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Hadrian se tydlyn

Hadrian se tydlyn



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  • 76 CE - 138 CE

  • c. 100 nC

    Hadrian trou met Vibia Sabina.

  • 117 CE - 138 CE

    Heerskappy van die Romeinse keiser Hadrianus wat groot bouprojekte in en om die Agora van Athene ondersteun.

  • 117 nC

    Die Romeinse keiser Hadrianus verleen onafhanklikheid aan die Koninkryk Armenië.

  • 11 Augustus 117 CE - 10 Jul 138 CE

  • 118 nC

    Hadrianus keer terug na Rome. Uitvoering van die vier konsulare.

  • 118 CE - 121 CE

    Begin van die werke van die villa van Hadrianus in Tivoli.

  • 121 CE - 125 CE

    Eerste reis van Hadrianus om die Ryk: Gallië, Germania, Noricum, Brittanje, Cappadocia, Galatië, Bithynia, Asië, Griekeland, Moesia, Dacia en Pannonia.

  • 122 nC

    Bouwerk begin aan Hadrian's Wall.

  • 123 nC

    Hadrianus ontmoet Antinous in Bithynia.

  • 124 nC

    Die Romeinse keiser Hadrianus besoek Lydia.

  • c. 127 nC

    Die bad van Hadrianus by Lepcis Magna is voltooi.

  • 128 nC

    Hadrian besoek Sicilia en Afrika. Hy inspekteer die Afrikaanse weermag en gee die Lambesis -toespraak.

  • 128 CE - 134 CE

    Hadrianus reis na Griekeland, Anatolië, Sirië, Judea, Arabië, Egipte en gaan terug via Griekeland.

  • 130 nC

    Die dood van Antinous, die geliefde van Hadrianus, in Egipte.

  • 132 CE - 136 CE

    Die Bar-Kochba-opstand.

  • 136 nC

    Aanneming van L. Aelius Caesar deur Hadrianus.

  • 1 Januarie 138 G.J

    Sterf van L. Aelius Caesar.

  • 28 Februarie 138 nC


Tydlyn van die naam "Palestina"

Hierdie artikel bied 'n 'n lys met noemenswaardige historiese verwysings na die naam Palestina as 'n pleknaam in die Midde -Ooste deur die geskiedenis van die streek, insluitend sy bekendes soos "Filastin" en "Palaestina."

Die term "Peleset" (getranslitereer uit hiërogliewe as P-r-s-t) word gevind in vyf inskripsies wat verwys na 'n naburige volk of land vanaf ongeveer 1150 vC tydens die twintigste dinastie van Egipte. Die eerste bekende vermelding is by die Medinet Habu -tempel, wat verwys na die Peleset onder diegene wat tydens die bewind van Ramses III teen Egipte geveg het, [2] en die laaste bekende is 300 jaar later op Padiiset se standbeeld. Die Assiriërs noem dieselfde streek 'Palashtu/Palastu' of 'Pilistu', wat begin met Adad-nirari III in die Nimrud-plaat in ongeveer. 800 vC tot 'n Esarhaddon -verdrag meer as 'n eeu later. [3] [4] Nie die Egiptiese of die Assiriese bronne het duidelike streeksgrense vir die termyn verskaf nie. [5]

Die term "Palestina" verskyn die eerste keer in die 5de eeu v.C. toe die antieke Griekse historikus Herodotus skryf oor 'n 'distrik Sirië, genaamd Palaistinê"tussen Fenisië en Egipte in Die geskiedenis. [6] Herodotus het die term toegepas op sowel die kus- as die binnelandse streke, soos die Judese berge en die Jordaan -skeurvallei. [7] [8] [9] [10] Later gebruik Griekse skrywers soos Aristoteles, Polemon en Pausanias ook die woord, gevolg deur Romeinse skrywers soos Ovidius, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Plinius die Oudere, Dio Chrysostomus, Statius , Plutarchus sowel as die Romeinse Judese skrywers Philo van Alexandrië en Josephus. [11] Die woord word nie op enige Hellenistiese muntstuk of inskripsie aangetref nie, en is die eerste keer bekend in amptelike gebruik in die vroeë tweede eeu nC. [12]

In 135 nC is die Griekse "Syria Palaestina" [a] gebruik om 'n nuwe Romeinse provinsie te noem uit die samesmelting van Romeinse Sirië en Romeinse Judaea nadat die Romeinse owerhede die Bar Kokhba -opstand verpletter het. Omvangryke bewyse verbind Hadrianus met die hernoeming van die provinsie, wat ongeveer dieselfde tyd plaasgevind het as Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina, maar die presiese datum van die verandering in die provinsienaam is nie seker nie. [13] Die algemene opvatting dat die naamsverandering bedoel was om 'die verbinding van die Jode met hul historiese vaderland te verbreek', word betwis. [14] [15]

Rondom die jaar 390, gedurende die Bisantynse tydperk, is die keiserlike provinsie Sirië Palaestina herorganiseer in Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda [16] en Palaestina Salutaris. [16] Na die Moslem -verowering word plekname wat deur die Bisantynse administrasie gebruik is, in die algemeen steeds in Arabies gebruik. [3] [17] Die gebruik van die naam "Palestina" het algemeen geword in die vroeë moderne Engels, [18] is tydens die Mutasarrifate van Jerusalem in Engels en Arabies gebruik. In die 20ste eeu is die Britte deur die Britte gebruik om te verwys na 'Mandatory Palestine', 'n gebied uit die voormalige Ottomaanse Ryk wat in die Sykes -Picot -ooreenkoms verdeel is en deur Brittanje beveilig is via die Mandaat vir Palestina verkry uit die Bond van Nasies. [19] Vanaf 2013 is die term amptelik gebruik in die gelyknamige 'Staat Palestina'. [20] Beide het geografiese streke van die land wat algemeen bekend staan ​​as Palestina, opgeneem in 'n nuwe staat met die naam Palestina.


Hadrianus: redder van die Romeinse Ryk

Die gelyknamige muur van keiser Hadrianus word dikwels as sy nalatenskap genoem, maar dit was maar een aspek van 'n Romeinse bewind wat groot bedreigings in die gesig gestaar het, sê Alex Butterworth. 'N Nuwe uitstalling van die Britse museum onthul meer van sy lewe

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 9 Augustus 2008 om 15:53

Die sogenaamde Cirene-standbeeld van die keiser, vernoem na die koloniale stad wat hy in die huidige Libië gestig het, is prominent onder die skatte wat uitgestal word in die someruitstalling van die British Museum, Hadrian: Empire and Conflict. Sedert sy ontdekking in die 19de eeu vir die unieke en skokkende beeld wat dit toon van 'n stoutmoedige Romeinse keiser geklee in die verswakte mantel van die dekadente Grieke, het dit gehelp om die gewilde persepsie van Hadrianus as 'n gekweekte, goed gereiste man van vrede te herstel. . Maar dit onderskat sy prestasies en lei sy aandag af van die blywende relevansie van sy regering.

'Kyk daar,' dui Thorsten Opper aan, die kurator van die uitstalling, en wys na die foutiewe voeg waar die gekleurde bolyf van die Cirene -beeld en die kop met Hadrian se vasberade kenmerke ontmoet. 'Dit is absoluut ikonies, maar dit is 'n moderne konstruksie wat eers in die 19de eeu daar aangebring is. Terwyl ons die standbeeld fisies kan ontplof, kan ons die mite van Hadrianus ontplof. ” Uit so 'n nuwe insig vloei die uitstalling se herevaluering van Hadrian se lang bewind. Dit is 'n herwaardering wat 'n keiser wat die bekendste in Brittanje bekend is vir die muur met sy naam, verhef tot 'n status wat vergelykbaar is met dié van Augustus self, die groot stigter van die ryk na die val van die Romeinse Republiek, 144 jaar tevore. Want soos Octavius ​​die titel 'Augustus' verwerf het deur sy hardkoppige stabilisering van Rome en sy uitbreidende gebiede na sy nederlaag van Mark Anthony in die slag van Actium, val dit in die derde en vierde dekade van die tweede eeu nC op Hadrianus om die krisis wat die bestaan ​​daarvan bedreig het, op te los - imperiale oorrek.

Toe die sterwende keiser Trajanus in 117 nC sy opvolger noem, het sy ydelheid as militêre bevelvoerder Hadrian se prys in 'n vergiftigde kelk omskep. Na jare van glansryke, maar onvoldoende beveiligde verowering, het die rande van die ryk uitgeruk. Trajanus het gevorder tot in Mesopotamië tot by die Persiese Golfstad Basra: ''n afskuwelike wanberekening wat herinner aan die inval in Irak', volgens die mees onlangse biograaf van Hadrianus, Anthony Birley. As gevolg hiervan het die mededingende ryk van Parthia 'n volmagoorlog teen Rome gevoer deur Joodse opstandelinge. Britannia, die noordelikste buitepos van die ryk, was in 'n toestand van opstand, terwyl die oorwinnings oor die Daciaanse stamme wat op die bas-reliëfs van Trajan se kolom aangeteken is, weer herstel het.

Hadrianus het beslissend gereageer om die gevaar te stuit, maar nie met die soort militêre veldtogte wat baie van sy tydgenote van 'n veteraan soldaat verwag het nie en wat 'n paar invloedryke figure in die ryk begeer het. Byna die eerste bevel wat hy uitgereik het, was dat die legioene wat sukkel om Mesopotamië (die huidige Irak) te onderwerp, sou onttrek. Vervolgens is die bobou van die brug wat Trajan gebou het om die Donau te bou, afgebreek om 'n verrassingsaanval oor die grens van Rome te voorkom. Hadrianus het dadelik beduie dat sy regime se belangrikste agenda konsolidasie eerder as uitbreiding sou wees.

Met 'n leër wat opgelei is vir verowering en 'n hoofstad wat gewoond is aan die buit van die oorlog, sal Hadrianus se vasberadenheid om die ryk binne sy bestaande grense te versterk, herhaaldelike probleme veroorsaak. Dit was miskien sy bepalende genie om te besef dat 'n blywende oplossing slegs gevind kan word deur die idee van die Romeinse Ryk, die 'imperium sonder einde', wat Augustus gemiteer het, opnuut te bewerkstellig omdat die lot van sy land 'n ryk sou word wat sy grense ken en het stabiliteit gevier. Maar om dit te bereik, sou onvermoeide vasberadenheid vereis word, die versekering van sy persoonlike teenwoordigheid, waar ook al sy onderdane gevra is om verandering te aanvaar, en al die vindingrykheid wat 'n man wat ander met sy intellektuele arrogansie woedend gemaak het, kon opdoen.

Maar hoe kan een man oral tegelyk wees? Die antwoord was eenvoudig, maar moeisaam: onophoudelike reis, wat 'n gedenkspoor in die vorm van openbare werke agterlaat. Met die Spaanse aristokrasie waaruit Hadrianus stewig in die hoofstad ontstaan ​​het, en sy toegewyde medewerker van baie veldtogte in die verlede, was Marcius Turbo, 'die warrelwind', geïnstalleer as prefek van die wag met 'n uitgebreide politieke polisie tot sy beskikking, Hadrianus se lang en gereelde afwesighede uit Rome verloop sonder protes. Terwyl hul keiser onophoudelik van provinsie tot provinsie reis, maar slegs meer as 'n dekade lank selde terugkeer, kon die inwoners van die stad oor die Tiber kyk na waar die toringagtige mausoleum, waarin hy uiteindelik gelê sou word, as 'n landdrosherinnering aan hom opkom mag en invloed op hul lewens.

'N Lewe wat deur kuns en geboue geopenbaar word

Selfs vandag, soos Christopher Kelly van Cambridge University opgemerk het, bied die fisiese bewyse van Hadrian se bewind die sekerste manier om die subtiliteit van sy metodes en doel te verstaan. 'Die proses van historiese verdraaiing het reeds in die eeu na Hadrianus se dood begin met moralistiese Christelike historici,' dring hy aan. "Gegewe die dodgy en laat status van die tekste, bied 'n uitstalling 'n buitengewoon goeie manier om hierdie keiser te verstaan." Deur die materiële bewyse te ondervra, word selfs die skynbaar stomp gebaar van die bou van die muur in die noorde van Britannia - saam met 'n groot palissade om die Germaanse stamme uit te sluit - op meer as een vlak pragmaties geopenbaar. Dit lyk inderdaad waarskynlik dat hierdie ambisieuse ingenieursprojekte nie eers bedoel was as 'n vaste grenslyn nie, maar eerder deur stamlande gesny was: 'n vaste maar poreuse projeksie van Romeinse mag wat meer bedoel was as 'n instrument vir sielkundige beheer as vir suiwer militêre onderdrukking. 'Hadrian's buffer', soos Kelly dit beskryf.

In 'n ommekeer van die gewone soeke na relevansie in die verlede, glo Opper dat parallelle uit die hedendaagse wêreld ons begrip van hierdie belangrike oomblik in die geskiedenis van Europa kan inlig. 'Noem dit Hadrianus se muur, en jy dink aan 'n wêrelderfenisgebied', sê hy, 'maar noem dit 'n veiligheidsheining, soos in Gaza, en dit klink baie meer sinister.' Soos die kortstondige artefakte van sy bewind aan die lig bring, was Hadrian se vermoë om sy onderdane se persepsie van die wêreld te hervorm, verreikend. Soldate wat na verre dele van die ryk herontplooi is, het verheerlikte blikkies saamgeneem wat hul diens as vredesmagte in die noorde herdenk, en die daaglikse teenwoordigheid van sulke beelde het die Romeine gerusgestel oor die beskerming van hul keiser.

Soos Anthony Birley daarop wys, is dit op muntstukke dat ons die duidelikste teken kan sien van Hadrianus se eie selfmoedigheid, aangesien hy homself eers as 'Hadrianus Aug', dan eenvoudig 'Augustus' herontwerp. Die gebied van die ryk waarop Hadrianus besluit het om sy aandag te vestig, dui verder daarop dat die identifikasie met sy beroemde voorvader dieper ingegaan het as blote propagandistiese gerief. Christopher Kelly bied 'n skerp herinnering daaraan dat hoewel die Romeinse gesindheid ten opsigte van die ooste diep wortels gehad het in die burgeroorlog wat Augustus oor Anthony en Cleopatra gewen het: 'Die oostelike grens was ook kwalitatief anders, aangesien dit alleen daar was dat Rome 'n ander georganiseerde ryk teëgekom het, in Parthia ”. Fraksief, maar eindeloos fassinerend, was hierdie uitdaging wat Hadrianus se grootste innovasie sou veroorsaak.

Alles Grieks tot Hadrianus

Dit lyk asof Hadrianus Rome verstaan ​​het, was lankal nie meer 'n nasie nie, saamgebind deur rasse -eenheid, maar was 'n stel kulturele waardes waarlangs sy burgers, ver en wyd, kon saamstem. Waardes wat oorspronklik van Griekse oorsprong was, is deur Rome tot volwassenheid gebring en het fundamenteel verskil van dié van die uitheemse Ooste. Deur aan te dui dat Hadrianus die toekoms van Rome as die verenigende hart van 'n Mediterreense beskawing beskou het, werp die uitstalling van die British Museum sy omgang met die Griekse bevolking van die ryk in 'n heeltemal nuwe lig. Sy besluit om Athene bloot Philhellenisme te hervorm, is nie meer 'n onderdeel van 'n gesamentlike ondersteuningsprogram wat ook die tienduisende Griekse pioniers insluit wat bereid was om die nuwe kolonie -dorpe Egipte en Palestina te vestig, onder voortdurende bedreiging van uitwissing van 'n antagonistiese Joodse diaspora.

'Een van my belangrikste idees,' sê Opper, 'is dat Hadrianus werklik die noodsaaklikheid besef het om die Grieke aan boord te kry en hulle vennote in leierskap te maak. Een blik op die kaart toon dat die Griekssprekende gebiede die agterland van al die konfliksones is-Rome en die Grieke het 'n gedeelde belang om die ryk te behou. " Christopher Kelly verskil effens in sy interpretasie van die bedoeling van Hadrianus, en beskou dit as 'n sterker toeëieningsproses: 'n brutale bewering dat "die werklike opbloei van die Griekse kultuur slegs moontlik is as gevolg van die politieke sukses van Rome". Die effek was egter dieselfde - 'n versterking van die magte wat lojaal was aan sy visie op 'n ware Mediterreense ryk. Wat ook al die magsbalans in die verhouding is, dit is duidelik dat Hadrianus nie geglo het dat sy planne vir kulturele harmonie en solidariteit teen 'n gemeenskaplike vyand as 'n eenrigtingstraat kan werk nie.

Toe 'n span van 23 trompetterende olifante buite die Colosseum verskyn en die 30 voet hoë vergulde standbeeld van Nero/Apollo wegsleep om plek te maak vir 'n tempel wat simbolies aan Roma en Venus gewy is, moet selfs die stompe burgers van Rome hê het die boodskap gekry: Rome en Griekeland was een. Die ekonomiese voordele van die bouwerk, bygevoeg tot die van die Pantheon -kompleks, sou die pil versoet het, terwyl Hadrian se teenwoordigheid in die stad verder ingeprent sou word. Die arcade forum waarvoor Trajanas onthou is, het miskien nie meer so indrukwekkend gelyk in vergelyking met hierdie of die mausoleum nie, omring deur 200 opvallend lewensgetroue, vergulde bronspoue.

Hoewel die stad Rome en die moeilike grense van die ryk ongetwyfeld die dringendste eise aan die aandag van Hadrianus gestel het, het blywende sukses in sy keiserlike projek 'n gebalanseerde benadering tot bestuur vereis. Dat slegs drie uit die 44 provinsies tot dusver nie bewyse van Hadrian se persoonlike teenwoordigheid gelewer het nie, toon sy wyse erkenning van die noodsaaklike rol in die gesondheid van die ryk deur staatmakers in die klein stad en hul alledaagse lewens. Ongetwyfeld kan 'n keiserlike besoek finansieel verlammend wees, beide in onmiddellike spysenieringskoste en die verpligting om dit te herdenk met 'n mooi gebou vir die keiser om amptelik oop te maak, soos in Leptis Magna in Libië. Christopher Kelly twyfel egter nie oor die aantrekkingskrag van Hadrian se beskerming nie. '' N Keiserlike besoek was gesog en bankrot, maar dit bied 'n geleentheid van een tot honderd jaar, miskien, as die jarelange gesinsgeskil oor eiendom besleg kan word.

'N Vegter en 'n minnaar

Standbeelde van Hadrianus versprei nou in die honderde stede van die ryk, saam met dié van Augustus, wat nie die beeld van 'n Grieks-liefdevolle peacenik voorstel nie, maar die van 'n ernstige vegter, vasgeklem in sy kerus en vertrap die barbaarse vyand onder die voete, of mities, in die pose van die Borghese Mars. Hadrianus was ook 'n passievolle eksponent van die jaagtog, en daar was veral een jag waarvoor dit hom aangenaam was om bekend te word: dit waarin hy sy jong geliefde, Antinous, uit sy eie van 'n leeu gered het. Die gebeurtenis het plaasgevind in die Libiese woestyn, voor die Egiptiese besoek van 130 nC. Binne 'n paar weke sou die lyk van die jongman wat Hadrianus gered het van 'n woeste verminking-nog steeds pragtig, maar nie so glad nie en seunsagtig as toe dit die keiser die eerste keer betree het-uit die Nyl gehaal word ( sien venster op bladsy 31).

Antinous se geheimsinnige dood het 'n groot invloed op Hadrianus gehad en onlangse opgrawings van sy groot villa in Tivoli het 'n wonderlike tempel geopenbaar vir die aanbidding van sy geliefde. Is dit regtig te sinies om aan te dui dat die tragiese afsterwe van Antinous Hadrianus ook presies die ontbrekende stuk gebring het wat hy nodig gehad het om sy subtiele program van propaganda vir die nuwe imperium te voltooi: 'n ikoon waarvan die uitmuntende androgyne gesig en atletiese liggaam die samesmelting van Romeins en Grieks, en het 'n kultus tot stand gebring wat die Christendom in sy struktuur en 'n tyd lank gewild was. Die semi-spontane aanneming daarvan deur die provinsiale elite, veral in die oostelike provinsies, het hulle in Kelly se woorde toegelaat om "met Hadrian se hartseer te praat, terwyl dit bewys het dat hulle volle deelnemers aan sy pan-Helleense program is." Maar wat gebeur, het hy nadink, "as jy nie geld spandeer om 'n kolonnade te bou om die keiser te verwelkom nie, as jy nie bereid is om 'n nuwe weergawe van die oostelike Middellandse See in te neem nie?"

Onder die standhoudende kuns en argitektuur wat onder Hadrianus geproduseer is, val die Pantheon op. Die koepel geïnspireer die van die Sint Petrus in Rome, die Hagia Sophia in Konstantinopel en selfs die ronde leeskamer waarin die British Museum -uitstalling gehou word. Dit is egter 'n leë ruimte - gekenmerk deur verwoesting eerder as konstruksie - wat Kelly kies as die mees sprekende artefak van die tydperk: die Tempelberg in Jerusalem. Daar, in die wrede nasleep van die rebellie in die vroeë 130's, is die heiligste plek van die Joodse godsdiens en die stad wat daar rondom lê, met die grond geslyp. Is Hadrian se ongevoelige bevel wat die besnydenis verbied (wat die geweld veroorsaak het) veroorsaak deur Griekse besware oor die verminking van die liggaam, soos Birley suggereer? Of was dit bloot 'n katastrofiese verkeerde oordeel wat opgevolg is met die soort swaarmoedigheid wat Hadrianus se latere jare toenemend sou kenmerk? Hoe dan ook, dit het sy bewind aangetas.

In die plek van die verdwene tempel van Jerusalem, bied die uitstalling briewe wat deur die leier van die Joodse verset, Bar Kokhba, geskryf is, asook die brose persoonlike gevolge van diegene wat saam met hom weggekruip het. Dit is waarskynlik die voorwerpe wat die emosioneelste geraak word, selfs meer as die tablette wat die alledaagse lewe uit die Vindolanda -fort op Hadrian's Wall opneem, aangesien hierdie dokumente die stemme bevat nie van die besetters nie, maar van die onderdruktes. 'N Foto onthul die uiterste ligging waarin hulle gevind is, bewaar in 'n grot wat 'n paar honderd voet van 'n krans af is, waarop die Romeinse leër 'n permanente kamp gebou het om hulle uit te verhonger. Baie in die grot van die letters het nooit hul wegbreek gemaak nie.

Judaea was een Romeinse provinsie wat nie 'n plek kon vind in die mikrokosmos van die ryk wat deur Hadrian se villa in Tivoli gemerk is nie. Die swembad van die canopus herinner aan Egipte, en die landgoed spog selfs met sy eie snaakse Hades: miskien die uitgebreide 'backstage' waarheen die slawe probeer het om die illusie van moeiteloos luukse te handhaaf. Maar terwyl Hadrianus in die skemer van sy jare in sy gange loop, angstig om Augustus se lewensduur as keiser te pas, en vasbeslote om te verseker dat die opvolging uiteindelik sou oorgaan op die tiener Marcus Aurelius, voor die 900ste herdenking van die stigting van Rome, kan hy miskien het gedink of 'n leeftyd vol inspanning en getinte van hartseer en wreedheid werklik die moeite werd was. Sou sy konsolidasieprojek voortbestaan ​​- en daarmee saam die mistieke gesag van die keiser waarop Rome staatgemaak het?

Thorsten Opper twyfel nie oor die omvang van Hadrian se prestasies nie. 'Sonder oordrywing kan u sê dat sy beleid teenoor die Griekse wêreld die grondslag gelê het vir wat die Bisantynse Ryk geword het. Sy hervormings het die voortbestaan ​​van die ryk vir nog 'n millennium gewaarborg. ” Dit is dus gepas dat hierdie uitstalling Hadrian uiteindelik sy vordering moet betaal as die nuutste in die reeks Britse eposmakende wêreldheersers van die British Museum. Soos Christopher Kelly tot die slotsom kom: "Ons, aan die begin van die 21ste eeu, moet veral aandag gee aan Hadrianus, omdat hy in dramatiese en uitgebreide vorm besef het dat kultuur net so deel uitmaak van die ryk as verowering".

Die lewe en tye van Hadrianus

Hadrianus is gebore in 'n senatoriale gesin met wortels in Italica, naby Sevilla, en het sy eerste jare in Spanje deurgebring. Die jong Hadrianus was drie keer 'n militêre konsul en veteraan van talle veldtogte onder sy skoonseun Trajanus, en was gretig om hom in die guns van die keiser te insinueer. Dit was egter eers toe Trajan sterf, dat hy Hadrian uiteindelik as sy erfgenaam noem. Hadrianus het die mag aangeneem in 'n tyd van verlammende keiserlike oorheersing, en het persoonlik 'n belangrike konsolidasieperiode gelei en voortdurend op reis gegaan om sy gesag in verafgeleë provinsies in te druk. Hy sterf op 10 Junie 138 nC, 62 jaar oud, 'n jaar minder as Augustus en 'n dekade te vroeg om die negende eeufees van die stigting van Rome te herdenk, wie se lewensduur hy verseker het.

Tydlyn: die peripatetiese keiser

Terwyl hy in Sirië was, om die agterkant van die leër in Parthia te verdedig, hoor Hadrian dit Trajanus is oorlede in Sicilië. Byna sy eerste daad as keiser is om te beveel dat die weermag uit die drie nuwe provinsies anderkant die riviere Tigris en Eufraat moet terugtrek, maar die noodsaaklikheid om verdere probleme in Dacia te onderdruk, keer dat hy terugkeer na Rome met Trajan se as.

Winter deurbring op 'n inspeksietoer deur die legioene op die Germania grens, beveel hy die bou van 'n deurlopende, drie meter lange palissade. Op reis na Britannia, waar die weermag ernstige verliese gely het tydens 'n opstand, het hy begin werk aan die groot klipmuur wat sy naam dra. Muntstukke beeld Britannia, met spies en skild, vir die eerste keer uit.

In Mauretanië, Hadrianus hou persoonlik toesig oor die onderdrukking van 'n opstand, en gaan dan na Partia waar hy oorlog keer deur middel van beraadonderhandelinge met koning Osroes I. In Bithynia, atletiekwedstryde word ter ere van hom gehou en hy ontmoet moontlik Antinous vir die eerste keer. In Anatolië hy jag varke en maak 'n sybeer dood, terwyl hy die stad Hadrianutherae stig.

Hadrianus begin om sy nuwe visie vir die Mediterreense wêreld in Griekeland te implementeer. 'N Groot forumkompleks en die' Library of Hadrian 'begin met heropbou van Athene en uiteindelik voltooi hy die tempel van die Olimpiese Zeus, wat in die sesde eeu vC begin is. Hy word ingewy in die Eleusinina -geheimenisse van Demeter en is geprys as 'n god.

In Griekeland het Hadrian se projek om Herstel Athene as die geestelike hart van die Griekse wêreld gaan voort. 'N Panhellenion, of raad van Griekse stede, insluitend dié in Egipte en die ou vyand van Sparta, word gestig en sy vergaderings word in die Zeustempel gehou. 'N Muntstuk word geslaan vir sy aankoms in Efese met die naam' Hadrianus Olympius ' - die vleeswording van Zeus.

Op Hadrian se noodlottige besoek aan Noord -Afrika hy red Antinous van 'n leeu tydens 'n jag in Libië, luister dan na verse ter herdenking van die gebeurtenis in Alexandrië. As heerser van Egipte vertraag plaaslike bygeloof sy inspeksie van die Bo -Nyl totdat die vloede teruggekeer het. Na Antinous verdrink op die reis, die stad Antinoopolis word in die omgewing gestig.

Op die punt om na 'n derde winter in Athene terug te keer na Rome, ontvang Hadrianus nuus van 'n opstand in 'n onvoldoende garnisonale Judaea, aangevuur deur sy beleid om Jerusalem as 'n kolonie te herbou. Sy beste generaal word uit Britannia ontbied en versterkings word ingespan om swaar Romeinse verliese om te keer: meer as 'n halfmiljoen Jode word geslag. Hadrianus, terug in Rome, aanvaar die enigste 'imperatoriale akklamasie' van sy bewind.

Hadrian se seksualiteit: verlore liefde en 'n gebroke hart

Liefde en seks tussen ouer mans en jong seuns was 'n algemeen aanvaarde kenmerk van die Romeinse lewe. Een van die belangrikste bronne van irritasie in die gespanne verhouding tussen keiser Trajanus en die jonger Hadrianus was jaloesie oor 'n besonder aantreklike katamiet. Hadrian se verhouding met die voortreflike Bithyniese seun, Antinous, is waarskynlik heeltemal normaal aanvaar.

Maar ten tyde van die besoek van Hadrianus aan Egipte in 130 na Christus, het sy geliefde volwassenheid bereik en was sy passie twyfelagtig. Ten opsigte van Antinous se verdrinking in die Nyl, kan moralistiese verslae van Christenhistorici van die volgende eeu nie vertrou word nie: voorstelle van rituele opoffering om Hadrian se gesondheid te herstel, of selfmoord om die ellende van verlore jeug en liefde te ontsnap, is minder aanneemlik as 'n glip in die modder. Tog onderstreep die onstuimige gerugte die intense, kronkelende band tussen Hadrianus en sy minnaar.

Hadrianus was wys genoeg om nie sy geliefde se vergoddeliking deur die senaat te eis nie. Die groot tempel van Antinous wat onlangs in Tivoli ontdek is, is egter 'n voorstelling van die opregte hartseer van die keiser. Volgens Hadrianus se groot fiktiewe 'outobiograaf', Marguerite Yourcenar, was hul tragiese verhouding die sleutel tot die verstaan ​​van sy persoonlikheid.

Alex Butterworth is 'n skrywer en dramaturg en mede-outeur van Pompeii: The Living City (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005)

UITSTELLING: Die uitstalling Hadrian: Empire and Conflict duur van 24 Julie tot 26 Oktober 2008 in die British Museum, Great Russell Street, Londen WC1B 3DG. Kaartjies kos £ 10–12. Vir inligting, skakel 020 7323 8181 of besoek www.britishmuseum.org

BOEKE: Hadrian deur Anthony Birley (Routledge, 2000) Die Romeinse Ryk: 'n baie kort inleiding deur Christopher Kelly (Oxford University Press, 2006) Hadrian: Empire and Conflict deur Thorsten Opper (British Museum Press, 2008) Die memoires van Hadrian deur Marguerite Yourcenar (Pikkewyn, 2000)


Tydlyn van die geskiedenis van Spanje en die Iberiese skiereiland

Die grafiek hierbo toon 'n rowwe tydlyn van die verskillende politieke entiteite wat beheer gehad het gedurende die geskiedenis van Spanje en die Iberiese Skiereiland.

Voorgeskiedenis van die Iberiese skiereiland

DNA -bewyse toon dat die Iberiese Skiereiland duisende jare lank 'n kruispad was. Massamigrasies het in verskillende golwe gekom. Eerstens was die toeloop van jagter-versamelaarsgroepe, die 'Villabruna', wat saam met die oorspronklike jagter-versamelingsgroepe genaamd die 'Goyet' gekom het.

Die volgende was 'n massamigrasie van mense wat oorspronklik uit Anatolië ongeveer 7 500 jaar gelede gekom het, wat mak plante en diere saamgebring het. Die nuwe boere het die jagter-versamelaars feitlik oorrompel, alhoewel daar bewyse is dat die Goyet-Villabruna-mense by die boerderymetodes aangepas het.

Nog 'n latere migrasie kom uit Noord -Afrika. DNA van opgegrawe geraamtes in Sentraal -Spanje toon afkoms uit die Noord -Afrikaanse streek. Later argeologiese opgrawings het hierdie bevinding ook bevestig.

Koper en Bronstydperk Spanje het 'n paar hoogs gevorderde kulture vir sy tyd. Die Los Millares en daarna El Argar beskawings gee 'n blik op hoe die lewe 4000-6,000 jaar gelede was, voor nog 'n groot migrasie, hierdie keer van Keltiese mense wat Indo-Europese tale uit Sentraal-Europa praat.

Die Kelte trou met die bestaande mense in die streek en tree saam op as 'n nuwe groep wat die Celtiberiërs genoem word. Dit verwys na die sterk kulturele invloede van die Keltiese mense op die streek, en hoe hulle die landskap in die voor-Romeinse tyd oorheers het.

Hierdie ontdekkings toon aan dat massamigrasies duisende jare lank voor die groot beskawings in die streek toegesak het, Spanje uit alle rigtings verswelg en gevorm het.

Fenisiese, Griekse en Romeinse heerskappy van die Iberiese skiereiland

Aan die einde van die Bronstydperk en die vroeë Ystertydperk het die Fenisiërs begin met die bou van nedersettings langs die suidkus van die Iberiese Skiereiland. Die Feniciërs was 'n seevierende volk van die teenoorgestelde kant van die Middellandse See en was veral geïnteresseerd in die handel in die metaalproduserende samelewings aan die kus.

Die Fenisiese stad Gadir (hedendaagse Cadiz) is omstreeks 1100 vC gestig en is een van die oudste stede wat steeds in Wes -Europa bewoon word. Ander handelsstede soos Malaga en Ibiza is gestig en bewoon deur die Feniciërs.

Terwyl die Fenisiërs in die suide gebly het, het die Grieke stede aan die noordoostelike kus gestig. Die stad Emporion was 'n belangrike middelpunt, en die nabygeleë Rhode het ook 'n plaaslike handelsentrum geword.

Die Fenisiese stad Kartago het 'n eie ryk geword, en gou het stede aan die Middellandse See -kus gestig wat met die Grieke meeding. Die stad Carthago Nova (hedendaagse Cartagena) was die sentrale spilpunt wat edelmetale verruil het vir die Kartago -ryk. Kartago was die eerste entiteit wat aansienlik van die kus na die binneland ingetrek het, omdat dit sy gebied tot in die middel van Spanje gevestig het deur middel van wrede oorlogvoering.

Met die Romeinse oorwinnings in die Puniese oorloë, het die Romeine in 218 vC die voormalige stede in Kartago op die Iberiese Skiereiland beset. Byna 200 jaar later, in 19 vC, het die Romeine die hele skiereiland onder hulle beheer gebring.

Die Iberiese kolonies was 'n waardevolle deel van die Romeinse ryk. Invloedryke Iberiese gesinne is in die politieke groep van die Romeinse samelewing gebring, en verskeie keisers (soos Trajanus en Hadrianus) is in Iberiese stede gebore.

Islamitiese verowering van Spanje

Na die val van die Romeinse ryk was daar 'n kort magsvakuum op die skiereiland. In die nasleep daarvan het verskillende Germaanse stamme die gebied ingetrek, soos die Suebi, Vandale en Visigote.

Teen die begin/middel van die 5de eeu het die Visigote die grootste deel van die skiereiland verower. Slegs die suide het onafhanklik gebly onder die Bisantynse bewind van 554-624. Die Bisantynse bewind is ingestel onder keiser Justinianus I in 'n poging om sommige van die westelike provinsies van die Romeinse Ryk te herstel.

Die Visigote het tot in die vroeë 8ste eeu geheers toe hulle deur nuwe indringers uit die suide getref is. 'N Gesamentlike Arabiese en Berberse mag het 'n inval van die skiereiland vanuit Noord -Afrika geloods na berigte van politieke verdeeldheid binne die Visigotiese koninkryk.

Die inval en die daaropvolgende verowering was vinnig, met 'n groot meerderheid van die skiereiland wat binne agt jaar onder die beheer van die Umayyad -kalifaat was. Slegs 'n paar klein Christelike koninkryke het in die noorde van die skiereiland oorgebly.

Die gebied van Moslembeheer oor die Iberiese skiereiland is Al-Andalus genoem, en die Europeërs het die invallers van die Moslems algemeen as “The Moors ” genoem. Die Umayyad's van Al-Aldalus was teen die middel van die agtste eeu in wese 'n outonome staat en het die streek omskep in 'n sentrum van kultuur en leer.

The Islamic rulers themselves dealt with fractured polities and periods of upheaval. Their Christian enemies seized upon these to gradually claw back territory. By the 13th century, Islamic power had waned and only held a small amount of territory at the southern tip of Iberia.

The Christian Kingdoms of Spain

Almost immediately after the Arab/Berber conquest of Spain in the 8th century, the small Christian kingdoms that remained sought to win back their lost territory. At the Battle of Covadonga in 718 or 722, the Christians scored a major victory against the Umayyad.

This victory is often referred to as the first of the Reconquista, or expulsion of Muslims from the Iberian peninsula. It was a struggle that would last for centuries, and lead to near constant warfare across the peninsula throughout.

From the 8th to 15th centuries, a variety of Christian kingdoms would emerge. Not only would these kingdoms fight with the Muslims, but they also vied with each other for regional dominance. Several of the emerging kingdoms included:

  • Kingdom of Leon
  • Kingdom of Navarre
  • Counties of Catalonia
  • Kingdom of Castile
  • Kingdom of Aragon
  • Kingdom of Portugal

Through the centuries, these kingdoms would also align politically at various times. The Christians scored major victories against the Muslims to the south and were able to successfully transfer power and influence from the south to the north of the peninsula. Islamic influence gradually waned, until only one small province (Granada) was remaining by the 13th century.

Three major polities remained towards the end of the 15th century: The Kingdom of Portugal, Castile and Aragon.

Creation of the Spanish Monarchy

The origins of modern day Spain can be traced back to the political union of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile. Queen Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon married in 1469. Ferdinand ascended to the throne of Aragon in 1479, bringing the two kingdoms together for the first time.

The two rulers were referred to as ” The Catholic Monarchs” and oversaw the completion of the Reconquista in 1492. With that, an edict expelling all Jews and Muslims from Spain was issued.

Isabella and Ferdinard also engineered the beginnings of Spain’s emerged to global power. Through funding the voyage of Columbus and subsequent voyages to the Americas, Spain acquired a vast overseas empire.

Upon their deaths, Aragon and Castile briefly reverted back to their independent polities. A few years later in 1516, Charles I of the Habsburg dynasty (grandson of Ferdinand II and Isabella I) was named king of Spain. This is the effective beginning of the Spanish monarchy under Habsburg rule.

With unification complete, Spain vied for global supremacy. Their overseas possessions made them arguably the most wealthy nation for a time. Spanish influence and power waned over the subsequent centuries, coinciding with the decline and loss of overseas possessions.

In the modern age, Spain no longer adheres to a monarchy, but is committed to democracy and a member of the European Union since 1986.


Remaining Artifacts

Mementos of Hadrian's reign—in the form of coins and the many building projects he undertook—survive. Most famous is the wall across Britain that was named Hadrian's Wall after him. Hadrian's Wall was built, beginning in 122, to keep Roman Britain safe from hostile attacks from the Picts. It was the northernmost boundary of the Roman empire until early in the fifth century.

The wall, stretching from the North Sea to the Irish Sea (from the Tyne to the Solway), was 80 Roman miles (about 73 modern miles) long, 8-10 feet wide, and 15 feet high. In addition to the wall, the Romans built a system of small forts called milecastles (housing garrisons of up to 60 men) every Roman mile along its entire length, with towers every 1/3 mile. Sixteen larger forts holding from 500 to 1000 troops were built into the wall, with large gates on the north face. To the south of the wall, the Romans dug a wide ditch, (vallum), with six-foot-high earth banks.

Today many of the stones have been carted away and recycled into other buildings, but the wall is still there for people to explore and walk along, although the latter is discouraged.


Ancient Jewish History: The Bar-Kokhba Revolt

The Bar Kokhba revolt marked a time of high hopes followed by violent despair. The Jews were handed expectations of a homeland and a Holy Temple, but in the end were persecuted and sold into slavery. During the revolt itself, the Jews gained enormous amounts of land, only to be pushed back and crushed in the final battle of Bethar.

When Hadrian first became the Roman emperor in 118 C.E., he was sympathetic to the Jews. He allowed them to return to Jerusalem and granted permission for the rebuilding of their Holy Temple. The Jews’ expectations rose as they made organizational and financial preparations to rebuild the temple. Hadrian quickly went back on his word, however, and requested that the site of the Temple be moved from its original location. He also began deporting Jews to North Africa.

The Jews prepared to rebel until Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah calmed them. The Jews then satisfied themselves with preparing secretly in case a rebellion would later become necessary. They built hideouts in caves and did shoddy work building weapons so that the Romans would reject the weapons and return them to the Jews.

The Jews organized guerilla forces and, in 123 C.E., began launching surprise attacks against the Romans. From that point on, life only got worse for the Jews. Hadrian brought an extra army legion, the &ldquoSixth Ferrata,&rdquo into Judea to deal with the terrorism. Hadrian hated &ldquoforeign&rdquo religions and forbade the Jews to perform circumcisions. He appointed Tinneius Rufus governor of Judea. Rufus was a harsh ruler who took advantage of Jewish women. In approximately 132 C.E., Hadrian began to establish a city in Jerusalem called Aelia Capitolina, the name being a combination of his own name and that of the Roman god Jupiter Capitolinus. He started to build a temple to Jupiter in place of the Jewish Holy Temple.

As long as Hadrian remained near Judea, the Jews stayed relatively quiet. When he left in 132, the Jews began their rebellion on a large scale. They seized towns and fortified them with walls and subterranean passages. Under the strong leadership of Shimon Bar-Kokhba, the Jews captured approximately 50 strongholds in Judea and 985 undefended towns and villages, including Jerusalem. Jews from other countries, and even some gentiles, volunteered to join their crusade. The Jews minted coins with slogans such as &ldquoThe freedom of Israel&rdquo written in Hebrew. Hadrian dispatched General Publus Marcellus, governor of Syria, to help Rufus, but the Jews defeated both Roman leaders. The Jews then invaded the coastal region and the Romans began sea battles against them.

The turning point of the war came when Hadrian sent into Judea one of his best generals from Britain, Julius Severus, along with former governor of Germania, Hadrianus Quintus Lollius Urbicus. By that time, there were 12 army legions from Egypt, Britain, Syria and other areas in Judea. Due to the large number of Jewish rebels, instead of waging open war, Severus besieged Jewish fortresses and held back food until the Jews grew weak. Only then did his attack escalate into outright war. The Romans demolished all 50 Jewish fortresses and 985 villages. The main conflicts took place in Judea, the Shephela, the mountains and the Judean desert, though fighting also spread to Northern Israel. The Romans suffered heavy casualties as well and Hadrian did not send his usual message to the Senate that &ldquoI and my army are well.&rdquo

The final battle of the war took place in Bethar, Bar-Kokhba&rsquos headquarters, which housed both the Sanhedrin (Jewish High Court) and the home of the Nasi (leader). Bethar was a vital military stronghold because of its strategic location on a mountain ridge overlooking both the Valley of Sorek and the important Jerusalem-Bet Guvrin Road. Thousands of Jewish refugees fled to Bethar during the war. In 135 C.E., Hadrian&rsquos army besieged Bethar and on the 9th of Av, the Jewish fast day commemorating the destruction of the first and second Holy Temples, the walls of Bethar fell. After a fierce battle, every Jew in Bethar was killed. Six days passed before the Romans allowed the Jews to bury their dead.

Following the battle of Bethar, there were a few small skirmishes in the Judean Desert Caves, but the war was essentially over and Judean independence was lost. The Romans plowed Jerusalem with a yoke of oxen. Jews were sold into slavery and many were transported to Egypt. Judean settlements were not rebuilt. Jerusalem was turned into a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina and the Jews were forbidden to live there. They were permitted to enter only on the 9th of Av to mourn their losses in the revolt. Hadrian changed the country&rsquos name from Judea to Syria Palestina.

In the years following the revolt, Hadrian discriminated against all Judeo-Christian sects, but the worst persecution was directed against religious Jews. He made anti-religious decrees forbidding Torah study, Sabbath observance, circumcision, Jewish courts, meeting in synagogues and other ritual practices. Many Jews assimilated and many sages and prominent men were martyred including Rabbi Akiva and the rest of the Asara Harugei Malchut (ten martyrs). This age of persecution lasted throughout the remainder of Hadrian&rsquos reign, until 138 C.E.

Bronne: Encyclopedia Judaica. &ldquoBar Kokhba&rdquo. Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem.
H.H. Ben Sasson, Editor. A History of the Jewish People. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969.
History Until 1880: Israel Pocket Library. Keter Publishing House Ltd., Jerusalem, 1973.
The Jewish Encyclopedia. &ldquoBar Kokba and Bar Kokba War.&rdquo Funk and Wagnalls Co. London, 1902.
Kantor, Morris. The Jewish Time Line Encyclopedia. Jason Aronson Inc., New Jersey, 1989.

Laai ons mobiele app af vir onmiddellike toegang tot die Joodse virtuele biblioteek


Messianic Yearnings

It was not until the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan (98-­117 C.E.) that the problems came to the surface. In 115� C.E., while Trajan was occupied in Mesopotamia, Jews throughout the Diaspora rose up against their non‑Jewish neighbors in a violent confrontation. Before long pitched battles were being fought in Egypt. The Jews of Cyrene (in North Africa) were said to have massacred their neighbors. Similar disturbances fol­lowed in Cyprus and Mesopotamia. The Roman general Lucius Quietus, ferocious in putting down the Mesopotamian revolt, was rewarded with the governorship of Palestine. When Hadrian became emperor in 117 C.E. he had to spend his first year mopping up the last of the rebels. The Land of Israel seems to have been involved in these battles only to a limited extent.

What is especially significant in these disturbances is the evidence that they were fueled by the very same messianic yearnings that had helped to fan the flames of the Great Revolt, and would soon lead to the Bar Kochba Revolt. To be sure, other social, economic, and political causes were at work, especially a general decline in relations between Jews and their neighbors in the Hellenistic world, but when these finally led to the of a rebellion, it was the belief in a messianic future that made possible the leap of faith to the belief that the revolt might succeed.

Early in the time of Hadrian there was an abortive attempt to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple, believed by some scholars to have had Hadrian&rsquos support. The failure of this effort was another great disappointment for the Jewish community of Palestine. Soon after, Hadrian founded a city of his own in Jerusalem called Aelia Capitolina, where he erected a temple to the Greek god Zeus. It is also probable that Hadrian prohibited circumcision even before the Bar Kochba Revolt, although some see the outlawing of circumcision as a measure enacted after the upris­ing had begun, much like the persecutions of Antiochus IV. It was in this context, as well as on the basis of the strong messianic yearnings we have observed already, that some ele­ments in the Jewish population of Palestine began preparing for revolt in the 120&rsquos.


The Roman Destruction and Rebuilding of Jerusalem

For the city of Jerusalem, the First Judean Revolt against Rome culminated in the capture and demolition of the city in 70 AD by general and future emperor Titus Flavius. This was followed by the eventual rebuilding and renaming of the city as Aelia Capitolina by Emperor Hadrian in 130 AD, then a violent response to Romanization of the city by the Bar Kokhba Revolt which lasted from 132-136 AD. In the space of several decades, not only had the city of Jerusalem and the Temple suffered obliteration, but the entire region had been desolated by wars, and the Romans even attempted to erase the memory of the city, the land, and events that had occurred there.

Not long after the Triumphal Entry in 33 AD, Jesus predicted the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, even specifying that not one stone would be left upon another which would not be torn down (Matthew 24:1-2 Mark 13:1-2 Luke 21:5-6). According to multiple historical sources, the Temple was reduced to rubble in 70 AD when the Romans finally breached the city walls after a siege of a few months and destroyed the city, including the entire Temple complex. While the Gospels emphasize the obliteration of the Temple, Jesus also predicted the siege and destruction of the city (Luke 19:41-44, 21:20-24). In these predictions, Jesus specified that armies would surround the city, besiege it, destroy it, that the people of Jerusalem would be killed and led captive, and that Jerusalem would be tread upon by the nations. After more than three years of fighting in Judea, the Romans under the leadership of general Titus Flavius finally surrounded Jerusalem with four legions—V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, XV Apollinaris, and X Fretensis (Meyers and Chancey, From Alexander to Constantine McRay, Archaeology and the New Testament). However, remembering the predictions of Jesus, Christians in Jerusalem fled the city and surrounding area, with most temporarily relocating to Pella during the war (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History Epiphanius, Panarion en On Weights and Measures). Jerusalem was a city of magnificent defenses, with walls added in phases as the population expanded, and by 44 AD it had three massive walls. The Romans were able to easily breach the two outside walls, but despite infighting the defenders held out behind the last wall for a few months (Tacitus, Geskiedenisse). Eventually, however, the Romans took the Antonia Fortress and then burned the Temple, which was supposedly accidental. According to Josephus, general Titus had sought to spare the Temple but convert it into a pagan place of worship (Josephus, Wars). About four weeks later, the final holdouts in the upper city had been defeated, and the ruins of Jerusalem were in total Roman control. Archaeological excavations throughout the city have shown the extent to which the city was destroyed and the Temple was annihilated. In fact, the only remains of the Temple seemed to be loose stones and broken pieces of the building pushed off of the side of the mount or littered around the platform, indicating a total demolition of the Temple, just as Jesus had predicted 37 years earlier. Josephus noted that Jerusalem “was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe Jerusalem had ever been inhabited” (Josephus, Wars). Corinthian capitals were discovered among the ruins on the Jerusalem Temple Mount, as this was the most popular style in the Roman Empire and a favorite of Herod the Great. During his reign, Herod had remodeled and expanded the entire Temple complex, including building a stoa or portico around the complex which used these capitals, but every building on the Temple Mount had been burned and torn down by the Romans (John 10:23). Toppled blocks from the ruins of the Jerusalem Temple complex were also found on the 1st century street below and to the west. In the rubble a stone from one of the towers at the corner of the Temple Mount was found, inscribed in Hebrew and reading “to the place of the trumpeting.” Looted treasures were carried off to Rome as victory plunder, displayed on the Arch of Titus in Rome, including the gold menorah (lampstand). During the fighting, thousands among the defenders of Jerusalem were killed, and after the capture of the city, thousands more became slaves and were spread around the Empire, or if able to escape, fled the region (Josephus, Wars). It has been estimated that about one third of the population of Judaea Province was killed or enslaved as a result of the revolt. The sects of the Essenes and the Sadducees disappeared, but the synagogue and the Pharisees rose to even greater prominence, becoming the future of Judaism. The prophesies that Jesus made—a siege and destruction of Jerusalem by armies surrounding the city, the total annihilation of the temple, the death of many in battle, the fleeing of others, the enslavement and scattering into different parts of the world, and the trampling of Jerusalem by the nations had been fulfilled. Once fighting had ceased, general Titus departed for Rome but left Legion X Fretensis stationed at Jerusalem to defeat any remaining resistance in Judea and keep the area under Roman control. According to a 3 rd century source, the conquering general Titus supposedly refused the victory wreath because he thought there was no merit in vanquishing a people forsaken by their own God (Philostratus, Life of Apollonius).

One of the results of this war was a two drachma tax called the Fiscus Judaicus, instituted by Emperor Vespasian, father of general Titus Flavius, which all practitioners of Judaism throughout the Roman Empire were supposed to pay yearly as a contribution to the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter in Rome (Josephus, Wars Suetonius, Die twaalf keisers Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis). This tax was meant to replace the Jerusalem Temple tax, and was a punishment for rebellion against Rome. However, anyone who abandoned Judaism became exempt from paying the tax. Following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, much of the city lay dormant and unoccupied except for Roman camps of the 10th Legion. The city had so thoroughly been destroyed and then left unoccupied that many of the architectural remains, such as basements of buildings, were left in place and simply built over. Stationed in the ruins of Jerusalem, primarily on the west side of the city, the 10 th Legion settled into a military camp after the conquest of the city. Legio X Fretensis, or the 10th Legion of the Strait, was founded by Augustus around 40 BC during the Roman civil war that eventually resulted in the formation of the Empire. The legion was designated 10th in honor of the famous legion of Julius Caesar, and named Fretensis due to its involvement in the battle at the Strait of Messina. Many tiles stamped with the name and number of the legion, and its icons such as the bull, boar, ship, or Neptune have been found where Legion X camped in Jerusalem in the 1 st and 2 nd centuries. Soldiers remained stationed there the next 62 years when the Bar Kokhba Revolt broke out, as also evidenced by a supply account for soldiers in Judea dated to 128 AD (Rylands Papyrus 189). Soon after 70 AD, Christians returned to Jerusalem, and apparently resumed meeting at the “Church of the Apostles” on Mount Zion, near the Roman military camp (Cyril of Jerusalem Epiphanius, Treatise on Weights and Measures Itinerarium Egeriae Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History).

However, after almost 60 years of peace in Judaea Province, a major rebellion surfaced again. The Bar Kokhba revolt seems to have been inflamed by the plans of Emperor Hadrian to include Roman temples in the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and particularly upon the site of the Temple of Yahweh, which was revealed when he visited the city around 130 AD. Originally, Hadrian had intended to rebuilt the Temple of Yahweh, but later deciding that it may foster rebellion against Rome, he opted for an alternative construction project. This plan in particular, the attempt to build a temple to Jupiter where the Temple of Yahweh had been, was probably the catalyst for the uprising (Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis). Bar Kokhba, a false messiah claimant, enlisted as many people as possible to fight a guerilla war against the Romans. Yet, the reasons for Hadrian coming to Jerusalem and rebuilding the city seem to be connected with his mission to defeat Christianity rather than aggravating Judaism or removing the association of Israel and Judah with the renamed land. Earlier in his reign, Hadrian had begun to devise plans to eradicate Christianity from the Roman Empire due to its beliefs and worldview that were completely opposite to the pagan Roman way of thinking, and its rapid spread across the Empire in all social classes over the last several decades. Being a scholar and philosopher in the Greek tradition, Hadrian believed that Christianity could be more effectively eliminated through ideological policies rather than executions. In Athens, around 124 AD, the Emperor held discussions and “negotiations” with Christians, including two scholars named Aristides and Quadratus, hoping to defeat Christianity intellectually and syncretizing the worship of Christ into the Roman pantheon, apparently even offering to place a statue of Christ in Rome (Golan, “Hadrian’s Decision to Supplant Jerusalem by Aelia Capitolina”). However, the Christians rejected this offer of syncretism and modification of Christianity into a part of the Roman religious system. The failure seems to have spurred Hadrian to attempt another strategy, involving the paganization of sites related to Jesus and Christianity. Knowing that Jerusalem had been central to Jesus and Christianity, Hadrian went to the city with this new plan. Rebuilding Jerusalem and founding it as a Roman colony in place of the ruins, Hadrian renamed the city Aelia Capitolina in honor of his family name and the god Jupiter. The province was expanded and renamed Syria Palaestina, supplanting Israel with Philistia. While this act certainly erased historical associations, it also directly challenged Jesus and Christianity by making the very name of the city into a Roman deity and Emperor, attempting to show the supremacy of Rome, its gods, and its Emperor. The city was reconstructed according to typical Roman plan, with a north-south cardo and an east-west decumanus, although many scholars suggest that there were two of each of these main north-south and east-west streets due to the odd topography of the city. The Roman forum was at the center, and this is where the temple of Jupiter ended up being built, alongside a sanctuary to Venus and over the tomb of Jesus (Eusebius, Life of Constantine Jerome, Letter to Paulinus). Other sites in the area which had an association with Jesus which Hadrian had pagan temples and shrines built over include the birthplace of Jesus in Bethlehem, the Pool of Bethesda, and the Pool of Siloam. The originally planned site for the temple of Jupiter, on the Temple Mount and former site of the temple of Yahweh, remained desolate except for a statue of Emperor Hadrian riding a horse. The next Emperor, Antonius Pius, also placed a statue of himself riding a horse on the Temple Mount, and the inscription from the pedestal of this statue can be seen today in a rebuilt section of the southern wall of the Temple Mount. In the 4 th century, the Bordeaux Pilgrim noted two Emperor statues, although he mistakenly thought that both statues were of Hadrian, as they probably looked extremely similar. The walls of Jerusalem were not rebuilt at this time, which was typical for the Roman Empire as they were both unnecessary for defense against foreign enemies because of the legions, and prevented local rebels from forcing the Romans to besiege cities. The 10 th Legion continued to inhabit the city, as evidenced by discoveries such as a ca. 130 AD Latin inscription found in Jerusalem, dedicated by Legion X Fretensis to Emperor Hadrian. In Aelia Capitolina around this time, the Emperor also had coins issued to commemorate the founding of the colony and the building of the main temple. One coin showed an image of Jerusalem being ritually plowed for the new founding, while another coin showed the temple of Jupiter.

Soon after Hadrian left the area, full scale revolt began, and the temple of Jupiter on the Temple Mount was not completed. This revolt further depopulated Judea, with tens of thousands slain and many cities and towns ruined. Cassius Dio even remarked that wolves and hyenas howled in the cities (Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis cf. Isaiah 13:22). Jerusalem itself was apparently besieged again during the reign of Hadrian, perhaps due to a contingent of rebels temporarily taking control of the city (Appian, Syriaca). Roman coins overstruck by the rebels with Hebrew inscriptions and religious iconography such as the temple façade have been found throughout the area, including in Jerusalem, suggesting that the city was occupied by Bar Kokhba and his followers for an unknown amount of time until the Romans besieged the city and took back control (Chancey and Porter, “The Archaeology of Roman Palestine”). Christians did not support either of the revolts in Judea, and Eusebius recorded that many Christians suffered torture and death when they refused to join the Bar Kokhba revolt and attack Roman soldiers (Eusebius, Chronicon Justin Martyr, Second Apology Orosius, Geskiedenis). After over three years of fighting (132-136 AD), the Romans subdued the rebels and their false messiah Simon Bar Kokhba, who was executed along with other leaders of the rebellion. The effect of the rebellion was devastating to Judaism and the entire land of Judea, including the erasure of the ancient names and associations with Israel and Judah, the banning of the Mosaic Law, and the execution of many leaders of Judaism. For Jerusalem in particular, Hadrian completely banned Judaism in the city and barred Judeans from entering Jerusalem except once a year on Tisha B’Av (9 th of the month Av), the day commemorating the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. From the time of Hadrian, the city remained a place of both pagan and Christian worship until radical changes began in the 4 th century after the legalization of Christianity by Emperor Constantine.


Hadrian Augustus Duval

Hadrian had earned his Pilots Federation license and was working as a trader when he was located by Nova Imperium in late 3304, and the group's original Imperator, Duke Kaeso Mordanticus, called for Emperor Arissa Lavigny-Duval to be removed and replaced by Hadrian. Following the public execution of Mordanticus and a purge of Nova Imperium members ordered by Emperor Arissa in January 3305, Hadrian assumed Mordanticus's mantle as Imperator and continued to lead Nova Imperium in exile in the Paresa system.

In the wake of an attempt on his life by the Neo-Marlinist Liberation Army in October 3306, Hadrian heeded Princess Aisling Duval's advice and sought to reconcile with the Emperor. While Hadrian was denied the title of prince and any formal position within the Imperial Family, he was recognized as a Duval by blood, and he and his followers were granted royal pardons in exchange for cooperation against the NMLA and acknowledgment of Emperor Arissa's rule.

On April 26, 3307, Imperator Hadrian was identified as the leader of the NMLA in a leaked statement made by Landgrave Arastin Delacroix of the Neo-Marlinist Order of Mudhrid to the Affiliated Counter-Terrorism unit. Although ACT had not verified this claim and Imperator Hadrian denied it, the League of Mandu, a Federal-aligned faction, unilaterally invaded Paresa to take revenge against Hadrian and Nova Imperium for the NMLA's terror campaign. Nova Imperium fended them off with assistance from the galactic community, preventing a potential international crisis that would have been triggered if Hadrian, an acknowledged member of the Empire's royal family, had been killed by Federal forces. On May 21, ACT confirmed that the allegations against Imperator Hadrian could not be proven and the NMLA had very likely falsified his identity.


Modern Age

After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics rebooted the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline Year One from Batman #404-407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character. Though the Earth-Two Batman is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/Earth-One career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. While Dick Grayson's past remains much the same, the history of Jason Todd, the second Robin, is altered, turning the boy into the orphan son of a petty crook, who tries to steal the tires from the Batmobile. Also removed is the guardian Phillip Wayne, leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred. Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period. Various stories from Jeph Loeb and Matt Wagner also touch upon this era.

In 1988's "Batman: A Death in the Family" storyline from Batman #426-429 Jason Todd, the second Robin, is killed by the Joker. Subsequently Batman takes an even darker, often excessive approach to his crimefighting. Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin. In 2005 writers resurrected the Jason Todd character and have pitted him against his former mentor.

Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, the same year that DC published the "Death of Superman" storyline, the publisher released the "Knightfall" storyline. In the storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains to return to his role as Batman.

1994's company-wide crossover Zero Hour changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force. Similarly, the Waynes' killer is never caught or identified, effectively removing Joe Chill from the new continuity, rendering stories such as "Year Two" non-canon.

Batman once again becomes a member of the Justice League during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. While Batman contributes greatly to many of the team's successes, the Justice League is largely uninvolved as Batman and Gotham City face catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land." While Lex Luthor rebuilds Gotham at the end of the "No Man's Land" storyline, he then frames Bruce Wayne for murder in the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs Wayne is eventually acquitted.

DC's 2005 limited series Identity Crisis, reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories, leading to his deep loss of trust in the rest of the superhero community. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over the other heroes. Its eventual co-opting by Maxwell Lord is one of the main events that leads to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. In Infinite Crisis #7, Alexander Luthor, Jr. mentions that in the newly-rewritten history of the "New Earth", created in the previous issue, the murderer of Martha and Thomas Wayne - again, Joe Chill - was captured, thus undoing the retcon created after Zero Hour. Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs. Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, and Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman". In the "Face the Face" storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence. At the end of the story arc, Bruce adopts Tim as his son. The follow-up story arc in Batman, "Batman & Son", introduces Damian Wayne, who is Batman's son with Talia al Ghul. Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series, and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders.


Kyk die video: Hadrian - Los Sobrinos Video Oficial TR REC @yelkrab (Augustus 2022).