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25 Februarie 1943

25 Februarie 1943



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25 Februarie 1943

Februarie

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> Maart

Noord-Afrika

Geallieerde troepe herower die Kasserine -pas

Oorlog op see

U-bootaanval op konvooi OP 166 eindig, nadat 15 skepe gesink is



'N POP KULTUUR verslawing - IN REHAB

Nee, dit is nie die datum waarop die band gestig is nie. As dit die geval was, sou hulle soos Pebbles en Bamm-Bamm gewees het in die een episode van "The Flintstones" waarin hulle 'n album as kleuters uitgereik het en Bedrock se nuutste musikale supersterre geword het. So talentvol soos The Beatles was, was hulle nie so goed soos kleuters nie.

Nee, die datum van 25 Februarie 1943 moet een wees waarin een van die Fab Four gebore is. So, watter een was dit?

Ons kan Ringo Starr van die kolf af kruis. Hy is die oudste van die vier, en sy geboortedatum is Julie 1940. En John Lennon is gebore net 'n paar maande nadat Ringo in Oktober 1940 was, so dit kan nie hy wees nie.

Dit laat Paul McCartney en George Harrison net agter. En nadat ek vinnig op Google gesoek het, weet ek dat Paul in Junie 1942 gebore is.

Ja, hierdie man was meer as net 'n Beatle!

En as hy nog gelewe het, sou hy vandag een en sewentig jaar oud word.

Dus, George Harrison is in Liverpool, Engeland, gebore aan Harold Hargreaves Harrison en Louise Harrison. Hy was die jongste van vier kinders en het die eerste paar jaar van sy lewe in Arnold Grove 12, Wavertree, Liverpool deurgebring. En dadelik het George Harrison 'n liefde vir musiek ontwikkel, met verwysing na Cab Calloway, George Fornby, Django Reinhardt en Hoagy Carmichael as vroeë invloede.

Maar miskien beïnvloed geen musikale kunstenaar die jong George meer as die Amerikaanse sanger Elvis Presley nie. Daar word gesê dat George Harrison op sy fiets huis toe gery het, dat hy die liedjie "Heartbreak Hotel" uit 'n nabygeleë huis hoor speel het, en dat die liedjie sy belangstelling in rock and roll geprikkel het. Hy is selfs vasgevang in die klas wat hy in sy skoolnotaboeke krap en prentjies van kitare op die hele binneblad teken. Ek wonder of hy ooit in die moeilikheid gekom het met sy onderwysers?

Hoe dit ook al sy, in 1956 het George se pa vir hom sy heel eerste kitaar gekoop - 'n Nederlandse Egmond plat akoestiek - waarmee hy liedjies soos "Whispering", "Sweet Sue" en "Dinah" gespeel het. Min het George geweet dat hy, kort nadat hy sy kitaar ontvang het, 'n vriend sou wees met 'n ander seuntjie met die naam Paul McCartney. en dit sou die verhoog wees vir George om by sy heel eerste orkes, bekend as die Quarrymen, aan te sluit. In 1958 het George 'n oudisie gedoen vir 'n plek in die orkes, maar nog 'n lid van die orkes. 'n man met die naam John Lennon (miskien het jy van hom gehoor), het geglo dat George op veertienjarige ouderdom te jonk was. Dit het 'n geruime tyd geneem voordat George John oortuig het om hom 'n kans te gee (Paul is verkoop toe George van die begin af by die groep aangesluit het), maar teen die volgende jaar is George tot volwaardige lid van die orkes verklaar.

Nou kom die lekker deel. Nou gaan ons 'n reeks musiekaanbiedings hê wat die wonderlike talente van George Harrison as musikant die beste toon, beide in 'n groep en solo. Ek het 'n kwartet liedjies wat ek die beste voel, ten toon stel aan George se talente, asook sy vermoë om byna enige soort musiek te speel, van rock tot pop tot selfs 'n tikkie country.

Die eerste liedjie wat ek in die kollig wil plaas, is 'n liedjie wat George Harrison neergeskryf en hoofsang gesing het, reg rondom die stert van die loopbaan van The Beatles.

Nou weet die meeste van u waarskynlik dat die meerderheid van die liedjieskrywings in die Beatles oorgelaat is aan John Lennon en Paul McCartney, wat waarskynlik 'n uitstekende span was. Maar, George was nie 'n slapgat nie. Hy het gedurende die laaste jare van die groep verskeie liedjies geskryf, en baie aanhangers (ek insluitend) noem "Something" as een van sy beste werke, indien nie DIE beste nie. Daar was net iets aan "Something" wat dit 'n onmiddellike Beatles -klassieke maak, en blykbaar het 150 ander kunstenaars van Frank Sinatra tot Tina Turner dit eens. "Something" word beskou as die tweede mees gedekte Beatles -liedjie, net agter "Yesterday". Dit is nogal 'n prestasie.

Ek bedoel, luister net mooi na die lirieke van die liedjie. Ek dink hulle is naby perfeksie soos u kan kry. En aanvanklik was 'n deel van die rede waarom George so lank gewag het om sy liedjieskryfvaardighede te bewerkstellig, omdat die ander Beatles na bewering te senuweeagtig was om hom te vertel dat sy liedjies nie so goed was toe hy die eerste keer lirieke begin skryf het nie. Natuurlik verg goeie skryfwerk baie tyd en moeite (ek weet dit het vir my gedoen), en ek dink dat George regtig gegroei het met ervaring en ouderdom. Hierdie liedjie bewys dit. Ongelukkig het die groep dit net ses maande nadat hierdie liedjie bo -aan die top -ranglys in die Verenigde State was, bedank. Maar toe het George genoeg ervaring gehad om alleen te gaan.

Maar teen 2001 het George se gesondheid agteruitgegaan, want in die middel van die jaar is longkanker by hom gediagnoseer. Hy is in Mei 2001 geopereer om 'n groei uit sy long te verwyder, en daar is berig dat hy in die somer van 2001 behandel word vir 'n breingewas in Switserland. Hoewel Harrison gehoop het om die kanker wat in sy longe verskyn het, te verslaan, teen November 2001 is onthul dat die kanker na sy brein versprei het en dat hy waarskynlik nie die begin van 2002 sou sien nie. Die laaste keer dat George Harrison sy oorlewende Beatles -bandmaats gesien het, was op 12 November 2001, toe hy ontmoet het Starr en McCartney vir middagete.

Net sewentien dae later, op 29 November 2001, is George Harrison op 58-jarige ouderdom oorlede aan metastatiese nie-kleinsellige longkanker.

Maar alhoewel George Harrison al 'n bietjie meer as 'n dosyn jaar weg is, is sy talent, sy gawes en sy musiek vir geslagte lank agtergelaat. En daarvoor kan ons almal dankbaar wees.

Daarom is dit net gepas dat ek hierdie retrospektiewe blik op George Harrison beëindig deur een van die liedjies te plaas wat van hom 'n gerespekteerde solo -kunstenaar gemaak het. 'n lied wat sy geheue die beste eer.


The Deport Times (Deport, Tex.), Vol. 35, nr. 3, red. 1 Donderdag 25 Februarie 1943

Weeklikse koerant uit Deport, Texas, wat plaaslike, staats- en nasionale nuus insluit, asook advertensies.

Fisiese beskrywing

agt bladsye: ill. bladsy 22 x 16 in. Gedigitaliseer vanaf 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Skeppingsinligting

Skepper: Onbekend. 25 Februarie 1943.

Konteks

Hierdie koerant is deel van die versameling getiteld: Red River County Area Newspaper Collection en is deur die Red River County Public Library verskaf aan The Portal to Texas History, 'n digitale bewaarplek wat deur die UNT Libraries aangebied word. Dit is 41 keer bekyk. Meer inligting oor hierdie kwessie kan hieronder besigtig word.

Mense en organisasies wat verband hou met die skepping van hierdie koerant of die inhoud daarvan.

Skepper

Uitgewer

Gehore

Kyk na ons webwerf vir hulpbronne vir opvoeders! Ons het dit geïdentifiseer koerant as 'n primêre bron binne ons versamelings. Navorsers, opvoeders en studente vind hierdie probleem nuttig in hul werk.

Verskaf deur

Red River County Public Library

Sedert 1841 het verskeie Red River County -biblioteke floreer en dan skielik beëindig. Alhoewel vorige biblioteke misluk het, het die volharding van die gemeenskap gelei tot 'n permanente biblioteek in Clarksville, Texas. Vandag is dit 'n bron van gemeenskapsvertroue, -verligting en -genot, sowel as die 'Gateway to Texas'-geskiedenis en familie-genealogie vir soveel mense in en buite die staat.


Belangrike gebeurtenisse vanaf hierdie dag in die geskiedenis 25 Mei

1967: John Lennon se psigedeliese Rolls Royce word afgelewer, die Rolls Royce het 'n herrie veroorsaak, waaronder die Rolls Royce Company 'n formele klag ingedien het. Hy het die motor in 1965 nuut by Rolls Royce gekoop en verveeld geraak met die kleur, en hy het 'n psigedeliese verfwerk gekry. Die motor is in 1985 by Sotheby's verkoop vir $ 2,299.000.00, die duurste motor wat nog ooit verkoop is.

1968 St. Louis Gateway Arch

1968: Die Gateway Arch in St. Louis, 630 voet lank en 630 voet breed aan die voetstuk, word toegewy.

1895 Engeland Oscar Wilde

1895: Die dramaturg Oscar Wilde is skuldig bevind aan growwe onsedelikheid in Londen en is twee jaar se harde arbeid opgelê. Die dramaturg Oscar Wilde is vroeër in April (in 1895) gearresteer op aanklagte van 'growwe onsedelikheid' ingevolge artikel 11 van die wysigingswet op die strafwet, wat impliseer dat 'homoseksuele dade nie bedrieglik' is nie.

1925 U.S.A. John T. Scopes

1925: John T. Scopes, 'n hoërskoolwetenskaplike onderwyser, word aangekla omdat hy die evolusieteorie in sy klasse onderrig het, aangesien die wet van Tennessee die onderrig van evolusie in openbare skole verbied.

1977 Amerikaanse eerste Star Wars -flieks word oopgemaak

1977: Star Wars geskryf en geregisseer deur George Lucas en vrygestel deur 20th Century Fox open in Amerikaanse teaters. Die oorspronklike Star Wars verdien wêreldwyd byna $ 800 miljoen en verdien verskeie toekennings tydens die 50ste jaarlikse Oscar -toekennings en skep 'n kultusvolgorde vir toekomstige Star Wars -films.

Gebore hierdie dag in die geskiedenis 25 Mei

Verjaar vandag

Gebore: 25 Mei 1944, Hereford, Engeland

Bekend vir: Frank Oz is 'n poppespeler en stemakteur wat bekend is vir sy werk saam met Jim Henson op The Muppet Show en Sesamstraat. Oz het die ikoniese karakters van Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear, Animal, Sam the Eagle, Grover, Bert en die Cookie Monster uitgespreek. Sy bekendste rol is as Yoda in Star Wars. Oz het ook as regisseur gewerk op baie geliefde klassieke en kultusgunstelinge soos The Dark Crystal, The Muppets Take Manhattan, Little Shop of Horrors, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, What About Bob ?, en Bowfinger.

1957 Black Tubular Steel Group
Prys: $ 79,95
Slim, vaartbelynde ontwerp in pas met die hedendaagse moderne huis, net die ding vir die sitkamer, rumpuskamer, den, omheinde stoep. Veerkragtige veerkonstruksie sonder sitplekke in sitplekke, gevul met vilten katoen oor gaas-isolator. Die rug is gevul met lewendige katoen. Duursame plastiekbedekkings met 'n swaar maatweerstand is bestand teen vuil, slytasie. vee skoon met 'n klam lap. Stewige hardehoutrame is stewig verbind. Goudkleurige rand op alle nate. Pote, arm, rugsteun is van buisstaal met 'n groot maat, wat duursaam in swart emalje afgewerk is. Messing geplateerde harmoniserende afwerking. Die unieke roostervormige roosterbehandeling aan die bokant gee 'n kenmerk wat anders is. Die kleure is turkoois, wit of houtskoolgrys.

1920 Amerikaanse handelaar

1920: 'n Studie oor Amerikaanse handelsvaart bevestig dat 79% van die nuwe skepe wat pas gebou is of in die ontwerp- en boufase van steenkoolbranders na oliebranders as brandstof oorgegaan het.

1935 VSA Jesse Owens

1935: Jesse Owens het drie wêreldrekords op die Big Ten-byeenkoms in Ann Arbor, Michigan, gebreek, insluitend breedspring, die 220-yard-stamp en die lae hekkies.

1935 U.S.A. Babe Ruth

1935: Babe Ruth het die 714de en laaste tuiswedstryd van sy loopbaan op Forbes Field in Pittsburgh gehaal terwyl hy vir die Boston Braves teen die Pittsburgh Pirates gespeel het. Kort daarna kondig hy sy uittrede aan.

1943 Tweede Wêreldoorlog bombardement in Düsseldorf

1943: 500 RAF -bomwerpers het Düsseldorf gebombardeer en dele van die stad wat daar agtergebly het, verwoes, en die RAF was in Birma in aksie met 'n aanval op die westelike Birma.

1958 Frankryk se generaal Charles de Gaulle

1958: Generaal Charles de Gaulle word premier van Frankryk.

1961 Amerikaanse geld om 'n man op die maan te sit

1961: President Kennedy het die Kongres $ 531 miljoen gevra om die VSA te help om 'n man voor die einde van die dekade op die maan te sit. Op 21 Julie 1969 word Neil Armstrong die eerste mens wat sy voete op die maan gesit het.

Gebore hierdie dag in die geskiedenis 25 Mei

Verjaar vandag

Gebore: 25 Mei 1957, Keighley, Yorkshire, Engeland

Bekend daarvoor: Campbell se Cambridge -graad was in vreemde tale (waarvan hy Duits en Frans gedoen het). Na die universiteit het hy vir die Tavistock Times gewerk voordat hy by die Daily Mirror aangemeld het en die politieke redakteur daarvan geword het. Hy het later politieke redakteur van Today geword voordat hy assistent geword het vir die opposisieleier in die Britse parlement. Hy was invloedryk in die wen van die Arbeidersparty in die algemene verkiesing in 1997, en word die perssekretaris van Blair in 1997. Hy is 'n welgestelde spindokter, wat in 2003 bedank het.

1963 Ethiopië Organisasie vir Afrika -eenheid

1963: Afrika -state verenig hulle om die Organisasie vir Afrika -eenheid / OAU te stig om die oorblywende bastions van blanke heerskappy in Suid -Afrika, Suid -Rhodesië, Mosambiek en Angola met alle moontlike middele te "dekoloniseer", insluitend die verskaffing van finansies aan Afrikaanse "vryheidsvegters", wapens, vrywilligers en opleidingsbasisse.

1965 Muhammad Ali VS Sonny Liston Rematch

1965: Na die Cassius Clay -nederlaag van Sonny Liston op 25 Februarie 1964 vir die wêreldkampioenskap vir swaargewig boks en sy naam verander van Cassius Clay na Muhammad Ali, ontmoet Liston en Ali vir 'n tweede keer in Lewiston, Maine, vir die swaargewigkampioenskap , tydens die eerste ronde gaan Liston af (word dikwels met 'n fantoomslag genoem) en die skeidsregter, Joe Walcott, stop die stryd en gee Ali 'n uitklophou in die eerste ronde.

1967 Portugal Celtic wen die Europese beker

1967: Glasgow Celtic word die eerste Britse span wat die gesogte Europese beker wen, en klop gunstelinge Internazionale Milan met 2-1 in die Portugese nasionale stadion in Lissabon.

1974 Britse Flixborough -ramp

1974: 'n Ontploffing by 'n chemiese aanleg in Flixborough laat meer as 25 dood.

1978 U.S.A. Eerste Atlantic City Casino

1978: Die eerste wettige casino van die nasies buite Nevada maak oop in die oord, Atlantic City, NJ vir dobbelstene en kaartspelers.

1979 Chicago Airport -vliegtuigongeluk

1979: 'n Vlug vanaf die O'Hare Internasionale Lughawe in Chicago, Illinois American Airlines Flight 191, het neergestort en ontplof in 'n veld naby die lughawe. By die ongeluk is 273 mense dood, waaronder twee op die grond.

1982 Falkland Eilande Atlantic Conveyor en HMS Coventry

1982: Twee Argentynse Super Etendards vuur Frans-geboude Exocets af en vernietig die Atlantiese Transportband. In 'n aparte aanval het Argentynse Skyhawks HMS Coventry vier keer getref met 1,000 bomme wat ontploffings veroorsaak het en die skip omgeslaan het.

1986 VS -hande regoor Amerika

1986: Ongeveer sewe miljoen Amerikaners het hande gevat in die hoop om meer as $ 50 miljoen in te samel om honger en dakloosheid in "Hands Across America" ​​te bestry.

1988 Mediaan huisprys

1988: 'n Verslag van die National Association of Realtors het gesê die gemiddelde prys vir 'n huis is $ 87,700.

Wenner van die Britse lotery in 1994 aangekondig

1994: Die Camelot -konsortium belowe om tot 30% van sy ondernemings aan vyf "goeie sake" af te staan. het die kontrak gekry om Brittanje se eerste nasionale lotery te begin, wat in November begin.

1998 U.S.A. Google

1998: By baie bibliotekarisse en akademici kom die kommer op dat die internet meer geneig is om slegte inligting te verskaf as om goed te wees, aangesien daar geen kontrole en saldo's is nie. inhoud op die internet is heeltemal verkeerd en kan in sommige gevalle as 'n gevaar beskou word. Dit was dieselfde jaar wat die twee stigters van Google 'n nuwe soort soekenjin ontwikkel het wat die dominante speler in soekenjins geword het, en hulle het 'n ander manier gebruik om die inhoud van 'n bladsy te meet met behulp van 'n stemvorm vanaf skakels op ander webwerwe wat sal waarskynlik die beste resultate lewer. Sedertdien het baie SEO's maniere gevind om die stemming reg te stel deur skakels of spam -skakels te koop.

2005 Azerbeidjan die langste oliepypleiding oop

2005: Die langste oliepypleiding ter wêreld word geopen. Die pypleiding was duisend myl lank en begin in Azerbeidjan, deur Georgië, en eindig by 'n Middellandse See -hawe in Turkye. Die bou van die pyplyn het meer as tien jaar geneem en kos meer as drie miljard dollar. Dit strek van die Kaspiese See tot by die Middellandse See.

2006 U.S.A. Enron Corp.

2006: Voormalige bestuurders van Enron Corp. Kenneth Lay en Jeffrey Skilling word in Houston skuldig bevind aan sameswering en bedrog weens die ondergang van die onderneming. Kenneth Lay sterf voor vonnisoplegging en Skilling is tot 24 jaar tronkstraf gevonnis.

2008 Iran se chemiese ontploffing maak baie mense dood

2008: 'n Chemiese ontploffing by 'n fabriek naby Arak, Iran, het 'n brand veroorsaak wat dertig mense dood en bykans veertig ander beseer het. Die fabriek wat skoonheidsmiddels en skoonmaakmiddels vervaardig het, is byna heeltemal vernietig deur die ontploffing, maar die brand is vinnig onder beheer gebring.

2009 Noord -Korea se kerntoets

2009: Noord -Korea kondig aan dat dit 'n ondergrondse ontploffing van 'n kernapparaat in die provinsie Noord -Hamgyong uitgevoer het as deel van sy kernwapenprogram. Noord -Korea glo nou dat dit as 'n volledige kernkrag beskou moet word; dit roep 'n aantal vrae en probleme op vir die Veiligheidsraad van die Verenigde Nasies oor die kommer dat Noord -Korea hierdie tegnologie aan ander lande of terroriste -organisasies kan verkoop, wat die verspreiding van kerne moontlik maak.

2010 China Nog 'n iPhone -fabriekswerker sterf

2010: 'n Ander werker van Foxconn is dood gevind nadat hy van 'n gebou by die fabriek geval het. Die negentienjarige werker het sedert die begin van 2010. die tiende persoon geword wat op die manier in die fabriek gesterf het. Die groot onderneming vervaardig selfone en ander elektronika vir verskeie rekenaarondernemings, waaronder die Apple iPhone. Die maatskappy het erken dat hy talle soortgelyke selfmoordpogings vroeër daardie jaar in die wiele gery het en het die beskuldigings ontken dat die werknemers onder te veel druk verkeer en te hard gestoot het.

2011 Arizona Shooter is ongeskik vir verhoor

2011: Jared Loughner, die man wat daarvan beskuldig word dat hy ses mense geskiet en vermoor het, en die Amerikaanse kongresvrou Gabrielle Giffords beseer het tydens 'n voorval in Januarie, is onbevoeg bevind om verhoor te word. Loughner het onskuldig gepleit en is onbevoeg verklaar vir verhoor nadat hy deur verstandelike bevoegdheidskenners geëvalueer is.

2013 Eerste Gay Pride Parade gehou in die Oekraïne

2013: Die eerste gay pride-parade in die Oekraïne het plaasgevind met ongeveer honderd besoekers in die land se hoofstad Kiev. Die polisie was teenwoordig en moes dertien mense in hegtenis neem wat probeer het om die byeenkoms te verbreek.

Tuismeubels uit die 1920's

Draagbare bad met waterverwarmer

Baie, indien nie die meeste plattelandse huise in die twintigerjare, het nie volledige binnenshuise loodgieterswerk nie, dus dit was u beste kans om 'n warm bad te neem; die waterverwarmer kan 'n petrol- of kerosienbrander wees, om die bad te gebruik wat u eers nodig gehad het om die tenk te vul met water (hou 12 liter), steek dan die brander aan en vul die bad wanneer dit gereed is, om die bad leeg te maak, maak die 6 meter lange slang aan die wateruitlaat vas en dreineer deur die naaste venster.


Vroue in die weermag in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Benewens fabriekswerk en ander werk aan die huis, het ongeveer 350 000 vroue by die gewapende dienste aangesluit, tuis en in die buiteland. Op aandrang van First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt en vrouegroepe, en beïndruk deur die Britse gebruik van vroue in diens, ondersteun generaal George Marshall die idee om 'n diensdiensafdeling in die weermag in te stel. In Mei 1942 het die kongres die Women's Auxiliary Army Corps ingestel, wat later opgegradeer is na die Women's Army Corps, wat volle militêre status gehad het. Sy lede, bekend as WAC's, het in meer as 200 nie-vegtende poste gewerk in die staatskant en in elke teater van die oorlog. Teen 1945 was daar meer as 100,000 WAC's en 6,000 vroulike offisiere. In die vloot het lede van Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) dieselfde status as vlootreserviste gehad en ondersteuning by die staat gebied. Die kuswag en marinekorps het spoedig gevolg, alhoewel in kleiner getalle.

Het jy geweet? Op 10 Maart 2010, byna 70 jaar nadat hulle ontbind is, het die Women Airforce Service Pilots die goue medalje van die kongres ontvang.


Solo loopbaan

Dit was 'n groot seën vir Harrison. Hy het onmiddellik 'n ateljeeband saamgestel wat bestaan ​​uit Starr, kitaarspeler Eric Clapton, klawerbordspeler Billy Preston en ander om al die liedjies op te neem wat nog nooit in die Beatles -katalogus was nie. Die resultaat was 1970 en 'n album met drie skyfies, Alle dinge moet verbygaan. Terwyl een van sy kenmerkende liedjies, "My Sweet Lord," later in styl te veel gelyk was aan die vroeëre treffer "Hy & aposs So Fine", wat die kitaarspeler genoodsaak het om byna $ 600 000 op te hoes, bly die album in sy geheel die mees bekroonde plaat van Harrison.

Nie lank na die vrystelling van die album en aposs nie, het Harrison sy liefdadigheid en sy volgehoue ​​passie vir die Ooste gebuig toe hy 'n reeks baanbrekende voordele -konserte saamgestel het in New York en Madison Square Garden om geld in te samel vir vlugtelinge in Bangladesh. Die vertonings, wat bekend staan ​​as die Concert for Bangladesh, en wat Bob Dylan, Starr, Clapton, Leon Russell, Badfinger en Shankar insluit, sal ongeveer $ 15 miljoen vir UNICEF insamel. Hulle het ook 'n Grammy -toekenning en 'n#x2013 -wenner -album gelewer en die grondslag gelê vir toekomstige voordele soos Live Aid en Farm Aid.

Maar nie alles met die post-Beatles-lewe het vir Harrison seepglad verloop nie. In 1974 eindig sy huwelik met Pattie Boyd, met wie hy agt jaar tevore getrou het, toe sy hom na Clapton verlaat. Sy ateljee werk het ook gesukkel. Lewe in die materiële wêreld (1973), Ekstra tekstuur (1975) en Drie-en-dertig en ampਁ/3  (1976) het nie aan die verkoopsverwagtinge voldoen nie.

Na die vrystelling van die laaste album, neem Harrison 'n kort blaaskans van musiek en beëindig sy selfstandige etiket, Dark Horse, wat werke vir 'n aantal ander bands vervaardig het, en begin sy eie filmproduksiemaatskappy, HandMade Films. Die uitrusting onderskryf Monty Python & aposs Brian se lewe  en die kultusklassieke Withnail en ek en   sou 25 ander flieks vrystel voordat Harrison sy belang in die maatskappy in 1994 verkoop het.


Bill Downs, oorlogskorrespondent

Die oorlog wat vanaand in Rusland gevoer word (terwyl dit die verskriklikste en verwoestendste konflik in die militêre geskiedenis is) is op baie maniere soos enige ander oorlog. Die standpunt van die gewone Russiese privaat persoon oor die gevegte rondom Koersk en Kharkov en Rostov vanaand is baie dieselfde as enige Amerikaanse soldaat.

Die soldate met wie ek in Stalingrad gepraat het (verlede Sondag was die soldaat se groot belangstelling in kos, in vroue, om verlof te kry en sy kant te wen, soos enige bok privaat in die agterste geledere van die Amerikaanse weermag. 't) hou nie van die idee om meer of minder as enige ander soldaat te sterf nie, en daarom praat hulle nie te veel daaroor nie. (U praat met hulle oor hul gevegservarings, en soos alle goeie soldate sê hulle nie 'n woord oor hul eie prestasies nie.) Om hulle te hoor praat, is die geweldige Slag van Stalingrad slegs 'n versameling klein insidente wat uiteindelik beland het 'n Duitse nederlaag.

Byvoorbeeld, een van die onderoffisiere in die regiment van 'n wag by die Rooi Leër ('n harde jongeling wie se vriende gesê het dat hy ten minste drie Nazi's vermoor het tydens 'n hand-aan-hand-ontmoeting), sou net praat oor die manier waarop Duitse soldate bewonder die pelsdoppe van die Rooi Leër. (Hierdie soldaat het geveg in 'n fabrieksgebou in die Rooi Oktober -aanleg wat die Russiese lyn in hierdie deel van Stalingrad gevorm het. Die Duitse loopgrawe was voor 'n ander gebou slegs twaalf meter verder. Ek het bo -op hierdie Duitse posisies gestaan ​​en jy kon 'n klip tussen twee lyne.)

Op 'n stadium in die Stalingrad -lyn het die Duitse en Russiese soldate hulself vermaak deur beledigings heen en weer vir mekaar te skree. My Russiese vriend het gesê dat 'n Duitse soldaat oor die lyne skreeu en aangebied het om sy outomatiese geweer vir 'n bontpet van die Rooi Leër te ruil.

Ek het die Russiese soldaat gevra wat sy antwoord was.

'Ag, ek het goed geantwoord,' het hy gesê. 'Ek het vir hulle gesê om 'n tenk saam te bring en ek sou met hulle onderhandel.'

Dan was daar die tyd naby die einde van die Stalingrad -geveg toe die Duitsers baie, baie honger was. Slegs 'n maand tevore het die Duitsers die Sowjet -magte aan die brand gesteek en gesê dat die einde van die Rooi Leër in sig was. Nou is die situasie omgekeer en die Russiese soldate het hul eie plesier bedink. Om die honger Duitse troepe te wys hoe goed die Sowjet -kombuise werk, sit hulle heel brood op die punte van hul bajonette en plak dit bo die loopgrawe. Die Duitse antwoord was om die brode met Tommy geweerkoeëls te raai.

Dit is die verhale wat hulself in die gedagtes van gewone soldate sal merk.

Sommige eenhede van die Rooi Leër het hul eie lente -aanvalle begin in 'n senuweestryd wat redelik belaglike resultate gehad het.

Hier is wat 'n paar weke gelede op een sektor aan die voorkant gebeur het. Die Rooi Leër -eenheid wat in hierdie sektor ingegrawe is, veg al lank teen die Duitsers. Hulle was redelik bekend met die Duitse regiment teenoor hulle. Dit was 'n regiment van die Waffen-SS, Hitler se persoonlike troepe.

Op 'n aand het 'n groep soldate uitgegaan op 'n strategiese oop grond wat die niemandsland tussen die twee loopgrawe gevorm het en twee pale opgestel het. Tussen hierdie twee pole het hulle 'n doekprentjie van Hitler gespan, en dit was nie 'n kompliment vir die Führer nie. Onder die tekenprent is in groot letters in Duits geskryf: "Skiet op my." Toe wag die eenheid tot die oggend om te sien wat sal gebeur.

Toe die son opkom, kon hulle harde besprekings in die Duitse loopgrawe hoor. Personeelbeamptes het na die loopgrawe gekom en deur die verkyker na die beledigende spotprent gekyk. Maar die Duitsers het geweier om die instruksies te gehoorsaam om op hul eie leier te skiet.

Voor die middag het hulle 'n offensief geopen om die tekenprent vas te vang. 'N Detail van Duitse soldate is beveel om die doek af te haal. Hierdie detail bereik amper die spotprent van Hitler voordat hulle uitgewis is. Nog 'n detail is gestuur. Dit kon ook nie die spotprent kry nie. En dan die aand het die Duitse artillerie in die hele sektor op die Führer oopgegaan. Al die Duitse gewere is ter plaatse gekonsentreer. Dit het 'n gekonsentreerde spervuur ​​van vyftien minute geduur voordat die tekenprent uit die lewe geruk is, wat 'n manier is om 'n diktator dood te maak.

Op die oomblik hou die militêre kundiges op die tribune 'n velddag. (U kan met 'n hoed 'n militêre aanvalsplan kry deur 'n aantal leunstoele -generaals.)

(Daar is planne vir 'n Rooi Leër -offensief en daar is mense wat sê dat Hitler dit gaan doen en dat daar ander is wat sê dat Hitler weer met massabombaring gaan begin.)

En wanneer u wil, kan u Russe vind wat sal aanvoer dat daar nie 'n tweede front hierdie jaar sal wees nie en waarom. Ander Russe sal net so gewelddadig argumenteer dat daar 'n tweede front sal wees. Dit is 'n gunsteling manier om die tyd hier deur te bring.

Maar die gevoel van die gewone soldaat word die beste uitgedruk in 'n verhaal van voor wat ek nou die dag gehoor het. Die manne van die Rooi Leër kry baie Amerikaanse blikkiesvleis, en hulle hou daarvan. Hulle noem dit egter nie blikkiesvleis nie. As hulle honger word, sê hulle: "Kom nou Ivan, laat ons 'n blikkie van die Tweede Front oopmaak."

. Die meeste Sowjet -fabrieke wat ek gesien het, het dieselfde hoë mure. Op 'n vliegtuig ontmoet ek 'n Russiessprekende man van 'n toeriste-agentskap en vra hom: 'Hoe vertel u die tronk uit die fabriek in hierdie land?'

Hy antwoord in gebroke Engels: "Mense in fabrieke is bereid om daarvoor te veg. Vra die Duitsers in Stalingrad.".

Ons beland by Kuybyshev in 'n sneeustorm, waar ek gedwing is om op my eie Russies te praat. Ek het by die lughawe se wagkamer ingestap en Russiese soldate sien sit terwyl 'n skaakspel in die een hoek vorder. Iemand het vir my 'n koppie tee gebring en ek het geen Russiese geld gehad nie en ek weet nie wie daarvoor betaal het nie. Die atmosfeer oor hierdie plek het dieselfde soort geïsoleerde kameraadskap as wat u in die ou kruidenierswinkels in die dorp vind. Al wat dit nodig gehad het, was 'n krakervat en 'n stoofpot.

Uiteindelik kom 'n leërkaptein na my toe sonder om te glimlag en vra: "Sprechen sie Deutsch?" Ek het nie geweet of ek ja of nee moes sê nie, aangesien ek in my universiteitsdae 'n soort pidgin -Duits kon praat. Ek kyk in die kamer rond, wat effens gevries het toe dit Duits hoor, en ek was die enigste buitelander wat daar was. Ek het besluit om dit te kans en het geantwoord: "Ja, maar ek is 'n Amerikaanse korrespondent."

Die kamer brul van die lag en ek word dadelik 'n fles aangebied. Ek het wodka verwag, waarvan ek al alles geweet het. Ek was bereid om te wys watter gesonde drinkmanne Amerikaners was en het 'n groot mondvol ingeneem. As gevolg hiervan het ek die kop bo -oor my kop afgeblaas. Die kaptein het vir my 'n kolf vol 190 -alkohol gegee wat proe asof dit onlangs uit 'n motorradiator gekom het. Weer brul die kamer van die lag. Daar kom soldate op en ons vat hand.

Met die hulp van my Russiese woordeboek het ek ontdek dat die meeste mans net uit Stalingrad kom. Hulle het gesê dat Amerikaanse en Britse tenks in die geveg geveg het. Ek het die Russe gevra hoe hulle van die Amerikaanse tenks hou, 'n vraag wat beantwoord is te midde van uitroepe van 'khorosho, khorosho', wat volgens my woordeboek vrek goed beteken. Toe neem die Russiese kaptein die woordeboek van my af en begin woorde opsoek nadat ek 'n sin herhaal het wat ek nie kon verstaan ​​nie. Die eerste woord wat hy uitgewys het, vertaal na "ons". Die kaptein het 'n ander woord gewys: 'wil hê'. Hy het nog 'n bietjie op die bladsye geslinger en 'n ander Russiese woord aangedui wat 'meer' beteken. Ek het geglimlag en vir hom gesê ek verstaan ​​die res. Die Russe in die kamer glimlag baie ernstig en sê "da, da, da, khorosho."

Vir slaapplekke het ek vrywilliglik soos almal op die vloer gaan slaap, want die sneeustorm het dit onmoontlik gemaak om die stad binne te kom. Die kaptein dring egter daarop aan dat ek na die lughawe -hotel gaan, wat meestal deur Sowjet -vlieëniers gehou word. Met my die beste bed in die huis, vind ek dit 'n kaal kamer met nog ses beddens wat vasgekeer het.

Die kaptein het tot my verligting vasgebly en my saam met 'n dans saam met jong vlieëniers van die Rooi Leër geneem. Die vlieëniers dans met meisies wat wissel van jonk tot oud tot 'n gekraak opname van Tommy Dorsey se "Marie". Dit is klaarblyklik die gunsteling van hierdie pos, want dit is oor en oor gespeel. Ek het die mooiste meisie in die huis gekies en uitgevind dat sy beter dans as die meeste Engelse meisies in Londen, sowel as die gemiddelde meisie in die Verenigde State. Ek het haar baie komplimente gegee wat sy nie verstaan ​​nie, maar ek het nie die kans gehad om nêrens te kom nie, want 'n groot, taai seun, wat die medalje van die held van die Sowjetunie gedra het wat hy by Kalinin gekry het, het haar geneem terug asof die Rooi Leër bewoonde punte inneem.

Ek is wakker gehou in my oorvol hotelkamer, deels deur snork en deels deur dieselfde gevoel as wat ek hier voorheen was. Hierdie mense was besig om hul beste uit te haal vir my, baie geïnteresseerd in nuus van die buitewêreld.

Ek het verder gegaan na Gorky in 'n uiters koue Russiese troepedraer en 'n ander Douglas, wat vasgekeer was met offisiere wat na Moskou gaan en verskillende soorte vrag, waaronder groot bale wol vir uniforms. Hierdie Douglas het ongeveer twintig kolle op haar gehad. Die vliegtuig het aksie gesien, maar die vlieënier wou my nie sê waar nie.

In Gorky het ek nog 'n woord by my woordeskat gevoeg. Ek het saam met die Douglas -bemanning, almal jongmense, betaal. Ons beland in 'n woordeboekgesprek oor Amerikaanse vliegtuie. Die eerste vermelding van hulle het uitroepe van "ochen khorosho" veroorsaak. Dit was snaaks om vlieëniers in gesaghebbende Russiese toon te hoor praat oor Lockheed Electras, Airacobras en Bostons, en die meriete en foute van driewiel -landingsgestel te bespreek. Hulle het meer van hulle geweet as ek.

Ek het my eerste blik gekry op wat dit beteken as mense in Rusland 'alles vir die Rooi Leër' sê. Hierdie vlieëniers het skoon, netjiese kamers en sagte beddens gehad, en hulle het geëet in 'n aparte kamer waar rariteite soos botter bedien is. Hulle het gesond en taai gelyk, omtrent dieselfde as ons eie vlieëniers. Hulle toerusting was uitstekend, met goeie swaar klere en deftige handskoene. Hulle het groot stewels gedra wat binne en buite met bont uitgevoer is. Een agterskutter was baie trots op syne, want dit was gemaak van die vel van 'n hond wat hy vroeër besit het.

. (Die algemene kenmerk van hierdie troepe is die jeuggees wat strek van die hoogste generaal tot die laagste privaat.)

Tipies van die gewaagde, duiwel-mag-sorg-gees van hierdie nuwe Rooi Leërmagte was die byna komiese gevangname van veldmaarskalk Von Paulus. Von Paulus, die enigste Duitse veldmaarskalk wat ooit as krygsgevangene gemaak is, is geneem na die eerste onderhandelinge wat deur 'n 21-jarige eerste luitenant van die Rooi Leër gevoer is. Hy is Fyodor Jelchenko, 'n Oekraïense kind met 'n grynslag van 'n kilometer.

I talked with Senior Lieutenant Yelchenko in the narrow, bare room where Von Paulus had his headquarters in the basement of Stalingrad's biggest department store. Only the basement of this big five-story building was intact.

Yelchenko was leading a group of fifteen Tommy gunners (which were part of a force which surrounded) against the German Sixth Army headquarters. The lieutenant (who grinned all the time as he told the story) said that, after the initial artillery barrage on the headquarters, a delegation of German soldiers carrying a white flag approached his group.

"They said they wanted to talk with a Russian big chief who would talk with me," the lieutenant said. "I was the officer in command so I went along. Since Germans are still Germans, I took along two men. The guards led me (through the minefields protecting the building, and I went) into the basement. There, Major General Roske and Lieutenant General Schmidt stood at the table. Von Paulus was lying on a narrow iron bed in another room. They asked what were our terms, and told them they were complete surrender as outlined by our command several days earlier. Schmidt kept running back and forth to Von Paulus as we talked.

"Then they asked if I wanted to see Field Marshal Paulus and ask him any questions. We had settled all the questions, but I had a look at him anyway. He was lying on his bed looking very sad, and he needed a shave, but he wore all his decorations."

Fyodor Yelchenko, a farm boy from Ukraine, is typical of the "Soviet men of decision" who are pledged to clear Russia of fascists.

Bill Downs

CBS Moscow

April 28, 1943

The military spring training on the Russian front seems to be just about over. Nothing of importance happened along the 1,200 mile front last night. There was the usual artillery barrages—Soviet aircraft made their regular trips to railroad junctions and supply points behind the German lines snipers on a half-dozen sectors put a few more notches in their guns and scouts succeeded in slipping through the Axis lines on their hell-raising missions in the enemy rear.

During this spring lull we've heard a lot about the achievements of these Russian scouts. They are the modern Russian counterparts of "Buffalo Bill" Cody and Kit Carson and others who formed the vanguard in America's winning of the west. Except the work of a modern scout in the Soviet Union is a lot more complicated.

For example, take the Red Army scout Yakov Chekarkov, a 30-year-old bachelor who used to be a storekeeper at a tractor station in one of Russia's big collective farms.

Chekarkov knows his stuff. His job is to creep as close to the German lines as possible and find out just what the Nazis are up to. There are thousands of these men who creep out every day and night to gather information. Sometimes they go deep behind the German lines, and sometimes groups of them do commando raids.

Chekarkov has introduced his own methods. For example, he watched the Germans lay a minefield on the approaches to a forest. At night he took his own mines and mined the passages which the Germans left through the field. You can imagine what happened when the Germans attacked. This scout also has become an expert on German uniforms. He spotted tank reinforcements in one sector because he noticed the pink tabs on the collars of some of the men who were designated tank troops.

This winter he sat for days in the frozen carcass of a dead horse just in front of the German lines. Another time he found a hollow stump almost inside the German fortifications. He established his position by burrowing under the snow and cutting his way inside the stump from the bottom.

It takes a lot of courage to be a scout in Russia, and Yakov Chekarkov is a brave man. However, he has one great fear: catching cold. He was scared to death by a cold last fall. He was behind the German lines when he sneezed. He had to run for his life. Now he never does any scouting without a heavy wool shawl wrapped around him like an old woman.

Today we have the story of a Ukrainian Robin Hood who is now giving the occupation authorities more trouble than any guerrilla leader that has yet appeared in Russia.

He is called "Bogdan the Elusive"—and he heads one of the biggest partisan armies in Russia. His record of train wreckings, executions of German burgomeisters, and picking off of isolated Romanian and German garrisons is still being added up. But his reputation is known throughout the Ukraine—more by the Germans than by the Russians.

German punitive expeditions have tried time and again to capture him. But when Bogdan is reported in one town, the police troops will arrive only to find the German mayor of the town hanging from the nearest beach tree, and a note saying "I'll be back" signed "Bogdan."

Early this year his partisan band even made an attack on the outskirts of Kiev in western Ukraine. It was just a sortie, and nothing came of it except a lot of Germans were killed. But his spies infiltrated into the city and brought back reports of how the Germans were running gambling halls and vice establishments all over Russia's most beautiful city—and it made Bogdan mad. So he decided to conduct the sortie. Life in Kiev was a lot more sober for several weeks afterward.

(German occupation authorities who hear that "Bogdan the Elusive" is operating in their district have sent emissaries out looking for him to offer safe passage through their provinces—if only he won't make trouble in their district.)

Once, the Germans thought they had Bogdan. They carefully threw a cordon around his camp. When they finally closed in on the camp they found warm campfires, empty tin cans—and a goat. Around the neck of the goat was a note saying "A hurried good-bye—but I'll be back." Since that time several other goats have been found wandering the Ukrainian steppe-land—all with notes from Bogdan around their necks. Now the goat has become a sign of bad luck among the Germans—they hate the very sight of the animal.

Bill Downs

CBS Moscow

February 20, 1943

One of the biggest surprises I've had here in Russia was my experience yesterday with a history class of 14-year-old boys at a Moscow public school.

I was having a look around the school and wandered into the classroom (in time to hear a lecture on Iran. It was the sort of class discussion that you could get in any school in America.)

The teacher asked me if I wanted to ask the boys any questions. Well, I knew that sooner or later these kids would want to know when America was going to start a second front. Russian people always do. (If I've been asked that question once over here, I've been asked it a million times.)

So I decided I would beat them to the draw. I asked the class just how and where they thought a second front should be started.

Those kids (put up their hands to express their own pet theories) had as many theories (—well you might have thought it) as the combined general staff (meeting) in Washington. The reaction was terrific.

One black-haired youngster (who seemed to be a spokesman for the majority opinion) walked to the map on the wall and outlined a campaign through Italy. (It involved taking Sicily and Sardinia followed by a combined assault on Italy itself from these islands and from the northern coast of Africa.)

However, there was opposition to this plan. A tow-headed kid named Tolya took over the discussion. His argument that there was nothing particularly wrong with the Italian invasion plan except the supply question. He advocated the classic move through France. (The second front supply question would be alleviated through England and direct supply communications with America.)

(There was considerable agreement to this reasoning).

And then up stepped the boy who obviously was a grade-A student. He wore thick glasses and his ears that morning seemed to have escaped his mother's inspection. But he was a leading figure in that history class. You could tell by the way the other boys shut up when he talked. His named was Felix.

Felix was all for an advance through the Balkans. He explained that (the position of Turkey had been stabilized and said that) the Balkans were definitely Hitler's back door. There would be, according to Felix, much help from the Balkan population. And after this landing, the invading troops could join up with the Red Army and clean up Europe from the East.

After that, I thought the discussion was ended and that I was going to escape without getting asked any questions. However it came anyway. "When is the second front going to start?"

I told the history class I didn't know—but I promised I would pass along their second front strategy to the United States. So there you are—the report on military tactics from the seventh grade history class of Public School Number 175 in Moscow.

April 1, 1943 (censored report)

It seems that at one of the liberated villages west of Rzhev there was a little boy named Alyosha.

Alyosha was raising a pet pig named Khrushka when the Germans came to the village. He loved his friend Khrushka and was very much afraid when the Germans started collecting all of the other pigs and cows and chickens in the village to send back to Germany.

When the Germans came to his house to get Khrushka, the boy hid the pig behind the big peasant's stove (that was heating the small house. He told the Germans that Khrushka had run away.)

The Germans finally went away. When Alyosha went to get Khrushka, he found that the pig was dead. You see, peasant stoves are very hot during the Russian winter and Khrushka had suffocated.

Alyosha was very sad and wanted to give his friend Khrushka a fitting burial. (However, he was afraid that the Germans might kill him if they found him with the body of Khrushka after he had lied to them.) So Alyosha got another boy in his village and dug a grave by the side of the road. At night, they carried Khrushka to the grave and carefully buried the pig.

However, both of the boys knew that Germans are very careful about freshly turned earth—they are always looking for hidden parachutes or arms or valuables when they see that something has been buried.

So Alyosha made a rough cross and got a German helmet. On the cross he carefully copied the first German name he could remember. It was Schmidt—or Schwartz—something like that. Alyosha put the cross at the head of his pet pig's grave and placed the German helmet on top of the cross. It looked just like a score of other German roadside graves that dotted the area.

Then the German headquarters moved to the village. The German general stopped to examine the grave and gasped when he read the name. It was the same name as the general's son, who was missing on the front.

The general immediately called his officers and demanded that his son be buried with more honor. He ordered the body be disinterred.

This story ends with the sweating officers digging out the grave, with the German general standing bravely aside, waiting to view the last remains of his son. No one stayed long enough to see what happened when the general discovered that his "son" was the prize pig Khrushka.

Right now, the big events in Russia are occurring agter, and not by, the front.

The Red Army the other day turned up something new in booby traps. They entered one recaptured village and found that every house had been mined. Sappers cleared all of the houses but one. (The local inhabitants told the Russian soldiers that, before they left, the Germans spent a lot of time in this particular house.)

(The area was cleared and) a Red Army lieutenant (started looking for the mine. He) sounded the walls, the floor, and even the ceiling of the house. Still he could not locate the hidden explosives.

He was just about to give up when he heard cats meowing in the stove. He opened up the door and one cat jumped out. The second cat just started to leave the stove when the lieutenant pushed it back inside.

On investigation, he found that the second cat had a string attached to one of its rear paws. The other end of the string was attached to the fuse in 25 pounds of high explosive.

It was another of those cute Nazi ideas that didn't work.

A German soldier rides a motorcycle in the snow on the Eastern Front, wearing a gas mask to protect from the extreme cold. February 18, 1942 (source)

The Red Army railroad battalion has achieved something of an engineering miracle. In a little over two weeks they have succeeded in opening the vital Moscow-to-Velikiye Luki trunk railroad. The first military train moved over this railroad yesterday.

The repair of this stretch of 280 miles of railroad was one of the most difficult assignments any engineering corps has ever had. The railroad has been the center of a battlefield since the early days of the German invasion. It has been bombed by both German and Russian planes. Soviet partisans have blown it sky high at a hundred places during the period when the Germans held the line.

And when the Germans were chased from the area, they did one of their most complete jobs of earth scorching along the Velikiye Luki-Moscow railroad. Every bridge was blown up. Switches and sidings were destroyed. In some places the Germans even burned the forest around some vital bridges so that the Russian engineers would have no material with which to reconstruct them.

But even before Velikiye Luki was taken, the Red Army railroad corps went to work. They found that, in addition to widening the gauge of the railroad tracks, they would have to virtually reset every rail.

You see, the Germans not only destroyed all switches, they also sent men along the lines with heavy sledgehammers who every fifty feet or so just knocked a piece of rail out. I have seen this type of destruction in every place where the German Army passed.

Consequently, the railroad corps had to saw and chisel these broken rail ends so that they could be joined together. At first, the repair gangs could only repair fifty of these rails a day. Before the job was finished, they were repairing 250 a day. Each gang—and there were four big corps working on the railroad—succeeded in relaying something like four to six miles of railroad a day. When a job was particularly difficult, the civilians in the neighborhood were called in to give a hand.

You probably couldn't run an American streamliner at a speed of a hundred miles an hour over the reconstructed Velikiye Luki-Moscow railroad line today. But you can job along at twenty to thirty miles an hour with heavy freight and munitions and arms. And that's what's happening today as the Soviet command reinforces its Velikiye Luki garrison—the garrison which is closer to the borders of the Soviet Union than any other group pushed to the east by the Nazi invaders.

The first independently led and organized units of the Czechoslovak army to fight the Germans in this war went into action the other day somewhere on the Russian front.

The men of this army, refugees from their homeland, lived up to every standard of courage and honor that has made Czechoslovakia one of the proudest of Europe's small nations. The story is worth reporting.

The Czech army in Russia is led by Colonel Ludvik Svoboda, a 48-year-old veteran who fought against the Germans in Russia during the last war. (He has been fretting for action since the Germans marched into his country. Meanwhile, as his refugee army was trained, they spent part of their time helping Russian peasant harvest their crops. When the Czech soldiers left the district for the front, the Russian villagers gave them a banner all their own.)

At the first of April, the Czechs were thrown into the front line—probably somewhere on the Donets front. Their sector was of big importance. The Germans launched a counterattack. It was a big show, and sixty tanks appeared on one narrow sector opposite the dug-in Czech troops.

A young lieutenant named Yarosh was in command on this sector. His field telephone rang, and Colonel Svoboda said the unit would have to hold out alone. There were no reinforcements to help the lieutenant stop the sixty tanks. The colonel's orders were "It is impossible to retreat."

The unit was equipped with the new Russian antitank rifles. They knocked out tank after tank, but they still came on. (Some of the tanks were equipped with flamethrowers, and many of the Czechs were burned to death. However, the fight continued all day and into the night. About twenty tanks broke through to a village, where they were engaged by artillery.)

Approaching the Czechs behind the tanks came the German infantry with Tommy guns. While the Czech machine gunners kept the German infantry on the ground, other Czech soldiers continued the battle against the tanks with incendiary bottles.

But during the battle Lieutenant Yarosh was killed. He was crushed under a German tank thinking he might be able to stop it at the last moment.

That's the first story of the Czech army in Russia. The official communiqué commemorating the event read: "The men of the Czech unit (during the whole day and night) self-sacrificingly waged fights against the enemy and repelled all attacks. As a result of this fighting, nineteen German tanks were disabled and burned, and four hundred German Tommy gunners annihilated."

The German troops in Russia form the lousiest army in the world. I mean that literally. The one thing about them that really shocks the Russian fighting man is the number of lice on the average captured German soldier.

This condition was particularly bad during the Russian winter. One of the big differences between the Red Army and Hitler's Wehrmacht is that the Russian soldier knows how to keep clean and still protect himself from the cold. The ordinary German soldier is so busy keeping from (getting killed here in the Soviet Union) dying that he doesn't bother too much about personal hygiene. Consequently, he gets lousy.

(The Red Army man, on the other hand, gets up in the morning and washes with snow, even at forty below zero. Believe me, I've seen it at Stalingrad and Rzhev.)

The German command is trying to combat the louse that infests the invincible, Aryan Nazi soldier. They are using all kinds of propaganda. Soap is scarce in the German army, and propaganda has not been a very good substitute. (Bulletins that I have seen in captured German dugouts warn against the louse as a major enemy. It seems that the lice in Russia are definitely non-Aryan.)

One German headquarters tried to raise hygiene standards by ridiculing particularly lousy units. This headquarters issued a special cross to an unclean squadron. It was a big wooden affair in the shape of an iron cross, but instead of a swastika in the center there is a very life-like louse with legs akimbo. This cross was found over one German dugout on the Moscow front. (The Russian command had some trouble getting a Red Army man to inspect this dugout.)

But seriously, the (Russian) louse has turned out to be a very valuable ally to the United Nations. The German troops have run on to typhus in this country, and it has been a problem for the Nazi medical corps. And a soldier can't keep his mind on fighting if he's busy scratching.

. Thousands of men, women, and children marched out to Lukyanovka, thinking they probably would be evacuated. Instead, Nazi SS troops led them to Babii Yar.

At the wide shallow ravine, their valuables and part of their clothing were removed and heaped into a big pile. Then groups of these people were led into a neighboring deep ravine where they were machine-gunned. When bodies covered the ground in more or less of a layer, SS men scraped sand down from the ravine walls to cover them. Then the shooting would continue. The Nazis, we were told, worked three days doing the job. However, even more incredible were the actions taken by the Nazis between Aug. 19 and Sept. 28 last. Vilkis said that in the middle of August the SS mobilized a party of 100 Russian war prisoners, who were taken to the ravines.

On Aug. 19 these men were ordered to disinter all the bodies in the ravine. The Germans meanwhile took a party to a nearby Jewish cemetery whence marble headstones were brought to Babii Yar to form the foundation of a huge funeral pyre. Atop the stones were piled a layer of wood and then a layer of bodies, and so on until the pyre was as high as a two-story house.

Vilkis said that approximately 1,500 bodies were burned in each operation of the furnace and each funeral pyre took two nights and one day to burn completely.

The cremation went on for 40 days, and then the prisoners, who by this time included 341 men, were ordered to build another furnace. Since this was the last furnace and there were no more bodies, the prisoners decided it was for them. They made a break but only a dozen out of more than 200 survived the bullets of the Nazi Tommy guns.


Characteristics of February 25.

February 25 Zodiac belongs to the first decan of PISCES (February 19-February 29). This decan is under the supervision of the planet Neptune. Those born in this period are enthusiastic and creative just like a true Pisces and lucky and eager learners just as Neptune makes them be. This period is also said to magnify all the positive and negative characteristics of the Pisces zodiac sign.

Being born on the 25th day of the month means creativity coupled with hard work, tenderness and sensitivity coupled with a relatively inflexible nature. The numerology for February 25 is 7. This number reveals thoughtfulness, consciousness and high spiritual values. In association with number seven, Pisces becomes reliable, trustworthy and shows great moral values.

February is the second month of the year, bringing great opportunities for progress. Those born in February are intelligent and attractive. February 25 Zodiac people are charming dreamers with a great imagination. February symbols that resonate with these people are Garnet and Jasper as gemstones, Violet and Primrose as plants and the month of purification as stated in the ancient Roman Empire.


Konteks

The Rosenstraße protest took place in the context of two turning points in Nazi Germany's wars: the war against the Allies and the war against the Jews of Europe.

The first turning point occurred on the military front, with the catastrophic German defeat at Stalingrad [today: Volgograd, Russian Federation]. Stalingrad raised the first significant doubts among the German people that Germany could win the war.

The second turning point was the decision of the Nazi leadership, in the wake of deporting the remainder of the German Jews to killing centers, to manage the domestic problem of Jews in “mixed marriages” and the children of such marriages.

At the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942, action again this small group of “mixed-marriage Jews” had been deferred until after Germany victory. This decision was made out of concern that the deportation of Jewish spouses and half-Jewish children would inspire unrest among non-Jewish relatives and, possibly, among broader sections of the German population.


Youngstown Genealogy (in Mahoning County, OH)

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Youngstown are also found through the Mahoning County and Ohio pages.

Youngstown Birth Records

Youngstown Cemetery Records

Belmont Park Cemetery Billion Graves

Calvary Cemetery Billion Graves

Home Cemetery Billion Graves

Oakhill Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Pioneer Methodist Cemetery Billion Graves

Temple Emanuel Cemetery Billion Graves

Tod Homestead Cemetery Billion Graves

Youngstown Census Records

Amerikaanse federale sensus, 1790-1940 Family Search

Youngstown Church Records

Youngstown City Directories

Youngstown directory, 1880-1881 Internet Archive

Youngstown, Ohio city directory, 1886-7 Internet Archive

Youngstown Death Records

Youngstown Vindicator Obituary Index Search, 2011-2014 Warren-Trumbull County Library

Youngstown Histories and Genealogies

20th Century History of Youngstown and Mahoning County, Ohio and Representative Citizens Internet Archive

20th century history of Youngstown and Mahoning County, Ohio and representative citizens FamilySearch Books

20th century history of Youngstown and Mahoning County, Ohio, and representative citizens FamilySearch Books

History of St. John's Episcopal Church, Youngstown, Ohio Internet Archive

History of Youngstown and Mahoning Valley, Ohio Genealogy Gophers

History of Youngstown and Mahoning Valley, Ohio v. 01 Genealogy Gophers

History of Youngstown and Mahoning Valley, Ohio v. 02 Genealogy Gophers

History of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley, Ohio Public Library of Cincinnati

Youngstown Genealogy Gophers

Youngstown Immigration Records

Youngstown Land Records

Youngstown Map Records

Panoramic view map of the city of Youngstown, county seat of Mahoning Co., Ohio 1882. Library of Congress

Panoramic view map of the city of Youngstown, county seat of Mahoning Co., Ohio, 1882 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Youngstown, Mahoning County, Ohio, 1896 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Youngstown, Mahoning County, Ohio, June 1884 Library of Congress

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Youngstown, Mahoning County, Ohio, November 1889 Library of Congress

Youngstown Marriage Records

Youngstown Minority Records

Youngstown Newspapers and Obituaries

Amerikai Magyar hirlap = 01/01/1920 to 03/26/1942 Genealogy Bank

Amerikai Magyar hirlap = American Magyar journal. (Youngstown, Ohio) (from Jan. 1, 1920 to March 26, 1942) Chronicling America

Daily Legal News 06/24/2011 to Current Genealogy Bank

Mahoning Valley Vindicator, 1875-1876 Google News Archive

Mahoning Vindicator, 1869-1875 Google News Archive

Youngstown Evening Vindicator, 1891-1893 Google News Archive

Youngstown Vindicator Obituary Index Search, 2011-2014 Warren-Trumbull County Library

Youngstown Vindicator, 1876-1877, 1893-2009 Google News Archive

Youngstownske Slovenske Noviny 1920-1936 Newspapers.com

Youngstownske Slovenske noviny = Youngstown Slovak news. (Youngstown, Ohio) (from Jan. 2, 1920 to Dec. 18, 1936) Chronicling America

Youngstownske'' Slovenske'' noviny = 01/02/1920 to 12/18/1936 Genealogy Bank

Offline Newspapers for Youngstown

Volgens die Amerikaanse koerantgids is die volgende koerante gedruk, sodat daar moontlik papier- of mikrofilmkopieë beskikbaar is. Raadpleeg ons artikel oor die opspoor van vanlyn koerante vir meer inligting oor hoe om vanlyn koerante op te spoor.

Buckeye Review. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1937-Current

Bulletin. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1963-1967

Catholic Exponent. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1944-Current

Burger. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1915-1925

Daily Legal News. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1925-Current

Daily Miner and Manufacturer. (Youngstown [Ohio]) 1873-1874

Daily Register and Tribune. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1877-1880

Daily Times. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1903-1904

Aandnuus. Volume (Youngstown, Ohio) 1877-1880

Jambar. ([Youngstown, Ohio]) 1931-Current

Jewish Journal. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1987-Current

Labor Record. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1908-1936

Mahoning County Register. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1855-1859

Mahoning Courier. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1865-1872

Mahoning Free Democrat. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1852-1855

Mahoning Register. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1859-1875

Mahoning Sentinel. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1860-1864

Mahoning Valley Challenger. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1967-1974

Miner and Manufacturer. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1872-1873

New Star. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1879-1882

Ohio Republican. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1847-1852

Ohio Sun. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1892-1894

Olive Branch and Literary Messenger. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1844-1845

Olive Branch, and New County Advocate. (Youngstown, Trumbull County, Ohio) 1843-1844

Register and Tribune. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1875-1877

Register and Tribune. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1875-1880

Semi-Weekly Telegram. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1898-1913

Times. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1874-1875

Tri-Weekly Telegram. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1897-1898

Vindicator. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1984-Current

Weekly News-Register. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1882-1885

Weekly Telegram. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1891-1895

Yield. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1971-1977

Youngstown Business Journal. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1984-1980s

Youngstown Commercial. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1870s-1870s

Youngstown Daily Register. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1880-1882

Youngstown Evening News. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1880-1882

Youngstown Evening Telegram. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1885-1891

Youngstown Evening Vindicator. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1889-1893

Youngstown Free Press. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1881-1882

Youngstown Jewish Times. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1935-1987

Youngstown News-Register. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1882-1885

Youngstown News. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1878-1882

Youngstown Register. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1880-1882

Youngstown Rundschau. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1874-1916

Youngstown Telegram. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1895-1936

Youngstown Vindicator and the Youngstown Telegram. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1936-1960

Youngstown Vindicator. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1893-1936

Youngstown Vindicator. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1876-1916

Youngstown Vindicator. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1960-1984

Youngstown Weekly Telegram. (Youngstown, O. [Ohio]) 1895-1897

Youngstown Weekly Telegram. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1885-1891

Youngstown Yield. (Youngstown, Ohio) 1968-1970

Youngstown Probate Records

Youngstown School Records

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