Artikels

John D. Ford DD- 228 - Geskiedenis

John D. Ford DD- 228 - Geskiedenis



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

John D. Ford DD- 228

John D. Ford

(DD-228: dp. 1,190; 1, 314'5 "; b. 31'9"; dr. 9'3 ", s. 35 k. Cpl. 101; a. 4 4", 1 3 ", 2 .30 CQL mg., 12 21 "tt .; cl.Clemson)

John D. Ford (DD-228) is neergelê deur William Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 11 November 1919; van stapel gestuur op 2 September 1920, geborg deur juffrou F. Faith Ford, dogter van agteradmiraal Ford; en aangestel as Ford 30 Desember 1920, Lt. (j.g.) L. T. Forbes in tydelike bevel.

Na aanvaardingsproewe in New England, ontvang Ford lt. -kom. C. A. Pownall as bevelvoerder van die kantoor 16 Julie 1921. Op 17 November, terwyl sy langs die oostelike kusgebied werk, is haar naam verander na John D. Ford. Na opleiding in die Karibiese Eilande vertrek sy op 20 Junie 1922 uit Newport, RI, vir permanente diens by die Asiatiese Vloot. Op 'n seil oor die Middellandse See, die Suezkanaal en die Indiese Oseaan het sy op 21 Augustus Cavite, Manilabaai, aangekom om byna twee dekades diens in die Verre Ooste te begin.

Voor die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het John D. Ford uit Manila gereis en asiatiese waters van suidelike China na Noord -Japan gevoer. Gedurende April en Mei 1924 het sy gehelp om tydelike lugbasisse op die Japanese Rurile- en Hokaido -eilande te vestig ter ondersteuning van die pionier, wêreldwye vlug tussen 9 April en 28 September deur die Amerikaanse Lugdiens. Op 6 Junie ontplooi sy na Sjanghai, Chinn, om lewens en belange in Amerika te beskerm wat bedreig is deur Chinese burgerstryd. Na die hernuwing van die Chinese burgeroorlog in Mei 1926, patrolleer sy die Chinese kus om konvooie te beskerm teen rits bandiete. Op 24 Maart 1927 ondersteun sy die ontruiming van Amerikaanse en buitelandse onderdane, wat gevlug het vir geweld in Nanking.

Die opkoms van die gereformeerde nasionalistiese regering onder Chiang Kai-Shek in 1928 het burgerlike twis laat stilstaan. Die Sino-Japannese betrekkinge het egter versleg, wat vereis dat John D. Ford in China moes bly. Na die Japannese aggressie in die noorde van China gedurende Julie 1937, het sy Amerikaners ontruim van Peiping us Jalr.lnese skepe wat gereed was om die Chinese kus te versper. Sy het op 21 November na Manila gestroom en het tussen die Filippyne en die suide van China met vlootmaneuvers gewerk. En nadat die oorlog in Europa in September 1939 uitgebreek het, het sy die opleiding van die Filippyne af toegeneem en met neutraliteitspatrollies in die Filippynse en Suid -Chinese see begin.

Na die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor, 7 Desember 1941, het John D. Ford gereedgemaak vir aksie by Cavite as 'n eenheid van DesDiv 59. Ongeskadig deur die vernietigende Japannese lugaanval op Manilabaai 10 Desember, seil sy dieselfde dag suidwaarts om die Sulu te patrolleer. Sea en Makassar Strait met taakgroep 6. Sy het tot 23 Desember in die Makassar Straat gebly, daarna stoom sy van Balikpapan, Borneo, na Surabaya, Java, en arriveer die 24ste.

Terwyl die Japannese deur die Filippyne en in Indonesië suidwaarts gedruk het, kon die Geallieerdes beswaarlik hoop om die vyand se offensief in Oos -Indië te stuit. Met te min skepe en feitlik geen lugondersteuning het hulle probeer om die vyand teister, sy opgang te vertraag en die inval van Australië te voorkom. John D. Ford, wat angstig was om terug te val op die Japannese, het op 11 Januarie 1942 uit Surabaya vertrek na Kupang, Timor, waar sy die 18de aangekom het om by 'n verwoestende slagmag aan te sluit. Twee dae later het die mag na Balikpapan gevaar om 'n verrassings -torpedo -aanval op Japannese skeepvaart te doen. By die midderwag op 24 Januarie by Balikpapan aangekom, het die vier vernietigers 'n ingrypende aanval deur die Japannese vervoer geloods terwyl Japannese vernietigers op die Makassar -straat gestoom het op soek na aangemelde Amerikaanse duikbote. Vir meer as 'n uur het die vierstapelaars torpedo's en skulpe op die verbaasde vyand afgevuur. Voordat hulle uit die eerste oppervlakte -aksie in die Stille Oseaan -oorlog teruggetrek het, het hulle vier vyandelike skepe laat sink, een die slagoffer van John D. Ford se torpedo's. Die oorwinnende slagmag het Surabaya op 25 Januarie aangekom.

Die Japannese pincetoffensief deur Nederlands -Oos -Indië het ondanks die teistering van die geallieerdes voortgegaan. Op 3 Februarie het die vyand met lugaanvalle op Surabaya begin, en John D. Ford het in konvooi afgetree na Tjilatjap aan die suidelike kus van Java. Gedurende middel Februarie het die Japannese hul beheer oor eilande oos en wes van Java verskerp, en op 1S Februarie het hulle troepe op Bali geland, langs die oostelike punt van die Java. In reaksie hierop het John D. Ford, Popc (DD-225) en ander Amerikaanse en Nederlandse skepe in twee golwe na Badoengstraat gestoom om 'n vyandelike vernietiger-vervoermag gedurende die nag van 19-20 Februarie te betrek. John D. Ford, 'n eenheid van die eerste golf, het 'n lopende gesprek met twee Japannese vernietigers gevoer sonder om resultate te behaal; terwyl die Japannese na die tweede golf teruggetrek het, was hul landing op Bali suksesvol. 3 Verder het hulle die Nederlandse vernietiger, Piet Hcin svhile, laat sink en slegs een skip groot skade gely.

By die terugkeer na Tjilat op 21 Februarie vir brandstof het John D. Ford en Pope dadelik na Kerseiland gevaar om die laaste reservaat van 17 tot 18 torpedo's van Black Hawk (AD-9) op te haal. Daarna het hulle na Surabaya gestoom en die 24ste aangekom om by die kwynende ABDC Striking Force aan te sluit. Die geallieerdes het in die gesig gestaar deur 'n tekort aan brandstof, ammunisie en torpodo's en verminderde krag deur sinkings, strydskade en herstelbehoeftes. Slegs vier Amerikaanse vernietigers het in die Striking Force in werking getree.

Laat op die 25ste het John D. Ford met die Striking Force uit Surabaya gesorteer op soek na 'n groot vyandelike amfibiese mag in die Java -see. By die terugkeer na die hawe die volgende dag, het vyf Britse skepe by die mag aangesluit; weereens het die Stringing Force gestoom om die vyand te onderskep. Na 'n onsuksesvolle aanval deur vyandelike vliegtuie die oggend van die 27ste, stoom die Geallieerde mag na Surabaya. Terwyl hulle deur die mynveld gestoom het, het die skepe die koers omgekeer en ontplooi om die vyand aan die noordelike kus van Java te ontmoet.

Die Slag van die Java -see het in 1616 begin en meer as 7 ure aangehou. Die geallieerde skepe, 5 kruisers en (9 vernietigers;, het die vyandelike mag, 4 kruisers en 13 vernietigers betrek in 'n woedende geveg wat gekenmerk is deur onderbroke geweer- en torpedo -tweegevegte. John Ford het ongeskonde uit die geveg gekom, maar in 'n dapper poging om te voorkom die inval van Java is vyf geallieerde skepe gesink.

Uittrek na Surabaya. John D. Ford en drie ander meesteroyers van DesDiv., S vertrek na skemer 18 Februarie na Australië. Die dapper ou vierpypers wat onopgemerk deur die vernouing van die Bali-seestraat tydens middernacht 1 Maart gestamp het, het drie vyandelike vernietigers teëgekom wat die suidelike einde van die seestraat bewaak het. Uit torpedo's en min ammunisie, het die verwoesters die Japannese patrollie oortref en vir Freemantle gestoom. Lt. J. E. Cooper, wat sedert die uitbreek van die oorlog die hoof van John D. Ford was, het haar veilig op 4 Maart na Australië gebring.

Na 2 maande se konvooi begeleiding langs die Australiese kus, vertrek John D. Ford op 9 Mei uit Brisbane na Pearl Harbor. By 2 Junie aangekom, vaar sy 3 dae later in 'n konvooi na San Francisco en arriveer 12 Junie. Sy het San Francisco op 23 Junie vir Penrl Harbour skoongemaak en gedurende die volgende 11 maande nege konvooie tussen San Francisco en Pearl begelei. Toe sy op 20 Mei 1943 terugkeer na die Weskus, vertrek sy uit San Francisco op 24 Mei vir konvooi- en AS V -patrollies in die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Toegewys aan die 10de vloot, het John D. Ford op 4 Junie deur die C gegaan en by die 8ste konvooi aangesluit by 'n konvooi aan Trinidad. Vir die volgende ses maande het sy die Noord- en Suid-Atlantiese Oseaan gewissel van N'ew York en Charleston, SC, tot Casablanca, Frans Marokko, en Recife, Brasilië, om die toevoerkonvooie teen Duitse U-bote te beskerm. Na ASNV-opleiding laat in Desember, het sy op 5 Januarie 1944 by Guadalcanal (CVE-60) uit Norfolk aangesluit vir jagter-moordenaar aktiwiteite in die Atlantiese Oseaan. Die veelsydige vernietiger het die vernietiging van die Duitse duikboot U-55/j ondersteun, verbaas en diepte gelaai tydens die hervulling van die weste van die Azore op 16 Januarie.

Nadat John D. Ford op 16 Februarie na die ooskus teruggekeer het, het hy Norfolk op 14 Maart vrygelaat vir 'n konvooi na die Middellandse See. NVile op Gilbraltar 29 Maart is sy beskadig in 'n botsing met 'n Britse tenkwa. Na herstelwerk, keer sy terug na Norfolk en arriveer op 1 Mei. John D. Ford, vertrek uit Norfolk op 24 Mei vir konvooi in die Canal Zone, het byna 'n jaar lank konvooi patrolleer vanaf die oostelike seewaardhawe na Recife, ReykJavik en Casablanca.

Van 24 Mei 1945 tot 27 Junie het sy as begeleier en vliegtuigwag vir Boxer (CV-21) opgetree tydens die afskud van die karweier in die Karibiese Eilande, en daarna teruggekeer na Norfolk. Sy seil op 8 Julie na Boston Navy Yard waar sy op 9 Julie aankom vir die omskakeling na diverse hulp-hulp AO-ll9. Na die bekering keer sy op 9 September terug na Norfolk en staak 2 November. Daarna is sy verkoop vir afval op 5 Oktober 1947 aan Northern Metal Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

John D. Ford ontvang vier strydsterre vir die Tweede Wêreldoorlog -diens.


USS John D. Ford (DD-228)

Geskryf deur: Staff Writer | Laaste wysiging: 12/12/2016 | Inhoud en kopie www.MilitaryFactory.com | Die volgende teks is eksklusief vir hierdie webwerf.

Die groot verwoestergroep van die Clemson-klas van die Amerikaanse vloot (USN) is tydens die geveg van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914-1918), wat in 1918 begin het, neergelê en strek tot 1922, teen ongeveer 156 van die beplande 162 vaartuie. Hierdie oorlogskepe het in 1948 gedien, wat bedrywighede in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945) dek en onder verskeie nasionale vlae ontplooi, waaronder dié van die Britse koninklike vloot, die Kanadese vloot en die Sowjet-vloot. Twintig van die klasse het uiteindelik verlore gegaan, terwyl ses gekanselleer is voordat dit bereik kon word.

USS John D. Ford (DD-228) het een van die oorlogskepe van die Clemson-klas geword en op 11 November 1919 sy kiel neergelê deur William Cramp & Sons. Teen hierdie tyd het die Eerste Wêreldoorlog met die wapenstilstand van November 1918, maar die skepe van die Clemson-klas is nietemin gebou. Ford is op 2 September 1920 van stapel gestuur en is op 30 Desember van daardie jaar amptelik in diens geneem in die USN.

Die Ford se profiel was in ooreenstemming met die Amerikaanse ontwerper van skeppers van die laat 1910's. Sy het verskeie (vier) rooktakke, in lyn, by middelskepe gedra, terwyl die brug-bo-opbou goed vorentoe gehou is. Haar romp was glad en skraal en ontwerp vir blouwaterdiens. Twee hoofmaste was die hoogste komponente van haar syprofiel. Die primêre bewapening was 12 x 21 "(533 mm) torpedobuise, ondersteun deur 4 x 4" (102 mm) dekgewere. 'N Enkele 3 "(76 mm) geweer is vir lugverdediging gedra, net soos 2 x 0.30 kaliber medium masjiengewere. Met haar swaar torpedo -bewapening kon Ford 'n" smeer "teen 'n oppervlakteiken neerlê, wat die kans verminder dat die teiken sou wees kon vermy dat al die torpedo's wat sy gestuur het, weg is.

Intern is Ford aangedryf deur 4 x keteleenhede wat 2 x stoomturbines met 'n ratkas van 27 600 perdekrag tot 2 x asse voed. Prestasie -spesifikasies bevat 'n maksimum snelheid van 35,5 knope en 'n reikafstand van 4 900 seemyl. Die bemanningsaanvulling bestaan ​​oor die algemeen uit agt offisiere, agt hoofoffisiere en tot 106 aangewese personeel.

Haar proewe was in die waters van New England en opleiding in die Karibiese Eilande het gevolg. Vandaar het sy haar pos by die Asiatiese Vloot aangeneem en deur die Middellandse See en die Suezkanaal na die Verre Ooste gereis, waar sy hoofsaaklik vanuit Manila, Filippyne, sou werk. Sommige van die eerste optrede van die oorlogskip was gefokus op die ondersteuning van Amerikaners in China waar interne onrus die beskawing bedreig het.

Die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor, Hawaii op 7 Desember 1941, veroorsaak die Amerikaanse verbintenis tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Ford het die aanvanklike Japannese lugaksies teen Manila oorleef en 'n deel van haar loopbaan in die oorlog in die Verre Ooste -teater gemaak. Sy het deelgeneem aan 'n torpedo-aanval op die Japanse skeepsvaart by Balikpapan, waaraan vier vyande gesink is.

Op 27 Februarie 1942 was die Slag van Java See tussen 'n gesamentlike mag van Amerikaanse, Britse, Australiese en Nederlandse skepe teen die Japanse Ryk. Ford het hierdie aksie oorleef, maar die stryd was 'n oorwinning vir die Japannese. Drie geallieerde vernietigers, saam met 'n paar ligte kruisers en 'n swaar kruiser het met 2300 hande verlore gegaan. Die Japanse mag is verminder met een vernietiger en 36 man.

Nadat hy in die Australiese waters aangekom het, was Ford deel van 'n verwoestermag wat aangekla is van patrollie en konvooi begeleiding. Na 'n paar maande by hierdie pos, onderneem sy begeleiding vanaf die kus van Kalifornië na Pearl Harbor en keer sy in Mei 1943 terug na Kalifornië om deel te neem aan Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) -oefeninge.

Van daar is Ford na die Atlantiese Oseaan oorgeplaas waar sy die tweede helfte van haar loopbaan sou bewerkstellig. Haar patrollies het haar oor die Atlantiese Oseaan geneem, waar die oorlogskip gehelp het om die Duitse U-Boat U-544 in Januarie 1944 naby die Azore te laat sink. Haar volgende toer plaas haar in die Middellandse See, waar sy 'n afskrikmiddel was vir die plundering van Duitse U-bote. 'N Botsing met 'n Britse skip in Maart (naby Gibraltar) dwing haar egter om terug te keer na Norfolk, Virginia. Nadat sy herstel is, gaan sy voort met sy bedrywighede in die Atlantiese Oseaan.

In Julie 1945 is Ford herontwerp tot "AG-119" en gekategoriseer as 'n diverse hulpoorlogskip. In September, met die oorlog verby, keer die oorlogskip terug na Norfolk en word op 2 November 1945 ontmantel. Nadat sy haar oorlogsbenutting ontneem is, is haar hulk in Oktober 1947 verkoop. Vir haar diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die John D. Ford is bekroon met vier Battle Stars. Haar naamgenoot was agteradmiraal John Donaldson Ford (1840-1918), 'n Amerikaanse burgeroorlog en Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlogsveteraan.


Diensgeskiedenis [wysig | wysig bron]

Na aanvaardingsproewe buite New England, John D. Ford ontvang luitenant -kommandant C. A. Pownall as bevelvoerder op 16 Julie 1921. Op 17 November, terwyl sy langs die oostelike kusgebied werk, word haar naam verander na John D. Ford. Na opleiding in die Karibiese Eilande vertrek sy op 20 Junie 1922 uit Newport, Rhode Island, vir permanente diens by die Asiatiese Vloot. Op 'n seil oor die Middellandse See, die Suezkanaal en die Indiese Oseaan het sy op 21 Augustus Cavite, Manilabaai, aangekom om byna twee dekades diens in die Verre Ooste te begin.

Voor die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Ford bedryf vanuit Manila en vaar Asiatiese waters van die suide van China na die noorde van Japan. Gedurende April en Mei 1924 het sy gehelp om tydelike lugbase op die Japannese Kurile- en Hokkaidō -eilande te vestig ter ondersteuning van die pionier, wêreldwye vlug tussen 9 April en 28 September deur die Amerikaanse Lugdiens.

Chinese burgeroorlog [wysig | wysig bron]

Op 6 Junie ontplooi sy na Sjanghai, China, om Amerikaanse lewens en belange, wat bedreig is deur Chinese burgerstryd, te beskerm. Na die hernuwing van die Chinese burgeroorlog in Mei 1926, patrolleer sy die Chinese kus om konvooie te beskerm teen rits bandiete. Op 24 Maart 1927 ondersteun sy die ontruiming van Amerikaanse en buitelandse onderdane, wat gevlug het vir geweld in Nanking. Hierdie gebeurtenis het 'n vlootbombardement van die stad ingesluit.

Die opkoms van die gereformeerde nasionalistiese regering onder Chiang Kai-Shek in 1928 het die intensiteit van die burgerstryd verminder. Die Sino-Japannese betrekkinge het egter versleg, wat vereis Ford in China te bly. Na die Japannese aggressie in Noord -China gedurende Julie 1937, het sy Amerikaners uit Peiping ontruim toe Japannese skepe hulle voorberei het om die Chinese kus te versper. Sy het op 21 November na Manila gestroom en het tussen die Filippyne en die suide van China met vlootmaneuvers gewerk. Nadat die oorlog in Europa in September 1939 uitgebreek het, het sy opleiding van die Filippyne af toegeneem en met neutraliteitspatrollies in die Filippynse en Suid -Chinese see begin.

Tweede Wêreldoorlog [wysig | wysig bron]

Na die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor 7 Desember 1941, John D. Ford gereed vir aksie by Cavite as 'n eenheid van DesDiv 59. Ongeskadig deur die vernietigende Japannese lugaanval op Manilabaai, 10 Desember, seil sy dieselfde dag suidwaarts om die Sulusee en Makassarstraat te patrolleer met Task Force 6. Sy het in Makassarstraat gebly tot 23 Desember, toe stoom sy van Balikpapan, Borneo, na Surabaya, Java, en arriveer die 24ste.

Terwyl die Japannese suidwaarts deur die Filippyne en Indonesië ingedruk het, kon die Geallieerdes beswaarlik hoop om die Japannese offensief in Oos -Indië te stuit. Met te min skepe en feitlik geen lugsteun nie, het hulle probeer om die Japannese magte teister in 'n poging om hul opmars te vertraag en die inval van Australië te voorkom. Angstig om terug te slaan op die Japannese, Ford vertrek op 11 Januarie 1942 na Surabaya na Kupang, Timor, waar sy op die 18de aankom om by 'n verwoestende slagmag aan te sluit. Twee dae later het die mag na Balikpapan gevaar om 'n verrassings -torpedo -aanval op Japannese skeepvaart uit te voer. Toe hulle op 24 Januarie by Balikpapan aankom, het die vier vernietigers 'n aanval uitgevoer deur die Japannese vervoer terwyl Japannese vernietigers op die Makassar -straat gestoom het op soek na aangemelde Amerikaanse duikbote. Vir meer as 'n uur het die vernietigers torpedo's en skulpe op die verbaasde vyand afgevuur. Voordat hulle uittree uit die eerste oppervlakte -aksie in die Stille Oseaan -oorlog, het hulle vier Japannese skepe laat sink, waarvan een 'n slagoffer was John D. Ford's torpedo's. Die slaankrag het op 25 Januarie in Surabaya aangekom.

Die Japannese pincetoffensief deur Nederlands -Oos -Indië het ondanks die teistering van die geallieerdes voortgegaan. Op 3 Februarie het die Japannese met lugaanvalle op Surabaya begin, en John D. Ford het in konvooi afgetree na Tjilatjap aan die suidelike kus van Java. Gedurende middel Februarie het die Japannese hul beheer oor eilande oos en wes van Java verskerp, en op 18 Februarie het hulle troepe op Bali, langs die oostelike punt van die Java, geland. In reaksie John D. Ford, Pous, en ander Amerikaanse en Nederlandse skepe het in twee golwe na die Badoengstraat gestoom om 'n vyandelike vernietiger-vervoermag te betrek gedurende die nag van 19/20 Februarie in wat bekend geword het as die Slag van Badungstraat. 'N Eenheid van die eerste golf, Ford het 'n lopende verbintenis aangegaan met twee Japannese vernietigers sonder resultate. Die uitkoms van die veldslag in sy geheel was 'n Japannese oorwinning: die landings op Bali was suksesvol en die Nederlandse vernietiger HNLMS Piet Hein is gesink, terwyl slegs een skip aansienlike skade gely het.

Terug na Tjilatjap 21 Februarie vir brandstof, Ford en Pous het onmiddellik na Kiritimati geseil om die laaste reservaat van 17 tot 18 torpedo's af te haal Swart Valk. Daarna stoom hulle na Surabaya en arriveer op die 24ste om by die kwynende ABDA Striking Force aan te sluit. Die geallieerdes het in die gesig gestaar deur 'n tekort aan brandstof, ammunisie en torpedo's en verminderde krag deur sinkings, strydskade en herstelbehoeftes. Slegs vier Amerikaanse vernietigers het in die Striking Force in werking getree.

Laat op die 25ste, Ford gesorteer met die Stringing Force uit Surabaya op soek na 'n groot vyandelike amfibiese mag in die Java -see. Die volgende dag het hulle teruggekeer na die hawe, en vyf Britse skepe het weer by die mag aangesluit, terwyl die Striking Force weer opgestamp het om die vyand te onderskep. Na 'n onsuksesvolle aanval deur vyandelike vliegtuie die oggend van die 27ste, stoom die Geallieerde mag na Surabaya. Terwyl die skepe deur die mynveld gestoom het, het die skepe die koers omgekeer en ontplooi om die vyand aan die noordelike kus van Java te ontmoet.

Die Slag van die Java -see begin om 1616 en duur meer as 7 uur. Die geallieerde skepe, 5 kruisers en 9 vernietigers, het die vyandelike mag, 4 kruisers en 13 vernietigers betrek in 'n woedende stryd wat gekenmerk is deur onderbroke geweer- en torpedo -tweegevegte. Ford ongeskonde uit die slag gekom, maar weer was die stryd in sy geheel 'n nederlaag vir die Geallieerdes, want in die onsuksesvolle poging om die inval van Java te voorkom, is vyf geallieerde skepe gesink.

Uittrek na Surabaya, Ford en drie ander vernietigers van DesDiv 58 vertrek na donker 28 Februarie na Australië. Die stomers wat ongemerk was deur die eng van die Bali -straat tydens middernacht 1 Maart, het die vernietigers drie Japannese vernietigers teëgekom wat die suidelike einde van die seestraat bewaak het. Uit torpedo's en min ammunisie het die vernietigers teruggetrek uit die Japannese patrollie en gestoom na Fremantle. Luitenant -bevelvoerder J. E. Cooper, wat die kaptein was Ford sedert voor die uitbreek van die oorlog, het sy veilig na Australië op 4 Maart gebring.

Na 2 maande se konvooi begeleiding langs die Australiese kus, Ford vertrek Brisbane 9 Mei na Pearl Harbor. By 2 Junie aangekom, vaar sy 3 dae later in 'n konvooi na San Francisco en arriveer 12 Junie. Sy het 23 Junie San Francisco vir Pearl Harbor goedgekeur en gedurende die volgende 11 maande nege konvooie tussen San Francisco en Pearl begelei. Toe sy op 20 Mei 1943 na die Weskus terugkeer, vertrek sy uit San Francisco op 24 Mei vir konvooi- en antisubmarine -oorlogvoering (ASW) in die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Toegewys aan die 10de Vloot, Ford het op 4 Junie deur die Panamakanaal gegaan en die 6de by 'n konvooi aan Trinidad gebind. Vir die volgende ses maande het sy van die Noord- en Suid-Atlantiese Oseaan gewissel van New York en Charleston, Suid-Carolina, tot Casablanca, Frans Marokko, en Recife, Brasilië, om die toevoerkonvooie teen U-bote te beskerm. Na ASW -opleiding laat in Desember, het sy aangesluit Guadalcanal uit Norfolk, Virginia, 5 Januarie 1944 vir offensiewe ASW -operasies in die Atlantiese Oseaan. Die vernietiger ondersteun die vernietiging van die Duitse duikboot U-544 deur vliegtuie van Guadalcanal, wat verras en diepte die duikboot gelaai het terwyl hy 16 Januarie wes van die Azore gevul het.

Nadat hy op 16 Februarie na die Ooskus teruggekeer het, Ford het Norfolk op 14 Maart vir 'n konvooi na die Middellandse See gereël. Terwyl sy op 29 Maart in Gibraltar was, is sy beskadig in 'n botsing met 'n Britse tenkwa. Na herstelwerk, keer sy terug na Norfolk en arriveer op 1 Mei. Vertrek uit Norfolk 24 Mei vir konvooi diens na die Canal Zone, Ford het byna 'n jaar lank konvooi -patrollies voortgesit vanaf die oostelike hawens na Recife, Reykjavík en Casablanca.

Van 24 Mei 1945 tot 27 Junie het sy as begeleier en vliegtuigwag opgetree Bokser tydens die verwoesting van die vervoerder in die Karibiese Eilande, keer sy terug na Norfolk. Sy seil op 8 Julie na Boston Navy Yard, waar sy op 9 Julie aankom vir omskakeling na 'n ander hulp AG-119. Na die bekering keer sy terug na Norfolk op 9 September en staak dit op 2 November 1945. Daarna word sy verkoop vir afval op 5 Oktober 1947 aan Northern Metal Company, Philadelphia.


USS John D. Ford (DD 228)

Sy het baie vlootoptrede vroeg in die oorlog in die Stille Oseaan gesien, en in Mei 1943 is sy na die Atlantiese Vloot verplaas.

Vroeg in 1944 was sy deel van die jagter-moordenaarsgroep wat rondom die USS Guadalcanal gevorm is. Nadat sy haar gewone konvooi -begeleiding in die Atlantiese Oseaan bedien het. Sy is op 2 November 1945 ontmantel, op 16 November 1945 geslaan en op 30 September 1947 vir afval verkoop.

USS John D. Ford het 4 Battle Stars ontvang vir haar dienste in WW2.

Opdragte gelys vir USS John D. Ford (DD 228)

Let asseblief daarop dat ons steeds aan hierdie afdeling werk.

BevelvoerderVanAan
1Lt.Kr. John Drake Shaw, USN14 April 19394 Februarie 1940
2Robert Lee Dennison, USN4 Februarie 194014 April 1941
3Lt.Kr. Jacob Elliott Cooper, USN14 April 19415 Julie 1942
4T/Lt.Kr. Norman Ernest Smith, USN5 Julie 194226 Oktober 1943
5T/Lt.Kr. John Sim Slagting, USN26 Oktober 194321 Mei 1944
6Thomas Alexander Watkins, USNR21 Mei 194427 Junie 1945
7Gilbert Ira Patterson, USNR27 Junie 19452 November 1945

U kan ons opdragte -afdeling help verbeter
Klik hier om gebeure/kommentaar/opdaterings vir hierdie vaartuig in te dien.
Gebruik dit asseblief as u foute opspoor of hierdie skepe -bladsy wil verbeter.

Bekende gebeurtenisse waarby John D. Ford betrokke was, sluit in:

19 Februarie 1942

Slag van Badoengstraat

Daar word verwag dat die Japannese binnekort (nag van 19/20 Februarie 1942) aan die suidoostelike kus van Bali (Badoengstraat) sou land. Admiraal Doorman wou hulle dus in drie golwe aanval. Die eerste golf kom van Tjilatjap aan die suidkus van Java en bestaan ​​uit die Nederlandse ligkruisers HrMs De Ruyter (Cdr. EEB Lacomblé, RNN en vlagskip van agter-admiraal KWFM Doorman, RNN) en HrMs Java (kapt PBM van Straelen, RNN), begelei deur die Nederlandse vernietigers HrMs Piet Hein (Lt.Cdr. JMLI Chompff, RNN) en HrMs Kortenaer (Lt.Cdr. A. Kroese, RNN) sowel as die Amerikaanse vernietigers USS John D. Ford (Lt.Cdr. . JE Cooper, USN) en USS Pope (Lt.Cdr. WC Blinn, USN). Terwyl hy die aand van die 18de uit Tjilatjap vertrek het, het die Nederlandse verwoester Kortenaer egter gestroom en kon dit slegs by hoogwater kom, was dus nie meer deel van hierdie mag nie.

Die tweede golf bestaan ​​uit die Nederlandse ligkruiser HrMs Tromp (Cdr. JB de Meester, RNN) en vier Amerikaanse vernietigers USS Stewart (Lt.Cdr. HP Smith, USN), USS Parrott (Lt.Cdr. JN Hughes, USN ), USS Pillsbury (Lt.Cdr. HC Pound, USN) en USS John D. Edwards (Lt.Cdr. HE Eccles, USN). Hulle vaar die middag van die 19de van Surabaya af

Uiteindelik bestaan ​​die derde golf uit die Nederlandse motor-torpedobote HrMs TM-4 (Lt. JE Gobée, RNN), HrMs TM-5 (S.Lt. EJ Hoeksel, RNN), HrMs TM-6 (S.Lt. P. van Rees, RNN), HrMs TM-8 (Lt. JG Treffers, RNN), HrMs TM-9 (Lt. JA van Beusekom, RNN), HrMs TM-10 (S. Lt. JW Boon, RNN (R )), HrMs TM-11 (S.Lt. AAF Schmitz, RNN), HrMs TM-15 (Lt. HC Jorissen, RNN). HrMs TM-13 (?) Was ook deel van hierdie mag, maar het as 'reddingsboot' gedien. Kort nadat hulle die aand van die 18de HrMs TM-6 van Surabaya af vaar, moes hulle terugkeer weens enjinprobleme. Hierdie motor -torpedobote het deur Strait Bali gegaan en in drie baaie aan die Java -kant geanker om die brandstof te vul, wat die hele dag geneem het. In die aand van die 19de vertrek hulle na Badoengstraat.

Die Japannese aanval op Bali is deur twee vervoerskepe uitgevoer Sasako Maru (7180 BRT, gebou 1941) en Sagami Maru (7189 BRT, gebou 1940). Hulle was aan boord van 'n deel van die 48ste infanteriedivisie van die Imperial Japanese Army en het gedurende die nag van 17/18 Februarie na Makassar vertrek na Bali. Hulle is deur vier vernietigers begelei Asashio (Lt.dr. G. Yoshii), Oshio (Kdr. Kikkawa) Arashio (Cdr. H. Kuboki) en Michishio (Lt.dr. M. Ogura). Die ligte kruiser het verre dekking verskaf Nagara (Kapt T. Naoi, vlagskip van agter-admiraal K. Kubo) begelei deur drie vernietigers Hatsushimo (Lt.dr. S. Kohama), Nenohi (Lt.dr. T. Chihagi) en Wakaba (Lt.dr. M. Kuroki).

Die Japannese het omstreeks 0200/19 aan die suidkus van Bali geland. Die vervoer is onsuksesvol aangeval deur die Amerikaanse duikboot USS Seawolf. Seawolf self is toe deur die vernietigers teen diepte aangeval, maar het daarin geslaag om te ontsnap.

Bedags is die Japannese vervoer uit die lug aangeval en die Sagami Maru is beskadig. Sy verlaat die landingsone begelei deur die vernietigers Arashio en Michishio. Die onbeskadigde Sasako Maru het in die landingsone gebly om die landingsbote op te tel. Die vernietigers Asashio en Oshio het by haar gebly.

Die geallieerde eerste aanvalgolf het omstreeks 2130/19 suid van Bali aangekom. 'N Reël is toe gevorm in die orde, HrMs De Ruyter, HrMs Java, HrMs Piet Hein, USS John D. Ford en uiteindelik USS Pope. Die spoed het tot 27 knope gestyg en hulle het die Badoengstraat aangegaan. Omstreeks 2230 uur het HrMs De Ruyter en HrMs Java op die Japannese losgebrand wat verras was. Die Asashio het 'n soeklig aangeskakel wat vinnig deur 'n salvo uit die Java gehaal is. Die Nederlandse kruisers het die vyand groot skade aangerig, maar volgens Japannese berigte oor die geveg was die skade maar gering en nadat die Japannese aanvanklik verras was, het die Japannese spoedig teenaanval gekry. Teen daardie tyd het die Nederlandse kruisers egter voortgegaan.

Die geallieerde vernietigers was verder agter die kruisers wat toe bedoel was en het nou op die toneel aangekom. Piet Hein was 'n entjie voor die Amerikaanse vernietigers en het met haar 4,7 ”gewere losgebrand en ook twee torpedo's afgevuur. Kort daarna is nog twee torpedo's afgevuur, maar niemand het die beoogde teiken gevind nie. Piet Hein draai toe om na die Amerikaanse vernietigers met die doel om weer die Japannese aan te val. Terwyl sy dit doen, is haar rookopwekker begin. Dit is nie heeltemal duidelik nie, maar dit is moontlik dat een van hierdie Amerikaanse vernietigers Piet Hein toe met vuurwapens laat werk het en gedink het dat sy Japannees was. Dit is ook moontlik dat dit die Japannese was wat Piet Hein verloof het. Op hierdie tydstip is Piet Hein verskeie kere getref, wat tot gevolg gehad het dat sy tot stilstand gekom het. Na ongeveer 15 minute is Piet Hein deur 'n Japannese soeklig verlig en onder skoot geneem. Die bemanning is beveel om die veroordeelde vernietiger te laat vaar en sy het gou gesink.

USS John D. Ford en Pope het 'n Japannese vervoervaartuig gesien (dit moes die Sasaga Maru gewees het) en wat volgens hulle 'n Japannese kruiser was, maar dit moes die vernietiger Oshio gewees het. Hulle het torpedo's gelanseer (Ford - drie, Pous - vyf) en weggedraai. Asashio en Oshio het agter hulle aan geloop. Die Amerikaners het gedink dat hulle voor 'n baie magtige vyand te staan ​​kom, selfs swaar kruisers was teenwoordig. Beide verwoesters het toe teruggetrek na die suidooste om na Tjilatjap terug te keer. Kort daarna hoor hulle skietery. Hierdie geweervuur ​​kom van beide Japannese vernietigers wat mekaar per ongeluk betrek het. Na 'n paar minute is die fout opgemerk en beide Japannese verwoesters het in die Straat na die noorde teruggetrek.

Intussen het die geallieerde tweede aanvalgolf naby die toneel van die aksie gekom. Hulle het omstreeks 0100/20 suid van Bali aangekom. Die vier Amerikaanse vernietigers was voor die Tromp. Die bedoeling was dat die vier Amerikaanse verwoesters die Badoengstraat binnegaan en eers met torpedo's sou aanval en dat die Tromp agter hulle sou kom om die Japannese af te sluit na die verwarring van die torpedo -aanval. Tydens die torpedo -aanval is altesaam vyftien torpedo's afgevuur, ses elk deur USS Stewart en USS Pope en drie deur USS Pillsbury. Hul teikens, Asashio en Oshio, is nie getref nie en albei Japannese vernietigers het nou hul aanvallers agterna gesit. Stewart is daarna met ’n skoot getref. Die Amerikaanse verwoesters het toe koers na die ooste gegee om die Badoengstraat te verlaat. Nou gaan Tromp in. Binnekort word sy deur 'n soeklig verlig en die Japannese skiet. U het elf treffers op die Tromp gekry wat die Nederlandse kruiser groot skade aangerig het. Die Oshio op haar beurt is ernstig beskadig deur die Tromp. Die aksie was omstreeks 0215/20 afgehandel en Tromp het van die Straat af in die noordooste teruggetrek. Toe sy noord van Bali was, het sy voluit gegaan en teruggekeer na Surabaya vir herstelwerk.

Die Japanse agter-admiraal Kubo, aan boord van die Nagara, het intussen die Arashio en Michishio beveel om terug te keer na die Badoengstraat (Nagara en haar drie begeleiers vernietigers was te ver weg). Toe die twee Japannese vernietigers die Straat binnegaan, het hulle die vier Amerikaanse vernietigers teëgekom. Beide kante het torpedo's gelanseer, maar almal het hul beoogde teikens misgeloop en daarna is 'n skietgeveg begin. Tydens hierdie skietgeveg is die Michishio erg beskadig en uiteindelik moes sy teruggesleep word na Makassar. Die Amerikaanse vernietiger het intussen uit die gebied teruggetrek.

Die derde golf het toe die Straat binnegegaan. Die Nederlandse MTB's het die tweede golf sien aanval, maar toe hulle die Badoengstraat binnekom, was die Japannese nie sigbaar nie en het hulle vertrek sonder om torpedo's te kan afvuur.

Die Geallieerdes was destyds onder die indruk dat hulle 'n oorwinning behaal het. Hulle het vermoedelik 'n Japannese kruiser gesink en nog twee kruisers en twee vernietigers beskadig. Dit was nie die geval nie, een Japannese vernietiger is ernstig beskadig en een ernstig. In ruil daarvoor het die Japannese 'n Nederlandse verwoester gesink en die Nederlandse kruiser Tromp erg beskadig. Aangesien die Nederlandse vlootbasis in Surabaya nou daagliks onder 'n lugaanval was, is dit verstandig geag om die Tromp na Australië te stuur vir herstelwerk.

27 Februarie 1942

Slag van die Java See.

Voorspel tot die geveg.

Japan het die oorlog in die Verre Ooste op 7 Desember 1941 geopen met hul verrassingsaanval op die Amerikaanse vlootbasis in Pearl Harbor. Terselfdertyd het hulle aanvalle op die Filippyne en Malaya geloods. Hierdie aanvalle is gevolg deur aanvalle op Nederlands -Indië.

By the end of December 1941 the Americans decided to abandon the Philippines as a naval base and on 30 January 1942, Singapore Dockyard was closed down by the British. This was followed by the British Army retiring from the Malayan penisula towards that base.

On 3 February 1942, Surabaya and Malang on the main Dutch Island of Java were bombed for the first time. By mid-February the Japanese had conquered British and Dutch Borneo and the Dutch islands of Celebes, Ceram and Ambon. These conquests gave them sea and air control over the Makassar Strait and the Molucca Passage.

The Allies soon realised that the forces at their disposal were not able to stop the Japanese advance. The only thing they could do was to delay the Japanese advance as long as possible.

Singapore and it’s naval base fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942. That very day the Japanese landed on Sumatra and they soon also controlled the Karimata Channel and Gaspar Strait. Later they also had more or less the control over the important Sunda Strait, the main entry channel to the Java Sea.

On 25 February 1942 the Japanese captured Bali Island, to the east of Java and this gave them also control over the eastern exits of the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean. On this day also reports were received of massive Japanese shipping movements in the Celebes Sea with the apparent objective to invade Java. Also on the 25th the Japanese landed on Bawean Island, just 85 miles north of Surabaya.

Formation of the Combined Striking Force.

Given the reports of the Japanese shipping movements and their expected arrival off Java on 27 February, the Dutch Vice-Admiral Helfrich ordered that the Eastern Striking Force at Surabaya was to be reinforced by all available cruisers and destroyers that were then at Tandjong Priok (Batavia).

At that moment the Eastern Striking Force was made up of the Dutch light cruisers HrMs De Ruyter (Cdr. E.E.B. Lacomblé, RNN and flagship of Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Doorman, RNN) and HrMs Java (Capt. P.B.M van Straelen, RNN), the Dutch destroyers HrMs Witte de With (Lt.Cdr. P. Schotel, RNN), HrMs Kortenaer (Lt.Cdr. A. Kroese, RNN) and the US destroyers USS John D. Edwards (Lt.Cdr. H.E. Eccles, USN), USS Parrott (Lt.Cdr. J.N. Hughes, USN) and USS Pillsbury (Lt.Cdr. H.C. Pound, USN). The force had been reinforced on the 24th by the US heavy cruiser USS Houston (Capt. A.H. Rooks, USN) and the US destroyers USS Paul Jones (Lt.Cdr. J.J. Hourihan, USN), USS Alden (Lt.Cdr. L.E. Coley, USN), USS John D. Ford (Lt.Cdr. J.E. Cooper, USN) and USS Pope (Lt.Cdr. W.C. Blinn, USN) which came from Tjilatjap on Java’s south coast.

The following ships arrived at Surabaya from Tandjong Priok (Batavia) on the 26th. The British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), the Australian light cruiser HMAS Perth (Capt. H.M.L. Waller, DSO and Bar, RAN) and the British destroyers HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN), HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) and HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.P. Thew, RN). From this date the Eastern Striking Force was now called the Combined Striking Force.

Formation of the Western Striking Force.

Some ships remained in Batavia and these were formed into the Western Striking Force which comprised the Australian light cruiser HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN), the British light cruisers HMS Dragon (Capt. R.J. Shaw, MBE, RN) and HMS Danae (Capt. F.J. Butler, MBE, RN) as well as the British destroyers HMS Scout (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) H. Lambton, RN) and HMS Tenedos (Lt. R. Dyer, RN).

HMAS Hobart had been originally intended to join the Combined Striking Force but her fuelling was delayed owning to the tanker being damaged in an air attack and she was unable to sail with HMS Exeter and the destroyers in time and was left behind.

Orders for the Combined Stiking Force

Late in the afternoon of the 26th, Rear-Admiral Doorman, was in the operations room of the naval base at Surabaya when a signal was received from Vice-Admiral Helfrich which reported 30 enemy transports in position 04°50’S, 114°20’E, this was about 18 miles north-east of Surabaya. Enemy course was 245°, speed 10 knots. Two cruisers and four destroyers were reported to be escorting these transports. The Combined Striking Force was ordered to proceed to sea to attack the enemy after dark.

Rear-Admiral Doorman then considered to possible routes to make contact with the enemy convoy 1) By a sweep east, along the north coast of Madura, followed by a sweep west, as far as Toeban. 2) By a sweep north, to the west of Bawean, continuing north-east wards towards the Arends Islands.

Later in the afternoon of February 26th, Rear-Admiral Doorman, called a conference of all his commanding officers, where the following decisions were taken 1) The Combined Striking Force was to prevent, at all costs, a Japanese landing on Java or Madura. 2) The Japanese transports were to be attacked, preferably by night. 3) After the attack the Combined Trask Force was to proceed to Tandjong Priok (Batavia). 4) A formation for the night was ordered as follows A screen of British and Dutch destroyers ahead, the five cruisers in line and four US destroyers in rear.

Also a plan for a night attack was made 1) The British and Dutch destroyers were to carry out a torpedo attack as soon as the enemy was sighted and were to follow up their torpedo attack by an attempt to run straight into the enemy convoy and to cause as much damage as possible. The cruisers were to remain out of the convoy and were to fire on it. Finally the US destroyers were then to also make a torpedo attack. 2) If contact was made near the coast, special precautions were to be taken because Dutch mines had been laid off the north coast of Madura and also in the Toeban bight. After an attack in coastal waters the Allied ships therefore had to turn north. 3) After a possible night action the formation would be broken up and it was not considered possible to make definite plans for any subsequent action.

Departure from Surabaya.

The Combined Striking Force put to sea from Surabaya at 1830 hours. It had been decided to make a sweep to the east along the coast of Madura as far as the Sapoedi Strait and if the enemy were not sighted to sweep west and search the bight of Toeban. The Force sailed throught the western channel towards the Java Sea. The ships of the force were disposed in line ahead as follows 1) Two Dutch destroyers, HrMs Witte de With en HrMs Kortenaer. This last ship had a speed limitation of 25 knots, due to one boiler being out of service. 2) Three British destroyers HMS Electra, HMS Encounter en HMS Jupiter. 3) The five Allied cruisers, HrMS de Ruyter, HMS Exeter, USS Houston, HMAS Perth en HrMs Java. 4) Four US destroyers, USS John D. Edwards, USS Alden, USS John D. Ford en USS Paul Jones.

Around the time the Combined Task Force sailed from Surabaya, US Army bombers found and attacked the enemy convoy in position 05°30’S, 113°00’E, which is about 25 miles north-east of Bawean Island. No report was however made to Rear-Admiral Doorman until nearly four hours later. And four hours after that another report was sent regarding this convoy. It is not known if Rear-Admiral Doorman actually received these reports.

At about 2200/26 the whole Combined Strike Force was clear of the Dutch minefields in the approaches to Surabaya and after proceeding 8 nautical miles to the north course was changed to the east, They were now in night formation and proceeding at 20 knots. They continued eastward as planned towards Sapoedi Strait as planned which they reached shortly after 0100/27. Rear-Admiral Doorman then altered course to 284° and maintained a westerly course throughout the remainder of the night.

Japanese air attack on the Combined Task Force.

At dawn on 27 February 1942, the Combined Task Force, was approximately 10 nautical miles north-west of Surabaya. They had not sighted the enemy during the night so day formation was assumed.

At 0700 hours, HMS Exeter, reported RDF contact on a group of aircraft in a south-westerly direction. Rear-Admiral Doorman hoped they were Allied aircraft but around 0800 hours he had to report to the ships in his force that the promised fighter cover would not be forthcoming. At 0855/27 aircraft were heard overhead and shortly afterwards three 100-lb bombs fell close to HMS Jupiter. Five minutes later a stick of four bombs fell about three cables on her starboard quarter. All these bombs were tumbling and at least three failed to explode. USS Houston opened fire on these aircraft which retreated behind clouds. From this time on, enemy aircraft continued to shadow the Allied force but they remained out of range.

Rear-Admiral Doorman reported this incident to Vice-Admiral Helfrich, and at 0930 hours he altered course from 270° to 115°. At 1000 hours, Vice-Admiral Helfrich signaled that Rear-Admiral Doorman had to proceed eastwards to search for and attack the enemy to which Rear-Admiral Doorman replied at 1200 hours with ‘proceeding eastwards after search from Sapoedi to Rembang. Success of action depends absolutely on receiving good reconnaissance information in time which last night failed me. Destroyers will have to refuel tomorrow.’

A Japanese force located.

At 1400/27 the Allied force was proceeding towards the Westervaarwater (northern entrance to Surabaya). The force passed through the swept channel in the minefields in the following order the Dutch destroyers, the British destroyers, the US destroyers and then the cruisers. At 1427 hours the force was entering the harbour when Rear-Admiral Doorman received the following important information from Vice-Admiral Helfrich. 1) At 1340/27 (GH), Twenty ships with an unkown number of destroyers were in position 04.45’S, 112.15’E (approx. 65 miles north-west of Bawean), course 180°. 2) At 1345/27 (GH), one cruiser was reported in position 04°40’S, 111°07’E (approx.. 135 miles north-west of Bawean), course 220°. 3) At 1350/27 (GH), two cruisers, six destroyers and twenty-five transports were reported 20 miles west of Bawean, course south. Of this force one cruiser and four destroyers proceeded south at full speed The transports, one cruiser and two destroyers stayed behind.

The combined striking force proceeded to intercept.

Rear-Admiral Doorman immediately proceeded back to sea again with the intention to intercept the enemy force that was reported 20 miles west of Bawean. After leaving the minefield the British destroyers were ordered to proceed at full speed. The Dutch destroyers were on the port quarter of the cruiser line. The US destroyers were astern. Course was set to 315°, speed 20 knots but this was later increased to 25 knots, the maximum speed of HrMs Kortenaer.

At 1529 hours enemy aircraft appeared, they dropped a few bombs at random. USS Houston fired on the planes. Meanwhile the Allied force scrattered. By 1550 hours the force had reformed and was again on course 315°, speed was now 24 knots.

At 1600 hours, Rear-Admiral Doorman asked for fighter protection but the commander Air Defence Surabaya did not comply because he needed his eight remaining Brewster Buffalo fighters to protect the four dive-bombers in a projected dive-bombing attack on the Japanese transports.

Contact with the enemy.

Shortly after 1600/27, three float planes were sighted to the northward. Some minutes later smoke was sighted, bearing 358°. At 1612 hours, in approximate position 06°28’S, 112°26’E. The Combined Striking Force was still on course 315°. The first report, which came from HMS Electra was ‘one cruiser, unknown number of large destroyers, bearing 330°, speed 18 knots, enemy course 220°. At 1614 hours the Allied fleet, then about 30 miles north-west of Surabaya, increased speed to 26 knots and HMAS Perth reported seeing a cruiser on the starboard bow. At 1616 hours, HMS Exeter reported a cruiser and four destroyers bearing 330°, range 14 nautical miles.

At 1616 hours, the Japanese heavy cruisers Nachi en Haguro opened fire from 30000 yards. Their main targets were HMS Exeter en USS Houston. Around the same time the Japanese light cruiser Naka opened fire on the British destroyer HMS Electra which was immediately straddled. Later salvoes fell astern, short and over. She was not hit. HMS Electra en HMS Jupiter fired ranging salvoes at the western (leading) enemy force at a maximum range of 15700 yards but all fell short.

The Allied force was still on course 315° and closing the enemy when HrMs De Ruyter altered course 20° to port (to 295°) to bring the starboard broadsides to bear. This brought the Allied fleet on an almost parallel course with the enemy heavy cruisers. The Allied cruisers were still in line ahead with HMS Electra en HMS Jupiter bearing 280°, four nautical miles from HrMs De Ruyter. The US destroyers were astern of the cruiser line and the two Dutch destroyers were about two nautical miles to port of the cruiser line. The position of HMS Encounter at that moment is not mentioned in any of the reports but she appeared to have been ahead of the Dutch destoyers and abeam of HMAS Perth.

HMS Exeter opened fire at 1617 hours followed by USS Houston one minute later. Range was 26000 to 28000 yards. This range was maintained for some time so the enemy was only under fire from the two heavy cruisers in the Allied cruiser line. Shortly after the action commenced the US destroyers took station about 3000 yards on the disengaged side of HrMs Java and maintained this relative position throughout most of the action. Enemy salvoes almost continuously straddled HrMs De Ruyter en HMS Exeter. All the time three float planes were spotting for the enemy.

First Japanese torpedo attack, 1633 to 1652 hours.

At about 1625 hours, the rear enemy destroyer flotilla appeared from the Allied line to prepare to attack. HMAS Perth opened fire on the right-hand destroyer (this was the Asagumo. She was hit by the second salvo just before she launched torpedoes. Her steering was affected and she was able to fire only three torpedoes.

The first enemy torpedo attack was a coordinated attack made by the two heavy cruisers, two flotilla leaders (light cruiser) and the six destroyers from the 4th destroyer flotilla. As the attack was developing, the Allied fleet, at 1629 hours, altered course from 295° to 248°, speed 25 knots and at 1631 hours, HrMs De Ruyter was hit in the auxiliary motor room on the starboard side by an 8” shell. A petrol fire was started but it was quickly extinguished. One of the crew was killed and six were wounded.

The enemy account of the torpedo attack is as follows About 18 minutes after starting the gun engagement, the Naka followed by the Jintsu fired torpedoes. The 9th and 2nd destroyer flotilla’s then fired in succession. About 40 minutes after the start of the engagement the Haguro fired torpedoes. Die Nachi also intended to fire torpedoes but due to a failure in drill did not do so. In 19 minutes, 43 torpedoes were fired at the Allied ships but none hit.

The Japanese 4th destroyer flotilla made smoke immediately following after the torpedo attack, and after the Perth se second salvo hit, retired behind the smoke, which also concealed the enemy heavy cruisers from view. Die Perth fired several follow up salvoes into the smoke screen which became so dense that the Japanese temporarily lost sight of the Allied fleet. Die Electra en Jupiter had by this time closed the US destroyers and took op a position abeam the cruiser line on the disengaged side.

At 1635 hours, HrMs De Ruyter led in again towards the enemy on course 267°. Also about this time the rear enemy heavy cruiser, the Haguro was hit, apparently in the boiler room, as she emitted billowing clouds of black smoke, though continuing to fire her guns.

As the enemy smoke screen cleared, a Japanese destroyer was seen to be on fire. This may have been the Minegumo. By then the Nachi was firing at HMS Exeter en die Haguro at the Minazuki, Fumizuki, Nagatsuki (22th Destroyer Division) and the 3th Japanese Destroyer Flotilla which was made up of the Japanese light cruiser Sendai (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Fubuki, Hatsuyuki en Shirayuki (11th Destroyer Division), Murakumo en Shirakumo (12th Destroyer Division). Furter ships that were part of the escort force were the light cruiser Yura, the minelayer Shirataka, mineweepers W-1, W-2, W-3 en W-4 and several submarine chasers.

Cover for the western invasion force was provided by the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Rear Admiral Kurita) which was made up of the heavy cruisers Kumano, Mikuma, Mogami, Suzuya and the destroyers Isonami, Shikinami en Uranami (19th Destroyer Division). Air cover was provided by the aircraft carrier Ryujo, seaplane tender Chiyoda, auxiliary seaplane tender Kamikawa Maru and the destroyers Amagiri, Asagiri en Yugiri (20th Destroyer Division).

The eastern invasion force was made up of 41 transports. These ships were escorted by the 4th Japanese Desroyer Flotilla. This was made up of the light cruiser Naka (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Asagumo, Minegumo, Natsugumo (9th Destroyer Division), Murasame, Harusame, Samidare, Yudachi (2nd Destroyer Division) and the Umikaze. The light cruiser Jintsu (Flotilla leader), destroyers Yukikaze, Tokitsukaze, Amatsukaze en Hatsukaze (16th Destroyer Division). Further ships that were part of the escort force were the light cruiser Kinu, mynlaag Wakataka, minesweepers W 15 en W 16, submarine chasers Ch-4, Ch-5, Ch-6, Ch-16, Ch-17 en Ch-18.

Cover for the eastern invasion force was provided by the 5th Cruiser Squadron (Rear Admiral Takagi) with the heavy cruisers Nachi en Haguro and the destroyers Sazanami, Ushio, Kawakaze en Yamakaze. The 16th Cruiser Squadron with the heavy cruisers Ashigara en Myoko and the destroyers Akebono en Inazuma. Air cover was provided by land based aircraft and the seaplane tender Mizuho and the auxiliary seaplane tender Sanyo Maru.

South of Java operated the Japanese 1st Carrier fleet that had left Kendari (Celebes) and proceeded south through Stait Sape. This force consisted of the aircraft carriers Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu, Soryu, battlecruisers Kongo, Haruna, Hiei, Kirishima, heavy cruisers Chikuma, Tone, Atago, Maya, Takao, light cruiser Abukuma, destroyers Tanikaze, Isokaze, Hamakaze, Urakaze (17th Destroyer Division), Shiranuhi, Kasumi, Airake, Yugure (18th Destroyer Division), Arashi, Hayashio en Nowaki (4th Destroyer Division). (1)

Media skakels


USS John D Ford DD-228

John D Ford was one of the destroyers authorized as part of the naval build up during World War I. She was completed too late for wartime service, not being commissioned until 1920.

She was assigned to duty in the Asiatic Fleet in 1922 and would see service in that fleet until the fleet was reorganized early in 1942. She participated in actions near Java in January and February 1942. When the fleet retreated to Australia, she participated in convoy duty, including convoys between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor. Her service took her next the Canal Zone performing more convoy duty and then into the South Atlantic. In July 1945 she was converted to a miscellaneous auxiliary and given the designation AG-119. She was decommissioned in November 1945.

This ship board printed cover is cancelled during her Asiatic Fleet service. The cancels mark her crossing of the equator on November 21, 1936 and then her location in Batavia, Java on November 23.


Awards USS John D. Ford_section_3

USS John D. Ford_unordered_list_0

    USS John D. Ford_item_0_0 with "FLEET" clasp USS John D. Ford_item_0_1 with two battle stars USS John D. Ford_item_0_2 USS John D. Ford_item_0_3 with one battle star USS John D. Ford_item_0_4 USS John D. Ford_item_0_5

Presidential Unit Citation USS John D. Ford_section_4

For extraordinary heroism in action against enemy Japanese forces during the Java Campaign in the Southwest Pacific War Area, from January 23 to March 4, 1942. USS John D. Ford_sentence_68

Gallantly operating in defense of the Netherlands East Indies with the limited surface forces of the combined United States, British and Dutch Royal Navies, the JOHN D. FORD led a column of four destroyers in a fierce night counter-invasion action off Balikpapan, confusing and disorganizing the enemy to aid in the sinking or damaging by torpedo and gunfire of a number of Japanese warships. USS John D. Ford_sentence_69

A highly vulnerable target for hostile cruiser and destroyer gunfire while fighting as a unit of a joint United States-Dutch Striking Force in the Badoeng Strait action, she responded nobly to the heroic efforts of her officers and men and scored several damaging torpedo and gun hits before affecting a masterly withdrawal from the field of combat. USS John D. Ford_sentence_70

Boldly attacking a numerically superior force by day in the Java Sea action, she was one of six vessels in the combined United States-Dutch-British Combined Striking Force to wage a brilliant torpedo attack against the main body of the Japanese Armada and, hurling the full fighting power of her gun batteries at the hostile disposition, exerted every means at her command to inflict damage on the Japanese and aid her companion ships in forcing the enemy to break off the engagement. USS John D. Ford_sentence_71

Relentlessly trailed by cruiser-borne planes and repeatedly bombed by enemy aircraft, she battled with unconquerable spirit and undiminished fury against strong dispositions vastly superior in numbers and armament during this early critical period of the war. USS John D. Ford_sentence_72

The JOHN D. FORD’S illustrious achievements add new luster to the annals of American Naval Warfare and uphold the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. USS John D. Ford_sentence_73


USS John D. Ford DD-228 (1919-1945)

Versoek 'n GRATIS pakkie en kry die beste inligting en hulpbronne oor mesothelioom oornag by u afgelewer.

Alle inhoud is kopiereg 2021 | Oor ons

Advokaat adverteer. Hierdie webwerf word geborg deur Seeger Weiss LLP met kantore in New York, New Jersey en Philadelphia. Die hoofadres en telefoonnommer van die firma is Challengerweg 55, Ridgefield Park, New Jersey, (973) 639-9100. Die inligting op hierdie webwerf word slegs vir inligtingsdoeleindes verskaf en is nie bedoel om spesifieke regs- of mediese advies te verskaf nie. Moenie ophou om die voorgeskrewe medikasie te neem sonder om eers met u dokter te konsulteer nie. As u die voorgeskrewe medikasie staak sonder die advies van u dokter, kan dit tot besering of die dood lei. Vorige resultate van Seeger Weiss LLP of sy prokureurs waarborg of voorspel nie 'n soortgelyke uitkoms met betrekking tot toekomstige aangeleenthede nie. As u 'n wettige outeursreghouer is en meen dat 'n bladsy op hierdie webwerf buite die grense van 'billike gebruik' val en inbreuk maak op die outeursreg van u kliënt, kan ons gekontak word oor kopieregaangeleenthede by [email  protected]


John D. Ford được đặt lườn vào ngày 11 tháng 11 năm 1919 tại xưởng tàu của hãng William Cramp & Sons ở Philadelphia. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 2 tháng 9 năm 1920, được đỡ đầu bởi cô F. Faith Ford, con gái đô đốc Ford và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 30 tháng 12 năm 1920 dưới quyền chỉ huy tạm thời của Trung úy Hải quân L. T. Forbes.

Giữa hai cuộc thế chiến Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất việc chạy thử máy ngoài khơi New England, John D. Ford đặt dưới quyền chỉ huy chính thức của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân C. A. Pownall, vào ngày 16 tháng 7 năm 1921. Sau khi tiến hành huấn luyện tại vùng biển Caribe, nó khởi hành từ Newport,Rhode Island vào ngày 20 tháng 6 năm 1922 để nhận nhiệm vụ cùng Hạm đội Á Châu. Đi ngang qua Địa Trung Hải, kênh đào Suez và Ấn Độ Dương, nó đi đến Cavite, vịnh Manila thuộc Philippines vào ngày 21 tháng 8, bất đầu một giai đoạn phục vụ kéo dài gần hai thập niên tại Viễn Đông.

Trước khi Thế Chiến II nổ ra tại Thái Bình Dương, John D. Ford hoạt động từ căn cứ ở Manila, tuần tra các vùng biển châu Á từ Nam Trung Quốc đến phía Bắc Nhật Bản. Trong tháng 4 và tháng 5 năm 1924, nó thiết lập các căn cứ không lực tạm thời tại quần đảo Kurile và đảo Hokkaidō, Nhật Bản để hỗ trợ cho chuyến bay tiên phong vòng quanh thế giới từ ngày 9 tháng 4 đến ngày 28 tháng 9 do Quân đoàn Không quân Hoa Kỳ (tiền thân của Không quân Hoa Kỳ ngày nay) thực hiện.

Vào ngày 6 tháng 6 năm 1925, John D. Ford được bố trí đến Thượng Hải, Trung Quốc để bảo vệ tính mạng và tài sản của công dân Hoa Kỳ tại đây, vốn bị đe dọa do những biến động và bất ổn sinh ra do cuộc Nội chiến Trung Quốc. Khi bất ổn ngày càng tăng cao vào tháng 5 năm 1926, nó tham gia tuần tra dọc bờ biển Trung Quốc bảo vệ các đoàn tàu chống các băng nhóm cướp biển. Vào ngày 24 tháng 3 năm 1927, nó hỗ trợ cho cuộc di tản công dân Hoa Kỳ và người nước ngoài đang lẫn trốn cuộc bạo loạn tại Nam Kinh, bao gồm một cuộc bắn phá bằng hải pháo vào thành phố.

Việc thành lập chính phủ Quốc Dân Đảng dưới quyền Tưởng Giới Thạch năm 1928 đã giúp giảm thiểu việc bạo loạn, nhưng mối quan hệ Trung-Nhật trở nên căng thẳng, buộc chiếc tàu khu trục phải tiếp tục ở lại khu vực Trung Quốc. sau khi Nhật Bản chiếm đóng phía Bắc Trung Quốc vào tháng 7 năm 1937, nó giúp di tản công dân Hoa Kỳ khỏi Bắc Bình trong lúc tàu chiến Nhật Bản phong tỏa bờ biển Trung Quốc. Đi đến Manila vào ngày 21 tháng 11, nó hoạt động giữa Philippines và miền Nam Trung Quốc trong các cuộc cơ động hạm đội. Sau khi xung đột nổ ra tại Châu Âu vào tháng 9 năm 1939, nó tăng cường các hoạt động huấn luyện ngoài khơi Philippines và tiến hành Tuần tra Trung lập tại vùng biển Philippines và biển Hoa Nam.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Sau khi Hải quân Nhật Bản bất ngờ tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941 (8 tháng 12 theo giờ địa phương), John D. Ford sẵn sàng để hoạt động tại Cavite như một đơn vị thuộc Đội khu trục 59. Không bị hư hại bởi cuộc không kích mang tính hủy diệt của Nhật Bản xuống vịnh Manila vào ngày 10 tháng 12, nó lên đường đi về phía Nam cùng ngày hôm đó để tuần tra tại biển Sulu và eo biển Makassar cùng Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 6, và tiếp tục ở lại khu vực eo biển Makassar cho đến ngày 23 tháng 12, khi nó lên đường từ Balikpapan, Borneo để đi Surabaya, Java, đến nơi vào ngày 24 tháng 12.

Khi quân Nhật tăng sức ép về phía Nam qua Philippines và hướng đến Đông Ấn thuộc Hà Lan, lực lượng Đồng Minh khó có hy vọng chống đỡ được cuộc tấn công của quân Nhật. Với một số ít tàu chiến và hầu như không có sự hỗ trợ của không quân, họ chỉ quấy phá lực lượng Nhật Bản trong một cố gắng trì hoãn sự tiến quân, và ngăn cản việc chiếm đóng Australia. Lo lắng trong việc đánh trả quân Nhật, John D. Ford rời Surabaya vào ngày 11 tháng 1 năm 1942 để đi Kupang, Timor, đến nơi vào ngày 18 tháng 1 để gia nhập một lực lượng khu trục. Hai ngày sau, lực lượng khởi hành đi Balikpapan thực hiện một cuộc tấn công chớp nhoáng. Đi đến ngoài khơi Balikpapan trong đêm 24 tháng 1, bốn tàu khu trục bất ngờ tấn công bằng ngư lôi vào các tàu vận tải Nhật trong khi các tàu khu trục hộ tống Nhật tuần tra ngoài eo biển Makassar truy tìm tàu ngầm Hoa Kỳ. Trong hơn một giờ, chúng bắn ngư lôi và hải pháo vào đối phương đang hoảng loạn, và trước khi rút lui đã đánh chìm bốn tàu đối phương, một trong số đó là bởi ngư lôi của John D. Ford. Lực lượng tấn công về đến Surabaya ngày 25 tháng 1.

Gọng kìm tấn công của Nhật Bản vẫn tiếp tục hướng về Đông Ấn thuộc Hà Lan bất chấp sự quấy phá của Đồng Minh. Vào ngày 3 tháng 2, Nhật Bản bắt đầu ném bom Surabaya, và John D. Ford rút lui cùng đoàn tàu vận tải đến Tjilatjap trên bờ biển phía Nam Java. Đến giữa tháng 2, Nhật Bản siết chặt sự kiểm soát các đảo phía Đông và phía Tây Java, và đến ngày 18 tháng 2, chúng đổ bộ lên Bali kế cận phần cực Đông của Java, để chống trả John D. Ford, Pous cùng các tàu chiến Hoa Kỳ và Hà Lan khác di chuyển qua eo biển Badoeng theo hai đợt để đối đầu một lực lượng khu trục-vận tải đối phương trong đêm 19-20 tháng 2, vốn trở thành Trận chiến eo biển Badung. Nằm trong thành phần đợt thứ nhất, John D. Ford đối đầu với hai tàu khu trục Nhật mà không có kết quả. Diễn biến sau cùng của trận chiến đối phương là một chiến thắng cho phía Nhật Bản: họ đổ bộ lên Bali thành công, đánh chìm tàu khu trục Hà Lan HNLMS Piet Hein trong khi chỉ chịu hư hại nhẹ.

Quay trở về Tjilatjap vào ngày 21 tháng 2 để tiếp nhiên liệu, John D. FordPous lập tức lên đường đi Kiritimati để nhận lấy những dự trữ cuối cùng gồm 17 đến 18 quả ngư lôi từ tàu tiếp liệu Black Hawk rồi lại lên đường đi Surabaya, đến nơi vào ngày 24 tháng 2 để gia nhập lực lượng đã bị tiêu hao thuộc Bộ chỉ huy Mỹ-Anh-Hà Lan-Australia (ABDA). Bị ảnh hưởng bởi thiếu hụt nhiên liệu, đạn dược, ngư lôi cũng như giảm sút lực lượng do bị đánh chìm, hư hại trong chiến đấu và yêu cầu sửa chữa, lực lượng Đồng Minh đang ở tình tình huống ngặt nghèo. Chỉ có bốn tàu khu trục Hoa Kỳ tiếp tục hoạt động cùng lực lượng tấn công. Đến ngày 25 tháng 2, John D. Ford lên đường từ Surabaya cùng với hải đội để truy tìm một lực lượng đổ bộ lớn đối phương trong biển Java. Quay trở về cảng vào ngày hôm sau, có thêm năm tàu chiến Anh cùng gia nhập, và lực lượng lại khởi hành để truy tìm đối phương. Sau một đợt tấn công bất thành của máy bay đối phương vào sáng ngày 27 tháng 2, lực lượng Đồng Minh đi đến Surabaya. Trong khi đi qua bãi mìn, các con tàu đổi hướng và được bố trí để đối đầu lực lượng đối phương ngoài khơi bờ biển phía Bắc Java.

Trận chiến biển Java diễn ra lúc 16 giờ 16 phút và kéo dài trong bảy giờ. Lực lượng Đồng Minh bao gồm 5 tàu tuần dương và 9 tàu khu trục đã đối đầu với 4 tàu tuần dương và 13 tàu khu trục đối phương trong một trận chiến săn đuổi náo loạn xen kẻ với các cuộc đấu pháo và ngư lôi. John D. Ford thoát ra khỏi trận chiến mà không bị hư hại, nhưng một lần nữa kết quả lại là một thất bại toàn diện đối với Đồng Minh: họ không thể ngăn cản cuộc đổ bộ lên Java, và năm tàu chiến Đồng Minh đã bị đánh chìm. Rút lui về Surabaya, John D. Ford và ba tàu khu trục khác thuộc Đội khu trục 58 lên đường vào đêm 28 tháng 2 để đi Australia. Băng qua các luồng hẹp của eo biển Bali trong đêm 1 tháng 3, mà không bị phát hiện, chúng lại đụng độ với ba tàu khu trục Nhật đang canh gác phần cực Nam của eo biển. Hết ngư lôi và gần cạn đạn dược, các tàu chiến Mỹ rút lui tránh lực lượng tuần tra Nhật để hướng đến Fremantle, thuộc Perth, Western Australia, đến nơi an toàn vào ngày 4 tháng 3.

Sau hai tháng làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải dọc theo bờ biển Australia, John D. Ford rời Brisbane vào ngày 9 tháng 5 để đi Trân Châu Cảng. Đến nơi vào ngày 2 tháng 6, nó lại lên đường ba ngày sau đó để đi San Francisco, đến nơi vào ngày 12 tháng 6. Nó rời San Francisco ngày 23 tháng 6 để quay lại Trân Châu Cảng, và trong 11 tháng tiếp theo đã hộ tống chín đoàn tàu vận tải đi lại giữa San Francisco và Hawaii. Quay về vùng bờ Tây vào ngày 20 tháng 5 năm 1943, nó rời San Francisco vào ngày 24 tháng 5 để chuyển sang khu vực Đại Tây Dương, làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải và tuần tra chống tàu ngầm.

Được phân về Hạm đội 10, nó đi qua kênh đào Panama vào ngày 4 tháng 6, và gia nhập một đoàn tàu vận tải hướng đi Trinidad vào ngày 6 tháng 6. Trong sáu tháng tiếp theo, John D. Ford hoạt động tại khu vực Bắc và Nam Đại Tây Dương, kéo dài từ New York và Charleston, South Carolina đến Casablanca, Maroc và Recife, Brazil, bảo vệ các đoàn tàu vận tải khỏi các cuộc tấn công của tàu ngầm U-boat Đức. Sau một đợt huấn luyện chống tàu ngầm vào cuối tháng 12, nó gia nhập cùng tàu sân bay hộ tống Guadalcanal ngoài khơi Norfolk, Virginia vào ngày 5 tháng 1 năm 1944 cho nhiệm vụ tuần tra chống tàu ngầm tại Đại Tây Dương. Nó đã hỗ trợ cho việc tiêu diệt tàu ngầm U-544 của các máy bay xuất phát từ Guadalcanal, vốn đã bất ngờ tấn công bằng mìn sâu chiếc tàu ngầm khi nó đang được tiếp nhiên liệu về phía Tây Azores vào ngày 16 tháng 1.

Sau khi quay về vùng bờ Đông vào ngày 16 tháng 2, John D. Ford rời Norfolk vào ngày 14 tháng 3 cho một chuyến hộ tống vận tải sang Địa Trung Hải. Đang khi ở lại Gibraltar vào ngày 29 tháng 3, nó bị hư hại do va chạm với một tàu chở dầu Anh. Sau khi được sửa chữa, nó quay trở về Norfolk, đến nơi vào ngày 1 tháng 5. Nó lại rời Norfolk vào ngày 24 tháng 5 hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải đi vếnđầ vệnđê vệnđê vầnđ tệnệê vệnđ vầnđê v vn v en ons kan nie meer 'n paar dae lank in Recife, Reykjavík en Casablanca nie. Van 24 tot 5 dae 27 op 6 na 1945 Bokser deur chuyến đi chạy thử máy của chiếc tàu sân bay tại vùng biển Caribe, rồi quay trở về Norfolk.

John D. Ford khởi hành vào ngày 8 tháng 7, để đi đến Xưởng hải quân Boston, đến nơi vào ngày 9 thang 7, of được cải biến thành một tàu phục trợ với ký hiệuườ AG-119. Nó quay trở lại Norfolk vào ngày 9 thang 9, rồi được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 2 th 11 năm 1945.

John D. Ford được tặng thưởng bốn Ngôi sao Chiến trận cùng danh hiệu Đơn vị Tuyên dương Tổng thống do thành tích phục vụ trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai.


Biografie

Ford, gebore in Baltimore, Maryland, betree die vloot as derde assistent -ingenieur op 30 Julie 1862. Hy is van 1862 tot 1865 by die West Gulf Blockading Squadron aangestel en het deelgeneem aan verbintenisse aan die Mississippirivier en die Slag van Mobile Bay.

Hy dien in die oorlogsloep Sacramento totdat sy aan die kus van Indië in Junie 1867. Gedurende die volgende drie dekades het hy verskeie see- en kusopdragte beklee, en terwyl hy verbonde was aan die Maryland Agricultural and Mechanical College (nou die University of Maryland, College Park) van 1894–96, begin hy 'n kursus in meganiese ingenieurswese . As vlootingenieur van die Stille Oseaan -eskader in 1898 dien hy in die kruiser Baltimore tydens die Slag van Manilabaai op 1 Mei. Vir sy 'uitnemende en opvallende optrede in die geveg' tydens operasies in Cavite, Sangley Point en Corregidor, het hy drie nommers gekry.

Ford word op 19 Mei 1902 bevorder tot agter -admiraal. Hy was tot Desember 1908 aktief as inspekteur van masjinerie en ordonnansie by Sparrows Point, Maryland.

Hy was 'n metgesel van die Maryland Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.


John D. Ford DD- 228 - Geskiedenis

    Die gelukkigste matroos van die Verenigde State? Jy besluit.

My pa, James Hiram Boulton Jr., was aan boord van die USS Cassin DD-372, die USS John D. Ford DD-228, en die USS Heermann DD-228. Hierdie skepe het 11 gevegsterre en talle toekennings verdien, waaronder drie presidensiële eenheidsaanhalings (Ford en Heermann.)

Diens tydlyn:
Pa het op 10 Maart 1939 by die vloot aangesluit. Na die Naval Training -skool het hy aan boord van die USS gerapporteer Cassin op 29 Junie 1939 en vaar daar na Pearl Harbor vir diens. Op 30 April 1940, nou 'n 2de klas van 'n seeman, gaan hy oor na The Asiatic Fleet en meld aan boord van die USS John D. Ford DD-272, in Sjanghai China.
Op 18 Desember 1940 verander hy koers en word bevorder tot GM3c. (Gunners Mate)
Op 1 November 1941 word hy bevorder tot GM2c.

Op 7 Desember 1941 het die USS Cassin DD-372 Pappas se eerste vernietiger is in Pearl Harbor vernietig. Pa was aan boord van die Ford daarna op Patrol naby Manilabaai en beveel na die Cavite -hawe, die vlootbasis in die baai van Manila.

Om middernag 23-4 Januarie 1942 het die USS John D Ford het die aanval gelei tydens die 1ste Slag van Balikpapan (1). Dit was die eerste Amerikaanse vlootgeveg sedert die einde van die Spaanse Amerikaanse oorlog in 1898, en hoewel dit 'n taktiese oorwinning was deur 5 Japannese skepe te laat sink, het dit niks gedoen om die Japannese inval te vertraag nie. Baie frustrerend vir my pa en sy skeepsmaats.

Die volledige geskiedenis van die Asiatiese Vloot is legende en byna totaal ongehoord deur die publiek. Die nuus van die "Victory at Balikpapan" was baie bekend in Australië, Nieu -Seeland en Europa, aangesien die BBC die verhaal uitgesaai het as die eerste teken van weerstand deur Amerikaanse vlootmagte in die Suid -Chinese See. Slegs diegene met kortgolfradio's op die vasteland van die Verenigde State het van die geveg geleer. Daar was ander gevegte, die opvallendste was die eerste slag van die Java -see.

LESING AANBEVEEL: Die Asiatiese vloot, die vloot wat nie bestaan ​​het nie (2). Die USS John D Ford was een van die min oorlewendes in die daaropvolgende weke. Hiermee eindig die eerste David en Goliath -verhaal vir pa en sy skeepsmaats gedurende die eerste weke van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.
Daar kom nog een!

Op 28 Mei 1942 word hy bevorder tot GM1stc en CGM onderteken deur die destydse Gunnery -offisier Lieut. W.P Mack en bevelvoerder Luitenant -kommandant J.E Cooper. (Albei word vlootadmirale en superintendente van die US Naval Academy

Op 6 Julie 1943 nadat die Asiatiese Vloot ontbind is (3), en na Gunnery School in Washington, DC. Chief Gunners Mate James Hiram Boulton Jr het aan boord gerapporteer aan boord van die splinternuwe Fletcher Class (4) Destroyer USS Heermann DD-532.

Op 25 Oktober 1944 het pa wraak geneem met die Japannese. In die grootste seestryd van die wêreldgeskiedenis was Taffy 3's Tin Cans (5) 'n belangrike rol in die nederlaag van die Japanse sentrummag. James H Boulton Jr het lof vir Valor ontvang, alhoewel hy gewond was, en onder intense vuur, 'n geweer van vyf duim herstel het en dit weer in aksie gebring het vir die duur van die geveg!
Verlossing en een van die gelukkigste matrose van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, James H Boulton.

Dit is bedoel as 'n huldeblyk aan al die mans wat in The Asiatic Fleet gedien het "die vloot wat nie bestaan ​​het nie" en op blikkies voor en tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, pa was Lucky, maar daar was baie. Te veel, wat nie was nie.

As 'n bytekening Die Heermann word "toegeskryf" aan die afvuur van die laaste skoot van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, wat neergeskiet het op 'n Kamikaze -vlieënier. Ongelukkig was dit 'n paar uur na die Japannese oorgawe, so krediet is twyfelagtig. (Het my pa jare gelede daaroor uitgevra, maar hy het net geglimlag)


Kyk die video: Fords cincuenta (Augustus 2022).