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Standbeeld van Aphrodite Heyl

Standbeeld van Aphrodite Heyl



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Standbeeld van Aphrodite Heyl - Geskiedenis

Heyl Standbeeld van Aphrodite, Griekse godin van liefde. 2de eeuse terracotta uit die Heyl -versameling. Hierdie beeld is een van die mooiste voorbeelde van antieke terracottabeelde wat bestaan. Die noupassende kleed of die godin van liefde het van haar skouers geglip, haar opgestrekte linkerbeen het miskien op 'n pilaar gestaan. Die voorkant van die figuur, wat in 'n vorm gevorm is, is met 'n modelskraper gesny en uiteindelik geverf. Altes Museum Berlyn

Sleutelwoorde:

Beeldnommer:

Beeld grootte:

Eiendomslisensie:

Geen eiendomslisensie nie. As hierdie beeld gebruik moet word vir die advertering van 'n produk en die beeld herkenbare eiendom bevat, moet u die eienaar van die eiendom nader vir toestemming om die foto te gebruik. Redaksionele gebruik en reisadvertensies het gewoonlik nie 'n eiendomslisensie nodig nie, maar kyk as u twyfel.

Kopiereg:

© Paul Williams 2019 alle regte voorbehou


Die J. Paul Getty Museum

Hierdie prent kan gratis afgelaai word onder die Getty's Open Content -program.

Standbeeld van Aphrodite

Onbekend 38 × 18,5 × 13,7 cm (14 15/16 × 7 5/16 × 5 3/8 in.) 96.AB.149

Open Content-beelde is gewoonlik groot in lêergrootte. Om moontlike datakoste van u diensverskaffer te vermy, beveel ons aan om seker te maak dat u toestel aan 'n Wi-Fi-netwerk gekoppel is voordat dit afgelaai word.

Tans te sien by: Getty Villa, Gallery 111, The Hellenistic World

Alternatiewe aansigte

Voorkant, hoofaansig

Regte profiel gesig

Links profiel profiel

Oë na kamera

Regte profiel liggaam

Linker profiel lyf

Voorwerpbesonderhede

Titel:
Kunstenaar/vervaardiger:
Kultuur:
Plek:

Oos -Middellandse See (plek geskep)

eerste helfte van die 2de eeu v.C.

Medium:
Voorwerpnommer:
Afmetings:

38 × 18,5 × 13,7 cm (14 15/16 × 7 5/16 × 5 3/8 in.)

Kredietlyn:

Geskenk van Barbara en Lawrence Fleischman

Alternatiewe titels:

Aphrodite of 'n vrou in die gedaante van die godin (vertoon titel)

Departement:
Klassifikasie:
Voorwerpbeskrywing

Is die vrou in hierdie Griekse beeldjie 'n sterflike of 'n godin? Die figuur staan ​​met haar gewig op die een been en haar heup uitgestrek in 'n gewaagde, byna swaaiende houding. Platinum string sandale, modieus in die vroeë 100's v.C., maak haar langer. Die appel wat deur die figuur gehou word, is gewoonlik 'n kenmerk van Aphrodite, die godin van liefde, en dui daarop dat sy as die mooiste van die godinne beoordeel is. Die rok van hierdie figuur toon egter 'n mate van dekor en modebewussyn wat normaalweg nie in beelde van Aphrodite voorkom nie. Sekere elemente van die beeldjie-die versierde halfmaanvormige stephane of tiara, die hare wat op die wange geborsel is, en die sluier, wat aan haar chignon kleef-blyk uit koninklike portrette van die tyd. Die vrou kan eintlik 'n Hellenistiese koningin verteenwoordig, miskien Apollonis van Pergamon, uitgebeeld as Aphrodite.

Herkoms
Herkoms
Teen 1983

Robert Haber (New York, New York), verkoop aan Barbara en Lawrence Fleischman, 1987.

1987 - 1996

Barbara Fleischman en Lawrence Fleischman, Amerikaner, 1925 - 1997 (New York, New York), skenk aan die J. Paul Getty Museum, 1996.

Uitstallings
Uitstallings
A Passion for Antiquities: Ancient Art uit die versameling van Barbara en Lawrence Fleischman (13 Oktober 1994 tot 23 April 1995)
  • Die J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu), 13 Oktober 1994 tot 15 Januarie 1995
  • Die Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland), 14 Februarie tot 23 April 1995
Aphrodite and the Gods of Love (28 Maart 2012 tot 26 Mei 2013)
Pergamon en die kuns van die Hellenistiese koninkryke (11 April tot 17 Julie 2016)
Bibliografie
Bibliografie

"Museumverkryging tussen 1 Julie 1996 en 30 Junie 1998." Die verslag van die J. Paul Getty Trust (1997-98), bl. 65.

Herrmann Jr., John J. "A Marble Maenad from the Holy Land." Cantor Arts Journal 6 (2008-2009), pp. 7-8, fig. 6, pp. 7-8.

Picón, Carlos A. en Seán Hemingway, reds. Pergamon en die Hellenistiese koninkryke van die antieke wêreld (New Haven en London: Yale University Press, 2016), pp. 237-238, nr. 174, ill., Inskrywing deur Alexis Belis.

Onderwyshulpbronne
Onderwyshulpbronne

Onderwyshulpbron

Les waarin studente kunswerke ondersoek en bestudeer wat Griekse en Romeinse gode voorstel en 'n spottende TV -geselsprogram met die gode aanbied.

Visuele kunste Engels – Taalkunsgeskiedenis – Sosiale wetenskap

Hierdie inligting word gepubliseer uit die museum se versamelingsdatabasis. Opdaterings en toevoegings wat voortspruit uit navorsings- en beeldingsaktiwiteite word voortgesit, met nuwe inhoud wat elke week bygevoeg word. Help ons om ons rekords te verbeter deur u regstellings of voorstelle te deel.

/> Die teks op hierdie bladsy is gelisensieer onder 'n Creative Commons Erkenning 4.0 Internasionale Lisensie, tensy anders vermeld. Beelde en ander media word uitgesluit.

Die inhoud op hierdie bladsy is beskikbaar volgens die spesifikasies van die International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF). U kan hierdie voorwerp bekyk in Mirador-'n IIIF-versoenbare kyker-deur op die IIIF-ikoon onder die hoofbeeld te klik, of deur die ikoon in 'n oop IIIF-kykervenster te sleep.


Halflengte standbeeld van 'n jong vrou of 'n godin (moontlik Aphrodite)

Onder die terracotta-beeldjies uit die klein stad Priene staan ​​hierdie halflange standbeeld uit as een van die hoogste kwaliteit klei-beeldjies uit die oudheid wat ooit gevind is. Ongewoon vir beeldjies is die bogemiddelde grootte en die feit dat dit nie uit 'n model gevorm is nie, maar uit die vrye hand gevorm is. Slegs klein spore van die oorspronklike ryk kleure van wit, goudgeel en donkerrooi-bruin kleure kan op 'n paar plekke nog gesien word, byvoorbeeld op die wye soom van die moulose chiton met V-nek en op haar halssnoer en hare.
Die beeldhouer (koroplast) het daarin geslaag om 'n baie effektiewe kontras te skep tussen die gladde kaal vel van die arms langs haar sy, die nek met sy 'Venus -ringe' en haar volle gesig aan die een kant, en die fyn, gekreukelde voue van die chiton, vasgemaak met 'n gordel onder die borste, aan die ander kant. Kenmerkende aksente, wat ongetwyfeld nog sterker beklemtoon is deur die oorspronklike kleur, word gemaak deur haar juweliersware: die twee rye van die halssnoer, 'n knoppie waarvan klein oorblyfsels in die hoek van haar kledingstuk oorleef het waar dit tussen die borste klampe wat haar kledingstuk aan die skouers vasmaak, asook die oorbelle en haarstrop. Die stewige frontale liggaamshouding word versag deur die posisie van die nek, wat na vorentoe na regs leun, en die effense draai van die kop na links.
Minder seker is wie die figuur moes verteenwoordig en wat die funksie daarvan was. Die meeste graafmachines en ander navorsers het haar bloot as 'n meisie of 'n jong vrou beskryf. Die plek waar die figuur gevind is, is in die onmiddellike omgewing van die Athena -tempel. Die gebou, geleë op 'n steil, getrapte baan suidwes van die tempel, word geïnterpreteer as 'n winkel waar verkoopaanbiedings verkoop is. Volgens hierdie teorie was ons beeldjie heel moontlik 'n gewyde offer wat aan Athena gewy is. 'N Onlangse aanneemlike voorstel stel egter voor dat sy Aphrodite verteenwoordig. Argumente hiervoor is die oorbelle wat moontlik Cupido simboliseer, en die vermoede dat die beweerde winkel meer 'n plaaslike vergaderhuis was wat gebruik is vir kultuspraktyke waarin Dionysus en Aphrodite aanbid is. Die datering is die gevolg van 'n vernietigingslaag waar muntstukke tydens opgrawing gevind is, wat die gebou en die inhoud daarvan duidelik voor die tydperk voor 135 vC plaas, terwyl die boonste tydsbeperking geraam kan word deur vergelykings van styl en tipe.


KLASIESE LETTERKUNDE

DOVE-TEKEN CHARIOT VAN APHRODITE

Orphic Hymn 55 to Aphrodite (trans. Taylor) (Griekse gesange C3rd B.C. to 2nd AD):
& quot [Aphrodite] Om met jou vinnige twee-jukige motor van goud te ry. & quot

Ovidius, Metamorfose 9. 708 ev (trans. Melville) (Romeinse epos C1st B.C. tot C1st A.D.):
& quotCytherea [Aphrodite] het in haar sierlike wa, deur haar swane gevleuel, oor die middelste lug gery, na Ciprus, toe sy ver van Adonis se sterwende kreun hoor, en haar sneeuvoëls daarheen draai. & quot

Ovidius, Metamorfose 14. 597 ev:
& quot [Aphrodite] wat deur haar duiwe deur die lug gedra is, bereik die kus van Laurentië. & quot

Statius, Silvae 1. 2. 51 (vert. Mozley) (Romeinse poësie C1st AD):
& quotSy [Aphrodite] lig haar sterre ledemate op en verby die trotse drumpel van haar kamer roep sy Amyklaian -duiwe na die bewind. Amor [Eros, liefde] span hulle in, en sit op die motor met juwele en sy moeder jubel deur die wolke. & Quot

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 6 ev (vert. Walsh) (Romeinse roman C2nd AD):
& quotVenus [Aphrodite]. . . beveel dat haar waentjie voorberei moet word. Vulcanus [Hephaistos] het die afwerking liefdevol toegepas met uitgebreide vakmanskap en dit aan haar gegee as trougeskenk voor haar aanvang in die huwelik. Die dunner beweging van sy lêer het die metaal laat blink, die waarde van die bus was gemeet aan die goud wat dit verloor het. Vier wit duiwe het uit die groot kudde gestap naby die kamer van hul minnares. Terwyl hulle vrolik vorentoe strek, draai hulle hul nekke van kant tot kant. Hulle onderwerp hulle aan die juweel met juwele. Hulle het hul minnares aan boord geneem en met opgewondenheid na bo geklim. Sparrows het gespot met die gekombineerde gedruis terwyl hulle die koets van die godin begelei, en die ander voëls, gewoonlik soet sangers, kondig die benadering van die godin aan met die aangename geluid van hul heuningmelodie. Die wolke het geskei, en Caelus (Hemel) [Ouranos] het toegegee dat sy dogter in die boonste streek die godin met blydskap verwelkom het, en die aangename gevolg van die magtige Venus was nie bang vir 'n ontmoeting met arende of plundering van hawks nie. & Quot

In antieke Griekse vaasverf is die wa van Aphrodite soms uitgebeeld geteken deur 'n paar Erotes (gevleuelde liefdesgode).

TRITON-TEKEN KOKKEL-SKULP VAN APHRODITE

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 4. 31 ev (vert. Walsh) (Romeinse roman C2nd AD):
En toe maak sy [Venus-Aphrodite] die naaste kus wat deur die golwe gelê word. Met rooskleurige voete klim sy op die oppervlak van die kabbelende waters, en kyk, die helder oppervlak van die seediepte is gekalmeer. By haar eerste aanwysing vervul haar gevolg in die diepte haar wense [die verskillende seegode en godinne sluit by haar geselskap aan]. . . Bande van Tritoni het hier en daar op die waters gedraai, een waai saggies op sy weergalmende dop, 'n ander een wat met syparasol die hitte van die vyandige son afweer, 'n derde wat 'n spieël voor sy minnares se gesig hou, terwyl ander in pare na haar juk wa, onder geswem. Dit was die gasheer van Venus se metgeselle toe sy vir die Oceanus gemaak het. & Quot

Vir meer inligting oor hierdie Tritons, sien IKHTHYOKENTAUROI

KLERE, PARFUM & JUWEL VAN APHRODITE

Homerus, Ilias 5. 337 ev (trans. Lattimore) (Griekse epos C8de v.C.):
Oor haar [Aphrodite se] geliefde seun [Aineias gewond tydens die Trojaanse Oorlog] kom haar wit arms gestroom, en met haar wit kleed in 'n vou voorin gegooi, beskerm sy hom, om die troonwapens af te weerhou, sodat 'n vinnige Danaan die brons spies deur sy bors. . . Die onsterflike kleed wat die einste Khariete vir haar [Aphrodite] geweef het. & Quot

Homerus, Odyssey 18. 193 ev (vert. Shewring) (Griekse epos C8de v.C.):
& quot [Athene] het die lieflike kenmerke gereinig met die geurige balsem wat Kytherea [Aphrodite] aantrek toe sy die betowerende sirkel van dansende Khariete betree, en daarmee haar vel meer wit gemaak as nuut gesaagde ivoor. & quot

Homeriese gesang 6 aan Aphrodite (trans. Evelyn-White) (Griekse epos C7de tot 4e v.C.):
& quot [Aphrodite by haar geboorte is deur die winde na Kypros gedra] en daar het die goudgevulde Horai (Seisoene) haar met blydskap verwelkom. Hulle het haar met hemelse klere geklee: op haar kop het hulle 'n fyn, kragtige goudkroon gesit, en in haar deurboorde ore het hulle ornamente van orichalc en edelgoud gehang en haar versier met goue halssnoere oor haar sagte nek en sneeuwit borste, juwele wat die goudgevulde Horai self dra. & quot

Homeriese Gesang 5 tot Aphrodite 58 ev:
& quotSy [Aphrodite] is na Kypros, na Paphos, waar haar omgewing is en 'n geurige altaar, en gaan in haar soet ruikende tempel in. Daar het sy ingegaan en by die glinsterende deure gekom, en daar het die Khariete (Graces) haar gebad met hemelse olie, soos blomme op die liggame van die ewige gode - olie goddelik soet wat sy by haar gehad het, gevul met geur. En die liefdevolle Aphrodite trek al haar ryk klere aan. . . versier haarself met goud. . . Want sy was geklee in 'n mantel wat die helderheid van vuur skyn, 'n wonderlike goue mantel, verryk met allerhande naaldwerk, wat soos die maan blink oor haar tere borste, 'n wonder om te sien. Sy het ook gedraaide borsspelde en blink oorbelle in die vorm van blomme en om haar sagte keel was pragtige halssnoere. & Quot

Stasinus van Ciprus of Hegesias van Aegina, Cypria Fragment 6 (van Athenaeus 15. 682) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Griekse epos C7th of 6th BC):
Sy het [Aphrodite] geklee in kledingstukke wat die Khariete (Graces) en Horai (Ure) vir haar gemaak het en in lente blomme geverf het-blomme soos die Horai dra-in krokus en hiasint en bloeiende viooltjie en die pragtige roos blom, so soet en heerlik, en hemelse knoppe, die blomme van die nartjie en lelie. In sulke geparfumeerde kledingstukke is Aphrodite geklee op alle seisoene. & Quot

Sien PSYKHE vir die MITE van die heilige skoonheidsroom van Aphrodite

MAGIESE MEISIE VAN APHRODITE

Die magiese gordel van Aphrodite kon die passie van begeerte inspireer. Hera, in haar rol as die godin van die huwelik, het dit af en toe by Aphrodite geleen om in stryd eggenote in liefde te herenig en die bruidskompetisies van vryers te inspireer.

Homerus, Ilias 14. 159 en 187 e.v. (trans. Lattimore) (Griekse epos C8de v.C.):
& quotDame osse-oog Hera was doelbewus verdeeld oor hoe sy die brein in Zeus kan bedrieg. . . En na haar mening was hierdie ding die beste raad, om haar lief te hê en na Ida te gaan, en miskien word hy begeer om verlief te wees op haar langs haar vel. . .
[Sy] roep Aphrodite opsy om van die res van die gode af weg te kom, en spreek 'n woord met haar: & lsquo. . . Gee my lieflikheid en begeerte, genade waarmee u sterflike mense en al die onsterflikes oorweldig. Aangesien ek nou na die eindes van die vrygewige aarde gaan, op 'n besoek aan Okeanos, waar die gode uit opgestaan ​​het, en Tethys, ons moeder, wat my vriendelik in hul eie huis grootgemaak het. . . Ek sal hierdie besoeke gaan besoek en hul verdeeldheid onder mekaar oplos, aangesien hulle nou al lank van mekaar en van die bed van die liefde gebly het, omdat wrok in hul gevoelens gekom het. Sou ek die dierbare hart in hulle met oortuiging kon oorwin en na hul bed terugbring om verlief op mekaar te wees, sal ek vir ewig deur hulle en geliefdes genoem word. & Rsquo
Toe antwoord Aphrodite Philomeides (die gelag) haar: & lsquo Ek kan nie, en ek moet hierdie ding wat u vra, nie ontken nie, u wat in die arms van Zeus lê, aangesien hy ons grootste is. & Rsquo
Sy het gepraat en uit haar borste die uitgebreide, patroon-deurboorde sone losgemaak (himas), en daarop word alle verleentheid bedink (filote), en lieflikheid word daarop uitgegee en passie vir seks (himeros) is daar, en die gefluisterde liefde (oaristos) wat die hart wegsteel, selfs van die bedagsame. Sy het dit in Hera se hande gelê en haar by die naam genoem en met haar gepraat: Neem hierdie gebied en steek dit weg in die vou van jou boesem. Dit is uitgebrei, alles word daarin gedink. En ek dink dat alles wat u hartsbegeerte is, nie onverklaarbaar sal bly nie. & Rsquo & quot

Ptolemaeus Hephaestion, New History Book 4 (opsomming van Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (vert. Pearse) (Griekse mitograaf C1st tot C2nd AD):
Die skrywer [Hephaestion] praat van die geborduurde gordel [die cestus] wat Hera van Aphrodite ontvang het en aan Helene [vir die wedstryd van die vryers of vir haar inleiding in Parys] gegee het: dit is gesteel deur Helene se dienaar, Astyanassa en van haar herstel deur Aphrodite. & quot

Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 8 (trans. Fairbanks) (Griekse retorikus C3rd AD):
& quot [Uit 'n beskrywing van 'n skildery wat Aphrodite voorstel:] Die skildery toon die liefdevolle geaardheid wat veroorsaak word deur die magie van haar gordel. & quot

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 2. 8 ev (vert. Walsh) (Romeinse roman C2nd AD):
& quotVenus [Aphrodite]. . . wat haar gordel om haar middel dra. & quot

Colluthus, verkragting van Helen 15 e.v. (vert. Mair) (Griekse poësie C5de tot 6de nC):
& quot Vir spies het ek [Aphrodite] as 't ware 'n vinnige lans, die heuninggordel van die Erotes (Loves)! Ek het my gordel, ek steek my rits, ek lig my boog: selfs die gordel, waarvandaan vroue die angel van my begeerte vang, en dikwels swanger word, maar nie tot die dood toe nie. & Quot

Colluthus, verkragting van Helen 155 e.v.:
& quot [By die wedywering van die godinne om die goue appel:] Kypris [Aphrodite] het haar diepboesem gewaad opgetel en haar bors in die lug geblaas en was nie skaam nie. En terwyl sy die heuninggordel van die Erotes (Loves) met haar hande lig, het sy haar hele boesem ontbloot en nie haar borste gehoorsaam nie. En glimlaggend praat sy met die veewagter [Parys]. & Quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 20 e.v. (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de n.C.):
& quot [Toe Aphrodite uit die seeskuim gebore word:] Daar kom 'n geborduurde band by die godin, wat soos 'n gordel om haar heupe loop, om die liggaam van die koningin in 'n gordel van homself. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3. 400 e.v. (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de n.C.):
& quotTricky-minded Aphrodite gordel haar liggaam in die hartroerende cestusgordel en trek haar aan in die liefdesjas van Peitho (Persuasion). & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 88 e.v.:
& quot Sy harmonie word met 'n juk getrek deur die cestus-gordel [van Aphrodite] wat die begeerte van 'n huwelik lei, en het in haar baarmoeder die saad van baie kinders gedra wat sy gou een vir een gebaar het. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32. 10 e.v.:
& quotSy [Hera] bind die ongebruikte cestus [wat Aphrodite haar geleen het] oor en oor haar flanke. . . Sy kom naby Zeus. En toe Zeus die Hoogste en Magtigste haar sien, sweep die swerwende cestus hom na 'n warmer liefde. Toe Zeus na haar kyk, was sy oë verslaaf. & Quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 4 e.v.:
& quot [Aphrodite spreek die Kharis Pasithea aan:] & lsquo Het Eros jou miskien ook met die cestus laat swaai, soos Eos (die Dawn) een keer tevore? & rsquo & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 42. 98 e.v.:
& quotAs ek hoor dat u ma Kypris is, is my enigste wonder dat haar cestus u onbeskaamd gelaat het. . . Geslaan deur die houe van die cestus [d.w.s. deur begeerte]. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 42. 378 e.v.:
& quotVolg die cestus -gordel wat saam met Paphia [Aphrodite] gebore is! & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 264 ev:
& quotEros (Liefde). . . 'n leeuwyfie lewendig betrap met die allesbetowerende cestus. & quot

Suidas s.v. Kythereia (trans. Suda On Line) (Bisantynse Griekse leksikon C10de n.C.):
Sy [Aphrodite] het liefde versteek (keuthomenon) in haarself, wat sy na almal stuur, want deur haar bekoorlike gordel het sy die krag. & quot

PALAS VAN APHRODITE

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 36 ev (trans. Rieu) (Griekse epos C3rd B.C.):
Die paleis van Aphrodite [op die berg Olympos], wat haar kreupel gemeen Hephaistos vir haar gebou het toe hy hom as sy bruid uit die hande van Zeus geneem het. Hulle [Hera en Athene] het die binnehof binnegegaan en onder die stoep van die kamer waar die godin by haar heer en meester geslaap het, stilgebly. & Quot

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 455 ev (trans. Mozley) (Romeinse epos C1st A.D.):
& quotSoekes sy [Hera] Venus se [Aphrodite] se boog en die kranse wat altyd vars is, dek haar woonplek. By die aanskoue spring die godin dadelik uit haar opgestapelde bank en al die troepe gevleuelde Amores [Erotes the Loves]. & Quot

Statius, Silvae 1. 2. 51 (vert. Mozley) (Romeinse poësie C1st AD):
Op 'n tyd, waar die melkagtige gebied in 'n rustige hemel is, het Venus [Aphrodite] vriendelik in haar boeg gelê, waarna die nag maar onlangs gevlug het, flou in die rowwe omhelsing van haar Getiese heer [Ares]. Oor die poste en kussings van haar rusbank wemel 'n trop teer Amores [Erotes the Loves]. . . Moeg lê sy op haar kussings. & Quot

HEILIGE PLANTE & BLOMME

I. ROSE (Grieks rhodon)

The Anacreontea, Fragment 35 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Griekse liriek v.C.):
& quotDie sagte roos. Dit is die asem van die gode en die vreugde van sterflinge, die glorie van die Khariete (Genades) in die lente, die vreugde van die Erotes (Loves) met hul ryk kranse en van Aphrodite, dit is 'n onderwerp vir poësie en die grasieuse plant van die Mousai. & quot

The Anacreontea, Fragment 44:
Laat ons die roos van Erotes met Dionysos meng: laat ons die roos met sy pragtige blaartjies op ons wenkbroue vasmaak en drink, saggies lag. Roos, die mooiste blomme, roos, lente -liefling, roos, vreugde van die gode ook, roos waarmee Kythere se [Aphrodite] se seun [Eros] sy pragtige krulle versier as hy saam met die Khariete dans. & Quot

Ibycus, Fragment 288 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Griekse liriek C6de v.C.):
"Cypria [Aphrodite] en Peitho met sagte deksels het jou tussen roosbloeisels verpleeg."

Pausanias, beskrywing van Griekeland 6. 24. 7 (trans. Jones) (Griekse reisverslag C2nd AD):
Die roos en die mirte is heilig vir Afrodite en hou verband met die verhaal van Adonis.

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 4. 2 ev (vert. Walsh) (Romeinse roman C2nd AD):
Ek het op 'n afstand 'n vallei gesien wat deur 'n boomryke woud beskadig is. 'N Paar blink rose met 'n rooierige kleur skitter onder verskillende kleiner plante en die weelderigste struikgewas. . . daardie bos het vir my gelyk asof dit die woonplek was van Venus [Aphrodite] en die Gratiae [Khariete] in sy skaduryke uitsparings, en die heerlike bloeisel skyn met die helderheid van koninklike bloedrooi. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32. 10 e.v. (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de A.D.):
& quotDie kruid van passie [die mirte] waarvoor Kythereia [Aphrodite] net so lief is soos die roos, net soos die anemoon. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 333 ev:
& quotHang in die bruidskamer goue vrugte [appels]. . . in die plek van die trou-rose. & quot

Suidas s.v. Anthemon (vert. Suda On Line) (Bisantynse Griekse leksikon C10de n.C.):
& quot Zeuxis het die skilder in die tempel van Aphrodite [in Athene] 'n jeugdigste Eros (Liefde) geteken, omring met rose. & quot

II. ANEMONE (Grieks anoom)

Ovidius, Metamorfose 10. 705 ev (trans. Melville) (Romeinse epos C1st B.C. tot C1st A.D.):
& quot [Aphrodite betreur die dood van haar liefde Adonis:] & lsquoJou bloed sal verander in 'n blom. . . en toe daar 'n uur verby is, kom 'n bloedrooi blom op, soos die ryk blom van granate. . . tog is sy skoonheidsbrief, so liggies vasgekleur, blomblare, val so gou as die wind [Grieks anemoi] slag wat die blom [anemoon] sy naam gee. & rsquo & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32. 10 e.v. (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de n.C.):
Die kruid van passie [die mirte] waarvoor Kythereia [Aphrodite] net so lief is soos die roos, net soos die anemoon wat sy dra wanneer sy haar liefde met Myrrha se seun [Adonis] wil vermeng. & quot

Vir die mite van die dood van Adonis, sien Aphrodite Loves: Adonis

III. MYRTLE en MYRRH (Grieks mirrhina en smirna)

Beide plante het verband gehou met die geboorte van Adonis (in twee alternatiewe weergawes van die verhaal).

Aesop, fabels 205 (van Phaedrus 3. 17) (trans. Gibbs) (Griekse fabel C6de v.C.):
& quot 'n keer het die gode die bome wat hulle wou aanneem, as hul eie gekies. Jove [Zeus] het die eikeboom gekies, terwyl Venus [Aphrodite] die mirteboom verkies het, Phoebus [Apollon] die lourier. & Quot

Pausanias, beskrywing van Griekeland 6. 24. 7 (trans. Jones) (Griekse reisverslag C2nd AD):
Die roos en die mirte is heilig vir Afrodite en hou verband met die verhaal van Adonis.

Pausanias, beskrywing van Griekeland 2. 32. 3:
& quot Hier [in Aphrodite se tempel by Troizenos] het daar nog steeds die mirte met sy blare gegroei. . . met gate deurboor. & quot

Pausanias, beskrywing van Griekeland 5. 13. 7:
& quot [Daar is] 'n beeld van Aphrodite in Temnos [in Elis] gemaak van 'n lewende mirteboom. & quot

Virgil, Georgics 1.27 e.v. (trans. Fairclough) (Romeinse Bucolic C1st B.C.):
& quot [Caesar word geprys as 'n afstammeling van Aeneas:] Versier jou wenkbroue met die mirte van jou moeder [Aphrodite]. & quot

Virgil, Georgics 2. 64:
& quotPafiese mirte. & quot [N.B. Die Pafiaan is Afrodite.]

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32. 10 e.v. (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de A.D.):
& quot Oor haar hare het sy die kruid van passie [die mirte] wat Kythereia [Aphrodite] net so lief het soos die roos, net soos die anemoon. & quot

Vir die MITE van Aphrodite & amp mirte of mirre, sien:
(1) Aphrodite Loves: Adonis (seuntjie gebore uit die boom)
(2) Aphrodite Wrath: Myrrha Smyrna (omskep in die boom deur Aphrodite)

IV. APPEL (Grieks spanspek)

Pausanias, beskrywing van Griekeland 2. 10. 4 (trans. Jones) (Griekse reisverslag C2nd AD):
& quot [Die standbeeld van Aphrodite in Sikyon] dra in die een hand 'n papawer en in die ander 'n appel. & quot

Philostratus die Ouer, Imagines 1. 6 (trans. Fairbanks) (Griekse retorikus C3rd AD):
& quot [Beskrywing van 'n antieke Griekse skildery:] The Erotes (Loves) bring die eerste vrugte van die appels [by Aphrodite], en hulle kom bymekaar en bid tot haar dat hul appelboord voorspoedig sal wees. & quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 333 ev (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de A.D.):
& quotKypris [Aphrodite] het saam met die Erotes (Loves) 'n mooi bed bedek vir die troue, wat in die bruidkamer goue vrugte [appels] uit die tuin van die Nymphai gehang het, 'n waardige liefdesgeskenk vir die bruidryke trosse van hul blare, Harmonia en Kadmos deur hul hare, te midde van die oorvloed van hul bruidskamer, in die plek van die trourose. Nog mooier verskyn die bruid met hierdie goue geskenke, die seën van goue Aphrodite. & Quot

Suidas s.v. Rhamnousia Nemesis (trans. Suda On Line) (Bisantynse Griekse leksikon C10de n.C.):
& quot [Die standbeeld van Nemesis in Rhamnousos is] gemodelleer op die voorkoms van Aphrodite, daarom het sy 'n takkie van 'n appelboom gehou. & quot

Vir MITE van Aphrodite en die appel, sien:
(1) Aphrodite Favour: Hippomenes (gegee deur die godin goue appels)
(2) DIE OORDEEL VAN PARIS (godin bekroon met 'n prys van 'n goue appel)

V. LETTUCE (Grieks tridaks)

Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 2. 69b-d (trans. Gullick) (Griekse retorikus C2nd tot 3rd AD):
& quot Nikandros van Kolophon [C2nd BC grammarian C2nd BC], in die tweede boek van sy Dialekteksikon, verduidelik die woord brenthis soos die Cypriese term vir blaarslaai in hierdie Adonis skuiling gesoek het by die wilde varke wat hom doodgemaak het. . . Kallimakhos [grammatikus 3de v.C.] sê ook dat Aphrodite Adonis in 'n blaarslaap weggesteek het, aangesien die digters met hierdie allegorie bedoel dat konstante eet van blaarslaai impotensie veroorsaak. So ook Euboulos, in die Gebreke, sê: & lsquo Moenie blaarslaai op die tafel sit voor my nie, vrou, anders het u net die skuld. Want in die plant gaan die verhaal voort: Kypris [Aphrodite], wat Adonis eens uitgelê het toe hy gesterf het, daarom is dit voedsel van 'n dooie man. hom weg in & lsquofair blaarslaai-beddens. & rsquo & quot

Vir die mite van die dood van Adonis, sien Aphrodite Loves: Adonis

VI. Granaatjie (Grieks rhoa)

Die granaatjie was heilig vir Aphrodite in Kypros. Die vrugte simboliseer die verbruik van die huwelik en die verlies van vroulike maagdelikheid (byvoorbeeld in die verhaal van Persephone). Daar word ook geglo dat dit as 'n natuurlike aborsiemiddel werk. Die vrug was ook heilig vir Hera as die godin van die huwelik.

Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 3. 84c (trans. Gullick) (Griekse retorikus C2nd tot 3rd AD):
& quotEriphos in die Meliboia. . .: A: En hier is die granate. B: Hoe mooi is hulle nie! A: Ja, want hulle sê dit was die enigste boom wat Aphrodite in Kypros geplant het. B: Aanbiddende Berbeia! & Quot

Vir meer inligting en foto's van heilige plante, sien FLORA OF MYTH

HEILIGE voëls en diere

I. TURTLE-DOVE & amp SPARROW (Grieks trugon en opreg)

Aelian, On Animals 10. 33 (vert. Schofield) (Griekse natuurgeskiedenis 2de tot 3de n.C.):
& quot Wit Turtelduiwe is gereeld te sien. Hulle sê dit is heilig vir Afrodite en Demeter. & Quot

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 197 (vert. Grant) (Romeinse mitograaf C2nd AD):
In die Eufraatrivier het 'n eier van wonderlike grootte geval wat die vis na die oewer gerol het. Duiwe het daarop gaan sit, en toe dit verhit is, het dit Venus uitgebroei, wat later die Siriese godin genoem is. Aangesien sy die res uitblink in geregtigheid en opregtheid, deur 'n guns wat deur Jove [Zeus] verleen is, is die visse onder die aantal sterre geplaas, en daarom eet die Arameërs nie vis of duiwe nie, aangesien hulle hulle as gode beskou. & Quot

Ovidius, Metamorfose 13. 673 ev (trans. Melville) (Romeinse epos C1st B.C. tot C1st A.D.):
& quot Voëls wat jou [Ares '] -genoot [Aphrodite] liefhet. . . sneeuwit duiwe. & quot

Ovidius, Metamorfose 14. 597 ev:
& quot [Aphrodite] wat deur haar duiwe deur die lug gedra word. & quot

Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 6 ev (vert. Walsh) (Romeinse roman C2nd AD):
& quotVier wit duiwe. . . onderwerp aan die juweliersware juk [van die wa van Aphrodite]. Hulle het hul minnares aan boord geneem en met opgewondenheid na bo geklim. Sparrows het gespot met die gekombineerde gedruis terwyl hulle die koets van die godin begelei, en die ander voëls, gewoonlik soet sangers, kondig die benadering van die godin aan met die aangename geluid van hul heuningmelkies. & Quot

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 4 e.v. (trans. Rouse) (Griekse epos C5de A.D.):
& quot [Aphrodite spreek Eros toe:] & lsquo Eer jou bruidsmeisie voël van liefde [die duif] en die uwe, die aankondiger van lewenslange troue en gelukkige harte! & rsquo & quot

II. GOOSE

Die gans was 'n voël van Aphrodite.

III. SLUIK

Aelian, On Animals 10. 34 (vert. Schofield) (Griekse natuurgeskiedenis 2de tot 3de nC):
"Die sluk word heilig gehou vir die Theoi Khelidoi (huishoudelike gode) en vir Aphrodite, want sy is ook een van hulle. & quot [N.B. Die swaeltjie is heilig vir die huishoudelike gode omdat dit 'n voël is wat gewoonlik sy nes in die dak van huise bou.]

IV. VIS (Grieks ekhthyes)

Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 197 (vert. Grant) (Romeinse mitograaf C2nd AD):
In die Eufraatrivier het 'n eier van wonderlike grootte geval wat die vis na die oewer gerol het. Duiwe het daarop gaan sit, en toe dit verhit is, het dit Venus uitgebroei, wat later die Siriese godin genoem is. Aangesien sy die res uitblink in geregtigheid en opregtheid, deur 'n guns wat deur Jove [Zeus] verleen is, is die visse onder die aantal sterre geplaas, en daarom eet die Arameërs nie vis of duiwe nie, aangesien hulle hulle as gode beskou. & Quot

Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 30:
& quotVis. Diognetus Erythraeus sê dat Venus [Aphrodite] en haar seun Cupido [Eros] een keer in Sirië by die Eufraatrivier gekom het. Daar verskyn skielik Typhon, van wie ons al gepraat het. Venus [Aphrodite] en haar seun het hulself in die rivier ingegooi en daar hul vorm verander na visse, en sodoende het dit gevaar ontkom. So daarna het die Siriërs, wat aangrensend is aan hierdie streke, opgehou om vis te eet, uit vrees dat hulle hulle sou vang, sodat hulle nie met dieselfde rede teenstaan ​​teen die beskerming van die gode nie, of om die gode self vas te vang. & Quot

Ovidius, Metamorfose 5. 319 ev (trans. Melville) (Romeinse epos C1st B.C. tot C1st A.D.):
& quotTyphoeus, wat uit die laagste dieptes van die aarde uitgegaan het, het skrik in die hemelse harte getref, en hulle het almal die rug toegekeer en gevlug. . . en die gode verberg hulself in valse vorms. . . Venus [Aphrodite] het 'n vis geword. & Quot

Ovid, Fasti 2. 458 ev (trans.Boyle) (Romeinse poësie C1st B.C. tot C1st A.D.):
& quotPiscis, hemelse perde. Hulle sê dat jy en jou broer (want jou sterre skitter saam) twee gode op jou rug getrek het. Eens het Dione [Aphrodite], op die vlug van die verskriklike Typhon (toe Jupiter [Zeus] gewapen was in die hemel se verdediging), die Eufraat bereik met klein Cupidos [Eros] op sleeptou en langs die soom van die stroom van Palestina gaan sit. . . Onder hulle het tweelingvisse gekom, waarna u die huidige sterre kan sien. Daarom dink skaam Syriërs dat dit verkeerd is om hierdie spesie op te dien; hulle besmet geen bek met vis nie. & Quot

Vir meer inligting oor die vis van Aphrodite, sien IKHTHYES

V. SHELLFISH

Skulpvisse word as heilig vir Aphrodite beskou, van die kokkedop (waarin sy tydens haar geboorte afgebeeld word) na die mossel, mossel en. Net so was die pêrel haar heilige klip.

Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 3. 88a (trans. Gullick) (Griekse retorikus C2nd tot 3rd AD):
"Antigonos of Karystos, in his treatise on Diktion, says that this shell-fish [the ear-mussles] is called &lsquoAphrodite's ear' by the Aiolians."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32. 10 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"The Indian stone of love [the pearl], offspring itself of the waters and akin to Aphrogeneia (the Foamborn)."

For MYTH of Aphrodite & shellfish see:
(1) The Birth of Aphrodite (carried ashore in a scallop-shell)
(2) Aphrodite Loves: Nerites (boy transformed into a shellfish)

VI. HARE (Greek lagos)

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 6 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :
"[Description of an ancient Greek painting :] Erotes are hunting down [a hare] . . . but there is no shooting of arrows at the hare, since they are trying to catch it alive as an offering most pleasing to Aphrodite. For you know, I imagine, what is said of the hare, that it possesses the gift of Aphrodite [fertility] to an unusual degree. At any rate it is said of the female that while she suckles the young she has borne, she bears another litter to share the same milk forthwith she conceives again, nor is there any time at all when she is not carrying young. As for the male, he not only begets offspring in the way natural to males, but also himself bears young, contrary to nature. And perverted lovers have found in the hare a certain power to produce love, attempting to secure the objects of their affection by a compelling magic art."

Aphrodite's son Eros was often depicted carrying a hare, as a symbol of unquenchable desire.

VII. SWINE (Greek hus)

Aphrodite had a curious relationship with the pig. The goddess supposedly hated the creature because her lover Adonis had been gorged to death by a wild boar. Therefore arose the proverb 'he sacrificed a pig to Aphrodite' used to refer to someone who gave an innappropriate or unwanted gift.
However, in Argos and Kypros at least, pigs were sacrificed to the goddess during the Hysteria (of the pigs) festival. The sacrifice was probably to assuage her grief for the loss of Adonis, who was slain by a wild pig.


Seeking Aphrodite

Sailing along the Turkish Mediterranean coast is a continual voyage through antiquity. Ruins rise from the sea at nearly every headland to meet the mariner. At Knidos, there are the remains of a temple dedicated to Aphrodite and among its detritus is the essence of a goddess. In the history of classical art the sculpture of Aphrodite of Knidos may be the first example–it is certainly the most celebrated–of a woman portrayed entirely nude. I quickly furl the mainsail aboard Flying Fish and go ashore to ancient Knidos.

The Temple of Aphrodite Euploia (Aphrodite, Sea Goddess of Safe Voyages) has drawn sailors to this shoreline for more than 2,300 years. Knidos became prominent in the ancient world for hosting this sublimely erotic statue of the goddess, sculpted by Praxiteles in 365 BC. The structure housing it, now in ruins, was a circular Doric temple surrounded with colonnades. The goddess graced the center of the temple her statue made of Parian marble. Aphrodite teased with a shy smile. Nothing hides her beauty other than a furtive hand veiling her modesty. The statue of Aphrodite was not traditionally placed in the end of the hall of the temple’s cella. Instead, it was sited in the middle of the circular foundation making it possible for visitors to admire the statue from all angles. The statue of the goddess was said to have a particularly attractive backside.

Aphrodite of Cnidus, a Roman marble copy of the Greek statue by Praxiteles, c. 350 BC, Vatican Museum. –Public Domain

Knidos, or Cnidus in the 4th century BC, was a Hellenic city in southwestern Asia Minor, now on the Datça peninsula in modern-day Turkey. Because of this strategic geographical location the Knidians acquired considerable wealth in trade and commerce. The city was less than a mile long, and the entire area remains covered with architectural artifacts. In addition to the spectacular Corinthian temples on Knidos there was an acropolis, an odeum, and numerous marbled terraces and theaters. The ancient city was said to even have its own medical school.

Knidos is now a ruin and deserted, except for tourists and mariners who come to pay homage to its heritage. In ancient times, however, it was at the center of the world on the trade routes from Alexandria to Athens. Its harbor sheltered sailors from the violent meltemi winds. Scorched and bleached by the sun and surrounded by the turquoise Mediterranean Sea, Knidos is both harsh and idyllic. The walls of the ancient harbor still stand. Fragments of column and cornice and terracotta are scattered in the rocks and wind-sculpted bushes of the maquis. In summer the ground releases the fragrance of wild sage growing among shards of ancient earthenware.

Knidos remained somewhat isolated from the western world until The Society of Dilettanti, a group of British noblemen and scholars (and, ultimately, plunderers) sponsoring the study of ancient Greek and Roman art sent an exploratory mission there in 1812. Additional excavations were executed by Sir Charles Newton in 1857–1858 and the great treasures–including the colossal Lion of Knidos–were taken (by battleship) back to England. Missing, however, was the statue of Aphrodite.

Aphrodite was an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, beauty, pleasure, and passion. She was syncretized with the Roman goddess Venus. In die Iliad she was the child of Zeus and Dione. She also had some well-known siblings including Apollo, Athena, Heracles, Helen of Troy, and the Cyclopes. Aphrodite was the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, who was attacked by a wild boar and died in Aphrodite’s arms. With Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War. But what history remembers most of Aphrodite, and what likely encouraged Praxiteles to bring her image to life, was her erotic beauty.

According to an account by Pliny the Elder, Praxiteles created two statues of Aphrodite (which were offered at the same price): one fully clothed and the other naked. The Greek town of Kos was horrified at the depiction of Aphrodite nude so they purchased the draped statue. Knidos bought the remaining Aphrodite and it was installed in a temple to the goddess where it gained a widespread cult-like following for its beauty. Coins issued in Knidos were minted in her honor. Later, King Nicomedes of Kos tried to buy naked Aphrodite from the Knidians promising to discharge their enormous state debt. The Knidians resolutely kept Praxiteles’ naked Aphrodite.

The statue became so widely known that epigrams were written of it. One anecdote has the goddess Aphrodite herself coming to Knidos to see the sculpture. Acknowledging her perfect likeness she says: “Paris, Adonis, and Anchises saw me naked. Those are all I know of. So how did Praxiteles contrive it?” A similar epigram is attributed to Plato: When Aphrodite saw her sculpture at Knidos she said, “Alas! Where did Praxiteles see me naked?”

The Knidos Aphrodite was different, in a decidedly erotic way. It is one of the first life-sized representations of the nude female form in Greek history, displaying an alternative idea to male heroic nudity. Praxiteles’ Aphrodite is shown reaching for a bath towel while covering her pubis, which, in turn leaves her breasts exposed. Up until this point, Greek sculpture had been dominated by male nude figures. Author Mary Beard writes in her book, How Do We Look: “The hands alone are a giveaway here. Are they modestly trying to cover her up? Are they pointing in the direction of what the viewer wants to see most? Or are they simply a tease? Whatever the answer, Praxiteles has established that edgy relationship between a statue of a woman and an assumed male viewer that has never been lost from the history of European art.”

Men were driven mad with desire for this image of Aphrodite. Pliny observed that some visitors to Knidos were “overcome with love for the statue.” The statue was so lifelike that it was said to “arouse viewers sexually as if she were a woman in flesh and blood.” In Erotes, an explicit essay written around AD 300 attributed to author Lucian of Samosata, a young man was once so overwhelmed by the image of Aphrodite that he broke into the temple at night and attempted to copulate with the statue. Upon being discovered by a custodian, he was so ashamed that he hurled himself over a cliff near the edge of the temple.

Sadly, Aphrodite of Knidos is no longer in existence. One theory is that the statue was removed to Constantinople (modern Istanbul), where it was housed in the Palace of Lausus in AD 475. When the palace burned the statue was lost. That was not the end, however, of the obsession with Aphrodite of Knidos.

Enter the curious appearance of American socialite archeologist Iris Cornelia Love.

Love claimed to be a direct descendant of both the explorer Captain James Cook and American founding father Alexander Hamilton, as well as the maternal great great granddaughter of Meyer Guggenheim. In 1969, with the Turkish archeologist Askidil Akarca, a granddaughter of the last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Love sailed from Bodrum (ancient Halicarnassus) down the coast of Asia Minor to excavate the ruins of Knidos. On July 20, 1969, the day Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon, Love uncovered a circular marble platform at the Knidos site. Additional finds included the foundation of a circular building with eighteen columns, a life-sized human hand of Parian marble comparable in size to copies of the statue of Aphrodite of Knidos, numerous votive offerings dating from the archaic through Hellenistic periods, and an inscription in marble beginning: “Prax…” The team of young archeologists believed they had found the site of the temple that once housed perhaps the most famous statue of the ancient world and one of Pliny’s Seven Wonders–Praxiteles’ Aphrodite.

The excavated ruin many believe is the Temple of Aphrodite Euploia viewed from the cliff above at Knidos, Turkey. Flying Fish appears in the top right of the image. Photograph: © Jeffrey Cardenas

The discovery propelled Iris Cornelia Love to the kind of fame very few archaeologists achieve. She found herself on the front page of Die New York Times, on prime-time national television interviewed by Barbara Walters, photographed by Harry Benson, partying with Andy Warhol. Tabloids ran headlines such as “Love Finds Temple of Love” and referred to her as “the mini-skirted archaeologist”. The discovery attracted intense international media attention when it was presented at the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America. It also attracted many famous guests to the excavation site, including Mick and Bianca Jagger.

This fanfare called Love’s interpretation of the discovery into question. Critics accused her of converting the excavation into an exclusive holiday spot. Noted Turkish archaeologists disputed her conclusions. The Turkish government revoked her research license for Knidos. Love subsequently retired from archeology, devoted herself to breeding dachshunds (for which she won several prizes), and lived in Greece, Italy, and New York with her partner of many years, tabloid journalist Liz Smith. Iris Cornelia Love died this year at age 86, after being diagnosed with Covid-19.

I sit atop the jagged cliff overlooking the ruin of the Temple of Aphrodite Euploia and reflect upon myth and reality. (Could this be the same ledge where the besotted youth plunged to his death after being caught in flagrante delicto with the marble statue?) There is heat emanating from the rock and the quintessence of being in a rare place. I often wonder what it is that drives my ship. On this day it is the mythology of Aphrodite that puts fresh wind in my sails.

  • Erotes: “A Dialogue Comparing Male and Female Love,” attributed to Lucian of Samosata, 2nd century AD
  • The Venus Pudica: “Uncovering Art History’s Hidden Agenda’ and Pernicious Pedigrees,” Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts.
  • Aphrodite of Knidos: Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology & the Ancient World,
    Brown Universiteit
  • Pliny the Elder: Natural History XXXVI.4.20-I
  • Iris Love, Archaeologist who Discovered the Temple of Aphrodite: The Telegraph Obituaries, May 5, 2020
  • Love Among the Ruins: Departures, Martin Filler, March 30, 2010
  • Epigrams Plato: Wikipedia.org
  • Circe: Madeline Miller
  • The Aphrodite of Knidos: YouTube, Faces of Ancient Europe October 18, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dkwjgv3Nr90

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Statuette of Aphrodite Heyl - History

Worship of Aphrodite continued throughout the Roman period. Known as Venus, she came to symbolize Rome's imperial power. Like her Greek counterpart Aphrodite, Venus was intimately associated with love and beauty, yet other elements were distinctive to the Roman goddess.

Venus's first temples were erected in Rome during the 200s B.C. to solicit her assistance in battles, and individual leaders later allied themselves with the deity. Julius Caesar and his heir, Augustus, forged particularly explicit ties to Venus, claiming descent through her son, the Trojan hero Aeneas. The goddess was repeatedly represented in civic architecture and on coins, and her attractive figure became symbolic of Roman power throughout the empire.

The statue at right was discovered at the amphitheater in Capua, in southern Italy. It is the largest example of a sculptural type that derives from a now-lost cult statue of Aphrodite in Corinth. Originally displayed holding a shield, the goddess stood for the desirability of military success and civic peace. Combining sexual allure and martial symbolism, the Venus of Capua evokes the Greek past, yet also bears new resonances in its Roman civic context.


The Unusual Birth of Aphrodite

The most commonly told story of the birth of Aphrodite is one of the most unusual in Greek mythology.

The origin story of the goddess of beauty began with the estrangement of Uranus and Gaia. The primordial deities of the heavens and earth had come together to create the Titans, but their relationship soured when Uranus imprisoned their less physically perfect children.

Gaia implored her sons to intercede and take their father’s power for his mistreatment of their monstrous looking brothers. Only the youngest of the Titans, Cronos, was willing to move against his father.

He and Gaia came up with a plan to attack Uranus when he was most vulnerable. The next time the god of the heavens descended to mate with the earth, Cronus attacked him with an adamantine sickle.

Cronos castrated his father, leaving Uranus weak and unable to make more children with Gaia. He threw his father’s severed male organ into the sea as his brothers moved to forever separate the heavens and the earth.

The Titans took control of the universe from the once-powerful Uranus, with Cronos as their king.

The drops of blood that fell from Uranus’s body to the earth produced the last children born to him from Gaia. They were the Erinyes, or Furies, and the ash-tree nymphs.

While the drops of blood gave rise to many offspring, the part of Uranus that had been tossed into the water created one more.

The last of Uranus’s power combined with the white foam of the sea. Over time, a shape began to take form in the water.

Aphrodite stepped out of the water on either the island of Cytheria or on Cyprus. She was extraordinarily beautiful and instantly welcomed by the other gods.

The last child of Uranus would be his most famous daughter. While the Titans were overthrown and their sisters largely faded from prominence, Aphrodite continued as the Olympian goddess of beauty.

My moderne interpretasie

The story surrounding Aphrodite is generally considered to be one of the oldest in Greek mythology. While ancient writers connected her name to the Greek term for sea foam, this folk etymology has now been largely discredited.

Instead, most historians agree that Aphrodite’s name predates the Greek language and may not even belong to a closely related culture.

One probable source for both Aphrodite and her birth myth is in the Anatolian Hittite culture. In The Song of Kumarbi, a Hittite poem from the 14th century BC, the titular god gave birth to a new generation of deities after biting off his father’s genitals, a story strikingly similar to the downfall of Uranus at his son’s hands.

One of the goddesses born from this event was Ishtar, also known as Astarte to the Phoenicians and Inanna to the Sumerians. This ancient goddess of love and beauty was similar to Aphrodite in both form and function.

The earliest known statues of Aphrodite in Greece are almost indistinguishable from Near Eastern depictions of Ishtar. Other artifacts from the time period show an influx of Phoenician material culture in the region, making it seem likely that Aphrodite’s cult was brought to the Greeks by traders from the east.

Many historians believe Aphrodite’s name to come from the Semitic languages of the ancient Near East, where Ishtar originated. The Phoenicians, who introduced their alphabet to the Greek world, likely brought their goddess of beauty as well.

Aphrodite and Ishtar alike were also connected to the ancient archetype of the dawn goddess. Some historians read the scene of Aphrodite rising out of the water as a holdover of this earlier archetype, comparing the image to that of the sun rising over the horizon.

Not all Greeks envisioned Aphrodite as rising from the sea foam that created her, however. Homer notably claimed that she was not a daughter of Uranus, but rather the child of Zeus and a goddess he called Dione.

In later works, Plato attempted to reconcile these two stories by claiming that they referred to separate goddesses, a “heavenly” Aphrodite and a “common” one.

Interestingly, Dione’s name seems to be a cognate of Dios, another name for Zeus himself. Seldom referenced elsewhere in literature, Dione’s name could signify a version of the story in which Zeus, rather than his grandfather, gave rise to Aphrodite without a proper maternal figure.

While Plato proposed a theory of two separate forms of Aphrodite, the unusual figure of Dione makes it seem very likely that Homer was influenced by a slight variation on the story of Aphrodite’s motherless birth.

The connection between Aphrodite and her Semitic counterpart is so strong that even the most sceptical historians find it to be compelling evidence that Greek culture was influenced by that of the Near East. It is now widely accepted that, sometime around the 8th century BC, Phoenician and Assyrian traders brought Aphrodite to Greek lands along with their material culture.

In opsomming

Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, was said to have been born from the interaction of Uranus’s severed anatomy and white sea foam.

She stepped out of the water fully-grown and astoundingly beautiful. While Uranus’s other children fell from power, Aphrodite remained a central member of the new pantheon of Mount Olympus.

The unusual tale closely resembles another from Turkey and the Near East. The goddess known in those regions as Ishtar, Inanna, or Astarte was one of the deities born when a ruling god was castrated by his son as well.

In addition to similar iconography and functions in their pantheons, both Aphrodite and her Eastern counterpart can be interpreted as variations on an ancient dawn goddess archetype. The image of Aphrodite emerging from the waves is seen as a remaining aspect of this type as it mirrors the way the sun rises over the eastern horizon in the morning.


Aphrodite Statuette

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A hand-painted statuette of the ancient Greek goddess, Aphrodite.

Inspired by an ancient sculpture, this beautiful resin replica stands on a marble base. The original statue of Aphrodite, now in the British Museum’s department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, was made in Greece in the 3 rd century BC, and was found in the Peloponnese.

Aphrodite is classically believed to have been born from the sea as a result of the castration of Ouranos. The goddess of love and beauty, she was highly worshipped by the ancient Greeks as one of the original twelve Olympians, and she played key roles in many of the Greek myths. In Roman culture, Aphrodite was referred to as Venus.

Inspired by thousands of years of beauty, this statue will make an enchanting home ornament.

  • Product Code: CMCR90930
  • Dimensions: Base: H7 x W7 x L3cm Statue: H28cm
  • Brand: British Museum
  • Material: Acrylic resin with a marble base
  • Details: Made in Belgium
  • Postage Weight: 1.50 Kg

A hand-painted statuette of the ancient Greek goddess, Aphrodite.

Inspired by an ancient sculpture, this beautiful resin replica stands on a marble base. The original statue of Aphrodite, now in the British Museum’s department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, was made in Greece in the 3 rd century BC, and was found in the Peloponnese.

Aphrodite is classically believed to have been born from the sea as a result of the castration of Ouranos. The goddess of love and beauty, she was highly worshipped by the ancient Greeks as one of the original twelve Olympians, and she played key roles in many of the Greek myths. In Roman culture, Aphrodite was referred to as Venus.

Inspired by thousands of years of beauty, this statue will make an enchanting home ornament.


Kontak Ons

The information about this object, including provenance information, is based on historic information and may not be currently accurate or complete. Research on objects is an ongoing process, but the information about this object may not reflect the most current information available to CMA. If you notice a mistake or have additional information about this object, please email [email protected]

To request more information about this object, study images, or bibliography, contact the Ingalls Library Reference Desk.


Hellenistic Statues of Aphrodite: Studies in the History of Their Stylistic Development

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Kyk die video: The Temple of Aphrodite. Go Türkiye (Augustus 2022).