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Stabian Baths, Pompeii

Stabian Baths, Pompeii



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Stabiese baddens van Pompeii

Stabian Baths of Pompeii is ongetwyfeld een van die interessantste strukture in die antieke Pompeii. Bade het oorleef ten spyte van die natuurlike rampspoed wat die stad getref het. Die binnekant van Stabian Baths is bedek met pragtige fresco's, kerfwerk en beelde. Alle inwoners van die stad het 'n soort bad besoek. Stabiese baddens was voorbehou vir sommige van die rykste lede van die Pompeii -samelewing. Oorspronklike Stabian Baths verskyn in die 4de eeu vC aan hierdie kant. Die huidige gebou is egter in die 1ste eeu vC gebou in opdrag van die Romeinse goewerneurs van Pompeii, Julius en Publius Anisius, aangestel deur Sulla. Die uitleg en argitektuur dui duidelik op die invloed van die Romeinse Republiek wat die stad in besit geneem het.

Stabian Baths is 'n kompleks van geboue wat 'n sentrale gebied vir oefen, bekend as palaestra, gebou het. Hier kan u vars koue lug inasem, lees of oefen. Twee klein vertrekke aan elke kant van die buitelug -gimnasium is gebruik om sand en olie te vryf. Dit was 'n skelm manier om van u teenstander te ontsnap in 'n stoeiery. Boonop het palaestra van die Stabian Baths 'n swembad van 15 by 8 by 1,5 meter. Dit is nie presies die swembad van die Olimpiese grootte nie, maar dit is van afkomslengte. Standbeelde van Zeus, die mitiese held Hercules en Satire was ook teenwoordig wat daarop dui dat die kultus van manlikheid en sterkte 'n sleutelrol in die lewens van inwoners van Pompeii gespeel het.

Pompeii Stabian Baths is verdeel in mans- en vrouedele, soos dit vir die tydperk gebruik was. U kan deur die ingange van die Palaestra en die straat Via dell 'Abbondanza deur mans ingaan. Die eerste kamer waarheen hulle sou ingaan, was die kleedkamer van baddens. Die mure is gevoer met nisse waarin klere en persoonlike besittings gebêre is. Plafonne en mure van die kleedkamer is bedek met pragtige fresco's en figure van mitiese wesens. Antieke verf het nie verdwyn ten spyte van warm temperature en eeue se erosie.

Let op die liggame wat die gipsvorms in die Pompeii Stabian Baths gemaak het. Verbasend genoeg was sommige inwoners van Pompeii heeltemal onbewus van die gevare wat die vulkaanuitbarsting vir die stad inhou. Hulle het blykbaar besluit dat natuurlike rampspoed 'n goeie tyd is om plaaslike baddens te besoek. Daar is geen lyn nie en toegangsgeld moes vuilgoedkoop wees. Te oordeel na die feit dat lyke tydens hul dood houtflops op hul bene gedra het, dui dit aan dat hierdie ongelukkige slagoffers in die warm kamer was toe hulle besluit het om uiteindelik uit die stad te vlug. Die prentjie hieronder toon 'n deel van die been met oorblyfsels van houtflops met 'n band wat waarskynlik van 'n natuurlike diervel gemaak is.

Na die kleedkamer het besoekers in tepidarium (warm bad) gegaan. Romeinse baddens het 'n dubbele vloer. Die boonste een het op talle pilare gestaan ​​en besoekers ondersteun. Die ruimte tussen die boonste en onderste verdieping was 'n smal ruimte wat deur vuur verhit is. Werkers van hierdie Pompeii -baddens moes brandhout aan die brand hou om die hitte in die stoomkamer te hou. Die vloer het natuurlik warm geword, en die enigste manier om oor die vloer te loop, was deur houtplate te dra wat aan alle besoekers gegee is.

Besoekers kom uit 'n verhitte stoomkamer in 'n frigidarium. Soos die naam aandui, was dit 'n koel kamer. Vroue -afdeling van Stabian Baths het nie 'n aparte frigidarium gehad nie. In plaas daarvan het hulle 'n klein bad in hul eie kleedkamer saam met 'n aparte stoomkamer gehad.

Romeine hou van hul openbare geboue en besoek gereeld Stabian Baths. Dit was egter nie so skoon soos sommige mense dink nie. Een van die beste plekke om dit te sien, is in die klein swembad van die bad. Daar is 'n loodpyp in die hoek wat water na die Jacuzzi -stylbad gebring het. Daar is egter geen uitvloei vir die water nie. Dit beteken dat Romeine gerus, gebad en hul dinge in 'n water sonder sirkulasie gedoen het. Dit is onnodig om te bly dat dit ietwat omstrede is of dit skoner of eintlik vuiler was nadat hulle die bad verlaat het. Eintlik het een van die Romeinse dokters sy pasiënte aangeraai om nie te gaan bad as hulle 'n oop wond het nie. Anders sou hulle beslis aan gangreen sterf.


Inhoud

Die nedersetting in Stabiae het reeds in die 7de eeu vC ontstaan ​​as gevolg van die gunstige klimaat en die strategiese en kommersiële betekenis daarvan, soos evokatief gedokumenteer deur materiaal wat gevind is in die uitgestrekte nekropolis wat in 1957 ontdek is via Madonna delle Grazie, geleë tussen Gragnano en Santa Maria la Carità. Die nekropolis van meer as 300 grafte met ingevoerde erdewerk van Korintiese, Etruskiese, Chalcidiese en Attiese oorsprong toon duidelik aan dat die stad groot kommersiële kontakte gehad het. [5] Die nekropolis, wat 'n oppervlakte van 15 000 m2 beslaan, is van die 7de tot die einde van die 3de eeu vC gebruik en toon die ingewikkelde bevolkingsveranderinge met die koms van nuwe mense, soos die Etruske, wat nuwe kontakte oopgemaak het. [6]

Stabiae het 'n klein hawe wat teen die 6de eeu vC reeds oorskadu was deur die veel groter hawe in Pompeii. Dit het later 'n Oskaanse nedersetting geword [7] en dit blyk dat die Samniete later in die 5de eeu die stad Oscan oorgeneem het. [8]

Met die koms van die Samniete het die stad 'n skielike sosiale en ekonomiese verlangsaming ondergaan ten gunste van die ontwikkeling van die nabygeleë Pompeii, soos blyk uit die byna totale afwesigheid van begrafnisse: toe die invloed van die Samniete egter meer in die middel van die 4de eeu vC het Stabiae stadig begin herstel, [9] soveel dat dit nodig was om twee nuwe nekropole te bou, die een wat in 1932 naby die Middeleeuse Kasteel ontdek is, die ander in Scanzano. 'N Heiligdom, waarskynlik gewy aan Athena, is in die omgewing van Privati ​​gebou. [10]

Dit het daarna deel geword van die Nuceriaanse federasie, die politieke en administratiewe struktuur daarvan aangeneem en die militêre hawe geword, hoewel dit in 308 vC minder outonomie gehad het as Pompeii, Herculaneum en Sorrento, maar na 'n lang beleg, moes dit in die Samnite -oorloë oorgee. teen die Romeine.

Die vroegste Romeinse bewyse is muntstukke uit Rome en Ebusus wat gevind is in die heiligdom van Privati ​​wat dateer uit die 3de eeu vC, waarskynlik deur handelaars ingebring. [11] Tydens die Puniese oorloë ondersteun Stabiae Rome teen die Karthagers met jong mans in die vloot van Marcus Claudius Marcellus, volgens Silius Italicus wat geskryf het:

Irrumpit Cumana ratis, quam Corbulo ducato lectaque complebat Stabiarum litore pubes.

Die ligging van die vroeë stad Stabiae moet nog geïdentifiseer word, maar dit was waarskynlik 'n versterkte stad van groot belang, omdat die konflik met die Romeine tydens die Sosiale Oorlog (91–88 v.C.) 'n kop bereik het. generaal Sulla het die stad nie net op 30 April 89 vC beset nie, maar dit vernietig. Daar word gesê dat die ligging daarvan afgebaken word deur die Scanzano -kloof en die San Marco -stroom wat sy mure gedeeltelik verweer het.

Romeinse tydperk Redigeer

Die Romeinse skrywer en admiraal Plinius die Ouere het opgeteken dat die stad ná die sosiale oorloë herbou is en 'n gewilde oord geword het vir welgestelde Romeine. Hy het berig dat daar 'n paar kilometer se luukse villa's langs die rand van die landtongebou gebou is, wat almal 'n panoramiese uitsig oor die baai geniet. [4] Die villa's wat vandag besoek kan word, kom uit die tyd tussen die vernietiging van Stabiae deur Sulla in 89 vC en die uitbarsting van die berg Vesuvius in 79 nC. [7]

In 1759 identifiseer en beskryf Karl Weber 'n deel van die stad naby die Villa San Marco, wat ongeveer 45000 vierkante meter strek. Hy het vyf verharde strate gevind wat in 'n regte hoek kruis, die forum, 'n tempel op 'n podium, 'n gimnasium, tabernae met arcades, sypaadjies en klein privaat huise.

In die vlakte rondom Stabia was die Ager Stabianus, die grond wat deur die stad bestuur word en 'n landbougebied waarin ongeveer 60 villae rusticae is geïdentifiseer: plaashuise wat wissel van 400 tot 800 vierkante meter, waaruit intensiewe landbou voordeel getrek het uit die vrugbaarheid van die grond, en wat produksie en verwerking van landbouprodukte met wyn- en olyfperse, dorsvloere en stoorhuise insluit, [12] die eienaars ryk, in ag genome die termale bad en fresco -kamers van die villa's. [13]

Stabiae het hom gevestig as 'n luukse woongebied, soveel so dat Cicero in 'n brief aan sy vriend Marcus Marius Gratidianus geskryf het:

"Want ek betwyfel nie dat u in die studie van u, waaruit u 'n venster na die Stabiese waters van die baai oopgemaak het en 'n uitsig op Misenum gekry het, die oggendure van daardie dae in ligte lees deurgebring het nie" [14]

Die verskynsel van die bou van die luukse villa's langs die hele kus van die Golf van Napels in hierdie tydperk was van so 'n aard dat Strabo ook geskryf het:

"Die hele kloof word deur stede, geboue, plantasies gewatteer, so verenig met mekaar dat dit 'n enkele metropool is." [15]

Volgens Columella, wat vermoedelik medisinale eienskappe het, was Stabiae ook bekend vir die kwaliteit van sy bronwater.

Bekendes van Fontibus et Stabiae (Stabiae is ook bekend vir sy bronne). [16]

Die uitbarsting van 79 n.C. Redigeer

In 62 is die stad getref deur 'n gewelddadige aardbewing wat die hele streek geraak het en aansienlike skade aan die geboue aangerig het en herstelwerk nodig was wat nooit voltooi is nie.

Volgens die verslag [17] wat deur sy neef geskryf is, was Plinius die Ouere aan die ander kant van die baai in Misenum toe die uitbarsting van 79 nC begin het. Hy vaar per kombuis oor die baai, deels om die uitbarsting van naderby te sien, en deels om mense van die kus naby die vulkaan te red.

Plinius sterf die volgende dag in Stabiae, waarskynlik tydens die aankoms van die sesde en grootste pyroklastiese oplewing van die uitbarsting wat veroorsaak is deur die ineenstorting van die uitbarstingspluim. [18] Die baie verdunde buitenste rand van hierdie oplewing bereik Stabiae en laat twee sentimeter fyn as bo-op die uiters dik, neergelegde tephra wat die onderliggende oorskot verder beskerm.

Na-uitbarsting Redigeer

Anders as Pompeii, het die uitbarsting egter nie die menslike aktiwiteit beëindig nie, aangesien die pad na Nuceria ongeveer 40 jaar later herbou is, aangesien die 11de mylpaal van die katedraal herstel is. Publius Papinius Statius (ongeveer 45–96) het ook in 'n gedig vir sy vrou gevra om saam met hom 'Stabias renatas' (Stabiae wedergebore) te noem. [19] Dit was steeds 'n belangrike handelsentrum, aangesien die omliggende landbougebied 'n hawe nodig gehad het en die van Stabiae is herstel terwyl die van Pompeii vernietig is. In die 2de c. AD nuwe nekropoleis is geskep by Grotta S.Biagio (onder die Villa Arianna), Santa Maria la Carità en Pimonte.

Na die krisis van die derde eeu het die stad in belang afgeneem. Tussen die derde en vierde eeu was die eerste spore van 'n Christelike gemeenskap, soos aangetoon deur die ontdekking van 'n sarkofaag. [20] In die vyfde eeu het die bisdom ontstaan ​​met die eerste biskoppe Orso en Catello. In die 5de eeu was dit bekend as 'n sentrum van die Benediktynse Orde.

Die argeologiese oorblyfsels by Stabiae is oorspronklik in 1749 ontdek deur Cavaliere Rocco de Alcubierre, 'n ingenieur wat vir koning Charles VII van Napels werk. [21] Hierdie ruïnes is tussen 1749–1775 gedeeltelik deur Alcubierre opgegrawe met die hulp van Karl Weber. [21] Weber was die eerste om gedetailleerde argitektoniese tekeninge te maak en aan die hof van Napels te lewer. Hy het voorgestel dat die geboue stelselmatig opgegrawe word en in die konteks daarvan vertoon word. In 1759 identifiseer en beskryf Weber 'n gedeelte van die ou stad wat oor 'n oppervlakte van ongeveer 45000 vierkante meter strek. [22] Die ruïnes wat opgegrawe is, is egter begrawe.

'N Tweede opgrawingsveldtog tot 1782 is bygestaan ​​deur die argitek Franceso La Vega na Weber se dood. Hy het ywerig al die voorafgaande materiaal versamel om die geskiedenis van die opgrawings te rekonstrueer. Hy stel vir die eerste keer nuwe konsepte bekend oor konteks, met die klem op direkte waarneming van antieke geboue in hul landskap of in hul historiese en argeologiese kompleks. In sewe jaar in Stabiae La Vega is die opgrawings hervat in sommige villa's wat reeds gedeeltelik opgegrawe is, die Villa del Pastore, Villa Arianna en Second Complex en navorsing uitgebrei na 'n groot aantal villae rusticae in die ager stabianus en presiese verslae gemaak. Hy kon die hof egter nie oorreed om opgegrawe geboue blootgestel te hou en die opvulling daarvan te vermy nie. [23] Die ligging van Stabiae is weer wyd vergete.

In 1950 [4] toe Libero D'Orsi, 'n entoesiastiese amateur, 'n paar kamers van Villa San Marco en Villa Arianna aan die lig bring met behulp van die kaarte van die Bourbon -opgrawings, en ook Villa Petraro, 'n domus per toeval in 1957 gevind, maar daarna na 'n paar jaar se studie herbegrawe. [24] Hy het ook dele van 'n woonbuurt in die stad gevind, ongeveer 300 m van Villa San Marco, insluitend oorblyfsels van huise, winkels, dele van die macellum [25] waarheen paaie van die hawe af gekom het. [26] Hierdie oorskot is weer begrawe. Die nuus oor die vondste lok vinnig belangrike besoekers en adel uit die hele Europa. Sommige van die belangrikste fresco's is losgemaak om 'n beter bewaring moontlik te maak en byna 9000 vondste is plaaslik gehuisves. Sy werk stop uiteindelik in 1962 weens 'n gebrek aan geld. [27]

Die terrein is in 1957 tot 'n argeologiese beskermde gebied verklaar.

Sporadies is daar talle oorblyfsels van villa's en nekropolises gevind soos toe Villa Carmiano in 1963 opgegrawe word en dan in 1967 'n deel van die "Tweede Kompleks" herbegrawe word en die Villa del Pastore in 1970 weer opdaag en herbegrawe [28] in 1974 'n villa wat aan die bejaarde behoort stabianus is ontdek in die huidige gemeente Sant'Antonio Abate, maar die opgrawing daarvan is nog nie voltooi nie. [29] Boonop is ander villa's, veral plattelandse, in die hele ager stabianus ontdek, veral tussen Santa Maria la Carità en Gragnano, en almal is begrawe.

In 1980 het die gewelddadige aardbewing van Irpinia groot skade aan die villa's aangerig en 'n deel van die kolonnade van die boonste verdieping van Villa San Marco vernietig. [30] Dit het veroorsaak dat die opgrawings vir die publiek gesluit is. Tog is daar in 1981 'n deel van die binnehof van Villa Arianna gevind, waarin twee landbouwaens was, waarvan een gerestoureer en vir die publiek vertoon is. In die res van die tagtiger- en negentigerjare is slegs onderhouds- en herstelwerk uitgevoer, behalwe enkele belangrike gebeurtenisse, soos die ontdekking van substrukture by Villa Arianna in 1994 en die gimnasium in 1997. [31] Die argeologiese terrein is in 1995 weer vir die publiek oopgemaak.

In 2004 is daar 'n Italiaans-Amerikaanse samewerking tussen die Superintendency of Archaeology of Pompeii, die streek Campania en die Universiteit van Maryland om die nie-winsgewende Restoring Ancient Stabiae Foundation (RAS) te stig, wie se doel was om 'n argeologiese park te herstel en te bou. [32]

Die jaar 2006 was bedrywig: na die opruiming op die Varano -heuwel, is kamers wat aan die Villa van Anteros en Heracles behoort het, reeds in 1749 deur die Bourbons ontdek, maar herbegrawe en verlore, aan die lig gebring. In Julie het die RAS die boonste omtrek van Villa San Marco onthul en in sy suidoostelike hoek is ook die eerste menslike skelet van Stabiae gevind, waarskynlik 'n vlugteling wat die slagoffer geword het van vallende puin. [33]

In 2008 is Villa San Marco en Villa Arianna weer ondersoek en in die voormalige drie kubieke is agter die peristyle ontdek en twee latrines en 'n tuin is aan die lig gebring, terwyl dit in die laaste deel van die groot peristyle direk oor die see uitkyk.

In 2009 het nuwe opgrawings 'n Romeinse pad aan die lig gebring langs die noordelike omtrek van Villa San Marco. Dit is 'n verharde pad wat die stad Stabiae verbind het met die see daaronder: oorkant hierdie slagaar is 'n poort na die stad en langs die mure is 'n magdom graffiti en klein tekeninge in houtskool. Aan die ander kant van die pad is 'n badgebied van 'n nuwe villa ontdek, gedeeltelik in die Bourbon -era ondersoek. 'N Romeinse pad het ook gelei tot die ingang van 'n domus wat aan die "Ager stabianus" behoort. In Mei 2010 is 'n villa uit die eerste eeu ontdek tydens die werk om die spoorlyn van die Torre Annunziata-Sorrento-lyn van die Circumvesuviana, tussen die stasies van Ponte Persica en Pioppaino, te verdubbel.

Vanaf 2011–14 het Columbia University en H2CU (Centro Interuniversitario per la Formazione Internazionale) in die Villa San Marco opgegrawe en dit ondersoek as 'n Romeinse elite-struktuur en die geskiedenis voor die 79 nC. [34]

In 2019 het opgrawings in die Piazza Unità d'Italia 'n Augustaanse of Julio-Claudiaanse gebou en 'n gebou uit die 4de eeu opgegrawe. [35] [20]


Republikeinse baddens en Stabiese baddens in Pompeii: 'n herbeoordeling van ontwikkeling, ontwerp en funksie

Hierdie artikel bespreek die ontwikkeling van die badkultuur in Pompeii en die verband daarmee met die stedelike ontwikkeling van die stad. Dit gee 'n opsomming van die huidige stand van 'n navorsingsprojek wat binne die raamwerk van die Excellence Cluster Topoi (C 6-8) uitgevoer word om die geskiedenis, ontwikkeling en funksie, sowel as die kulturele en sosiohistoriese konteks te ondersoek en te herevalueer. van die Republikeinse baddens en die Stabiese baddens.

Beide baddens speel sleutelrolle in enige studie van die geskiedenis van Pompeii. In sy invloedryke werk oor die ontwikkeling van Pompeii en die Stabian Baths, het Hans Eschebach (1970, 1979) aangevoer dat die palaestra van laasgenoemde bewys lewer van 'n Argaïese "Altstadtmauer" met sloot vanaf die 5de v.C. (Samnite Pompeii) 'n Palaestra in Griekse styl met Griekse badselle gerekonstrueer, met die argument dat dit van die 5de vC tot 79 nC in 6 ontwikkelingsfases in 'n gesofistikeerde Romeinse termiese kompleks omskep is. As gevolg hiervan word die Stabian Baths tans gesien as 'n perfekte voorbeeld van die kulturele en stedelike ontwikkeling van die stad.

Die Republikeinse bad bevat ook argeologiese oorblyfsels uit die argaïese tydperk, maar dit is veral belangrik vir die heropbou van die laat-hellenistiese Samniet (2de eeu v.C.) Pompeii, veral ten opsigte van die ontwerp, geskiedenis, funksie en sosio-kulturele betekenis van die kompleks geboue wat rondom die Foro Triangolare georganiseer is. Terwyl die Stabian Baths in 'n monografie gepubliseer is (Eschebach 1979) en baie aandag geniet het, is die Republikeinse Baths skaars bestudeer sedert hul eerste opgrawing en kort publikasie in 1950. Die presiese konstruksiedatum en geskiedenis, asook praktiese besonderhede van sentrale elemente (bv. waterbestuur, verwarmingstelsel, dakstelsel) bly grootliks onbekend.

Hierdie referaat bied die eerste resultate van drie veldwerkseisoene, uitgevoer in 2015 en 2016. Elke badgebou word afsonderlik bespreek deur 'n algemene inleiding en gevolgtrekking. Die uiteenlopende navorsingstoestande vereis verskillende benaderings tot elke gebou, wat lei tot uiteenlopende navorsingsvrae.

Vir die Republikeinse Bade fokus die koerant op die verskillende dokumentasiemetodes en gee 'n uiteensetting van die ontwikkeling van die hele erf met die fokus op drie onderskeibare ontwikkelingsfases van die baddens self. Dit berus grootliks op data uit loopgrawe wat in September 2015 opgegrawe is. Boonop bespreek die koerant probleme met waterbestuur en verwarmingstegnologie, sowel as die breër stedelike konteks en betekenis van die Republikeinse baddens.

Dit kan nou aangetoon word dat die Republikeinse baddens in die tweede eeu vC gebou is, wat verskeie vorige strukture beslaan wat verband hou met water. voorsien van steunpunte in die eerste eeu vC. Die deurslaggewende vraag oor wanneer die badgebou presies verlaat en vervang is deur 'n huislike tuin, kan nog nie met sekerheid beantwoord word nie, maar dit kon nie voor die tweede helfte van die eerste eeu vC gebeur het nie.

Vir die Stabian Baths bied die koerant die resultate van opgrawings wat in Maart 2016 in die palaestra en in die "Griekse badselle" uitgevoer is, wat sentraal staan ​​in die ontwikkeling van die hele kavel. Dit gee 'n oorsig van die tipologie en verwantskap van alle staande oorblyfsels, wat lei tot 'n rekonstruksie van die ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis in verskeie belangrike gebruiksfases. Uiteindelik bespreek dit ook die waterbestuurstelsel en plaas die Stabian Baths binne die breër stedelike konteks van Pompeii.

Die opgrawings lewer geen bewyse vir 'n Altstadtmauer of 'n verdedigingsloot in die paleistra nie. Die 'Griekse badselle' is blykbaar eers in die tweede eeu vC gebou en bevat nooit 'n bad nie (sit-bad of dompelbad). As sodanig word 'n kritiese heroorweging van hul moontlike funksie vereis. Die herondersoek van die mure en die herevaluering van die bougeskiedenis dui ook daarop dat die hele perseel slegs stelselmatig ontwikkel is - met 'n privaat huis en die badgebou wat grootliks binne die huidige grense was - in die tweede eeu vC.


Badkultuur en die ontwikkeling van stedelike ruimte: gevallestudie Pompei

In sewe veldseisoene, wat saam met die Universiteit van Oxford uitgevoer is, het hierdie navorsingsprojek ondersoek ingestel na die ontwikkeling van twee badkomplekse by Pompeii en hul rol in die stedelike ontwikkeling daarvan. Die veldwerkresultate word gekontekstualiseer binne 'n oorkoepelende fokus op die veelvlakkige verskynsel van stadsbesinning. Hierdie projek dra, buite Pompeii en die badkultuur, by tot huidige debatte oor die verstedeliking van Italië en die sosiokulturele, ekonomiese en politieke toestande, invloede en agente van hierdie proses.

Navorsing

Die ontwikkeling van 'n openbare kollektiewe badkultuur in die Oudheid het 'n direkte uitwerking gehad op die vorming van stedelike ruimte en die sosio-kulturele funksie en persepsie van stede. Die bestaan, ligging, toeganklikheid, argitektoniese konteks en infrastruktuur van openbare baddens weerspieël veranderende standaarde en prioriteite van stedelike beplanning en leefstyl.

Die eerste openbare baddens (ongeveer 450 v.C.) fokus op individuele bad- en reinigingsaspekte. In die Hellenistiese tydperk (3de eeu v.C.) was daar 'n algemene neiging na meer luukse, innoverende, kollektiewe, ontspannende badvorme. In die 2de eeu vC was die badprogramme uitsluitlik toegespits op die verskaffing van fasiliteite vir sosiale en ontspannende bad. Hierdie laaste stap vereis belangrike innovasies in tegnologie en sosiale konsepte wat gewoonlik verband hou met die Romeinse kultuur.

Alhoewel die ontwikkeling van 'n spesifieke Romeinse badkultuur in die laat republikeinse tyd tans baie gedebatteer word, word hierdie onderwerp in Pompeii grootliks verwaarloos, hoewel die stad drie groot baddens uit hierdie tydperk bevat. Hierdie projek ontleed twee van hierdie baddens as die belangrikste kenmerke van stadsbesigtiging. Nuwe opgrawings en gedetailleerde evaluerings van alle staande oorblyfsels, insluitend die nuutste beskikbare 3D -dokumentasie- en modelleringstegnieke sowel as tradisionele dokumentasiemetodes, bied vars insig in die geskiedenis, ontwikkeling, funksie en kulturele en sosiohistoriese konteks van die twee baddens.

Resultate

Die Stabian Baths is 'n belangrike gebied vir die rekonstruksie van die stedelike ontwikkeling van Pompeii en vir die bestudering van die ontwikkeling van die antieke badkultuur. Volgens Hans Eschebach (1979) is die gebied eers deur 'n Argaïese Altstadtmauer beset en vanaf die 5de eeu v.C. deur 'n Griekse paleistra met individuele badselle wat geleidelik in ses fases in 'n Romeinse bad verander het. Ons opgrawings het getoon dat daar glad nie 'n spoor van 'n vroeë stadsmuur is nie, en dat die Stabiese baddens eers in die laat 2de eeu vC gebou is en van die begin af as 'n openbare bad van Romeinse aard was. Die kompleks is drie keer opgeknap in ooreenstemming met nuwe neigings (na 80 vC, in die vroeë 1ste eeu nC, en tussen 41 en 79 nC), en bly in gebruik tot aan die einde van Pompeii in 79 nC.

Die Republikeinse baddens het min aandag geniet ná hul opgrawings en voorlopige publikasie in 1950, hoewel die gebied sentraal staan ​​vir die stedelike ontwikkeling van Pompeii. Hierdie Topoi -projek het twee hoofdoelwitte bereik: vir die eerste keer is die Republikeinse baddens volledig gedokumenteer en geanaliseer met behulp van tradisionele en nuutste digitale benaderings. Tweedens kan die skaars ondersoekde en gedebatteerde konstruksiedatum en geskiedenis van die kompleks, sowel as die werking van die tegnologie (waterbestuur, verwarmingstelsel), verduidelik word. Die Republikeinse Baddens het in die middel van die 2de eeu vC as 'n privaat kompleks ontwikkel en verskeie veranderings ondergaan, wat blykbaar hoofsaaklik deur praktiese benodigdhede aangedryf is en minder deur nuwe neigings. Terwyl die Stabian Baths baat gevind het by die bekendstelling van water in die stad in die vroeë keiserlike tydperk, is die Republikeinse baddens ongeveer 30/20 vC verlaat en oorgeneem deur die eienaar van 'n aangrensende huis. Die nuwe eienaar het die terrein van die baddens gebruik vir 'n tuin -stylkompleks, wat eens opgeknap is voordat dit aansienlik vernietig is tydens die aardbewing van 62 nC. bouwerf vir die ontginning van vulkaniese as en moontlik vir die storting van puin.

Die projek het getoon dat die huidige begrip van die vroeë fases van stedelike ontwikkeling in Pompeji hersien moet word, en 'n direkte verband tussen stedelike ontwikkeling en die ontwikkeling van die badkultuur geïdentifiseer het: sleutelpunte in die stad se ontwikkeling, soos die transformasie in 'n Romeinse kolonie in 80 vC en veral die verbinding met die Serino -akwaduk in die vroeë keiserlike tydperk het 'n direkte uitwerking gehad op die baddens - positief in die geval van die Stabian Baths, negatief in die geval van die Republikeinse baddens.

Die projek het drie internasionale konferensies opgelewer en georganiseer: Ontwikkeling van Gymnasia en Grieks-Romeinse stadsgesigte Stadsgesig en badkultuur in Antieke Italië en Stadsgesigte van Hellenistiese Sicilië: 'n Herbeoordeling. Verder het die projek groot belangstelling in die media in Italië en Duitsland gekry. Dit bevat internasionale personeel uit Duitsland, Engeland en Italië en uit verskillende dissiplines (klassieke argeologie, omgewingsargeologie, argitektuurgeskiedenis, numerisme, hidroliese ingenieurswese en geowetenskappe) en het talle studente van universiteite in verskillende lande opgelei, wat gelei het tot verskeie BA en meestersverhandelinge.

Uitgrawing

Veldwerk met studente van die Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin en die universiteite van Bamberg, Darmstadt, Freiburg, Oxford en Toronto.


Bad Pompeii

Soos in alle Romeinse stede, was daar in Pompeii termiese baddens. Dit is iets soos openbare baddens. Hulle het meestal swembaddens met warm water, swembaddens met koue water, ook 'n soort sauna en 'n gimnasium, dus 'n antieke fiksheidstudio.

Die swembaddens was vandag nie so groot soos swembaddens nie. Hulle was meer om te bad, nie om te swem nie. Mans en vroue was gewoonlik geskei. Daar was ook, soos vandag, kleedkamers. In 'n aangrensende kamer was daar gewoonlik 'n oond wat warm water en warm lug produseer.

Ons wenk: Toegangspryse en kaartjies vir Pompeii 2021

Termiese baddens was baie belangrik in antieke Rome, ook in die stede van die provinsie, soos Pompeii. Daar was baie klein en groot termiese baddens, waarvan drie veral in Pompeii bekend is:

Die Forum Baths (Terme del Foro): Direk noord van die sentrale plein van die stad (Forum)

Kort film 3 minute oor die Foren-Therme Pompeii (van Youtube)

Die Stabiese termiese baddens: 'N Groot kompleks, een van die belangrikste besienswaardighede vandag in Pompeii.

Sentrale Thermae: Hierdie groot en modernste termiese baddens was nog in aanbou tydens die uitbarsting van die vulkaan in 79 nC en is dus nooit voltooi nie.

Vermy ure lank in die ry en koop vooraf kaartjies vir die opgrawing van Pompeii op die internet : Klik hier

Ander artikels van ons oor Pompeii en Herculaneum

Pompeii -inligting (soos oorsig, aanwysings, toegangsgeld, openingstye en#8230)

Teaters in Pompeii (die 3 groot teaters)

Busreise Pompeii (van nabygeleë oorde, Napels en Rome)

Herculaneum: Die ander groot ou stad wat tydens die vulkaniese uitbarsting gesink het

Corpses Pompeii: alles oor lyke en dooies in Pompeii en Herculaneum


Die Stabian Baths Palaestra in Pompeii, Italië, is waarskynlik.

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SKRYDERGEMAAKTE TOERE

Hierdie tempel is gebou na die aardbewing van 62 nC as 'n plek van aanbidding vir die kultus van die keiser en het 'n fasade wat effens verder uitsteek as die gebou van Eumachia. 'N Sentrale deur lei na 'n ruimte voor die binneste heiligdom wat aan die voorkant begrens word deur vier kolomme. Binne -in lei 'n trap aan weerskante na 'n podium waarop die cella met die kultusbeeld gestaan ​​het. Agter die sakellum was drie kamers wat gebruik is vir die amptenare van hierdie tempel sowel as van die aangrensende Tempel van die Lares, wat via 'n kommunikeerde deur bereik kon word. In die middel van die heiligdom kan 'n marmeraltaar met bas-reliëfbeelde gesien word. . aanhou


Waar Roman Shadows eindig @ eng.expert.ru

Net soos sy stigter, waardeer die vroeë Christelike kerk geestelike suiwerheid bo fisiese netheid, wat die siel van die vlees vergemaklik het. ''

Middeleeuse Christene het hul heiligheid bewys deur nie te was nie. 'N Monnik kom op 'n kluisenaar in die woestyn af en was bly dat hy die goeie reuk van daardie broer 'n kilometer ver ruik het.

Netheid verbeter gedurende die Middeleeue, veral nadat die kruisvaarders die Turkse bad ingevoer het. Die Islamitiese kultuur het die Romeinse tradisies behou om eers die liggaam skoon te maak, dan te week en te kuier.

Die meeste middeleeuse en renaissance -mense, wat beroof is van gesofistikeerde Romeinse loodgieterswerk, het minder gereeld gebad, maar met dieselfde sosiale genot.

Openbare badhuise was gewild en goed bestuur, en verwagtende moeders het dit selfs gebruik vir 'n babastort, of 'n feestelike buitelugbad saam met hul vroulike vriende. Parys en Londen het baie van hierdie vrolike gemeenskaplike 'stews'' -terme later van toepassing op huise van' prostitusie '.

Omdat soveel seks in die openbare bad van die Middeleeue aangegaan het, het die term 'stowe' of 'stewhouse', wat oorspronklik verwys het na die klam warmte van die badhuis, geleidelik 'n huis van prostitusie beteken.
Die kerk het ingelig dat die baddens verslawing aanmoedig en die bredies gesluit is. Vanaf die middel van die 16de eeu tot in die 19de eeu in 'n groot deel van Europa, kan 'n persoon van die wieg na die graf gaan sonder 'n goeie was.

In Engeland het Elizabeth I verklaar dat sy een keer per maand gebad het, of ek dit nodig het of nie. Sanitasie is ook nie gewaardeer in Frankryk nie, waar ontlasting wat in die sale van Versailles gelaat is, een keer per week weggeneem is.

When John Wesley famously re marked, in 1791, that cleanliness is, indeed, next to godliness, he wasn t talking about the body, but about clothes.

In the long centuries of Christian Europe, when miserable conditions of life and religious repression conspired to minimize the expression of sexual longing, desire was driven underground to rise only momentarily during celebrations like Carnaval. Yet by the late nineteenth century, increasing privacy, prosperity, and good health again permitted the underlying biological urge for total body sex to express itself. Our section on the history of the bikini tells this story from a sixties and Brazilian perspective. The wise look to the past as a guide to the future which brings us to Pompeii.

Pompeii had public baths as early as the 4th Century BC, whereas Rome itself did not have them until the time of Augustus (late 1st Century BC). They assumed a character like the Greek gymnasium but incorporated advances which we can still appreciate today. The community of Pompeii was finishing one the grandest bathhouse ever built when Mount Vesuvius exploded in 79 AD, giving us a remarkable view of a different way of living life.

The resort city of Pompeii has yielded an amazingly large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes. Many were removed and kept until their 21st century unveiling at the Naples Archeological Museum. They had been previously opened to public viewing for a brief period during the 1960s. [more]

The city of Pompeii was the luxury destination for the Roman elite and many members of the upper classes lived almost full-time. Pompeii was a lively place, and evidence abounds of literally the smallest details of everyday life. In examining the street Latin graffiti at Pompeii, we can gather that well-known gladiators and actors frequented the city, and drinking and sex were commonplace and accepted as outlets of entertainment in the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

While the Romans adopted the idealization of beauty like the Greeks, their genius was melding ideas, money, and slave labor into greater infrastructure than had ever been seen before. Their increasingly complex structures included the baths. The Romans built so many of them, the baths became an experimental laboratory to test out new concepts. The baths were available to all as community center and a daily ritual that defined what it meant to be Roman.

The locals and visitors frequented a magnificent 5,000-seat theatre and a 20,000-capacity amphitheatre while enjoying at least 81 takeaway food emporiums featuring hot food and fresh bread. The spiritual life of the elite was important too, as the surviving temples dedicated to Isis, Venus, Jupiter and Apollo show us.

Beneath the lava ruins rests a freeze-frame of high style Roman living. Twenty-five thousand people or more died, buried under what was a high tower of pumice pebbles that fell for twelve hours, and killed in an instant by a hundred-mile-an-hour surge of pyroplastic flow -- a superheated mixture of poisonous gas, lava foam, and rocks. When archaeologists began the large-scale uncovering of the city a century ago, they found that there were cavities in the rock, left over from the victims. The plaster casts of the victims that have made Pompeii Italy's #1 visitor attraction.

The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans are the three ancient cultures with the most important Carnaval lineage, and they all retain their glorious presence in the preserved record of Pompeii at the beginning of the last great age. Isis is the Egyptian deity most responsible for the truce between the Romans and Catholics at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD. O ne of the most important fine art cycles in the history of art is at the Villa of Mystery. Here it is likely that young women were initiated into the mysteries of life, death and rebirth under the watchful eyes of Dionysis and his consort Ariadne.

Pompeii was a rich and cosmopolitan Roman city of trade originally dominated by the Greek traders who also ruled Egypt under the Ptolemys. There are depictions of women as goddesses, seductresses, saints, sinners, and muses, which often have the female appearing nude.

Inside their villas, Pompeians chose many different ways to express themselves. The interior walls of Pompeii homes were enriched by warm and brilliantly colored decorations often with mythological, heroic and fantastic subjects. Some Pompeians had a great love for depicting the mythological stories of the Greeks in these paintings. The rich colors and great skills of all the work show that a support of the arts was a revered aesthetic among the citizens.

The large number of well-preserved frescoes throw a great light on everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles (First/Second /Third Style).

In general, a Roman public bath was like a country club. For a small sum, it was a place to meet friends, go to the gym, play a few games, have a good meal, and spend a bit of time in a succession of cold, tepid, warm or hot baths. Lines on the road from the city s port led not only to brothels, but directed visitors to the heavily used bathhouses. Their great popularity in Pompeii likely contributed to making them an everyday life in the City of Rome and wherever Romans built their network of far-flung cities over the great empire.

Roman history bears witness to the fact that women's bodies were not their own, but lying at the intersection of public interest as they did, were constitutionally entrusted to males to regulate and administer for the good of the state. Women had no political rights. They were not allowed to vote, directly address the Senate, nor mill about in the forum.

In the earlier times of the republic there was a difference of hours for the two sexes. The therm were monopolized alternately by the women in the morning and then the men after they finished their workday in the early afternoon till dinner. Mixed bathing was generally frowned upon, although the fact that various emperors repeatedly forbade it seems to indicate that the prohibitions did not always work. Women who were concerned about their respectability would not frequent the baths when the men were there after 2 in the afternoon, but then the baths with its many small rooms and visitors on holiday would be an excellent place for prostitutes to ply their trade.

Of particular note for the ancient seaside trading community dominated by the Greeks for many centuries was the water system with a central natatorium or swimming pool, and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domus) and businesses.

Water was heated by furnaces in cavities beneath the marble floor. This rose through terracotta layering in the walls. The actual water would be supplied from the aqueduct constructed in the time of Augustus found in the city. The water-wheel in the Strabian Baths indicates that before this, water channeled through a well or a cistern.

Thanks to under-floor heating, and air ducts built into the walls, the whole room would have been full of steam when in use. Grooves in the ceiling allowed condensation to be channelled to the walls, rather than drip onto bathers. Cold water was piped into designated basins enabling bathers to cool off when they wanted.

The oldest bathhouse in Pompeii was the Strabian Baths, but there were several others - the Central, Suburban, Sarno, Amphitheatre en Forum Baths. This was in a resort city of 15,000-20,000 people. The smaller nearby town of Herculaneum also had two large bathing places. Baths were for people of every social class, but not too egalatarian. The inscription in the huge Villa of Julia Felix which made her baths public following the rebuilding from the quake in 62 AD reads ‘elegant baths for respectable people.’

It was very spacious, and contained all sorts of apartments, side rooms, round and square basins, small ovens, galleries, porticoes, etc., without counting a space for bodily exercises ( pal stra) where the young Pompeians went through their gymnastics. It houses a gymnasium, has walls painted of garden imagery, has several changing rooms and latrines for guests. This was a complete water-cure establishment.

Body care was continued in the "Grande Palestra" a huge rectangular area designed for gymnastic exercises. It measured over 100 metres along each side. A large pool was situated at its centre.
"How have you managed to preserve yourself so long and so well?"
asked Augustus of Pollio.
"With wine inside, and oil outside,"
responded the old man.
Woman with Flask: marble statue of a woman wearing a peplos and holding a glass perfume flask. Ostia, c. 30 CE. Rome, Vatican Museum.

Slave attendants addressed all your needs one of them cuts your nails, another plucks out your stray hair, and a third still seeks to press your body and rasp the skin with his brush, a fourth prepares the most fearful frictions yet to ensue, while others deluge you with oils and essences, and grease you with perfumed unguents. They were perfumed with myrrh, spikenard, and cinnamon there was the Egyptian unguent for the feet and legs, the Ph nician for the cheeks and the breast, and the Sisymbrian for the two arms the essence of marjoram for the eyebrows and the hair, and that of wild thyme for the nape of the neck and the knees.

These unguents were very dear, but they kept up youth and health.

The square basin (alveus or baptisterium) which served for the warm baths was of marble. It was ascended by three steps and descended on the inside by an interior bench upon which ten bathers could sit together.

This frigidarium or natatio is a circular room, which strikes you at the outset by its excellent state of preservation. In the middle of it is hollowed out a spacious round basin of white marble, four yards and a half in diameter by about four feet in depth an circular series of steps on the interior enabled the Pompeians to bathe in a sitting posture. Four niches, prepared at the places where the angles would be if the apartment were square, contained benches where the bathers rested. The walls were painted yellow and adorned with green branches. The frieze and pediment were red and decorated with white bas-reliefs. The vault, which was blue and open overhead, was in the shape of a truncated cone. It was clear, brilliant, and gay, like the antique life itself.

Do you prefer a warm bath? Retrace your steps and, from the apodyteros, where you left your clothing, pass into the tepidarium.

On quitting the stove, or warm bath, the Pompeians wet their heads in that large wash-basin, where tepid water which must, at that moment, have seemed cold, leaped from a bronze pipe still visible. Others still more courageous plunged into the icy water of the frigidarium, and came out of it, they said, stronger and more supple in their limbs.

The Forum baths held open-air sports area (palaestra) for exercise, and the game called harpastum which was popular throughout Rome may have been played at rectangular courts found at the Central and Strabian Baths.

Augustus lived a modest life, with few of the luxuries that his rank would have allowed him to have . Augustus also introduced laws to improve morality to regulate marriage and family life and to control promiscuity.

Livia, was the third wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Together they promoted the feminine ideal of the earliest years of Rome, although this was apparently more honored in the breach than observance even by her husband, despite his success in being the patriarch of domestic virtue.

The use of Egypt's immense land rents to finance the Empire's operations resulted from Augustus' conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government. As it was effectively considered Augustus' private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor's patrimonium. The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions, as well as bread and circuses for the population of Rome.

In AD 9, Augustus made adultery a criminal offence, although it is said this was more to intimidate wives than husbands. He first instituted the still encouraged practice of the Catholic church of many offspring by granting privileges to couples with three or more children. The Augustan era poets Virgil and Horace praised Augustus as a defender of Rome, an upholder of moral justice. Virgil's The Aeneid is considered a great epic classic in many ways, not only beating the drum for Roman virtue, but thoughtfully and artfully blending the complex relations at the heart of the Roman Empire into a belief system which served the stability of the realm immeasurably.

Emperor Augustus is also known for his famous last words: "Did you like the performance?", referring to the play-acting and regal authority that he had put on as emperor.

When Christianity banished the pagan gods over 1500 years ago, ending forever their lust-filled adventures, a sexual chill gripped Western Europe.

Even today, the current Pope tells all who will listen that having sex only for procreation and without protection is necessary to avoid the damnation of hell. The record shows that church leaders have few nice things to say about sex, declaring most manifestations of it sinful despite the fact that sexual desire is hard-wired into the brain.

In the late 13th century, the French bathhouses in Paris employed criers to announce when the water was hot.

"A crier patrolled the streets of thirteenth-century Paris to summon people to the heated steam-baths and bath-houses. These establishments, already numbering twenty-six in 1292 [Riolan, Curieuses Recherches, bl. 219],

Napoleon and Josephine were fastidious for their time in that they both took a long, hot, daily bath. But Napoleon wrote Josephine from a campaign, I will return to Paris tomorrow evening. Don t wash. Bathing had become rarer with time as 17th-century aristocratic Frenchman, thought cleanliness meant changing his shirt once a day, using perfume to obliterate both his own aroma and everyone else s.

Traditionally a predominantly Roman Catholic country, with anticlerical leanings, France has been a very secular country since the 1970s. However, public holidays are still largely traditional Catholic holidays and knowledge of facts about the history of Catholicism (for instance, the attribute of saints) is considered normal for an educated person. The French generally consider that since the 1905 law of separation of Church and State, they have struck an excellent balance between the rights of religious people and the neutrality of public institutions with respect to religious matters.

Much has been said about the sex lives of the French. The fact the late president, Fran ois Mitterrand, had a love child was an open secret. And the extramarital affairs of his successor, Jacques Chirac, were so well known that even his wife joked about them publicly.

Current French President, 53 year old Nicolas Sarkozy, has raised a few eyebrows since his 2007 election, managing to go through a divorce, courtship and marriage to a model/ pop singer 41 year-old Carla Bruni - all within the first 100 days of his presidency. Carla Bruni is a fascinating beauty who knows her way around a media frenzy. In April 2008 a nude photo of Ms. Bruni, was sold at auction for 91,000 euros. The photographer had persuaded the seller to donate the money from the sale to charity. The charity, a Children s Hospital Association in Cambodia headed by Swiss pediatrician and musician Beat Richner, refused the money.

Accepting money obtained from exploitation of the female body would be perceived as an insult. In Cambodia use of nudity is not understood in the way it is in the West . At the same time, for Cambodians and their government, Madame Bruni is now seen as the First Lady of France. Our reputation would be stained by what they would perceive as disrespect should we accept money of this nature.

Exploitation generally means to take unfair advantage, and perhaps nothing has created more controversy more regularly than exposing the female body, except perhaps exposing the sexual passions the feminine form stirs. However, the ideal of progress requires we deal with it. By celebrating beauty as a high artistic ideal the French and Brazilian cultures have become beacons for a new tomorrow where exploitation of superior power and the planetary suicide of war can be avoided.

Roman women obeyed these restriction with little fuss. Yet, at the end of the successful Second Punic War in 201 B.C., male Romans and women in towns beyond Rome again donned their rich clothing and rode about in carriages. Women in Rome, however, continued to be denied these luxuries because of the Oppian Law. With the end of the wars, upper class women chafted at these continuing restrictions and now wished to keep their inherited money for their own use.

In 195 B.C., some members of the Tribunal proposed eliminating the Oppian Law. Women throughout Rome kept an eye on these proceedings. When it seemed that the majority of Tribunal was about to veto the proposed repeal, they poured into the streets in protest. It was the first time anything by women on a scale such as this was seen in Rome. As a result of the women's protest, the tribunes withdrew their veto and approved the repeal.

For the entire duration of the Roman Empire, Naples and Pompeii was celebrated as a rich and elegant cultural centre, where the Roman emperors and aristocracy came to spend the summer months in their sumptuous villas along the Bay of Naples coast and as far as Sorrento on one side of the bay.

The Sybarites were a luxury-loving people who are credited with inventing the steam bath.in the 8th century B.C.,

The city of Naples was founded by Greek immigrants, who ruled over the Gulf of Naples. Then the area was dominated by the Etruscans (525-474). After their defeat, the city again was subjected to the rule of the Greeks (474-425). The cultural mixing began early as the Greeks would send only men out as colonizers.

The struggle for supremacy in the territory of Campania was resolved by another civilization, that of Samnites who came down from the mountains of the Sannio regions. The archaeological excavations have revealed a number of buildings, of Sannitic type, as well as various sculptural and pictorial works referable to the same period.

For more than 3 centuries Pompei remained under their influence, until the end of the III century when the Roman conquered Campania region. Pompei at first was declared "socia" of Rome and it maintained its own institutions and language, then in the year 80 BC. became a Roman colony with the name of "Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeii". From then Pompeii was a city with Roman language, customs, architecture, political and administrative life.

In 2002 another important discovery at the mouth of the Sarno River revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in palafittes, within a system of channels that suggested a likeness to Venice to some scientists. These studies are just beginning to produce results.

Luciana Iacobelli, a lecturer in Pompeian antiquities at Bicocca University in Milan, said the graffiti also surprisingly reveals names of Roman women of various social classes. This suggests it wasn't only women doing the servicing.
"A recent study suggests that also men worked as prostitutes in the Lupanare. Their clients were both women and men," Iacobelli told Naples daily newspaper, "Il Mattino."
Unearthed in 1862, the Lupanare underwent several restorations. In 2006 the restoration lasted one year, mainly focused on the frescoes, which had begun to fade.

  • Caldarium - closest to the furnace. This room had a large tub or small pool with very hot water and a waist-high fountain (labrum) with cool water to splash on the face and neck.Hot air came through air ducts behind he walls and onto a marble floor held up by brick pillars.
  • Frigidarium -Cold bath, rather like a smaller version of a swimming pool.
  • Tepidarium - Warm bathing room, occasionally linked to a sweating room.
  • laconicum -dry heat like a sauna
  • apodyterium dressing room
  • palaestra - The large central courtyard was the exercise ground it was surrounded by a shady portico which led into the bathing rooms.
  • Vestibule - Entrance Hall to the bathhouses.

The Mount Vesuvius has been sleeping since 1944 under the watchful eyes of volcanologists, who regularly measure its temperature. Their observatory lies 608m high.

The region's volcanic band includes Stromboli, a remote island to the south, and Sicily's Mt. Etna, which demonstrated a significant period of activity in 2007.

Between 1933 and 1944 Mount Vesuvius buried several towns underneath more than 250 million cubic metres of lava. Even the cable car, well known through the folk song Funicul , funicul , fell victim to the lava .

The Finnish use of sauna is well documented back to the beginning of their history.

"The first examples of saunas were simple pits dug in the earth, with heated stones to generate the dry, hot atmosphere. Hot stones remain the hallmark of the sauna, radiating warmth into a small surrounding room, which today is typically built of wood. Dousing the stones with water creates a vapor called loyly by the Finns. Body brushes, called vihta of vahta, and birch branches, are used to stimulate the skin and a healthy sweat." (von Furstenberg, p. 93)


Stabian Baths, Pompeii - History

The "thermae" were the city's public baths. There were relatively few private baths and these were limited to the most well-to-do families, given that the latter were the only ones who could afford to build rooms suited to the purpose.
The thermal bath buildings were divided into two sections: one reserved for women and one reserved for men. Each of these contained a series of rooms with different functions:
1) apodyterium or changing room
2) frigidarium or cold bath room
3) tepidarium or tepid bath room
4) calidarium or hot bath room.

The thermal baths included latrines and, in the most developed type, a pool and gymnasium. They were often furnished with open spaces and gardens.
The system of heating the rooms - which was fairly ingenious -worked by running heated water through the cavities in the wall.
The Thermae were not only buildings used for a function of public utility, but also played a very important social role in that they provided an important place for people to meet.

STABIAN THERMAL BATHS
These occupy a vast area between the Brothel lane, the Holconius crossroads and the Via Stabiana. They represent the oldest thermal complex in the city. In fact they were built at the time of Pompeii's subjugation to Rome and were subsequently extended and decorated on more than one occasion to answer more adequately the needs of the growing population. The original construction, situated in the northern part of the building beyond the colonnades, is from the Samnite period. The more recent part - dating back to the renovation of the Roman age - overlooks the western side: it is organized according to more modern and functional criteria.

The thermal complex consists of a well-constructed system of baths distributed around a cen
tral area used as a gymnasium and characterized by a colonnade ranged round three sides of the building.
The Stabian Baths are composed of three parts: the rooms in the north section, those mentioned above as being the oldest, contain a series of latrines. The second section consists of a group of private baths situated behind the northern colonnade. The third section is located in the eastern part: it is made up of changing rooms, a vestibule - with magnificent plaster decoration - rooms for the cold bath (frigidarium), for the tepid bath (tepidarium) and for the hot bath ((alidarium).
The Thermal Baths are rigidly divided between the area set aside for men and the area set aside for women. Both are organized in the same way, but the female section is more simple and less decorated.
A pool occupies the western side of the Baths.
The rooms are frequently adorned with stuccos of fine workmanship and certainly among the most beautiful in Pompeian art.
It is also possible to identify the system used to heat and cool the various rooms, which was achieved by pipes carrying air and water of varying temperature through the cavities in the walls. In the third section the public baths are equipped with a pool and rooms used for practising gymnastic activities.

CENTRAL THERMAL BATHS
(ins. 4)This magnificent complex was constructed immediately after the earthquake of 62 A.D. (in fact many of the materials used were plundered from nearby buildings) and was interrupted as a result of the eruption in 79 A.D. It was built on more modern and functional lines than the Stabian Baths, and had to answer, given the dramatic population increase, to the growing needs of the citizens, These are in fact bigger than all the other baths - they occupy the area of an entire insula - and are equipped with a large gymnasium, numerous baths and a room intended exclusively as a "sudatorium". The decoration is of the richest and most magnificent appearance. The principal feature of these Baths is the way in which their architectural design differs: they were in fact designed to be more spacious compared with the previous ones and, thanks to the large windows which open out (calidarium), are much lighter. In addition the division between the female and male sections was done away with.

FORUM THERMAL BATHS
These were established in the I st century B.C. under Sulla and were the only ones still in use after the earthquake of 62 A.D. They include two sections, a male and a female one, both divided into "frigidarium", "tepidarium" and "calidarium". The heating and cooling system of the rooms was achieved by running pipes through the cavities in the walls. All the rooms are elegantly decorated. In the male section - this is the better preserved part - the rooms used for changing are recognizable, as is the frigidarium with its circular plan enlivened by large niches (it is embellished with stuccos and paintings) in the tepidarium a magnificent barrel vault worked in plaster and a series of telamons (statues leaning against pillars) interspersed with rectangular niches can be admired finally, the calidarium is barrel-vaulted with an apse at the back. The part of the building which looks out onto the street contains workshops.The "thermae" were the city's public baths. There were relatively few private baths and these were limited to the most well-to-do families, given that the latter were the only ones who could afford to build rooms suited to the purpose.
The thermal bath buildings were divided into two sections: one reserved for women and one reserved for men. Each of these contained a series of rooms with different functions:
1) apodyterium or changing room
2) frigidarium or cold bath room
3) tepidarium or tepid bath room
4) calidarium or hot bath room.

The thermal baths included latrines and, in the most developed type, a pool and gymnasium. They were often furnished with open spaces and gardens.
The system of heating the rooms - which was fairly ingenious -worked by running heated water through the cavities in the wall.
The Thermae were not only buildings used for a function of public utility, but also played a very important social role in that they provided an important place for people to meet.


Kyk die video: Pompei - Terme Stabiane - The Stabian Baths in Pompeii (Augustus 2022).