendig aan die moderne boureglement of skoon lugregulasies voldoen nie.

    Die maklikste manier om te weet watter model van Fisher Stove jy het, is deur die deurontwerp - terwyl stoofliggame deur lisensiehouers vervaardig is, het Bob die gietysterdeure laat vervaardig en gestuur. Dit het gehelp om die verskuldigde tantieme by te hou en die koste te verminder.

    • Die Papa Bear Fisher -stoof : enkele gietijzerdeur, twee luginlate, neem hout tot 30 duim
    • Die Mama Bear Fisher -stoof : enkele gietysterdeur, twee luginlate, neem hout tot 24 duim
    • Die Baby Bear Fisher Stove : enkele gietysterdeur, enkele luginlaat, neem hout tot 18 duim

    Die "Kaggel" -reeks

    Dit was kaggels met dubbeldeure wat ontwerp is nadat Bob Fisher by die onderneming bedank het. Die breër konfigurasie het die voordele van die oorspronklike visserhoutstowe, maar kan met die deur oopgemaak word om die vuur te sien, alhoewel daar 'n vuurskerm is

    Daar is ook 'n pdf -kopie van die geskiedenis van die Fisher Stove Company hier.


    Pidgeon "Ani-Gatage Wi" Moytoy Moytoy

    Ближайшие родственники

    Oor Moytoy, van Tellico

    KENNIS VAN DIE KURATOR: Lees die volgende opdatering deur Kathryn Forbes, 'n genealogiese kenner van Cherokee:

    Die 𠆊m-a-do-ya Moytoy ’ boom [begin] dikwels met 'n man met die naam Amadoya Moytoy, gebore omstreeks 1647. Hy is gelys met 'n vrou en vyf kinders. Lyk goed, behalwe hier ’ Eenvoudig en eenvoudig word daar in 1729 geen melding gemaak van 'n Cherokee -persoon met die naam of naam, “Moytoy ” of iets soortgelyks nie. Soos hierbo opgemerk, bestaan ​​daar nie baie vroeë rekords wat enige Cherokee by die naam noem nie, en ‘Moytoy ’ bestaan ​​nie by diegene wat dit doen nie. Nie in die verslag van Needham en Arthur (1674), die eerste Engelse mans wat na die Cherokee Nation gereis het en teruggekeer het om daaroor te vertel. Nie in die 1684 -verdrag met Virginia nie. Nie in die Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1710-1718 nie. Nie in die tydskrifte van handelskommissaris George Chicken se reis onder die Cherokee (1715-16 en 1725) nie. Nie in die rekords wat verband hou met die Cherokee -verdrag en handelsooreenkoms met Suid -Carolina van 1721 nie (wat gelei het tot die benoeming van 'n hoofman met die naam Wrosetasataw as ‘ Keiser ’ van die Cherokee). Nie in die joernaal van John Herbert (1727-28), Suid-Carolina Kommissaris vir Indiese Sake nie. Nie in die korrespondensie van Ludovic Grant, wat hom ongeveer 1727 tussen die Cherokee gevestig het nie.

    Die eerste tydelike vermelding van Moytoy is in die “ Journal of Sir Alexander Cuming ” wat in 1729-30 in die Cherokee Nation gereis het. Cuming het op 29 Maart 1729 geskryf dat “ … by Great Telliquo in die boonste nedersettings aangekom het, 200 kilometer van Keeakwee af. Moytoy die hoof Warrior hier, het hom vertel dat die Nation van die jaar tevore die ontwerp van die nasie gemaak het dat hy Cobing later oor die algemeen gemaak het, en#x201d Cuming later geskryf het, “Moytoy van Telliquo tans as keiser voorsitter oor die geheel, is hy gekies op Nequassie, 3 April 1730, en het 'n absolute onbeperkte mag, en Cuming het gehoop om Moytoy en 'n ander Cherokee saam met hom terug te neem om hul lojaliteit teenoor hom te bewys die Engelse koning: “Hy vra 𠆝 Moytoy, of die Indiërs in so kort tyd te voet daarheen [na Charleston] kon reis, wat vir hom gesê het dat dit moontlik sou wees, en dat hy [Moytoy] op hom sou gewag het homself, maar dat sy vrou gevaarlik siek was en daarom begeer dat sir Alexander die wie hy wil bywoon, sou aantrek. ” Attakullakulla, een van die sewe Cherokee wat saam met Cuming na Engeland gegaan het, het later die gebeure aan die goewerneur van Suid -Carolina vertel ( deur 'n vertaler). “ Die nag kom meneer Wiggan, die tolk, na die huis waar ek was, en vertel my die kryger

    In sy verslag oor die keuse van die reisigers word gesê: Sir Alexander het gekies as 'n bewys van die waarheid van wat gebeur het, die hoofkryger van Tassetchee, 'n man met groot mag en belang, wat die reg het om koning te wees, en word Oukah Ulah genoem (dit is die Koning wat word) Skallelockee, die tweede kryger, anders Kettagustah, (of prins) Tathtowie, die derde vegter, en Collannah, 'n vierde kryger en van Tannassie, die verste stad van die land, hy neem Clogoittah en Oukanaekah [later bekend as Attakullakulla] Warriors. ” Die sewende man ontmoet hulle op pad na Charleston en sluit by die groep aan. Daar is niks wat daarop dui dat die geselekteerde mans op enige manier verband hou nie.

    James Adair het geskryf dat hy in 1736 na die Cherokee gekom het. Hy het Moytoy nie by name genoem nie, maar as hul ou Archi-magus, deur Christian Priber keiser gemaak. Grant het geskryf oor die Engelse poging om Christian Priber in hegtenis te neem, en ek het daarom gepoog om die oorhand te kry met Moytoy, wat toe die hoof van die Nasie was om 'n paar van sy mense bevele te gee om hom [Priber] te gryp, en ek het hom 'n baie goeie geskenk daarvoor belowe. Hy bedank my en sê dat hy van die huidige sal aanvaar … ”

    Verskeie moderne geskiedenisse suggereer [sonder bronne] dat die naam van Moytoy eintlik die naam was 𠇊ma-edohi ” [Conley, A Cherokee Encyclopedia [or 𠇊mo-adaw-ehi ” [Brown, Old Frontiers] x201cWaterganger, ” “Waterwandelaar, ” “Water-conjouror, ” of “Rainmaker ”.

    Wat die familie van Moytoy betref, weet ons uit sy eie woorde dat hy 'n vrou gehad het, en uit ander verslae, ten minste een seun. Ons word vertel dat Moytoy in 1741 in 'n geveg gesterf het en by Moytoy se dood het sy seun Amo-Scossite (Bad Water) sy pa se titel geëis. die Cherokee het geweier om Amoscossite as keiser te aanvaar, en het hoof geword by Tellico en was onder leiding van afvaardigings, insluitend 'n vergadering met handelsverteenwoordigers van Virginia in 1756. Daar word vermoed dat hy [Amoscossite] kort daarna gesterf het, en geen afstammelinge gelaat is nie.

    Wat van die kinders in die tweede generasie van die 𠆊-ma-do-ya ’-boom? Een van hulle is die ‘ real ’ Moytoy, wat in 1741 gesterf het. Twee van hulle, Tistoe en Oukah-Oula, was een van die sewe mans wat saam met Cuming na Engeland gegaan het. Soos hierbo genoem, is daar niks wat daarop dui dat dit op enige manier verband hou nie. Hulle kom uit verskillende dorpe en in geen van die hedendaagse rekords word hulle as broers, neefs of familielede van enige aard genoem nie. Die vierde persoon is vermoedelik die moeder van Nan-ye-hi, Nancy Ward. Nancy se ouers is heeltemal onbekend. Al wat ons van haar ouers weet, is dat haar ma uit die Wolf-stam was, en volgens 'n agterkleinseun was haar pa moontlik 'n aangenome Delaware-Indiër. Die laaste persoon, Old Hop ’ (wat in Chota gewoon het) was 'n prominente Cherokee -hoof, 'n tydgenoot van die ‘ werklike ’ Moytoy. Uit rekords blyk dat hy de facto hoof van die Cherokee -nasie geword het na die dood van Moytoy en 'n politieke stryd met die hoofde van Tellico. Niks is bekend van sy ouers of sy vrou nie, maar hy het blykbaar susters gehad sedert hy gesê het dat hy twee neefs het, Attakullakulla en Willenawa. Hy het ook opgemerk dat hy seuns het, wie se name onbekend is.

    Transkripsies van primêre bronne:

    • Adair, James. Die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse Indiane. Londen, herdruk van 1775 met inleiding deur Robert F. Berkhofer, Jr., Johnson, New York: Reprint Corp, 1968.
    • Alvord, Clarence Waltworth en Lee Bidgood. Die eerste verkennings van die Trans-Allegheny-streek deur die Virginians, 1650-1674. Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark, 1912. Bevat afskrifte van vroeë rekeninge.
    • Bartram, William. Reis in Noord -Amerika. New Haven, Yale University Press
    • Bonnefoy, Antoine. Tydskrif. Transkripsie in Williams Bonnefoy was 'n gevangene van die Cherokee in 1741-42.
    • Hoender, George. Tydskrifte 1715-1716 en 1725
    • Kom, Alexander. Tydskrif van sir Alexander Cuming. Afskrif in Williams.
    • Grant, Ludovic. Historiese verband tussen die feite. 1755. Afskrif ingesluit in die “Journal of Cherokee Studies ” Vol. XXVI, pp. 2-23.
    • Herbert, John. Tydskrif van kolonel John Herbert, kommissaris van Indië vir die provinsie Suid -Carolina, 17 Oktober 1727 tot Maart 1927/8
    • Timberlake, Henry The Memoirs of Lt. Henry Timberlake. Duane King, red. Museum van die Cherokee Indian Press, Cherokee, NC, 2007
    • Williams, Samuel Cole. Vroeë reise in die Tennessee-land, 1580-1800 Johnson City, Tennessee, Watauga Press, 1928
    • Kalender van Virginia State Papers
    • Colonial Records of North Carolina – verskeie volumes gepubliseer deur die North Carolina Archives.
    • Inheemse Amerikaners in die vroeë Noord -Carolina – ed. Dennis Isenbarger, gepubliseer deur die North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Department of Archives and History, 2013. Bevat afskrifte van primêre dokumente uit die 17de en 18de eeu.
    • Villainy word dikwels ongestraf – Indiese rekords van die sessies van die Algemene Vergadering van Noord-Carolina 1685-1789. William L. Byrd, III, Heritage Books 2012. Afskrifte van rekords van die Algemene Vergadering.
    • Colonial Records of South Carolina – verskeie volumes gepubliseer deur die South Carolina Archives. Reeks 2 is die Indian Papers.
    • Brown, John P. Old Frontiers. Southern Publishers, Inc. Kingsport, TN 1938
    • Conley, Robert. A Cherokee Encyclopedia en The Cherokee Nation: a History. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2007
    • [Nota: Conley se boeke is makliker om te lees as die meer wetenskaplike tekste, maar is ook nie so goed nagevors nie en bevat meer feitefoute.]
    • Hoig, Stanley. Die Cherokees en hul Chiefs. Universiteit van Arkansas Press, Fayetteville 1998
    • Mooney, James. Geskiedenis, mites en heilige formules van die Cherokee. American Bureau of Ethnology 1891 & 1900, herdruk Historical Images, Inc. Asheville, NC 1992

    Kathryn Forbes November, 2017

    LET WEL: DIE MEESTE VAN DIE MATERIAAL OP DIE INTERNET OOR MOYTOY IS ONNAUWIG EN ONKORREK SOOS VERHOUDINGE EN DATUMS

    Amatoya Moytoy van Chota (uitgespreek mah-tie) was 'n stadshoof in die vroeë agtiende eeu in die huidige Tennessee. Hy beklee 'n prominente posisie onder die Cherokee en beklee die oorerflike titel Ama Matai (uit die Franse matai en Cherokee ama-water), wat beteken "Water Conjurer."

    Amatoya is deur sy pa geleer om met 'n wilgerstok te water. Hy het so vaardig geraak in waterheks dat die Cherokee hom 'water conjurer' of Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee vir water) genoem het. Ama Matai word uiteindelik as Amatoya uitgespreek. Dit is later verkort tot Moytoy  €  , so hy staan ​​bekend as Moytoy I. Hy het tussen die begin van die agtiende eeu en 1730 die stad Chota regeer.

    In 1680 trou Amatoya met Quatsie van Tellico. Baie van hul afstammelinge het prominente leiers geword en 'n gesin gestig wat 'n eeu lank effektief oor die Cherokee geheers het.

    As die hoof van Tellico het Amatoya Moytoy die titel van Amedohi-The Water Traveler, wat dikwels as Moytoy aangeteken is, beklee. In sy raad was sewe geliefde manne, ouer staatsmanne, wat elk een van die sewe stamme verteenwoordig.

    Moytoy was die voorsitter van die raad, wat hom besig gehou het met die bestuur van grond, die openbare graansny en wette. Hy was ook deur die mense gekies en was 'n godsdienstige leier. Hy het vetoreg gehad oor die keuse van die krygshoof.

    In 1730 sluit sir Alexander Cuming, nie -amptelik 'n gesant van die Engelse koning, George II, 'n alliansie met Moytoy en erken hy die volkome soewereiniteit van die koning oor die Cherokee -mense. Op 3 April 1730 noem Cuming Moytoy & quot; Keiser van die Cherokees & quot;

    In die Cherokee -stad Nequassee het die nasionale raad van Cherokee ingestem om Moytoy as hul 'temperament' te aanvaar en hul trou aan koning George II te gee. Dit het gepaard gegaan met 'n groot seremonie en dans.

    Moytoy het sewe prominente lede van die stam na Londen gestuur om die koning te ontmoet.

    Thomas Pasmere Carpenter op 20 -jarige ouderdom kom in 1627 na Jamestown, Virginia, uit Engeland. Thomas was die seun van Robert Carpenter (1578 Ã ¢ Â € Â “ 1651) en Susan Pasmere Jeffery (1579 Ã & #x00a2 Â € Â “ 1651). Hy het 'n huurkontrak van 10 hektaar in Virginia gehad, maar dit is later aan iemand anders gegee weens sy ouderdom, en daarom het hy by die Shawnee gaan woon en in 'n grot tuisgegaan. Thomas word deur die Shawnee 'Cornplanter' genoem, afgelei van hul gebaretaal wat so na as moontlik by die werk van 'n timmerman pas. He married a Shawnee woman named "Pride" and bore a son around 1635 named Trader Carpenter, and a daughter Pasmere Carpenter, about 1637. Together with partners John Greenwood and Thomas Watts they began a thriving fur business.

    Trader was taught to “witch” for water with a willow stick by the Shawnee. He was later known by the Cherokee as the "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was also shortened to “Moytoy”, so he is known as Moytoy I.

    The clan grew quickly. Trader (Amatoya / Moytoy I) married a Shawnee named Locha in 1658. Pasmere married the grandfather of Cornstalk Hokolesqua (Shawnee) in 1660. The same year the clan was driven south by the Iroquois. They moved along the Tennessee river, starting the villages of Running Water (where Thomas died in 1675), Nickajack, Lookout Mountain, Crowtown and Chota. Chota was created as a merging place of refuge for people of all tribes, history or color. It became similar to a capital for the Cherokee nation. These villages grew to about 2000 people by 1670 when the Carpenter clan moved to Great Tellico. Here Trader (Amatoya / Motoy I) married Quatsy of the Wolf Clan in 1680. They bore a daughter Nancy in 1683.

    Though Amatoya (Trader) was chief of the above mentioned villages, it was his son Moytoy II (sometimes called "Trader-Tom") who was the one who actually became a Cherokee principle chief. In 1730, Trader-Tom (Moytoy II) took over as Chief, receiving what was described as the â€Âৌrown of Tannassy”. Tanasi was where the previous Chief resided and the traditional headdress was passed on to him.

    Several tribes, including the Cherokee, assisted colonists in driving out their mutual enemy, the Tuscarora, in a war that lasted from 1711-1713. However, with the Tuscarora out of the way, the tribes begin to address their grievances with the colonists -- primarily the sale of Native Americans into slavery despite agreements to discontinue this practice.

    The result was a war, in 1715, in which the combined tribes in the region threatened to wipe-out the South Carolina Colony.

    Ultimately, the colonists were able to mass their forces and after achieving several victories the tribes began to sue for peace. Peace was made with the Cherokee who were given a large quantity of guns and ammunition in exchange for their alliance with the colony.

    In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina. It also established a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race.

    To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

    A treaty was signed obligating the Cherokee to trade only with the British, return all runaway slaves, and to expel all non-English whites from their territory. In return, the Cherokee received a substantial amount of guns, ammunition, and red paint.

    Although the seven Cherokee who made the trip were presented the to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a prominent Cherokee -- the others being young men who went for the adventure. The chiefs of the tribe declined due to their responsibilities for hunting and defense. However, one of the young men was Attacullakulla, known as "Little Carpenter", who later became a powerful and influential

    According to Chief Attakullakulla's ceremonial speech to the Cherokee Nation in 1750, we traveled here from "the rising sun" before the time of the stone age man.

    MOYTOY Born: before 1700. The Cherokee term for Moytoy was Amoadawehi (Amahetai) or Rain or Water Conjuror. He was from Great Hiwassee or Little Hiwassee of the Valley. He later became the head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills. In 1730, he was appointed the Emperor (British medal chief) of the Cherokee Nation by British imperialists. He died in battle in 1741. This was the same year of Caulunna's death (see Family of Oconostota). Caulunna was a significant Cherokee leader in the era of Moytoy, and was Oconostota's uncle, and Quatsis' brother It has been speculated by some that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person- In fact, many secondary sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. Attakullakulla's mother was the sister of Moytoy, and Old Hop was their brother, If Moytoy was Caulunna, he would have been both Oconostota and Attakullakulla's older uncle. He would have been responsible for the upbringing of both through manhood, This may ex-plain why some historians conclude that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were relatives. Yet, neither family ever mentioned being kin to one another. Also, Old Hop stated that Attakullakulla was his nephew. In the same statement, Old Hop mentions Oconostota without calling him his relative. There are no documented records to prove that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person Moytoy was a Cherokee man. See: Caulunna and Old Hop.

    Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741 or 1760?) was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the "Emperor of the Cherokee" the Cherokee themselves used the title "First Beloved Man". His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, "rainmaker," although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held.

    In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming, a Scottish adventurer with no particular authority, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress Cuming called the "Crown of Tannassy."

    Cuming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. The "Crown" was laid at King George's feet along with four scalps.

    Some European sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee." On his death the British recognized his 13 year old son Amouskositte as Emperor. He had little real authority among the elder-dominated Cherokee, and by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota had emerged as the dominant leader.

    Old Frontiers, by John P. Brown, also details a Moytoy of Settico who was rampaging through VA after the death of "Emperor" Moytoy of Tellico, and in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1754-1765, a letter dated 1/31/1757 references a "Moyatoya, son to the Mankiller of Highwassey deceased". (Moytoy's son Raven of Hiwassee had a son called Moytoy who could be this Moytoy of Settico)

    As tribes acquired firearms from Europeans and used them against neighboring tribes, a "weaponry race" began. Tribes accelerated trade to acquire firearms for military purposes. Initially the guns were purchased with furs and skins. The South Carolina Colony, established in 1670, was encouraging the tribes to trade their Native American prisoners of war which were then sold into slavery. In 1705, there were complaints from North Carolina that the South Carolina governor's trade in Native American slaves had so angered the tribes that an Indian war was inevitable.

    Several tribes, including the Cherokee, assisted colonists in driving out their mutual enemy, the Tuscarora, in a war that lasted from 1711-1713. However, with the Tuscarora out of the way, the tribes begin to address their grievances with the colonists -- primarily the sale of Native Americans into slavery despite agreements to discontinue this practice.

    The result was a war, in 1715, in which the combined tribes in the region threatened to wipe-out the South Carolina Colony. Ultimately, the colonists were able to mass their forces and after achieving several victories the tribes began to sue for peace. Peace was made with the Cherokee who were given a large quantity of guns and ammunition in exchange for their alliance with the colony.

    In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina to systematize trade but the most significant condition was the establishment of a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony which was the first land cession made by the Cherokee to the Europeans. The population of the Cherokee Nation was probably 16,000-17,000 including 6,000 warriors. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race. (It should be noted that the English also considered non-English whites as inferior).

    To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

    A treaty was signed obligating the Cherokee to trade only with the British, return all runaway slaves, and to expel all non-English whites from their territory. In return, the Cherokee received a substantial amount of guns, ammunition, and red paint.

    Although the seven Cherokee who made the trip were presented to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a prominent Cherokee -- the others being young men who went for the adventure. The chiefs of the tribe declined due to their responsibilities for hunting and defense. However, one of the young men was Attacullakulla, known as "Little Carpenter", who later became a powerful and influential chief.

    In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

    But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

    France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

    Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

    William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

    From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

    One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

    When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British.

    from Don Chesnut's web page www.users.mis.net/

    Moytoy: a Cherokee chief recognized by the English as "emperor" in 1730. Both the correct form and the meaning of the name are uncertain the name occurs again as Moyatoy in a document of 1793 a boy upon the East Cherokee reservation a few years ago bore the name of Ma’tayi, for which no meaning can be found or given.

    Old Frontiers, by John P Brown, also details a Moytoy of Settico who was rampaiging through VA after the death of "Emperor" Moytoy of Tellico, and in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1754-1765, a letter dated 1/31/1757 references a "Moyatoya, son to the Mankiller of Highwassey deceased". [Moytoy's son Raven of Hiwassee had a son called Moytoy who could be this Moytoy of Settico]

    Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741[1]%29 was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the "Emperor of the Cherokee" the Cherokee themselves used the title "First Beloved Man". His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, "rainmaker,"[2] although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held.

    In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming, a Scottish adventurer with no particular authority, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress Cuming called the "Crown of Tannassy."

    Cuming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. The "Crown" was laid at King George's feet along with four scalps.

    Some European sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee." On his death the British recognized his 13 year old son Amouskositte as Emperor. He had little real authority among the elder-dominated Cherokee, and by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota had emerged as the dominant leader.[3]

    Moytoy : a Cherokee chief recognized by the English as "emperor" in 1730. Both the correct form and the meaning of the name are uncertain the name occurs again as Moyatoy in a document of 1793 a boy upon the East Cherokee reservation a few years ago bore the name of Matayi, for which no meaning can be found or given.

    MOYTOY Born: before 1700. The Cherokee term for Moytoy was Amoadawehi (Amahetai) or Rain or Water Conjuror. He was from Great Hiwassee or Little Hiwassee of the Valley. He later became the head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills. In 1730, he was appointed the Emperor (British medal chief) of the Cherokee Nation by British imperialists. He died in battle in 1741. This was the same year of Caulunna's death (see Family of Oconostota). Caulunna was a significant Cherokee leader in the era of Moytoy, and was Oconostota's uncle, and Quatsis' brother It has been speculated by some that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person- In fact, many secondary sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. Attakullakulla's mother was the sister of Moytoy, and Old Hop was their brother, If Moytoy was Caulunna, he would have been both Oconostota and Attakullakulla's older uncle. He would have been responsible for the upbringing of both through manhood, This may explain why some historians conclude that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were relatives. Yet, neither family ever mentioned being kin to one another. Also, Old Hop stated that Attakullakulla was his nephew. In the same statement, Old Hop mentions Oconostota without calling him his relative. There are no documented records to prove that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person Moytoy was a Cherokee man. See: Caulunna and Old Hop.

    Current scholarship on the impact of epidemics on American Indians is inadequate to explain how Indians survived. Too often Indians are given no credit for being able to combat emergent diseases, and too often epidemics are depicted as completely undermining native religious beliefs. This article, however, examines the response of Southeastern Indians to disease and shows that Native Americans were capable of successfully retarding mortality rates and curtailing the spread of contagions. Through their innovative responses to epidemiological crises, spiritual leaders reinforced tribal customs as well as their leadership position.

    Kelton, Paul. "Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival." Ethnohistory 51.1 (2004): 45-71. Project MUSE. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 10 Jul. 2010 <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.

    Moytoy was crowned with the "Crown of Tannassy," as described by Cuming (the name probably has origins with the traditional capital of Tanasi, near Chota). It is said to have been a traditional Cherokee hide cap covered in feathers and several hanging animal tails. The crown was later taken to England.

    Some sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee" (in fact there are no traditional consort titles, so this was a European distinction).

    A son, Amo-Scossite, took the title "Emperor of the Cherokees" after his uncle Old Hop's death. However, his adoption of the European title alone held no political authority, and Attacullaculla was the de facto ruler. The imperial title fell out of use after 1761.

    Litton, Gaston L. "The Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation", Chronicles of Oklahoma 15:3 (September 1937) 253-270 (retrieved August 18, 2006

    Headsman of Chota, Chief of all Cherokee in 1675, Full blood Cherokee, Chief of Cherokee Chief Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741) of the Wolf Clan, was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the 𠇎mperor of the Cherokee” the Cherokee themselves used the title 𠇏irst Beloved Man”. His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, “rainmaker,” although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held. Moytoy's ancestry is unknown as is the name of his wife(s). His only known child was his son Amouskositte who suceeded his father in 1741 as Principal Chief of the Cherokee at the age of 13. He was eventually replaced by Old Hop.

    " In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II "appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

    But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

    France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

    Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

    William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

    From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

    One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

    When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British."[2] Legend has it that Amatoya was taught by his father to “witch” for water with a willow stick. He had become so adept at water witching that the Cherokee called him "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was later shortened to “Moytoy”. He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730. At that time, the Cherokee had no central chief but rather small town chiefs. Amatoya is considered to be the founder of a family of chiefs which ruled for over a century.[2] Son Pride Shawnee and Thomas Corn planter Carpenter. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moytoy_of_Tellico Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741) of the Wolf Clan, was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the 𠇎mperor of the Cherokee” the Cherokee themselves used the title 𠇏irst Beloved Man”. His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, “rainmaker,” although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held. Moytoy's ancestry is unknown as is the name of his wife(s). His only known child was his son Amouskositte who suceeded his father in 1741 as Principal Chief of the Cherokee at the age of 13. He was eventually replaced by Old Hop.

    " In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II "appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

    But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

    France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

    Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

    William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

    From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

    Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

    One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

    When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British."[2] Moytoy of Tellico, (d. 1741) (Amo-adawehi in Cherokee, meaning "rainmaker.") was a prominent leader of the Cherokee in the American Southeast. He was given the title of "Emperor of the Cherokee" by Sir Alexander Cumming.

    There has been a lot of confusion about the descendants of Moytoy.I think this is because some people are not aware that there were two Chief Moytoys.The first was Chief Amatoya Moytoy of Chota, b abt 1640, who married Quatsy of Tellico (of the Wolf Clan).The second is Chief Moytoy, aka the Pigeon of Tellico, b abt 1687.The second Moytoy is believed to be either the son or grandson of Amatoya Moytoy. It is believed that Amatoya Moytoy had 3 sons and 8 daughters.These include Chief Kanagatoga "Old Hop", Nancy Moytoy, and two daughters with unknown names.Nancy Moytoy is believed to have been the mother of Chief Attakullakulla "Little Carpenter", Killaneca the Buck, Betsy and Tame Doe.Tame Doe was the mother of Tsistuna-Gis-Ke (Nancy Ward), and Longfellow of Chistatoa.

    Amatoya Moytoy of Chota (pronounced mah-tie) was a Cherokee town chief of the early eighteenth century in the area of present-day Tennessee . Moytoy I is also called Amatoya Moytoy, Moytoy of Chota, and Moytoy the Elder. He held a prominent position among the Cherokee, and held the hereditary title Ama Matai (From the French matai and Cherokee ama--water), which meant "Water Conjurer". He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730. He was born around 1640, and probably died in 1730. His father was a European, Thomas Pasmere Carpenter, who was descended from the noble Anglo-Norman family of Vicomte Guillaume de Melun le Carpentier. Thus, Moytoy's European lineage can be traced to the Frankish Duke Ansegisel of Metz Meroving, Peppin II, and Charles Martel . This ancestry also makes the Cherokee Moytoys cousins to the Carpenter Earl of Tyrconnell , and thus related to the current British royal family. In 1680, he married Quatsie of Tellico. Many of their descendants went on to become prominent leaders, founding a family that effectively ruled the Cherokee for a century. One of their sons became Moytoy II (Pigeon of Tellico), the Principal Chief and Emperor of the Cherokee. Another son was Kanagatucko (also Old Hop & Standing Turkey), who briefly succeeded his brother as Principal Chief and Emperor from 1760-1761. Through his eldest daughter, Nancy Moytoy, Amatoya Moytoy was the grandfather of Attacullaculla (who was called Prince of Chota by the British because of this). He was also a great-grandfather of Nancy Ward . Descendants of Moytoy I include the families of Major Ridge , Elias Boudinot , Stand Watie , and Chief Nimrod Jarrett Smith Nancy Ward first married Kingfisher, who was killed in Battle with the Creeks. They had two children Katie and Fivekiller. Nancy married second Bryant Ward and their child was Elizabeth Ward. Nancy Ward is buried in Benton, Polk County TN beside her son Fivekiller. See Emmett Star's book, History and Legends of the Cherokee People for a complete listing of Nancy's descendants.