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Van was tot metaal: goudmaaktegnieke van die antieke Colombiane

Van was tot metaal: goudmaaktegnieke van die antieke Colombiane



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Metallurgie in die pre-Columbiaanse Amerika

Metallurgie in die pre-Columbiaanse Amerika is die ontginning, suiwering en legering van metale en metaalvervaardiging deur inheemse mense van die Amerikas voor Europese kontak in die laat 15de eeu. Inheemse Amerikaners gebruik inheemse metale uit antieke tye, met onlangse vondste van goue artefakte in die Andes -streek dateer uit 2155–1936 v.G.J., [1] en Noord -Amerikaanse kopervondste wat ongeveer 5000 vC gedateer is. [2] Die metaal sou sonder smelting in die natuur gevind gewees het en in die gewenste vorm gevorm word deur warm en koue hamer sonder chemiese verandering of legering. Tot op datum het "niemand bewyse gevind wat dui op die gebruik van smelt, smelt en giet in prehistoriese oostelike Noord -Amerika nie." [3] In Suid -Amerika is die saak heel anders. Inheemse Suid -Amerikaners het volledige metallurgie gehad met smelting en verskillende metale wat doelbewus gelegeer is. Metallurgie in Meso -Amerika en Wes -Mexiko het moontlik ontstaan ​​na kontak met Suid -Amerika deur mariene handelaars in Ecuador. [4]


Van was tot metaal: goudvervaardigingstegnieke van die antieke Colombiane - Geskiedenis

PANAMA SE GOUE HUACAS
Die Panamakanaaloorsig . . . Herfs 1973

Klik vir groter prentjie

'N Aanduiding van die raaisels van 'n verdwene volk wat Panama voor die tyd van Colombia bewoon het, word gevind in die & quotgolden huacas, en die kosbare artefakte wat 1000 jaar gelede saam met hulle begrawe is. Hierdie mense het geen geskrewe geskiedenis agtergelaat nie. Maar die voorwerpe wat hulle gemaak het- juweliersware, wapens, gereedskap en ornamente- gee 'n idee van hul groot kultuur en die vaardigheid van hul vakmanne.

In hierdie argeologiese vondste lê die geskiedenis van 'n groot nasie wat met tyd verberg is. Baie feite is bekend, maar selfs dit verander volgens die boeke wat gelees is of kundiges geraadpleeg het. Wat is 'n huaca? Is 'n huaca 'n graf en 'n huaco 'n artefak wat uit die graf herwin is? Of is dit andersom? Was huacas -ornamente, offergawes aan die gode, gelukbringers, gevegsrusting, wapens? Word die woord self huacal of guacal of huaca of guaca gespel? Dit maak min saak. Hier in Panama beteken quothuacas die artefakte wat verwyder is uit die grafte van die Indiese stamme wat op die ryk en lieflike land van die Isthmus voorspoedig was totdat die Spanjaarde hulle kom plunder, doodmaak en uit hul huise verdryf het.

Die goue huaca het 'n lang reis oor baie lande afgelê. Dit is geskep deur die hande van die bekwame Karibiese goudsmid wat 'n borsversiering vir 'n vegter en 'n string goue krale vir sy dame gemaak het. In die graf met ander items wat gekies is om hom op sy reis na 'n ander lewe te vergesel, het die goue ornamente honderde jare lank sonlig gebly.

Vandag is 'n replika van die goue huaca 'n klein deel van die pre-Colombiaanse geskiedenis wat om die nek of oor die ore gedra kan word. Huacas word meer gewild as die geskenk wat almal wil besit of wil gee, en voldoen aan die huidige begeerte na die unieke en eksotiese. Hulle word gevorm as hangertjies, armbande, oorbelle, selfs trouringe - deur juweliers in Panama en ander lande in Sentraal- en Suid -Amerika - en word as geskenke begunstig en as aandenkings gekoester.

En die spel van die huaca is so dat dit nooit net 'n juweliersware word nie. Die eienaar is altyd bewus van sy ondeurdringbare geheime. van die verhale wat dit sou vertel as dit kon.

Aan die einde van die twintigerjare, na oorstromings wat die loop van die rivier verander het, het inboorlinge wat langs die Rio Grande de Cocle reis, net 100 kilometer van die Canal Zone, een van die moderne mens se vroegste blikke gekry van hierdie herinnering aan die antieke beskawing van Panama. 'N Glans wat die goue skat was van 'n vergete volk wat saam met hul dooies begrawe is. Die goue ornamente wat die inboorlinge ontbloot het, tesame met beenfragmente en erdewerk, het van die een hand na die ander gegaan totdat hulle in 'n antieke winkels in PanamaCity aangekom het, en het uiteindelik die nuuskierigheid van argeoloë regoor die wêreld gewek.

Na die toevallige ontdekking en die belangrikheid daarvan, is 'n ekspedisie, onder leiding van die beroemde argeoloog Samuel K. Lothrop, deur die Peabody Museum van die Harvard -universiteit na die terrein gestuur. In een van sy verslae vertel dr Lothrop van die komplekse verhaal wat begin ontvou het toe hy, terwyl hy onder die boonste laag weiveld grawe, tekens van antieke bewoning aan die lig gebring het. Een graf, slegs 12 voet by 14 voet groot, het meer as 2 000 voorwerpe opgelewer. Ses en negentig hiervan was goud. Daar was hangertjies met halfedelstene, sierborsborde, halssnoere van duisende krale, goue skywe met reliëf, pols- en enkelmanchetten en oorbelle.

Sy studies tydens hierdie en later ekspedisies na die Cocle -provinsie het dr Lothrop oortuig dat die & quot -beskawing wat deur hierdie vondste verteenwoordig word, aan stamme behoort wat vandag feitlik onbekend is. . . ryk en vlytige mense, vaardig in die bewerking van klei, klip en metale. & quot

Die goue artefakte wat op hierdie ou plekke en in ander in die provinsies Chiriqui en Veraguas, en ook op Venado Beach in die Canal Zone ontdek word, word in die Panama Museum en in baie museums in die Verenigde State en Europa vertoon - 'n stille huldeblyk aan die vakmanne wat meer as 1000 jaar gelede 'n hoogtepunt in kuns bereik het in Panama.

Die goue figure is gestileer volgens 'n vreemde tegniek, en stel gestileerde menslike en dierlike vorms of 'n kombinasie van die twee voor. Daar is slange met twee bene, mans met krokodilkoppe en figure met 'n menslike kop en skouers aan die liggaam van 'n slang, met die uitsteekende oë van 'n krap, en die herhalende beelde van die krokodil en arend wat volgens baie mense godsdienstig is betekenis.

Daar is 'n ooreenkoms onder argeoloë dat die wonderlike goue oorblyfsels begrawe in die antieke grafte met 'n hoë estetiese en tegniese prestasie, en dat die goudsmede van Cocle een van die min in die ou Amerika was wat voldoende vaardighede gehad het om hol gietstukke te maak. Daar eindig ooreenkoms. Niemand is seker hoe hulle hierdie wonderlike artefakte kon gooi nie.

In 'n 1 200 jaar oue graf van 'n Carib-Indiese goudsmid, meen Neville Harte, een van die voorste plaaslike kenners van die goue huaca, dat hy die antieke smeltgeheim gevind het van die sogenaamde verlore wasgietmetode. Harte, 'n afgetrede werknemer van die Amerikaanse weermag, het naweke en vakansies gewy op soek na die geskiedenis van voor-Colombia. Sedert 1968 toe hy afgetree het, bestee hy die meeste van sy tyd aan die bestudering van die goue huacas. Nadat hy die graf van die goudsmid gevind het, bestee hy drie jaar aan 'n suksesvolle projek om hierdie goue oorblyfsels te reproduseer met behulp van die tegnieke wat hy volgens die ou Carib -vakmanne gebruik het om die oorspronklike te vervaardig, en nog 17 jaar om sy metodes te vervolmaak. Eers onlangs het hy geskep wat hy as bevredigende reproduksies beskou.

By die reproduksie van replika's van die oorspronklike huacas, maak Harte 'n wasmodel van die voorwerp wat hy in edelmetaal gaan giet. Hy voeg lang, dun drade was as dekoratiewe besonderhede by en plak 'n waskegel op die basis van die model, wat sal dien as 'n trekkanaal vir die gesmelte metaal. As die wasmodel voltooi is, bedek hy dit met houtskoolpoeier om 'n gladde gietoppervlak te verseker. Daarna word die model bedek met 'n buitenste dop gemaak van 'n mengsel van klam klei en fyngedrukte houtskool. Nadat die buitenste dop droog is, word die hele samestelling afgevuur om die vorm te versterk en die was uit te brand om 'n holte van dieselfde vorm as die nuut verlore wasmodel te laat. Die vorm word dan rooi verhit en die gesmelte metaal word ingegooi. As die metaal stol, word die vorm weggebreek om die goue huaca bloot te stel. Baie mense het die idee dat die proses van verlore was beteken dat die proses verlore gegaan en herontdek is. Dit beteken eerder dat die was in die proses verlore gaan.

Aangebied deur CZBrats
29 November 1998


Tumbaga

Tumbaga is in die pre-Columbiaanse tyd gebruik van Meso-Amerika tot Peru en Chili as 'n generiese term vir enige kombinasie van goud en koper. Dit kan wissel van 95% koper tot 95% goud, hoewel tumbaga of guanin goud gewoonlik gemaak word deur 10 tot 30% koper by goud te voeg. Tumbaga bevat gewoonlik ook 5 tot 10% silwer, wat natuurlik in die goud voorkom en nie opsetlik bygevoeg is nie.

Die hoeveelheid goud wat in tumbaga gebruik word, hang af van die beskikbaarheid van die metaal. Voorwerpe uit goudryke gebiede soos Calima en Tolima in Colombia bevat byvoorbeeld suiwer goud, terwyl die meeste oorblywende stukke uit die Muisca- en Tairona-streke kleiner, minder suiwer was en afhanklik was van vergulding vir voorkoms.

Daar was verskeie redes waarom tumbaga gewild was. Die belangrikste is dat 70% goud/30% koper by ongeveer 800 ° C sal smelt, baie laer as goud of koper afsonderlik. Dit is belangrik, want daar is smelt in groot kleipotte met 'n span mans wat op blaaspype gestamp het. Gesmelte metaal vloei dan uit 'n gat in die bodem van die vaartuig in oop vorms van klip of klei. Hierdie vorms is argeologies gevind van Mexiko tot Chili.

Tumbaga Pectoral, Quimbaya Culture, 300-1600 AD, Antiquia, Colombia.


Weeg nou die belegging af. Die belegging bevat silika - daarom moet u 'n stofmasker dra as u nie uitlaatgasse het nie. Ek het hierdie oulike blou skaal vir baie goedkoop gekry - en dit is blou! u hoef nie baie geld op 'n duur skaal te spandeer nie - dit hoef net te werk.

Stel die timer vir 8 minute. Dit is die langste dat u belegging versteur moet word. Sodra dit begin instel, wil u nie daarmee mors nie. Ek begin die timer en gooi die belegging in die water. Meng vir 3 minute - net wanneer dit na 5 minute verander, is dit tyd om te stofsuig.


Antieke Colombiaanse goudmakery

Masker met neusversiering, c. 500 v.G.J. – 1600 G.J., goudlegering, 15,5 x 18 cm, Quimbaya © The Trustees of the British Museum. Hierdie skouspelagtige gehamerde masker met 'n hangende neusversiering sou waarskynlik bo-op die gesig van 'n begrafnisbundel-die toegedraaide liggaam van die oorledene-op 'n voorouer en semi-goddelike figuur geplaas gewees het.

Europeërs was eeue lank verblind deur die legende van 'n verlore stad van goud in Suid -Amerika. Die waarheid agter hierdie mite is fassinerend. El Dorado - letterlik "die goue" - verwys eintlik na die ritueel wat by die Guatavita -meer, naby die moderne Bogotá, plaasgevind het. Die nuutverkose leier, bedek met poeiergoud, duik in die meer en tree op as die nuwe hoof van die Muisca-mense wat in die sentrale hooglande van die huidige Colombia se oostelike reeks woon.

Die owerhede van Muisca, Quimbaya, Calima, Tairona, Tolima en Zenú in antieke Colombia het goud gebruik om sommige van die mees visueel dramatiese en gesofistikeerde kunswerke te maak wat oral in die Amerikas voor Europese kontak gevind is. Alhoewel goud nie in die voor-Spaanse Colombia as geldeenheid gewaardeer is nie, het dit 'n groot simboliese betekenis gehad. Dit was een manier waarop die elite hul rang en semi-goddelike status in die openbaar kon bevestig, sowel in die lewe as in die dood.

Meer as net goud

Voorwerpe wat met die eerste oogopslag van goud lyk, is meer kompleks en is eintlik gemaak van metaallegerings. In die meeste gevalle kombineer hulle in verskillende grade goud, 'n paar natuurlike silwer en koper, 'n kombinasie bekend as tumbaga. Hierdie metale is in die pre-Spaanse tyd simbolies gelaai, wat verband hou met die son en die maan onderskeidelik. Hulle kombinasie het 'n mikrokosmos veroorsaak, 'n balans tussen teenoorgesteldes in die weergawe van elke voorwerp.

Antropomorfiese vlermuisborsel, 900–1600 G.J., goudlegering, Tairona © Museo del Oro — Banco de la República, Colombia

Die skepping van legerings maak ook voorsiening vir kleurverskille, wat wissel van rooierige tot goue kleure. Elke voorwerp het sy eie spesifieke kleur, glans en afwerking te danke aan die bemeestering en vaardighede van die kunstenaars wat dit vervaardig het. Sommige toon selfs kontrasterende kleure in dieselfde voorwerp, wat pragtige patrone en besonderhede lewer.

Hamer en giet

Klein blokke tumbaga, in die vorm van ronde knoppies, is in unieke voorwerpe vervaardig, óf deur dit te hamer of te gooi (óf deur 'n kombinasie van beide tegnieke). Antieke Colombiaanse kunstenaars het albei tegnieke in ongekende mate onder die knie, wat besondere kunswerke geskep het.

Hamer metaal was 'n delikate proses. Metaal word maklik bros as dit gehamer word, en dit moet herhaaldelik afgekoel en in water gedoop word voordat die finale vorm verkry word. Die dun velle goud is daarna gesny, versier (byvoorbeeld deur repoussé) of saamgevoeg deur verskeie velle saam te knip of te vou.

Hande van naby (detail), Sit Poporo, c. 500 v.G.J. – 700 C.E. Early Quimbaya, tumbaga (goudlegering), Colombia © The Trustees of the British Museum. Hierdie kalkfles is gegiet deur die verlore-was metode. Die kop, onderbene en stoelgang is afsonderlik gegiet en dan aan die liggaam gesoldeer. Flesse bevat kalk wat verkry word uit die verbranding en maal van skulpies. Die alkaliese lemmetjie is gekou met koka blare om hul aktiewe stimulant vry te stel en helder, kontemplatiewe denke te versterk.

Dit was egter die giet van metale wat die meeste in antieke Colombia ontwikkel is. Deur die verlore wastegniek te gebruik, het die kunstenaar die finale stuk gemodelleer wat hulle in byewas wou bereik (van steeklose bye). Sodra die wasfiguur klaar was, was dit bedek met fyn klei en houtskool, en laat gietkanale. Die hele vorm is afgevuur en die gesmelte was het uitgegooi. Die plek daarvan sou deur gesmelte metaal ingeneem word, wat stadig afgekoel het toe dit in die vorm gestol het. Die vorm is daarna gebreek en die laaste metaalstuk is gepoleer en afgewerk.

Antieke Colombiaanse kunstenaars het selfs hol voorwerpe gemaak volgens hierdie tegniek, byvoorbeeld flesse en houers. Groot vaardigheid was nodig om dit te produseer. Die figuur is gemodelleer in klei en houtskool, en 'n dun lagie was is aangebring om die eindresultaat te bedek. Hieroor sou nog 'n laag klei gevoeg word, en houtpenne is ingesit om die binneste vorm aan die buitenste vorm vas te maak om dit op hul plek te hou wanneer die was smelt. Om die vloei van die metaal na elke detail van die stuk te beheer, die stadige stolsel daarvan, en dan die figuur vry te maak sonder om dit te beskadig, was 'n uitdaging wat slegs deur die mees ervare hande bereik kon word.


Inhoud

Onlangse opgrawings in die Midde -Ganga -vallei wat deur die argeoloog Rakesh Tewari gedoen is, toon dat yster reeds in 1800 vC begin het. [5] Argeologiese terreine in Indië, soos Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila en Lahuradewa in die deelstaat Uttar Pradesh toon ysterwerktuie in die tydperk tussen 1800 BCE - 1200 BCE. Sahi (1979: 366) het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat yster smelt teen die vroeë 13de eeu vC beslis op groter skaal in Indië beoefen word, wat daarop dui dat die datum waarop die tegnologie begin kan word, reeds in die 16de eeu vC geplaas kan word. [6]

Die Black and Red Ware -kultuur was 'n ander argeologiese kultuur van die vroeë Ystertydperk van die Noord -Indiese subkontinent. Dit dateer uit ongeveer die 12de-9de eeu vC en word geassosieer met die post-Rigvediese Vediese beskawing. Dit strek van die boonste Gangetic -vlakte in Uttar Pradesh tot by die oostelike Vindhya -reeks en Wes -Bengale.

Miskien al in 300 vC, hoewel beslis teen 200 CE, word staal van hoë gehalte in die suide van Indië vervaardig deur wat die Europeërs later die smeltkroes -tegniek sou noem. In hierdie stelsel is smeedyster, houtskool en glas van suiwerheid in smeltkroes gemeng en verhit totdat die yster gesmelt en die koolstof geabsorbeer het. Die gevolglike hoë koolstofstaal, genoem fūlāḏ فولاذ in Arabies en wootz deur latere Europeërs, is uitgevoer in groot dele van Asië en Europa.

Will Durant het ingeskryf The Story of Civilization I: Our Oriental Heritage:

'Daar is iets gesê oor die chemiese uitnemendheid van gietyster in antieke Indië, en oor die hoë industriële ontwikkeling van die Gupta -tye, toe Indië selfs deur die keiserlike Rome as die vaardigste van die nasies in chemiese nywerhede beskou is. kleur, looiery, seepmaak, glas en sement. Teen die sesde eeu was die Hindoes Europa ver voor in industriële chemie, hulle was meesters in kalsinasies, distillasie, sublimasie, stoom, fiksering, die vervaardiging van lig sonder hitte, die vermenging van verdowings- en soporiese poeiers, en die bereiding van metaalsoute, verbindings en legerings. Die verharding van staal is in antieke Indië tot 'n volmaaktheid gebring wat in Europa onbekend was tot ons eie tyd, wat koning Porus as 'n spesiale waardevolle geskenk vir Alexander gekies het , nie goud of silwer nie, maar dertig kilogram staal. byvoorbeeld, is deur die Arabiere uit die Perse en deur die Perse uit Indië geneem. "

Die Sanskrit -term Ayas beteken metaal en kan verwys na brons, koper of yster.

Rigveda Edit

Die Rig Veda verwys na ayas en sê ook dat die Dasyus Ayas gehad het (RV 2.20.8). In RV 4.2.17 "smelt die gode soos koper/metaalerts die menslike geslagte".

Die verwysings na Ayas in die Rig Veda verwys waarskynlik eerder na brons of koper as na yster. [7] Geleerdes soos Bhargava [8] beweer dat Rigved geskryf is in die Vediese deelstaat Brahmavarta en Khetri Kopermyne vorm 'n belangrike plek in Brahmavarta. Vediese mense het koper gereeld gebruik in die landbou, watersuiwering, gereedskap, gereedskap, ens., DK Chakrabarti (1992) het aangevoer: "Dit moet duidelik wees dat enige twis oor die betekenis van ayas in die Rgveda of die probleem van die Rgvediese bekendheid of onbekendheid met yster is nutteloos. Daar is in elk geval geen positiewe bewyse nie. Dit kan beide koper-brons en yster beteken, en streng op grond van die kontekste is daar geen rede om tussen die twee te kies nie. "

Arthashastra Wysig

Die Arthashastra bepaal die rol van die direkteur van metale, die direkteur van bosprodukte en die direkteur van mynbou. [9] Dit is die plig van die direkteur van metale om fabrieke vir verskillende metale te vestig. Die direkteur van myne is verantwoordelik vir die inspeksie van myne. Die Arthashastra verwys ook na vervalste munte. [9]

Ander tekste Redigeer

Daar is baie verwysings na Ayas in die vroeë Indiese tekste. [10]

Die Atharva Veda en die Satapatha Brahmana verwys na krsna ayas ("swart metaal"), wat yster kan wees (maar moontlik ook ystererts en ysteritems wat nie van gesmelte yster is nie). Daar is ook 'n mate van kontroversie as die term syamayas ("swart metaal) na yster verwys of nie. In latere tekste verwys die term na yster. In vroeëre tekste kan dit moontlik ook verwys na donkerder as koperbrons, 'n koperlegering. en blik. [11] [12] Koper kan ook swart word deur dit te verhit. [13] Oksidasie met die gebruik van sulfiede kan dieselfde effek hê. [13] [14]

Dit lyk asof die Yajurveda yster ken. [9] In die Taittiriya Samhita is verwysings na ayas en ten minste een verwysing na smede. [9] Die Satapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.5 verwys na die smelt van metaalerts. [15] In die Manu Smriti (6.71) word die volgende analogie gevind: "Want soos die onsuiwerhede van metaalertse, gesmelt in die ontploffing (van 'n oond), verteer word, net so word die besmetting van die organe deur die onderdrukking van die asem. " Metaal is ook in die landbou gebruik, en die Boeddhistiese teks Suttanipata het die volgende analogie: "as 'n ploegskaar wat bedags warm geword het toe dit in die water gegooi word, spuit, sis en rook in volumes." [9]

In die Charaka Samhita kom 'n analogie voor wat waarskynlik verwys na die verlore wastegniek. [15] Die Silpasastras (die Manasara, die Manasollasa (Abhilashitartha Chintamani) en die Uttarabhaga van Silparatna) beskryf die verlore wastegniek in detail. [15]

Die Silappadikaram sê dat kopersmede in Puhar en in Madura was. [15] Volgens die geskiedenis van die Han-dinastie deur Ban Gu was Kashmir en "Tien-chu" ryk aan metale. [15]

Nagarjuna (gebore 931) was 'n invloedryke Indiese metallurg en alchemis. Hy het die verhandeling geskryf Rasaratnakara wat handel oor voorbereidings van rasa (kwik) verbindings. Dit gee 'n oorsig van die status van metallurgie en alchemie in die land. Onttrekking van metale soos silwer, goud, tin en koper uit hul erts en die suiwering daarvan is ook in die verhandeling genoem. Die Rasa Ratnasamuccaya beskryf die ekstraksie en gebruik van koper. [16]

Chakrabarti (1976) het ses vroeë ystergebruikende sentrums in Indië geïdentifiseer: Baluchistan, die Noordwes, die Indo-Gangetiese kloof en die boonste Gangetic-vallei, Oos-Indië, Malwa en Berar in Sentraal-Indië en die megalitiese Suid-Indië. [9] Dit lyk asof die sentrale Indiese streek die vroegste sentrum is wat yster gebruik. [17]

Volgens Tewari was ysterverbruik en yster "algemeen in die sentrale Ganga -vlakte en die oostelike Vindhyas vanaf die vroeë 2de millennium vC." [18]

Die vroegste bewyse vir gesmelte yster in Indië dateer uit 1300 tot 1000 vC. [19] Hierdie vroeë bevindings kom ook voor op plekke soos die Deccan, en die vroegste bewyse vir gesmelte yster kom in Sentraal-Indië voor, nie in die noordweste van Indië nie. [20] Boonop is die datums vir yster in Indië nie later as in die van Sentraal -Asië nie, en volgens sommige geleerdes (bv. Koshelenko 1986) kan die datums vir gesmelte yster eintlik vroeër in Indië wees as in Sentraal -Asië en Iran. [21] Die ystertydperk het egter nie 'n groot sosiale transformasie nodig gehad nie, en Gregory Possehl het geskryf dat "die ystertydperk meer 'n voortsetting van die verlede is as 'n breuk daarmee". [22]

Argeologiese gegewens dui daarop dat Indië ''n onafhanklike en vroeë sentrum van ystertegnologie was'. [23] Volgens Shaffer verskil die "aard en konteks van die betrokke ystervoorwerpe [van die BRW -kultuur] baie van vroeë ystervoorwerpe wat in Suidwes -Asië gevind is." [24] In Sentraal-Asië het die ontwikkeling van ystertegnologie ook nie noodwendig verband gehou met Indo-Iraanse migrasies nie. [25]

JM Kenoyer (1995) merk ook op dat daar 'n 'lang onderbreking in blikverkryging' nodig is vir die vervaardiging van 'blikbrons' in die Indusvallei, wat dui op 'n gebrek aan kontak met Baluchistan en Noord -Afghanistan, of die gebrek aan migrante uit die noordweste wat blik kon bekom het.

Indus Valley Civilization Redigeer

Die koper-brons metallurgie in die Harappaanse beskawing was wydverspreid en het 'n groot verskeidenheid en kwaliteit gehad. [26] Die vroeë gebruik van yster het moontlik ontstaan ​​uit die praktyk van koper smelt. [27] Alhoewel daar tot dusver geen bewyse is vir gesmelte yster in die Indusvallei -beskawing nie, is ystererts en ysterartikels in agt Indusvallei -terreine opgegrawe, waarvan sommige dateer voor 2600 vC. [28] Die moontlikheid bestaan ​​dat sommige van hierdie items van gesmelte yster gemaak is, en die term "krsna ayas" kan moontlik ook na hierdie ysterartikels verwys, selfs al is dit nie van gesmelte yster nie.

Lothali -koper is buitengewoon suiwer, sonder die arseen wat tipies deur kopersmede in die res van die Indusvallei gebruik word. Werkers het blik en koper gemeng vir die vervaardiging van kelke, pylpunte, vishoeke, beitels, armbande, ringe, bore en spitpunte, hoewel die vervaardiging van wapens gering was. Hulle het ook gevorderde metallurgie gebruik om die cire perdue giettegniek en het meer as eenvormige vorms gebruik om voëls en diere te gooi. [29] Hulle het ook nuwe gereedskap uitgevind, soos geboë saag en gedraaide bore wat destyds nie aan ander beskawings bekend was nie. [30]

Messing Edit

Koper is in die 3de en 2de millennium vC in Lothal en Atranjikhera gebruik. [31] Koper en waarskynlik sink is ook in die konteks van die 4de tot die 3de eeu vC by Taxila gevind. [32]

Koper Edit

Kopertegnologie dateer moontlik uit die 4de millennium vC in die Himalaya -streek. [16] Dit is die eerste element wat in die metallurgie ontdek is, koper en sy legerings is ook gebruik om koper-brons beelde soos Boeddha's of Hindoe/Mahayana Boeddhistiese gode te skep. [15] Xuanzang het ook opgemerk dat daar koper-brons Boeddha-beelde in Magadha was. [15] In Varanasi word elke fase van die beeldvervaardigingsproses deur 'n spesialis hanteer. [33]

Ander metaalvoorwerpe wat deur Indiese ambagsmanne gemaak is, sluit lampe in. [34] Koper was ook 'n komponent in die skeermesse vir die mangelseremonie. [15]

Een van die belangrikste bronne van die geskiedenis in die Indiese subkontinent is die koninklike rekords van toelaes wat op koperplaat-toelaes gegraveer is (tamra-shasan of tamra-patra). Omdat koper nie roes of verval nie, kan dit onbepaald oorleef. Versamelings van argeologiese tekste van die koperplate en rotsinskrywings is die afgelope eeu deur die Archaeological Survey of India saamgestel en gepubliseer. Die vroegste koperplaat, bekend as die Sohgaura-koperplaat, is 'n Maurya-rekord wat hongersnoodpogings noem. Dit is een van die baie min inskrywings voor Ashoka Brahmi in Indië.

Goud en silwer Edit

Die diepste goudmyne van die antieke wêreld is in die Maski -streek in Karnataka gevind. [35] Daar was ou silwer myne in die noordweste van Indië. Gedateer tot die middel van die 1ste millennium vC. goud en silwer is ook gebruik vir die maak van toebehore vir die koninklike familie en adellikes.

Yster Edit

Onlangse opgrawings in die Midde -Gangesvallei toon dat yster in Indië reeds in 1800 vC begin het. [36] In die 5de eeu vC het die Griekse geskiedskrywer Herodotus opgemerk dat "Indiër en die Persiese leër pyle met yster getipeer gebruik het". [37] Antieke Romeine het wapens en eetgerei van Indiese yster gebruik. Plinius die Ouere noem ook Indiese yster. [37] Muhammad al-Idrisi het geskryf die Hindoes het uitgeblink in die vervaardiging van yster, en dat dit onmoontlik sou wees om iets te vind wat die rand van Hindwani-staal oortref. [38] Quintus Curtius skryf oor 'n Indiese geskenk van staal aan Alexander. [39] Ferrum indicum verskyn in die lys van artikels onder plig onder Marcus Aurelius en Commodus. [9] Indiese Wootz -staal is in Europa hoog aangeslaan, en Indiese yster word dikwels as die beste beskou. [40]

Wootz en staal Edit

Die eerste vorm van smeltkroesstaal was wootz, wat ongeveer 300 vC in Indië ontwikkel is. In die vervaardiging daarvan is die yster met glas gemeng en dan stadig verhit en dan afgekoel. Namate die mengsel afgekoel het, sou die glas aan onsuiwerhede in die staal bind en dan na die oppervlak dryf, wat die staal aansienlik suiwer laat. Koolstof kan die yster binnedring deur deur die poreuse mure van die smeltkroes te versprei. Koolstofdioksied sal nie met die yster reageer nie, maar die klein hoeveelhede koolstofmonoksied kan, met 'n mate van beheer, koolstof by die mengsel voeg. Wootz is wyd uitgevoer in die hele Midde -Ooste, waar dit gekombineer is met 'n plaaslike vervaardigingstegniek omstreeks 1000 CE om Damaskus -staal te vervaardig, bekend oor die hele wêreld. [41] Wootz kom van die Tamil -term vir staal urukku. [42] Indiese wootz -staal was die eerste staal van hoë gehalte wat vervaardig is.

Henry Yule het die Arabiese Edrizi uit die 12de eeu aangehaal wat geskryf het: 'Die Suid-Indiërs blink uit in die vervaardiging van yster en in die voorbereiding van die bestanddele waarmee dit saamsmelt om die soort sagte yster te verkry wat gewoonlik van Indiese staal gemaak is. Hulle het ook werkswinkels waarin die bekendste sabels in die wêreld gesmee word ... Dit is nie moontlik om iets te vind wat die rand wat u van Indiese staal kry (al-hadid al-Hindi) kan oortref nie. [37]

Reeds in die 17de eeu het die Europeërs geweet van die vermoë van Indië om smeltkroes te vervaardig uit verslae wat deur reisigers teruggebring is wat die proses op verskeie plekke in die suide van Indië waargeneem het. Verskeie pogings is aangewend om die proses in te voer, maar dit het misluk omdat die presiese tegniek 'n raaisel was. Studies oor wootz is gedoen in 'n poging om die geheime daarvan te verstaan, insluitend 'n groot poging van die beroemde wetenskaplike, Michael Faraday, seun van 'n smid. In samewerking met 'n plaaslike eetgerei -vervaardiger het hy verkeerdelik tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat dit die toevoeging van aluminiumoksied en silika uit die glas was wat wootz sy unieke eienskappe gee.

Na die Indiese opstand van 1857 is baie Indiese wootz -staal swaarde op bevel van die Britse owerhede vernietig. [37] Metaalbewerking het tydens die Britse Ryk 'n afname ondergaan, maar staalproduksie is in Indië herleef deur Jamsetji Tata.

Sink Edit

Sink is reeds in die 4de tot 3de eeu vC in Indië onttrek. Sinkproduksie het moontlik in Indië begin, en die ou noordwestelike Indië is die vroegste bekende beskawing wat sink op industriële skaal vervaardig het. [43] Die distillasietegniek is omstreeks 1200 CE in Zawar in Rajasthan ontwikkel. [31]

In die 17de eeu het China sink na Europa uitgevoer onder die naam totamu of tutenag. Die term tutenag kan afkomstig wees van die Suid -Indiese term Tutthanagaa (sink). [44] In 1597 het Libavius, 'n metallurg in Engeland, 'n hoeveelheid sinkmetaal ontvang en dit as Indiese/Malabar -lood genoem. [45] In 1738 word William Champion erken dat hy in Brittanje 'n proses gepatenteer het om sink uit kalamien in 'n smelter te onttrek, 'n tegnologie wat sterk ooreenstem met en waarskynlik geïnspireer is deur die proses wat in die Zawar -sinkmyne in Rajasthan gebruik is. [37] Sy eerste patent is deur die patenthof verwerp op grond van die plagiaat van die tegnologie wat algemeen in Indië voorkom. Hy het egter die patent toegestaan ​​op sy tweede indiening van patentgoedkeuring. Postlewayt se Universal Dictionary van 1751 was nog nie bewus van hoe sink vervaardig word nie. [32]

Die Arthashastra beskryf die produksie van sink. [46] Die Rasaratnakara deur Nagarjuna beskryf die vervaardiging van koper en sink. [47] Daar is verwysings na medisinale gebruike van sink in die Charaka Samhita (300 vC). Die Rasaratna Samuchaya (800 nC) verduidelik die bestaan ​​van twee soorte erts vir sinkmetaal, waarvan die een ideaal is vir metaalwinning terwyl die ander vir medisinale doeleindes gebruik word. [48] ​​Dit beskryf ook twee metodes van sinkdistillasie. [32]

Onlangse opgrawings in die Midde -Gangesvallei wat deur die argeoloog Rakesh Tewari gedoen is, toon dat yster reeds in 1800 vC begin werk het. [36] Argeologiese terreine in Indië, soos Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila en Lahuradewa in die deelstaat Uttar Pradesh toon ysterwerktuie in die tydperk tussen 1800 BCE-1200 BCE. [36] Sahi (1979: 366) het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat ystersmelting in die vroeë 13de eeu vC beslis op groter skaal in Indië beoefen word, wat daarop dui dat die datum waarop die vroeë tydperk van die tegnologie reeds in die 16de eeu v.G. [36]

Sommige van die vroeë ystervoorwerpe wat in Indië gevind is, is tot 1400 vC gedateer deur die metode van radiokoolstofdatering te gebruik. [49] Op verskillende argeologiese terreine is spykers, messe, dolke, pylkoppe, bakke, lepels, kastrolle, byle, beitels, tang, deurbeslag ens. [49] In Suid -Indië (huidige Mysore) het yster reeds in die 12de of 11de eeu vC verskyn. [50] Hierdie verwikkelinge was te vroeg vir 'n beduidende noue kontak met die noordweste van die land. [50]

Die vroegste beskikbare bronsouderdomme van koper wat op die Harappan -terreine in Pakistan ontdek is, dateer uit 2300 vC. [51] Swaarde is gevind in argeologiese bevindings in die Ganges-Jamuna Doab-streek van Indië, bestaande uit brons, maar meer algemeen koper. [51] Diverse specimens have been discovered in Fatehgarh, where there are several varieties of hilt. [51] These swords have been variously dated to periods between 1700 and 1400 BCE, but were probably used more extensively during the opening centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. [51]

The beginning of the 1st millennium BCE saw extensive developments in iron metallurgy in India. [50] Technological advancement and mastery of iron metallurgy was achieved during this period of peaceful settlements. [50] The years between 322 and 185 BCE saw several advancements being made to the technology involved in metallurgy during the politically stable Maurya period (322—185 BCE). [52] Greek historian Herodotus (431—425 BCE) wrote the first western account of the use of iron in India. [49]

Perhaps as early as 300 BCE—although certainly by 200 CE—high quality steel was being produced in southern India by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique. [53] In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon. [53] The first crucible steel was the wootz steel that originated in India before the beginning of the common era. [54] Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe, China, the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it became known as Damascus steel. Archaeological evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the common era. [55] [56]

Zinc mines of Zawar, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active during 400 BCE. [57] There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE). [57] The Rasaratna Samuccaya (800 CE) explains the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal extraction while the other is used for medicinal purpose. [57] The Periplus Maris Erythraei mentions weapons of Indian iron and steel being exported from India to Greece. [58]

The world's first iron pillar was the Iron pillar of Delhi—erected at the times of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413). [59] The swords manufactured in Indian workshops find written mention in the works of Muhammad al-Idrisi (flourished 1154). [60] Indian Blades made of Damascus steel found their way into Persia. [58] European scholars—during the 14th century—studied Indian casting and metallurgy technology. [61]

Indian metallurgy under the Mughal emperor Akbar (reign: 1556-1605) produced excellent small firearms. [62] Gommans (2002) holds that Mughal handguns were stronger and more accurate than their European counterparts. [63]

Srivastava & Alam (2008) comment on Indian coinage of the Mughal Empire (established: April 21, 1526 - ended: September 21, 1857) during Akbar's regime: [64]

Akbar reformed Mughal currency to make it one of the best known of its time. The new regime possessed a fully functioning trimetallic (silver, copper, and gold) currency, with an open minting system in which anyone willing to pay the minting charges could bring metal or old or foreign coin to the mint and have it struck. All monetary exchanges were, however, expressed in copper coins in Akbar's time. In the 17th century, following the silver influx from the New World, silver rupee with new fractional denominations replaced the copper coin as a common medium of circulation. Akbar's aim was to establish a uniform coinage throughout his empire some coins of the old regime and regional kingdoms also continued.

Statues of Nataraja en Vishnu were cast during the reign of the imperial Chola dynasty (200-1279) in the 9th century. [61] The casting could involve a mixture of five metals: copper, zinc, tin, gold, and silver. [61]

Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, the Seamless celestial globe was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589-90 CE), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. [65] Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology. [65] These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lost-wax casting in order to produce these globes. [65]

Modern steel making in India began with the setting of first blast furnace of India at Kulti in 1870 and production began in 1874, which was set up by Bengal Iron Works. The Ordnance Factory Board established Metal & Steel Factory (MSF) at Calcutta, in 1872 [66] [67] The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was established by Dorabji Tata in 1907, as part of his father's conglomerate. By 1939 Tata operated the largest steel plant in the British Empire, and accounted for a significant proportion of the 2 million tons pig iron and 1.13 of steel produced in British India annually. [68] [69]

Native arms production Edit

The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets (Mysorean rockets) were developed by the Mysorean army of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore in the 1780s. [70] The Mysoreans successfully used these iron-cased rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. [70]

A painting showing the Mysorean army fighting the British forces with Mysorean rockets, which used metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. [71]

A Mysorean soldier using his Mysorean rocket as a flagstaff (Robert Home, 1793/4).


From wax to metal: goldmaking techniques of the ancient Colombians - History

The great pre-Columbian Native American civilizations&mdashthe Olmec, Maya, Inca, Aztec, and the gold-working cultures of Colombia&mdashleft behind as their material legacy a remarkable array of artifacts. Among them are magnificent pieces of gold work, figurines of silver and platinum, tools of copper and bronze, turquoise mosaics, jade masks, obsidian knives, bright-red pigments of cinnabar and hematite, intricate limestone and basalt carvings, and architectural monuments that still stand today.

The creative use of minerals in pre-Columbian times began with the Olmec fascination with jade. As the Americas&rsquo first complex, advanced society, the Olmec preceded the Maya in Mesoamerica (the anthropological region of similar cultural traditions that extends from southern Mexico to Costa Rica). About 2000 BCE, Olmec sculptors began fashioning jade into beads, pendants, figurines, celts (ax heads), and realistic and stylistic human masks.

The term &ldquojade&rdquo refers to gem forms of two different minerals, nephrite, and jadeite. Jadeite, or sodium aluminum silicate, is a member of the pyroxene group of inosilicates. With its greater hardness, more intensive colors, and subtle translucency, jadeite is the gemologically superior form of jade. All Mesoamerican jadeite came from the metamorphosed serpentinite rock of southern Guatemala&rsquos Motagua River Valley.

Pure jadeite is white, but traces of various metals that replace aluminum within the crystal lattice create a range of pleasing colors, usually, but not always, some shade of green. With its closely packed crystal lattice and strong molecular bonding, jadeite&rsquos hardness approaches that of quartz. Jadeite takes a fine polish, and its extraordinary toughness resists chipping and breaking. These qualities appealed to the Olmec, who developed a reverence for the stone. Jade represented breath, life, fertility, and power to the Olmec, as well as to the Maya and Aztecs who succeeded them.

The Olmec passed their jade-working skills on to the Maya, who fashioned large quantities of jade into anklets, wrist cuffs, mosaic masks, belts, earrings, figurines, ceremonial celts, and objects for funerary rituals and personal adornment. All were intricately worked and highly polished&mdashan impressive feat, considering jadeite&rsquos hardness. Mayan stoneworkers cut jade by repetitively pulling cords covered with silica paste through deepening grooves, then polished it by rubbing with a finer silica paste. As a major trading commodity, Mayan jade has been recovered from cultural sites far from Mesoamerica.

The arrival of the Spanish in 1521 disrupted all Mesoamerican cultures and ended the 3,500-year-old tradition of mining, working, and trading jade. Because the Spanish were interested only in gold, jade working became a lost art. The ancient Guatemalan jadeite mines were forgotten and have only recently been rediscovered.

If jade was the most widely used pre-Columbian gemstone, gold was the most widely worked metal. As early as 1000 BCE, forerunners of the Incas in what is now Peru systematically mined large quantities of gold from rich placer deposits. They simultaneously developed religions dedicated to gold and fashioned the metal into artwork to honor a god the color of gold itself&mdashthe sun. Driven by religious motivations, they advanced gold-working skills to the levels of both an art and a rudimentary science.

These skills spread north to Colombia, reaching Panama and Costa Rica by 200 CE, and southern Mexico by 900 CE. By then, pre-Columbian gold-working techniques were the world&rsquos most advanced. Except for electroplating, they included all the fundamental techniques used by goldsmiths today. Gold working reached its technological and artistic peak about 1200 CE with the mountain cultures of what is now Colombia.

The craftsmanship vested in pre-Columbian gold work is remarkable, considering that it was achieved without iron implements or any modern metallurgical knowledge. With materials limited to drafted charcoal furnaces, stone tools, ceramics, wax, blowpipes, and natural chemical reagents, the gold workers&rsquo most valuable resource was an uncanny understanding of the nature of gold itself.

Native gold always occurs combined with other metals that reduce its workability. To refine gold, goldsmiths mixed it with salt (sodium chloride) and heated it to incandescence. The salt combined with metal impurities to form chlorides, which were driven off as vapors, leaving behind gold of high purity.

Hammering with stone implements was a simple technique that took advantage of gold&rsquos great malleability. Goldsmiths annealed or tempered gold by repetitively heating it, then cooling it in water. Repetitive annealing produced large, intact, smooth gold sheets of uniform thickness that could be fashioned into breastplates, funeral vestments, and masks.

Gold sheets were decorated with etched and repoussé designs, twisted and folded into various shapes, formed into hollow objects, or joined together with fused or stapled seams. Artistically perfect seams, created with heat and a chemical flux, were metallurgically identical to those made by modern gas welders.


Bogotá’s Gold Rush

The Muisca Raft, a votive offering made from copper and gold, was discovered in 1969 in a cave near the town of Pasca, south of Bogotá.

Modern Colombia boasts a treasure trove of ancient sites, including the mountain city of Ciudad Perdida (see CWA 53), the megalithic sculptures at San Agustín, and the burial chambers of Tierradentro. The country’s star attraction, though, is Bogotá’s Museo del Oro – often cited as one of South America’s greatest museums, and home to more than 55,000 pieces of gold and artefacts from Colombia’s major pre-Hispanic cultures.

Set across four exhibition galleries, the Museo del Oro explores the enduring relationship of ancient Colombia’s inhabitants with gold and metallurgy. Visitors are taken on a glittering journey through the mining, manufacture, and finishing process of the metal (using lost-wax casting), and into the mythology and sacred symbolism of each gold piece.

The remarkable variety of crafted gold is best exhibited in the museum’s unique collection of golden poporos – containers that held powdered lime to mix with chewed coca leaves, with metal pins to extract the mixture. Fashioned from layers of sheet gold, these poporos take the form of animals, plants, and, in one highly skilled piece, a seated female figure.

A poporo in the form of a female figure, dating from 400 BC.

The inhabitants of ancient Colombia started working with gold and copper around 500 BC, and for 2,000 years craftsmen mastered complex metalworking techniques. Intricate gold objects in the museum include diadems, bird-shaped breastplates, and funerary masks – used by the ruling elite to reinforce power, prestige, and religion. Displays of simple yet symbolic ornaments used by ordinary people also remind the visitor of the universal appeal of gold: it guarded against evil, appeased the gods, and enriched the afterlife.

In 1499, the first Spanish conquistadors set foot on present-day Colombian soil and were astonished by the region’s wealth. The 16th-century historian López de Gómara later observed, ‘they pick up gold wherever they want… in that river and in others, and sometimes they even fish out nuggets of pure gold, the size of eggs’. Seductive rumours of fabulous treasures soon gave birth to the tale of a mighty chieftain covered in gold, known as El Dorado or ‘the Golden One’.

The legend of El Dorado originated from the Muisca people and their sacred Lake Guatavita, 56km north-east of modern Bogotá. As the Spanish advanced on the Muisca territory in 1537, they heard stories of a dazzling ritual where the chieftain was covered in gold dust, and threw piles of emeralds and gold into the lake – a symbolic offering to the gods.

The museum explores our enduring fascination with El Dorado, and showcases a sublime exhibition highlight – a pure gold votive object (or tunjo) known as the Muisca Raft. Discovered in 1969, this masterpiece depicts a raft with a gilded chieftain at the centre, adorned with elaborate headdresses. Surrounding masked figures carry banners, while a group of men paddle the raft to the centre of a sacred lake, to ritually sacrifice a bounty of treasures to the dark waters below.

As the conquistadors’ thirst for gold reached fever pitch, the Spaniards plundered the Muisca’s riches, and continued on their obsessive quest to discover more El Dorados. The Museo del Oro’s outstanding collection attests to the ancient Colombian practice of burying gold with the deceased, and of making ritual offerings to lakes and caves. These buried gold pieces survived centuries of looting by foreign invaders, and now honour us with a unique glimpse into this magnificent world of ancient artistry.

Tom St John Gray is a documentary film-maker and freelance journalist with a special interest in heritage.


PRE-COLUMBIAN CULTURES OF ECUADOR

The first known man footprints in Ecuadorian lands came from several millennia before the Christian era. These first hunters and gatherers made every day utensils and tools in which color was an important feature of their manufacture. This Paleoindian Pre-Ceramic period was followed by the Formative Period between 3500 to 800-500 BC., which included the Valdivia, Machalilla, Chorrera and Narrío cultures. By then, these peoples practiced agriculture and lead a sedentary life, while peoples inhabiting the seashore relied heavily on fishing. These first cultures worshiped fertility evidenced in the numerous anthropomorphic representations, especially of female characters.

Left: Ceramic female figurine from the Valdivia Culture, 2600-1500 BC. (Brooklyn Museum). Center Top: Anthropomorphic bottle with a stirrup handle from the Machalilla Culture (Ecuador), 1600-700 BC. Center Bottom: Pre-Columbian seals from the Chorrera Culture. Right: Zoomorphic whistling spout effigy bottle, Chorerra Culture (Museum zu Allerheiligen, Switzerland).

Die Valdivia culture was located in the coast of the provinces of Guayas and Oro. Its pottery is of remarkable antiquity and of high technical development being considered the central focus from where the ceramics in America spread out. The most beautiful expression of its art are the numerous female figurines they are characterized by the enormous headdresses that frame their beautifully expressive faces and they show changes of style in line with the cultural evolution of Valdivia. It seems that they had ceremonial centers and a matriarchal-based religion.

Die Machalilla culture coexisted with the last stages of the Valdivia culture and outlived it. Its ceramics presents several innovations: painted decoration consisting of lines drawn with thick paint, forms different from traditional ones, bottles with a “stirrup handle ” and completely anthropomorphic forms.

Die Chorrera culture was broadly spread reaching from the coast inland, penetrating the Andes and the Amazonian territory. Their settlements were located preferably along the rivers which constituted their natural route of expansion. It is considered as the core of the Ecuadorian nationality. Their ceramic is fine with very thin walls obtained by a detailed selection of clay and a controlled firing technique. In this ceramic, the Chorrera man represented his world: their housing, food products, wildlife, both wild and domestic. The anthropomorphic figurines were of greater proportions than in previous cultures and were generally hollow they replaced the bottle with a “stirrup handle” by the whistle, prevailing zoomorphic representations, and used iridescent paint of metallic origin which involved cultural links with Guatemala. The Chorrera ceramics was also influenced by the Chavín ceramics of Peru. The Chorrera also made the first “seals” and used obsidian to manufacture cutting instruments. They were also noted for their lapidary art working in rock crystal, lapis lazuli and shells to make necklaces.

Die Narrío culture developed in the inter-Andean valleys and is contemporaneous with that of Chorrera. Throughout its extensive aesthetic production it showed an intimate relationship between man and nature. They worked stone, clay, shell, bone and finally metals, mainly to produce objects for personal adornment. Its thin-walled ceramic showed great mastery. They stood out as notable craftsmen of shell and cultivated the art of the miniature.

Period of Regional Development

It covers ca. 800 BC. to 500 AD. and includes several cultures that flourished along the coast (Bahía, Guangala, Jambelí, Jama-Coaque, La Tolita), and in the Sierra (Tuncahuán and Panzaleo) reaching great artistic splendor. They mastered several techniques -casting, lost wax casting, forging, embossing, amalgaming, welding, gilding, laminating-, they also polished stone, used metals (copper and gold), had deep knowledge of sailing, and it seems they had an urban system with places of worship and burial mounds and a remarkable ceramics production. Their religion involved complicated ceremonies and eroticism played an important role in their beliefs linking it to fertility.

Various features of several of their cultural elements -raspers, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines, the “negative” painting in their ceramic decorations- showed connections with Mesoamerica, probably of a commercial nature.

From left to right: Clay head of a priest or shaman, ca. 500 AD, Cerro Narrío Culture Seated figure, 1st century BC.-1st century AD., Tolita Culture Standing gold figure, 1st century BC. – 1st century AD., Tolita Culture Large terra-cotta amphora with painted decoration, 600-800 AD., Tuncahuán Culture.

In ceramics, the Chorrera style bottles-whistles evolved acquiring new tonal effects. This art produced a great variety of whistles, flutes and ocarinas*, resembling the human figure, birds and mammals. The traditional dish drifted towards a dish with a higher base called “compotera*“, while others rested on anthropomorphic feet. The negative painting became very important. Small seals or ceramic stamps abounded being more frequent in the northern area. Sculptural pottery produced giant figures -not less than 50 or 60 cm high- representing both men and women. In the north, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines predominated which represented and “extraterrestrial” world, attainable only by the sorcerer or shaman under the effects of some hallucinogenic drug. Ceramists also produced figurines of ceremonial character and small masks.

The culture of La Tolita was very representative. Located in the Esmeraldas province, this advanced culture takes its name from the homonymous island located at the mouth of the Santiago river. The artistic expression of this culture was fully manifested in sculpture producing sharp portraits and vivid representations of whole sequences of vital moments from birth to death. They were also remarkable craftsmen in metallurgy, where they dominated the most diverse techniques using gold, copper and platinum, this last a metal that was worked in Ecuador for the first time in the world. The goldsmiths didn’t melt it but softened it and gave it the desired shapes. They produced objects of personal adornment and ritual use: rings, earmuffs, nose rings, bezotes*, facial nails, necklaces, diadems, pectorals, earrings, which were generally of minimal dimensions. Sometimes they used two metals in the same piece to produce color contrast. They also elaborated hollow sculptures with great attention to detail.

Regional Development in the Sierra

In the mountain ranges, the Ecuadorian cultures evolved without the possibility of intense cultural exchange conditioned by the isolation of the geographical environment. These cultures included Tuncahuán and Panzaleo. Tuncahuán was located in the north of the country, the Carchi entering the department of Nariño in Colombia. It was characterized by its tri-colored ceramic, which was made with creamy white, black (negative painting*) and bright red colors, this last essential in the decoration. In the sculpture they were outstanding for their jars or pots, the “compoteras” and artifacts imitating sea shells masterfully manufactured, all used as decoration or as musical instruments. They worked copper and gold in jewelry for personal use. The fabrics were another important artistic manifestation of this culture.

Die Panzaleo culture spread in the central area of the country: Cotopaxi and Tungurahua, with ramifications towards the North. It specialized in the ceramic production, although they also worked metals. Its ceramic was of very thin walls achieved by using mica as degreaser. They gave their pottery various forms, although were very typical the vessels representing mammals, such as lamas, the anthropomorphic pitchers representing characters covered with “ponchos”, or others with the coca ball on the cheek, etc.- and the “compoteras”. The decoration of the ceramic containers generally used themes expressing two different forms.

Top Left: Ceramic jar with polychrome painting representing a man chewing coca leaves, Panzaleo Culture. Top Right: Feline effigy jar, Manteño Culture. Bottom Left: Ceramic figure from the Huancavilca Culture. Bottom Right: Huge pottery urn with abstract human head, Puruhá Culture.

PERIOD OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION

It is characterized by the construction of enormous works of ceremonial or economic character, the “ tolas *”, which involved the removal of large volumes of soil.

There was a gradual transfer of the agriculture fields up to the highlands by building artificial terraces on the mountain slopes in this way they took advantage of the humidity brought by the sea winds. There were several human gatherings organized in well-marked settlements. The different ways they worshiped their dead indicate the existence of social and administrative hierarchies.

The cultural territories were the following: 1) Atacames, in the North in the Esmeraldas province coinciding with the area occupied by the cultures of La Tolita and Jama-Coaque 2) from Jama to the South occupied by the Manteña-Huancavilca culture, and 3) the culture from Milagro-Quevedo located in the Guayas and Los Ríos provinces.

In these areas, the pottery was of inferior quality than the previous described cultures, except for the Manteña with the production of figurines and numerous seals of varied motifs. The jar with a human face carved on the neck of the recipient was typical of this culture. Manteños and Huancavilcas were distinguished by their stone sculptures their chairs with a U-shaped seat of different sizes are famous. Textiles were very important, as well as metallurgy. They worked the copper, making the “ax-coin”, the giant axes -weighing up to 20 kilos each-, hatches, chisels, small artifacts like needles, fishing hooks, bells, etc. The goldsmithing achieved a high degree of technical development: that of the northern area from Atacames stands out for their miniatures, and the one of the southern area from Milagro-Quevedo by their spiraled and wired motifs.

These cultures essentially vary in their traditional artistic criteria and the cultures op sigself didn’t present the cultural connectivity that characterized those from the coast.

In Negativo del Carchi, the architecture was characterized by the presence of “tolas”. The art of this culture is embodied in the clay, stone and metal works. In ceramics they produced utilitarian and ritual objects the compoteras acquired agility and sometimes replaced the human figure for the feline the artisans molded the male figures naked, while the female ones, curiously, wearing skirts and clay masks, imparting a particular philosophy. Deep red colors characterized the pottery works of these mountainous cultures.

With metals, artisans made working tools and beautiful jewels using the embossing technique. They adopted very simple forms and the subjects were geometric and represented two forms.

Die Cuasmal culture marked the end of the prehistory of the Carchi and developed urban systems located in places close to the agricultural fields. In its ceramic art prevailed the pictorial conception for that reason they focused on drawing geometric, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs with dark painting that stands out on a light background.

Left: Gold plaques from the Tungurahua-Chimborazo border region, 13-15th century AD., Puruhá Culture. Top Right: Whistle-pot with a human head, Chorrera Culture (Museum of the Central Bank of Ecuador, Quito). Bottom Right: Clay vessel from the Cashaloma Culture.

Die Puruhá culture was developed in the present province of Chimborazo. Its artistic production was based essentially on the pottery and sometimes on the stone sculpture, which showed a phallic cult amply widespread in the area. They also worked the “tumbaga*” alloy, gold and copper, using various techniques for the manufacturing of personal adornments and weapons.

Die Cariari culture bloomed between 500 and 1500 AD in the slopes of the Eastern and Western mountain ranges living of agriculture and hunting. They exploited gold, copper and silver, and developed good metallurgy works. They made beautifully embellished jewels, ritual objects and weapons of rude design. Their ceramic art was notable for their design, standing out among them the anthropomorphic bottles.

Die Cashaloma is the culmination of the Cañari culture and lasted until the Inca conquest. Their ceramics was in red and white, decorated by small protuberances forming little heads or zoomorphic stylizations and different new diverse forms it was characteristic from this culture a head-shaped vessel in which the human head and the horns of an animal were combined and which served for ritual purposes. They also worked metals, bone and stone, emphasizing the nose rings and earmuffs in half-moon shapes and decorated with geometric embossing.

Left: Female representation in clay by the Jama-Coaque culture. The woman was represented with a careful hairstyle, huge earmuffs, a nosepiece, a labret and a big necklace from which perhaps hangs an amulet. Like almost all the female figures represented by the Ecuadorian pre-Columbian cultures, she wears a simple skirt (Museum of the Central Bank of Ecuador, Quito). Middle: The Manteña culture used the sculpted stone in the form of stelae in which they possibly represented divinities. In this one we can see his helmet-shaped headdress, the big necklace and a kind of skirt wore over the skirt itself. Right: Seated Coquero, a type of image abundant in the culture of the Negativo del Carchi. It was decorated with negative painting. The artist has expressed with few elements the state of placidity produced by the consumption of the coca leaves. However, at the same time the black paint drips from his eyes like tears giving this man’s face a certain dramatic air (Museum of the Central Bank of Ecuador, Quito) The famous representation of the solar god made in gold by the culture of La Tolita. The man of this culture attributed to this god the generative principle of the universe and life, but humanized it by giving it a human head and long and zigzagging hair (Museum of the Central Bank of Ecuador, Quito).

Ocarina: An ancient wind musical instrument, a type of vessel flute. Ocarinas are traditionally made from clay or ceramic.

Compotera: A bowl with an annular, high and frustoconical base, whose interior is usually decorated with designs.

Bezote: A species of earring (or labret) wore in the lower lip used by members of some American Indian groups.

Negative Painting: A pictorial technique that involves applying pigment around a subject to give it definition.

Tola: Ceremonial mounds from the cultures of Pre-Columbian Ecuador.

Tumbaga: An alloy of gold and copper commonly used by pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America cultures.


Kyk die video: Narcotica . Medellin. Nel quartiere di Pablo Escobar (Augustus 2022).