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Durga, Aihole

Durga, Aihole



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Aihole - Die geboorteplek van die Suid -Indiese tempelargitektuur

Die uitgestrekte gebied onder die Meguti -heuwel in Aihole is die vallei van die Malaprabha -rivier. Die rivier Malaprabha word in die ou Indiese legendes beskryf as die plek waar Parasurama sy byl gewas het. Parasurama het 'n slagting van die Kshatriyas gedoen om die dood van sy vader Jamadagni te wreek. Nadat sy woede geblus is, kom Parasurama af na die rivier Malaprabha om sy byl te was, wat deurdrenk was in die bloed van die Kshatriyas. Die rivier het onmiddellik rooi geword. Toe die bloedrooi rivier sien, het die plaaslike vroue wat by die rivier gaan bad het, geskreeu “Ayyo Hole ” (beteken “Wow, the River!) Die landboudorp het later bekend gestaan ​​as “Aihole ” op.

Dit is miskien slegs mites, maar die afgeleë dorpie in die noordelike Karnataka is inderdaad 'n wonderland van antieke beeldhouwerke en tempels. Die meerderheid van die tempels in Aihole is gebou tydens die bewind van die Chalukya -dinastie vanaf 544 nC. Aihole het 'n geskiedenis van duisend vyfhonderd jaar, maar dit lyk asof die afgeleë dorp nog steeds vasgeval het in hierdie tydperk. Daar is geen spoor van ontwikkeling nie. Dit lyk asof dorpenaars steeds die verlate tempels van die Chalukya -tydperk beset. [Terug]

Aihole -inskripsie in die Meguti Hill Jain -tempel

Aihole was nie net die kwekery van die Suid -Indiese argitektuur nie, dit was ook 'n belangrike handelsentrum in die Chalukya -koninkryk. Die bekende “ayyovole 500 ” kom uit hierdie einste plek. Hulle is 'n groep legendariese handelaars. Hulle was bekend vir hul ridderlikheid en moed. Hulle het olifante, perde, edelgesteentes soos diamant, smarag en robyn, speserye en wierook aan die res van Indië en selfs ander lande verhandel. Die meeste van hulle was godsdienstige Boeddhiste.

Ek het die trappe begin klim na die top van die Meguti -heuwel, waar 'n ou Jain -tempel is. Die Jain -tempel bo -op die Meguti -heuwel in Aihole is 'n belangrike argeologiese monument. Dit is in 634 nC gebou deur Ravikriti, die hofdigter van Pulakeshin II, die beroemde Chalukya -koning.

Hierdie klein tempel huisves die beroemde Chalukya -opskrif met die naam “Aihole -inskripsie ” of die “Ravikriti -inskripsie ”. Dit was 'n belangrike artefak wat die argeoloog gehelp het om die geskiedenis van Chalukyas te ontsyfer en hulle selfs gehelp het om die Mahabharata -oorlog te dateer. Hierdie inskripsie prys Pulakeshin II, wat die beroemde Harshavardhan in die Narmada -riviervallei verslaan het. Dit was 'n belangrike verowering waarna die Chalukya -konings byna die hele Deccan -plato regeer het. Pulakeshin II is geprys as die “Dakshinapadeshwara ”- die heer van Deccan. Die tempel self is klein met 'n afgod van Mahavira in die sanctum sanctorum.

Meguti was 'n versterkte heuwel in antieke Chalukyan -tye. Die herinnerings daarvan word nog rondom die omtrek van die heuwel gesien. Vanuit die Meguti -heuwel kan u 'n panoramiese uitsig oor Aihole hê. Daar is amper honderd tempels met rooi sandstene rondom die dorp.

Durga -tempelkompleks - Aihole

Alhoewel daar ongeveer honderd tempels in Aihole is, is die belangrikste in 'n beskermde kompleks. Archeological Survey of India (ASI) onderhou hierdie lieflike kompleks waar daar 'n aantal tempels is wat 'n besoek werd is. Durga -tempel, en#8216Badigarugudi, Lad khan -tempel, Guadargudi, Chakragudi, Trikudeshwara -tempel is 'n paar daarvan. Voordat ASI die tempels oorgeneem het, het die dorpenaars daarin gebly. Elke tempel was bekend onder die naam van sy bewoner. Daarom het die meeste van die Aihole -tempel vreemde name. Lad Khan was byvoorbeeld 'n Moslem -heilige wat in die tempel gewoon het. Vandaar dat die tempel bekend gestaan ​​het as “ Lad Khan tempel ”. Dit moet die enigste Hindoe -tempel in Indië wees, bekend onder 'n Moslemnaam.

Die mees uitgebreide en belangrikste tempel in hierdie kompleks is die ‘Durga ’ tempel. Dit is nie 'n tempel wat aan die godin Durga gewy is soos die naam aandui nie. Hierdie tempel is in 748 nC gebou en is opgedra aan God Surya (die songod). Later, met die veranderende ideologieë van Hindoeïsme, is die tempel weer opgedra aan God Vishnu. Daar was 'n klein wagtoring bo -op hierdie tempel, ook bekend as Durg (of Fort). Die plaaslike bevolking het hierdie tempel genoem, of later, die Durga -tempel.

Die vorm van die Durga -tempel is baie interessant. Dit lyk soos die struktuur van die Indiese parlementshuis. Of ten minste 'n kru vorm daarvan. Die gids noem dit die ‘Gajaprushta Akriti ” beteken, die vorm van hierdie tempel lyk soos die agterkant van 'n olifant!

Die ovaalvormige Durga -tempel is gebou op 'n verhoogde platform wat amper vier voet hoog is. Daar is steil trappe wat na die voorportaal van die tempel lei. Dit is hoogs versier met gekerfde pilare en 'n plafon. Een van die beeldhouwerke van besondere belang is die sewe koppige slang op die plafon. Dit is die snywerk van “Adi Shesha ” die slang met sewe kappies wat 'n dienaar van Lord Vishnu is. Die slang hou 'n mandjie blomme en het 'n fyn kerf.

As ons die eerste portiek verbysteek, gaan ons in die Mukha Mantapa of die verwelkomingskamer van die tempel. Die deur wat na hierdie kamer lei, is ook baie interessant. Dit is in so 'n mate gesny dat 'n mens sou twyfel dat dit hout eerder as klip is. Daar is vyf lae ontwerpe op hierdie deurkosyn. Elkeen van hulle is 'n bekende patroon in die beeldhouskool van Chalukya. Die ‘Naga-Shakha ’ is die ontwerp van slange, ‘Pushpa -Shakha ’ – die blomontwerp, ‘Kumbha-Shakha ’ – die ontwerp met oorvol skepe om voorspoed te toon, ‘Manava Shakha ’ – die ontwerp met mense, en#8216Makara Shakha ’ – die ontwerp toon krokodille. Die deurkosyn op sigself is niks minder as 'n beeldhoukundige meesterstuk nie.

Toe ek die Durga -tempel binnegaan, sukkel my oë om aan te pas met die donkerte daarbinne. Daar is geen behoorlike beligting in die tempel nie. Die plafon van die tempel verval geleidelik terwyl water deur die dak sipel. Die beeldhouwerke van pragtige wesens soos Apsaras het gedeeltelik ontsier. Een nadeel wat ek in die Chalukyan -tempels waargeneem het, is die onvoldoende lig. Die geperforeerde vensters laat nie veel lig toe nie.

In die ou tyd was die tempel moontlik behoorlik verlig. My teorie is ook dat mense uit die Middeleeue beter liggevoeligheid as ons kon gehad het. As gevolg van die konstante gebruik van tablette, telefone en rekenaars, moet ons liggevoeligheid baie laag wees. Daarom voel ons nie dat daar genoeg lig in die ou tempels is nie.

Ek dra altyd 'n fakkel op my argeologiese ekspedisies. Hier het dit baie handig te pas gekom. Ons het die binneste omliggende pad binnegegaan, bekend as die “Pradikshina Path ”. Die binneste Pradikshina -pad is gebou rondom die ovaalvormige sanctum sanctorum van die tempel, wat eens die afgod van die Surya gehad het. As ons deur die onbelichte pad gaan, kan ons die ovaalvormige struktuur van die heiligdom van nader bekyk. Dit is inderdaad 'n wonder dat die messelaars in 'n ou tyd, waar daar geen gemotoriseerde masjinerie was om die rots te sny nie, die rots met so 'n volmaaktheid gebuig het. Die innerlike heiligdom is nou sonder enige afgod. Dit is moontlik vernietig tydens die Adil Shahi -aanval in 1565.

U kan ook 'n herhalende simbool vind van Chalukyan -kuns, die Keerthi Mukham, op baie van die pilare in die Durga -tempel. Ons het die binnekamer van die Durga -tempel verlaat en die buitenste gang binnegegaan.

Die ovaalvormige buitegang wat die binneste Pradikshina -pad en heiligdom omring, is 'n spesialiteit van die Durga -tempel. Gewoonlik sou Indiese tempels 'n enkele omringende pad rondom die binneste heiligdom hê. Die Durga -tempel het twee. Die buitenste Pradikshina -pad is 'n antieke kunsgalery. Dit vertoon verskillende beelde van hoë gehalte in die ewe groot nisse wat in die muur gesny is. Dit moet die eerste kunsgalery in die wêreld wees. Die Europeërs dink aan die idee van kunsgalery in die 12de eeu nC tydens die renaissance. Die Indiese beeldhouwerke het dit egter 500 jaar tevore hier in Aihole geëksperimenteer.


Daar word beelde met verskillende temas in hierdie galery vertoon. Daar is gode en gewone mense. Daar is byvoorbeeld 'n beeld van getroude jong vroue wat haar kind in haar een hand dra en vergesel word deur haar man. Die ou ornamente en doeke is baie duidelik. Sy dra 'n “Mangal Sutra ” – 'n versiering om haar nek wat dui op haar getroude status. Sy dra ook 'n “ Kanta Sutra ” of 'n antieke ketting. Haar kleredrag strek net bokant die knieë en dit herinner ons aan minirokke van die moderne wêreld.

Die belangrikste beelde wat in die ovale kunsgalery vertoon word, is “Tri-Bhangu-Shiva ”, “ Vishnu wat op Garuda vlieg, “ Durga wat die demoon Mahisha doodmaak en#8221 en “Varaha wat die Bhumi Devi (aardgodin) red. Elkeen van hulle is meesterstukke.

'N Ander interessante artefak in die Durga -tempel is die hoogs geperforeerde vensters. Daar is ongeveer twintig vensters om die ovaalvormige mure. Elkeen van hulle het 'n ander ontwerp. Hulle lyk nie eers na mekaar nie. Ons gids het vertel dat Aihole 'n eksperimentele laboratorium van die Chalukyas was, dat hulle verskillende ontwerpe hier probeer het. Wat ook al van die koning gehou is, is dit in ander tempels regoor die land herhaal.

Die Durga -tempel staan ​​op 'n voet van 3 voet waarvan die mure ook ryklik uitgekap is met temas van Ramayana. Een van die tonele wat my die meeste aangetrek het, is van Ramayana. Sree Rama, Seetha en Lakshmana op hul ballingskap, bereik die Sarayu -rivier. Hulle was bekommerd omdat hulle nie 'n water kon vind om die rivier oor te steek nie. “Guha ” – die meester -beeldhouwerke van die gode bou vir hulle 'n boot en vaar gelukkig oor die rivier Sarayu. Hierdie toneel word in die muurpaneel uitgebeeld.

Nadat ek 'n paar uur in Aihole deurgebring het, was ons reisgids Shivanand een ding wat my die meeste verbaas het! Hy is gebore in 'n afgeleë dorpie met die naam Siddanakkolla in die Bagalkot -distrik van Karnataka. Hy het 'n graad in geskiedenis verwerf en 'n toeristegids geword. Sy kennis van die geskiedenis van Karnataka en die van Indië in die algemeen is indrukwekkend. Sy Engels is onberispelik en hy sê dat hy nog nooit die Bagalkot -distrik verlaat het nie! [Terug]

Sapta Matrikas - Durga -tempelkompleks, Aihole

Ons het die Durga -tempel verlaat en gesels oor die opgrawingsaktiwiteite in Aihole. Die hele Durga -kompleks was tot 1958 bedek met 'n oppervlakte van 4 voet, toe die departement van argeologie van Indië 'n uitgebreide opgrawing onder leiding van dr S. R. Rao, 'n veteraan in Indiese argeologie. Baie beeldhouwerke is later uit die ondergronds teruggevind. Die argeologiese museum van Aihole vertoon baie daarvan. Ongelukkig kon ons nie die museum dek nie, aangesien dit die weeklikse vakansie was.

Daar is 'n interessante beeldhoupaneel naby die ingang van die argeologiese museum. Dit is die uitbeelding van “Sapta Matrikas ” – die vrouevorme van die belangrikste Hindoe -gode. Dit was baie interessant, want ek het nog nooit van so 'n kultus gehoor nie. Die Sapta Matrikas sluit in - Brahmani, Vaishnavi, Maheshvari, Indrani, Kaumari, Varahi, Chamunda en Narasimhi. [Terug]

Surya Narayana en die beroemde afgod van Sun God

Ons verhuis na die volgende tempel in die kompleks. Dit is 'n klein tempel met beskeie beelde. Dit is egter baie argeologies belangrik as gevolg van die ou afgod wat in die heiligdom voorkom. Dit is die tempel van Surya Narayana of die songod. Daar is nie baie son tempels in Indië nie, behalwe die bekende in Konark. Konark het egter nie 'n afgod nie. Die Surya -afgod in hierdie klein tempel is waarskynlik die oudste Surya -beeld in Indië.

Dit is gemaak van groen graniet en amper vyf voet lank. Al die besonderhede is duidelik uitgekap, wat Usha en Sandhya en die vrouens van Surya, die 9 planete om hom, sy strydwa deur sewe perde, ens. Uitbeeld. Die belyning van die heiligdom is ook 'n wonder. Daar is geen vensters in die Surya -tempel nie, maar as gevolg van die regte rigting, kom die lig direk op die afgod. Dit is niks minder nie as 'n argitektoniese wonder. U kan hierdie effek baie duidelik op my foto sien. [Terug]

Lad Khan -tempel - Die oudste tempel van Aihole (450 AD)

Argeoloë stel voor dat die ou argitekte geen vorige ervaring gehad het met die bou van 'n tempel nie en dat hulle nie blootgestel was aan ander tempels nie. Hulle bou dit dus in die vorm van 'n gemeenskapsaal op die onderste verdieping en 'n klein heiligdom op die boonste verdieping. Daar is 'n monolitiese leer wat na die boonste heiligdom lei. Die historici glo ook dat die beroemde sakegroep van die Chalukyan-tye en die Ayyovole 500 hierdie tempel moontlik as 'n openbare ontmoetingsplek kon gebruik het. [Terug]

Gaudargudi - 'n A “Dravida ” styl van die tempel van Aihole

Reg langs die Lad Khan -tempel staan ​​die “Gaudargudi ” op 'n laer hoogte. Voor dit kan ons twee miniatuur tempels sien. Ons gids het my vertel dat dit die eksperimentele tempels is wat deur die beeldhouerstudente in Aihole gebou is. Soos ek vroeër genoem het, was Aihole in die ou tyd 'n beroemde universiteit vir argitektuur en beeldhouwerke. Dit was soortgelyk aan die ou Indiese universiteite soos Nalanda, Takshashila en Kancheepuram.

Gaudargudi is 'n goeie voorbeeld van die “Dravida ” styl van tempelargitektuur wat in antieke tye suid van die Narmada -rivier geheers het. 'N Ander styl van tempelargitektuur word die “Nagara ” -styl genoem. Die Nagara -styl was gewild in Noord -Indië. Een van die belangrikste voorbeelde van Nagara -styl -argitektuur is die Konark -sonstempel in Puri. Volgens die Dravida -styl is die dak van die tempel laag en skuins. Die konstruksie is redelik eenvoudig. Volgens die Nagara -styl is die hoogtepunt of Shikhara van die tempel egter in geleidelik afneemende veelvoudige lae gebou. Gewoonlik is hulle ingewikkeld gesny.

Die latere Chalukyan -argitektuur toon duidelik invloede uit die Nagara -styl. Dit is moontlik te wyte aan die militêre ekspedisie van Chalukyan -konings na die noordelike gebiede van Indië. Onthou die tweede Pulakeshin se militêre ekspedisie en verslaan Harsha Vardan aan die oewer van die rivier Narmada.
Daar is baie ander kleiner tempels in die Durga -kompleks. Die “Chakragudi ” is 'n tempel gebou met Nagara -styl Shikhara, waar as 'n ander kleiner tempel in die omgewing, Badigarugudi, in volledige Dravida -styl gebou is. [Terug]

Huchi Malli -tempel - Die tempel van 'kranksinnige Malli'

Nadat ons na al die tempels gekyk het, verlaat ons die Durga -tempel. Die volgende bestemming is amper 'n kilometer van die Durga -tempel af. Dit staan ​​bekend as die tempel van “Huchi Malli ”. Dit vertaal letterlik na “The temple of insane Malli ”.

Volgens die legendes het 'n kranksinnige vrou met die naam Malli in hierdie tempel gebly. Om twee redes is die Huchi Malli -tempel van besondere belang. Die Huchi Malli -tempel word ook beskou as 'n volledige tempel met al die noodsaaklike elemente van 'n Indiese tempel. Dit het 'n Nandi voor (voertuig of Vahana van hoofgod), ingangsportaal (Mukha Mantapa), hoofsaal (Sabha Mantapa), voorkamer (Antarala), Sanctum, sirkelroete (Pradikshina Patha) en 'n piek in Nagara -styl op die dak (Shikhara). Dit is slegs een oorlewende tempel in Aihole waar al hierdie elemente bymekaar kom.

Hierdie tempel het 'n seldsame beeldhouwerk van Subramanian of Karthikeya –, die seun van Lord Shiva. Dit is nie baie algemeen in die Chalukya -tempels nie. [Terug]

Ravan Phadi -grot - huisves een van die meesterstukke van die Indiese beeldhouwerke

Ons volgende stop was 'n klein grot -tempel bekend as “Ravan Phadi ”, naby die Huchi Malli -tempel.

Alhoewel dit ongemerk in 'n hoek van Aihole staan, bevat dit een van die meesterstukke Indiese beeldhouwerke. Dit staan ​​bekend as die “Dashabhuja Nataraja ” of “Die tienhandige dansende Shiva ”. Die blote skoonheid en perfeksie van Shiva, dans saam met Parvati, seuns Ganesh en Karthikeya, vergesel van Sapta Matrikas, is asemrowend. Voor hierdie meesterstuk is 'n oomblik van groot vreugde vir diegene wat van kuns en beeldhouers hou.

Hierdie klein grottempel is gedurende 540 nC gebou en word beskou as die voorganger van die beroemde Badami -grottempels. Afgesien van die Shiva met tien hande, het hierdie grot -tempel verskeie beeldhouwerke, waaronder die “ Durga -doodende demoon Mahisha ” en “Varaha wat die Bhumi Devi (aardgodin) red.

'N Ander interessante beeld in die Ravan Phadi -grottempel is die beeldhouwerk van Lord Shiva en Parvati saam met Bhagiratha. Die wyse Bhagiratha doen boete om die heilige rivier die Ganges uit die hemel na die aarde te bring. Bo -op Lord Shiva is daar drie figure wat die riviere, Ganga, Yamuna en Sarasvati voorstel. [Terug]


Na Ravan Phadi het ons met ons terugreis vanaf Aihole begin.

Hoe om Aihole te bereik?

Die naaste stad aan Aihole is Badami. Aihole is 35 km van Badami geleë. Daar is openbare busse van Karnataka Transport tussen Badami en Aihole, maar dit is nie baie gereeld nie. Dit is die beste as u u eie vervoergeriewe het. Gewoonlik vra motors ongeveer 1500 Indiese roepies vir een dag, en 'n motor-riksja (tuk-tuk) kos ongeveer 600 Indiese roepies per dag. [Terug]

Hoe om Aihole te verken?

Dit is goed om Aihole in u eie voertuig te verken. As u dit kan regkry, is rondloop die beste opsie. Daar is ten minste 125 tempels in hierdie afgeleë dorpie. Dit sal goed wees om 'n geakkrediteerde gids te gebruik. Gids hef gewoonlik tussen 300 en 500, afhangende van die tyd. [Terug]


Iwullee [Durga -tempel, Aihole.]

Beoordeeld op 6 September Wees die eerste om 'n vraag by te voeg. INR Kinders tot 15 jaar oud: daar is egter te veel beeldhouwerke van Lord Shiva en Lord Vishnu wat lei tot die idee dat dit oorspronklik 'n tempel van een van hierdie twee gode was.

Argeologiese opname van Indië.

Daar is vroeër geglo dat die unieke apsidale vorm van die tempel beïnvloed is deur die Boeddhistiese argitektuur van Chaitya -sale wat tydens die Mauryas en die Guptas en die Palas in Indië floreer het. Dit is 'n gewilde pelgrim- en toerismesentrum wat talle besoekers lok uit alle hoekpunte van die Globe.

Durga tempel, Aihole – Wikipedia

Tans word geen aanbidding in die tempel gedoen nie en geen feeste word hier gevier nie. Onder 1 van die besienswaardighede in Aihole.

Om duidelike redes vir toerisme is Aihole goed verbind met al die belangrike stede soos Badami, Pattadakal en Belgaum. Ander opvallende kenmerke van hierdie indrukwekkende tempel is die fyn beelde van Lord Narasimha, Godin Chamundi en Lord Shiva. Die buitengewone temple van die tempel word beskou as 'n afskrif van die eerste Boeddhistiese Chaitya-saal, maar later het die studie vasgestel dat die aiihole van die pan-Indiese tradisie in die Indiese argitektuur nog voor Boeddhistiese argitektuur was.

So 'n vorm was algemeen onder 'n hele paar Indiese tempels en het soos bo van die olifant gelyk. Plaaslike argeologiese museum in die omgewing.

Verskeie busse ry van die nabygeleë stede en dorpe na die tempel in Aihole. Op 'n ander pilaar word Shiva dans op apasmara. E -posskakel na 'n vriend Skryf 'n kort nota by die e -posadres. Die e -posadres van u vriend: naam van die tempel Die naam van hierdie tempel in Aihole is nogal verwarrend.

Die nugter en vierkantige pilare is versier met karakters rondom die stoep en die ingang van die agterkant. Vir ander gebruike, sien Durga Mandir. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die tempel is 'n peristyle wat deur die tempel ronddwaal en standbeelde van verskillende Hindoe -gode op die mure van die tempel gehou word.

Opgehaal van ” https: Vra bsd oor Durga Temple. Net soos die meeste van die ddurga van Aihole, word die werklike oorsprong van die Durga -tempel met 'n absolute akkuraatheid bepaal.

Teken in Sluit aan by Tejple gekyk Besprekings Inbox. Alhoewel dit Durga -tempel genoem word, het dit niks te doen met die godin Durga of Durgi nie. Besit of bestuur hierdie eiendom? Interaktiewe zoombare beeld benodig Flash.

Durga Tempel, Sri Durga Tempel Aihole -Geskiedenis, Voordele & Ligging

U besonderhede is veilig by ons. Die Durga -tempel in Aihole is 'n prominente erfenisterrein met 'n ryk durba -kultuur en besoekers kom van heinde en ver om die wonderlike argitektoniese kenmerke van die tempel te bewonder. Meld 'n besorgdheid U naam: Die belangrikste sjarme van hierdie tempel waarvoor dit gevier word, is die apsidale karakter van die agterste dudga van hierdie argitektuur.

Merk die blokkie of blokkies om hierdie item by u persoonlike galerye te voeg.

INR 15, Burgers van ander lande: U moet aanmeld om u gunstelinge te sien. Privaatheidsbeleid Gebruiksvoorwaardes. Dit beteken dat die gang met pilare tussen die stoep en die hart van die heiligdom die hart van die heiligdom omvat en dat aanbidders die parikrama -omseilritueel kan uitvoer.


Aihole Durga devi tempel

Durga -tempel is 'n Hindoe -tempel uit die Middeleeue, geleë in Aihole in die deelstaat Karnataka, Indië. Die tempel is tussen die 7de en 8ste eeu deur die Chalukyan -dinastie gebou. Die argitektuur van die tempel is in Dravida met Nagara -styl, wat ook in ander tempels van hierdie tydperk gebruik word. Alhoewel daar 'n Durga -beeld in die tempel is, word die naam Durga nie gegee nie omdat die tempel vir godin Durga gewy is, maar omdat die naam Durga beskermer of 'n vesting beteken. Die tempel is opgedra aan Lord Vishnu of Lord Shiva omdat die voorstellings van Vishnu is soveel as Shiva. Die oorspronklikste kenmerk van die tempel is 'n Peristyle wat 'n ambulans rondom die tempel afbaken en die mure is met die beeldhouwerke van verskillende godinne gesny.

Daar is twee verskillende trappe wat toegang tot die tempel bied by die ingang self. Die parapet is met klein diere gesny, die kamer bied toegang tot Mukha mandapa en sabha mandapa om die sanctum sanctorum te bereik. Die vorm van die tempel staan ​​bekend as Gajaprasta, wat ooreenstem met die agterkant van 'n olifant. Aihole was vroeër bekend as Ayyavole en Aryapura in sy inskripsies. Dit het 'n historiese betekenis en word genoem die ‘ -kraal van Hindoe -argitektuur ’. Ander belangrike tempels in Aihole is Chikki -tempel, Rachi -tempel, Hucchappayya -wiskundekompleks, Ramalingeshwara -tempelkompleks, ens.

Die Durga -tempel is vanweë die ryk geskiedenis en argitektoniese kenmerke een van die toeriste -hotspots van Aihole. Feeste word nie hier gevier nie.

Kaartjieprys vir rituele, darshanams en spesiale aanbiedings:


Die oudste Hindoe -tempel ter wêreld

Die geskiedenis van Indië is baie oud en so ook die geskiedenis van Hindoeïsme of Sanatana Dharma waarmee tempels geassosieer word. Die bou van tempels het iewers 2000 jaar gelede begin. Maar die vraag om 'n antwoord op die oudste tempel in Indië te vind, is 'n bietjie moeilik. Elke tempel wat as die oudste beskou word, word bevraagteken deur 'n ander stel mense wat beweer dat hul tempel die oudste is.

Daar was 'n beduidende groei en opkoms van die Hindoe -tempels tussen die 6de en 16de eeu, en 'n groot deel daarvan kan bydra tot die verskillende dinastieë wat gedurende daardie tydperk oor Indië geheers het. Hulle was van mening dat die bou van tempels 'n uiters vroom daad was, en daarom was konings, welgestelde mans gereed om hul hande neer te sit en te help met die bou van die tempels vir die groei daarvan en verskillende godsdienstige aktiwiteite uit te voer.

1. Mundeshwari Devi -tempel, Bihar

Mundeshwari Devi -tempel, Kaimur, Bihar word beskou as die oudste tempel wat nog oorleef het, met bewyse dat dit slegs omstreeks 105 nC gebou is. Archeological Survey of India bevestig dit.

Mundeshwari Devi -tempel in Bihar, Indië, toegewy aan die aanbidding van Lord Shiva en Shakti. Die opskrif van 'n inligtingsplaatjie wat deur die Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) op die terrein opgerig is, dui op die datering van die tempel tot 635 nC. Daar is egter ander weergawes vir die datering wat die Saka -era, voor die Gupta -dinastie -bewind (320 nC) in Indië, en spesifiek tot 105 nC, volgens die administrateur van die Bihar Religious Trust Board vermeld

2. Changu Narayan -tempel in Kathmandu

Die tempel in pagode -styl het verskeie meesterwerke van Nepalese kuns uit die 5de en 12de eeu. Volgens legendes het die Changu Narayan -tempel al in 325 nC bestaan ​​in die tyd van Licchavi -koning Hari Datta Verma en is dit histories sowel as artistiek een van die rykste strukture in Nepal. Op die terrein is daar 'n klipopskrif van groot belang wat die militêre eksploite van King Man Deva opgeteken het wat van 496 tot 524 nC regeer het

Die eerste epigrafiese bewyse van die Nepalese geskiedenis wat tydens die bewind van die Licchavi -koning Mandeva in die tempelterrein gevind is, dateer uit 464 nC, toon aan dat Changu reeds in die 3de eeu nC as heilige plek gevestig is. Dit is die vroegste inskripsie wat in Nepal bekend is. Die tempel is gerestoureer tydens die leeftyd van Ganga Rani, gemaal van Siva Simha Malla wat van 1585 tot 1614 regeer het.

3. Subrahmanya Tempel

Die Subrahmanya Tempel opgegrawe in 2005 daarna tdie tsoenami van 2004 aan die kus van Tamilnadu naby Mahabalipuram kan ouer wees (hoewel nie seker of dit sou val onder die kategorie wat nog bestaan ​​nie). Sommige argeoloë van die Indiese argeologiese opname meen dat daar bewyse is van twee tempels en 'n Pallava -tempel wat minstens 800 jaar oud is, en onder 'n veel ouer een van ongeveer 2000 jaar oud.

4. Durga -tempel Aihole

Hierdie tempel, geleë in Aihole, Noord -Karnataka, is opgedra aan Vishnu en Shiva, is in die 7de of 8ste eeu deur die Chalukyas gebou. Die 'Durga' beteken hier 'beskermer'.

Aihole in Karnataka, wat beskryf word as een van die bakermate van die Hindoe -tempelargitektuur, kan met sekerheid gesê word dat dit van die oudste strukturele tempels het.
Dit het meer as 70 tempels. Hier het die vakmanne met verskillende style geëksperimenteer.

Lad Khan tempel in Aihole word beskou as een van die vroegste tempels in Indië. Dit is omstreeks 450 nC gebou. Dit is later in 'n woning omskep deur 'n prins met die naam (Lad Khan), dus die naam.

Volgens die antieke geskiedenis word geglo dat tempels nie gedurende die vediese tydperk bestaan ​​het nie. Die vroegste tempelstruktuur is gevind in Surkh kotal, 'n plek in Afghanistan gedurende die jaar 1951 deur 'n Franse argeoloog. Die tempel is opgedra aan koning Kanishka van 121-151 nC. Uiteindelik het die belangrikheid van afgodsaanbidding aan die einde van die Vediese tydperk begin toeneem, en sodoende het die konsep van tempels vir gode aan die lig gekom.

Gedurende die antieke tyd was gemeentelike tempels van klei met rietdakke van rietjies en blare. Soms het grottempels op sekere afgeleë plekke en bergagtige terreine bestaan. Dit was eers later dat tempels van klippe en bakstene gemaak is. Trouens, die vroegste strukture wat afgodediens aandui, kan teruggevoer word na die 4de of die 5de eeu nC.

Die tsunami van 2004 wat die kus van Tamilnadu getref het, het twee tempels naby Mahabalipuram, ongeveer 60 km van Chennai, vrygestel. Daar is uitgevind dat 'n Pallava -tempel byna 800 jaar oud is, terwyl die onderkant ongeveer 2000 jaar oud is.

Dan is daar die Jagatmandir -tempel in die westelike deelstaat Gujarat met 'n paar oudste dele. Dit is herbou tydens die Gupta -bewind in 413 nC.

Sommige beskou die Mundeshwari -tempel as die oudste tempel in Indië, wat in die Kaimur -distrik van Bihar geleë is. Dit is die oudste tempel in Indië wat nog funksioneer. Archeological Survey of India het dit herstel en die konstruksie daarvan dateer waarskynlik uit 108 na Christus. Dit is uit daardie tyd dat rituele en aanbidding in hierdie tempel met dieselfde oorgawe gedoen word. Die Mundeshwari -tempel is gewy aan Lord Shiva en Shakti. Die tempel het ook ander afgode soos Ganesha, Vishnu, Surya en Moedergodin.


In die hoofstad van die Chalukya -dinastie

Iewers in die 4de eeu,

Lê die historiese heilige terrein Aihole,

Langs die Malaprabha -rivier

Opgedra die aalyam aan Bhagwan Vishnu

Bou 'n totaal van 120 tempels in die omgewing

Durga mandir, word dit beroemd genoem

Die naam is afgelei van die Durg naby

Pronk met die Dravidiaanse argitektuur

Vir sy oorwinning teen Harshavardhana

Die inskripsies wat u sien, is so oud as 364 CE

In die heilige tale van die land- Sanskrit en Ou Kannada


26 kommentaar

Hierdie antieke tempels moet nie net deur argeologiese departemente bederf word nie, maar moet ook onderhou word deur besorgde staatsregerings om te sien dat sulke tempels goed onderhou word om toegewydes te lok. Tempelbewaarders moet inisiatief neem deur die gronde wat aan die tempels behoort, te bewaar en ten beste te benut om die inkomste vir onderhoud te vergroot en gereelde Puja ens te reël. Op hierdie manier kan ons dit laat herleef. Die algemene publiek en filontrafiste moet ook vryelik bydra.

Dit is nogal ongelooflik. Hindoeïsme is vol raaisel.
Ons as Hindoes moet probeer om soveel as moontlik van ons Puranas te leer, want baie kennis word deur ons wyses vir ons geskryf.
Ons kan die skoonheid hiervan in baie Puranas en Vedas en Upanishads sien.
Hou my op hoogte meneer
Dankie en groete,

Die sny op die neus van Varaha is meer soos 'n Shankha. Aangesien die regterhand 'n Chakra dra en die Bhu Devi links, het die beeldhouer die Shankha op die neus self getoon, aangesien dit sonder Shankha en chakra nie geïdentifiseer kan word as Vishnu
Daarom is dit nie 'n GLOBE nie

Is dit die Ketu wat Lord Varaha aan die onderkant oorwin het?

Hindoeïsme is die nektar van ons erfenis
Ons moet die essensie smaak deur goed te wees vir mekaar, mense en ander lewens

Die probleem met die nuwe generasies is om te veel vrae te vra, hoekom wat en hoe
Hulle moet weet dat Hindoeïsme, sy gebruike, tradisies en leerstellings gebaseer is op kennis van tegnologiese en welstand. Hulle het 'n probleem vir almal. persoonlike volg. Hulle moet aanvaar dat antieke tegnologieë, kerfwerk ens meer logies is en die verduidelikings deur die indringers verbrand word. Tensy hulle die tradisies volg en aanvaar dat dit ons ou kultuur is, sal ons land nie ten volle floreer nie

Dit is baie skaars foto's ter waarde van miljoene dollars

Die aanvanklike vertelling en die daaropvolgende uitwerking van die Varaha -avatar -beeld is vanselfsprekend. Dankie vir die regte interpretasie. Santana Dharma het geen aanbeveling of afwyking nodig nie. Dit is self verlig.

Dit is Hiranyaaksha, wat deur Varaaha Dev oorwin is.

Ek stem saam met die skrywer van die teks
Ons s'n is Sanatana Dharma
Dit is nie nodig om die oudheid toe te skryf aan elke aspek van ons ou tempels nie
Trouens, baie dinastieë en heersers het deur die jare bygedra tot ou tempels deur funksies by te voeg, byvoorbeeld die tempel van Srirangam
Ons ou tempels is skatkis
Volgende keer as u 'n besoek aflê, spandeer u tyd om die ingewikkelde gesnede beelde, die argitektuur te bekyk, behalwe om die godheid te respekteer
Ons bekwame vakmanne van ouds kon ingenieurs van vandag 'n les of twee leer
Laat ons saam ons tempels onderhou

Die glorie van Hindoeïsme wat ons ken, is net die punt van 'n ysberg. Ons het oneindige skatte deur tempels, geskrifte, shlokas, shastras en baie onbekende wetenskappe en logika.
…. . I hope the govt of each state and the indian govt work together in preserving and reviving them for the generations to benefit….
Lets start with reviving the temples, establish the deities and get the daily pujaas started.

I have seen a few pictures of the earth sitting on Lord Varaha’s nose when He went to the depths of the sea to retrieve the earth. In this picture, it does not appear to be so. Having said that, it does not mean that we diminish Lord Varaha’s accomplishment. Faith will keep us on the right path by following our Puranas which have withstood the test of millenniums. We should not either get too excited or worked up by such observations.

I am astonished to see such beautiful picture of Lord Vishnu Avatar. Hinduism is Ocean and all are part of it.

The photos displayed above a lively and eloquent . India has its resplendent glory to show the world and its immortal treasures of knowledge to teach the world from decay and decomposition.Congratulations

Very nice article – in the ever-excitement to project our culture to be old and scientific, some over-zealous enthusiasts do circulate lot of baseless information like this. Though their intention is not bad, what they do not realise is that it is not easy to pass off anything and everything these days. A well-thought article!!

Lord Krishna blessed mother Earth by eating the clay and sand. And the mother Earth appeared also in-front of him by accepting the blessings. Now what does it matter whether its Cube Structure, Sphere Structure, Cylindrical Structure or any other else for that matter. What matters is that the Earth is our mother and we are grateful for the mother earth, She fulfils all our requirements and accepts all our tortures just like a mother does. In her grand gigantic surface, we are accepted always even if we commit crimes and cut so many animals and trees. She is just tolerating. We need to help the nature and ultimately it is our duty to serve mother earth. And if we can not then finally, Lord will anyway descent on this planet to uplift it by killing all other creatures who forgot this duty! Mother Earth, Mother Yamuna, Mother Ganga all are personalities and they got the forms to serve the Lord. We don’t need to fall into such discussions and instead pray to these forms to elevate us. May the Lord Krishna and Mother Earth both bless us and give us mood of gratitude, service attitude, devotion and humbleness. Thank you for giving us birth here please help us realise your true kind and protecting nature. Please take us into your shelter.

one of the the DASA AVATARAS, many Hindus don’t see in temples the deities of Varaha avatar.
almighty has done so much to save this plant as well keeping the balance of our solar system,

it tells a lot about this sculpture, when you think deep, it now apply to our present state of affairs,
let us save our planet, he has already given one chance, let us not blow it.

Notwithstanding what Hindu haters go on saying, it is to be understood that Hindu culture has no parallel
There is depth in the knowledge imparted many many centuries ago and now this is receiving close attention and appreciation all over the world.

Agree with the comments of Mr Manjunath and Mr Gopal Srinivasan.

I also agree with Mr KP & Mr KS Hindu cultural has no parallel.

Agree with the comments of Mr Manjunath and Mr Gopal Srinivasan.

Very nice to know,I am hearing of this type of sculpture for the first time in my life.I am sure that many more are waiting to be discovered.

“The problem with the new generations is asking too many questions why what and how”

I disagree with your statement above. The young must ask questions about their religion and way of life. If they don’t then they will become just mindless of a faith. Yes there are things that they must just accept as being true but questioning is the path to the truth.

Harihi Om! It is a good picture of rare sculpture! Article is a good information as such!
Questioning is a good trait of present generation. Even Lord Krishna tells Arjuna to inquire
,give thought & then except or reject!
Problem is the present older generation is not gone into the depth of our scriptures & rituals! hence they cannot answer the queries from youngsters.They are following the system laid by their fathers & forefathers!
Our education system is based on what Britishers wanted us follow ! Hope now the New Education Policy will take care of the anomalies!
Please do continue to publish such rare Pics & explanations!
Jai Hind! Mera Bharat Mahan!

This is my good luck to see this article and I also agree with the above said comments. Dankie.

Good article written with concern for truth and facts. This is the right attitude to understand our ancient India.

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Durga Temple at Aihole – Durga Temple

It does feature a Durga sculpture but is dedicated mainly to both Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva, equal representatives of the holy trinity of Hinduism, along with Lord Brahma. Numerous images of Shiva and Vishnu can be found in the temple and it is aiholle brilliant aihoke to the religious and spiritual life of Karnataka.

It is a popular pilgrim and tourist center attracting scores of visitors from all four corners of the Globe. Auhole historical events can be attributed to the Durga temple in Aihole and it was built sometime between the 7th and 8th century by the Chalukya Dynasty.

Many factors also suggest that It once served as a part of the fortification of the Marathas sometime after that. This magnificent temple is famous for many prominent features and forms a quadrilateral shape. The distinctive shape of the shrine is in Gajaprasta style, indicating it was built in the contours of the rear portion of an elephant.

Numerous pillar reliefs are a hallmark of the structure and it also depicts a Buddhist Chaitya which features intricate carvings. The sculpture of Goddess Durga in the temple is a splendid piece of work and speaks volumes of the brilliant workmanship prevailing in those days.

An exquisite sculpture of a seven headed serpent is carved on the ceiling of the Durga temple and the walls are replete with sculptures of various Hindu deities. One of the several rooms in the shrine is the Garba Griha Sanctum Sanctorum where the spiritual essence of the temple is palpable.

DURGA TEMPLE AIHOLE – Picture of Kanthi Resorts, Bagalkot – TripAdvisor

The two main pillars along with an elevated plinth and the high galleries form the other unique characteristics of the shrine. Other notable features of this impressive temple are the finely sculpted images of Lord Narasimha, Goddess Chamundi and Lord Shiva. The Durga temple in Aihole is considered an architectural marvel and the presence of numerous pillar reliefs indicate the brilliance of the Chalukyan era.

Built in an oblong apsidal shape, the corridors encompass the heart of the shrine. The construction of the temple is suggestive aiholr Indian traditional architecture in the Dravida and Nagara styles, and its unusual shape is reminiscent of the early Sihole style of building. The Durga temple in Aihole is a prominent heritage site rich with culture and visitors come from far and near to admire the magnificent architectural features of the temple.

Currently, no worship is conducted in the temple and no festivals are celebrated here. If you wish to have customized spiritual tours or pilgrimages arranged in India for yourself or for a group of people, please contact Brindavan Mystic Services at.

The nearest airport to the Durga Temple of Aihole is located in Belgaum, aijole km from the temple.

Aihole is easily accessible from the major cities of Karnataka hemple road. The Railway Station is the Hubli- Sholapur meter gauge line, which is around 34 km away. Several buses ply from the nearby cities and towns to the temple in Aihole. Click the ‘Play’ button to read out loud this webpage content.


Architectural Charm of the Chalukyan Durga Temple in Aihole, Karnataka

The pillared enclosure before the sanctum goes around the core area of the shrine encompassing rurga sanctum region forming an apse. The large number of pillars in this temple have been utilized by the artists to carve a large number puranic stories and self-supporting sculptures. Retrieved 21 October How to Reach Durga Temple Aihole, for apparent reasons of tourism, is well connected with all the important cities around like Badami, Pattadakal and Belgaum.

Aihole is easily accessible from the major cities of Karnataka by road. Own or manage this property? Unlike other temples in the area, which have square or rectangular plans, the Durga Temple is apsidal.

The extraordinary episode form of the temple is considered to be a copy of the first Buddhist Chaitya Hall, but later the study established that the design of the pan-Indian tradition in the Indian architecture was in practice even before Buddhist architecture. This apse gives outward through openings between the pillars. Though it is called Durga Temple, it has nothing to do with goddess Durga or Durgi. Online Shop Buy books and more from us now.

Durga temple is the biggest and arguably the most attractive temple at Aihole.

Architectural Charm of the Chalukyan Durga Temple in Aihole, Karnataka | The Talkative Man

This mighty temple has long been desolate and parts in ruins, and there is no deity commanding the abode of the sanctum sanctorum. Hindu Temples in Karnataka. The architecture of the temple is mainly used in some areas of Nagra and Dravid style. Volvo buses are a popular mode of transport to reach the Durga Temple.

History of the temple Several historical events can be attributed to the Durga temple in Aihole and it was built sometime between the 7th and 8th century by the Chalukya Dynasty. Due to which the temple looks very beautiful and djrga. Which Bagalkot hotels are on sale?


NCERT Solutions for Class 6th Social Science History Chapter 12 Buildings, Paintings and Books

1. Read the story on page 130. In what ways in the monkey king similar to or different from the kings you read about in Chapters 6 and 11?

Ans: The monkey king in the story on page 130 is similar to the kings mentioned in chapters 6 and 11. The monkey king like the other kings has a huge army.

He himself is wise, diplomatic and brave. He has the virtue of taking right moment. When he observes the situation of the attack on his community by the king’s men, he makes a quick plan to save his army. First, he let all of them cross the river. As he is the last, he gets tired and exhausted, he falls down and is dead. In this way, he sacrifices his life for the safety of his kingdom. This is the supreme virtue of a king. So, he is in no way different from the other human kings.

2. Find out more and tell a story from one of the epics.

Ans: We have a number of stories in our epics that inspire us in many ways. They guide us and teach us the ideals of life. Such epics are the Mahabharata and Ramayana.

In the Mahabharata, we have one such story. The battle was finalized between Kauravas and Pandavas. Both the parties were making efforts’ to win the favour of their relatives and another king. Krishna who was related to both was considered as a superman, possessing the qualities of gods. So, Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas approached him. On the same day Arjuna, one of the five Pandavas, also went to Krishna. Duryodhana was a proud fellow. He sat on the head-side of Krishna who was sleeping at that time. Arjuna, a humble fellow, reached thereafter Duryodhana. But he sat at the feet side of Krishna and began pressing his feet.

As Krishna opened his eyes, he saw Aijuna. Krishna had already promised them that he would be from the side of the man who would reach him first. As Krishna saw Arjuna first he said that he would be in favour of Arjuna. Duryodhana opposed it because he had reached there first. Krishna said that those who want to get something from anyone then should be humble and courteous. Here, Duryodhana lost Krishna. We learn from this story that we should not show our arrogance to those from whom we ask for something.

3. Match the following:

Stupa Place where the image of the deity is installed.
Shikhara Mound.
Mandapa Circular path around the stupa.
Garbhagrika Place in temples where people could assemble.
Pradakshina Patha Tower.

Stupa Mound.
Shikhara Tower.
Mandapa Place in temples where people could assemble.
Garbhagriha Place where the image of the deity is installed.
Pradakshina patha Circular path around the stupa.

4. Fill in the blanks:

  1. ………. was a great astronomer.
  2. Stories about gods and goddesses are found in the ……….
  3. ……… is recognized as the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana.
  4. ……….. and ……….. are two Tamil epics.

5. Make a list of the chapters in which you find mention of metalworking. What are the metals objects mentioned or shown in those chapters?
Antwoord:
(a) List of the chapters in which we find mention of metalworking:

  1. In the earliest cities.
  2. What Books and Burials Tell us.
  3. Kingdoms, Kings, and The Early Republic.
  4. Vital Villages, Thriving Towns.
  5. Traders, Kings, and Pilgrims.
  6. New Empires and Kingdoms.
  7. Buildings, Paintings and Books.

(b) Following metals objects are mentioned or shown in these chapters:

  1. Blik
  2. Koper
  3. Bronze
  4. Ivory
  5. Silwer
  6. Goud
  7. Yster.

6. Read the story on page 130 (NCERT book). In what ways is the monkey king similar to or different from the kings you read about in Chapters 6 and 11?
Antwoord:
The Monkey King was a great king, who lived on the banks of the Ganga River in the Himalayas. He was having 80,000 followers. They fed on the fruit of a special mango tree, which was very sweet. The kings we have read about in chapters 6 and 11, they used to have permanent armies but some of their soldiers were supplied by Samantas. This army did not eat fruit but used to eat wheat, rice, etc. They occupied the highest position in society.

In these chapters, we came to know about bigger states, known as Janapadas and Mahajanpadas. In both types of states, the position of the king was hereditary. But the king had to feel the pulse of the public. He used to work for the welfare of his subjects, otherwise, he could be removed when the situation demanded.

Vraag 5.
Find out more and tell a story from one of the epics.
Antwoord:
The Ramayana is an epic written by Adi Rishi Valmiki. This epic is about Rama, a prince of Kosala, who was sent into exile for fourteen years. His wife Sita was abducted by the King of Lanka, named Ravana, and Rama had to fight a battle to get her back. He won and returned to Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala, after his victory.

I.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:

(i) The iron Pillar is situated at………………
(a) Junagarh
(b) Mehrauli
(c) Aihole
(d) Ahmedabad.

(ii) The height of the Iron Pillar is …………….
(a) 7.2 m
(b) 8.2 m
(c) 9.2 m
(d) 10.2 m.

(iii) The small box placed at the centre or heart of the stupa is known as a……………………
(a) Relic casket
(b) Sacred box
(c) Trunk
(d) None of the above.

(iv) The Puranas contained stories about …………………
(a) Kings and queens
(b) Gautam Buddha
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Gods and goddesses.

(v) Sanskrit Ramayana is written by ………………
(a) Valmiki
(b) Vyasa
(c) Tulsidas
(d) Vishnu Sharma.

II.FILL IN THE BLANKS

Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.

  1. The ………. at Aihole was built about 1400 years ago
  2. The small box placed at the centre of the stupa contains bodily remains of the and his followers.
  3. The……. were recited in temples by priests and people came to listen to them.
  4. Both the……….. and the…………. are supposed to have been composed by Vyasa.
  5. developed a scientific explanation for eclipses.

III.TRUE/FALSE

State whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Most temples of this period had a hall like structure known as the mandapa.
  2. Mahabalipuram and Aihole are known for the finest stone temples.
  3. Merchant and farmers usually decided to build stupas and temples during this period.
  4. The Tamil epic the Silappadikaram was composed by a poet named Ilango.
  5. Meghaduta is a famous poem composed by Tulsidas.
  6. Women and Shudras could hear the stories of the Puranas.
  7. It was Ravana who abducted Rama’s wife Sita.
  8. The Jatakas and the Panchatantra are collections of stories told by birds and animals.
  9. Aryabhatta was a famous story-letter.
  10. The Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Ramayana.
  1. Waar
  2. Waar
  3. False
  4. Waar
  5. False
  6. Waar
  7. Waar
  8. False
  9. False
  10. Onwaar.

IV.MATCHING SKILL

Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.

Antw. (i)—(b), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(e), (v)—(c).

V. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. When was the Iron Pillar made?
Ans: It was made about 1500 years ago.

2. Mention the most striking feature of the Iron Pillar.
Ans: The Pillar has not rusted in all these years.

3. What do you mean by the word ‘Stupa’? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The word Stupa means a mound. It is a Buddhist religious building.

4. Why did devotees walk around the stupa in a clockwise direction?
Ans: They did so to show their devotion.

5. Why was Amaravati famous?
Ans: Amaravati was a place where a magnificent stupa once existed.

6. Marne the deities worshipped in the earliest Hindu temples.
Ans: Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga.

7. What was the garbhagriha?
Ans: It was a room in the temple during this period.

8. Why was the garbhagriha so important? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The image of the chief deity was placed in the garbhagriha. Also, the priests performed religious rituals here.

9. What was the shikhara?
Ans:It was a tower built on the top of the garbhagriha to mark this out as a sacred place.

10. What do you know about the monolithic temples at Mahabalipuram?
Ans: Each of these temples was carved out of a huge, single piece of stone.

11. Why did only Kings or queens decide to build stupas and temples?
Ans: Building stupas and temples was an expensive affair. Ordinary people could not think about it.

12. How were the gifts brought by the devotees used?
Ans: The gifts brought by the devotees were used to decorate stupas and temples.

13. How were paintings done in the dark caves?
Ans: The caves were dark. Therefore paintings were done there in the torchlight.

14. What are epics? Give examples. ‘ [V. Imp.]
Ans: Epics are grand, long compositions about the heroic deeds of men and women, They include stories about gods as well. Example—the Mahabharata, the Ramayana.

15. Which gods and goddesses were mentioned in the stories of the Puranas?
Ans: Vishnu, Shiva, Durga or Parvati were mentioned in the stories of the Puranas.

16. How were the Puranas different from the Vedas?
Ans: Women and Shudras were not allowed to study the Vedas but these people could read and hear the verses of the Puranas.

17. Where are the stories told by ordinary people preserved? [V. Imp.]
Ans: The stories told by ordinary people are preserved in the Jatakas and the Panchatantra.

18. Name the book written by Aryabhatta In which language is it written?
Ans: This book is Aryabhatiyam. It is written in Sanskrit.

VI. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Write a few lines on the Iron Pillar located at Mehrauli, Delhi
Ans:

  • The Iron Pillar located at Mehrauli, Delhi was made about 1500 years ago.
  • It is made of iron. Its height is 7.2 m and its weight is over 3 tones.
  • It was probably built during the Gupta dynasty.
  • It is amazing that the pillar has not rusted in all these years.
  • The pillar is a remarkable example of the skill of Indian craftspeople.
  • The pillar is famous all over the world.

2. How were stupas and temples built? [V. Imp.]
Ans: Building stupas and temples was not an ordinary job. It needed huge wealth which only kings or queens could afford. There were several stages in building a stupa or a temple. Firstly, the good quality stone had to be found, quarried, and transported to the place that was often carefully selected for the new building. Secondly, these rough blocks of stone had to be shaped and covered into pillars, and panels for walls, floors, and ceilings. Thirdly, these had to be placed in precisely the right position. Kings and queens spend money from their treasury to pay the craftspersons.

3. What are the main features of Ajanta paintings? [V. Imp.]
Ans:

  • The paintings of Ajanta are world-famous. Ajanta is a place where several caves were hollowed out of the hills over centuries.
  • Most of these were Buddhist monasteries while some of them were decorated with paintings.
  • The caves are dark inside and therefore most of these paintings were done in the light of torches.
  • The colours are vivid even after 1500 years.
  • These colours were made of plants and minerals.

4. Write in brief about Kalidasa’s Meghaduta. [Imp.]
Ans: Kalidasa’s Meghaduta is the best-known poem. It is one of his best literary creations. It is in Sanskrit. It was written during the Gupta reign. There is a description of monsoon in this famous book. The monsoon cloud is imagined to be a messenger between lovers who are separated from one another.

The poet beautifully describes the breeze that will carry the cloud northwards. It is a cool breeze. It blows with the fragrance of the earth. It is delightful, swollen by the cloud’s showers. Elephants inhale it deeply. It causes the wild figs to ripen. It blows gently with the cloud. This description is very sensuous and appealing. It creates a real picture of the cloud and the breeze. Kalidasa was really a poet at par.

5. What are Puranas? Mention some of their features.
Ans: The term Purana literary means old. The Puranas are collections of old Hindu religious stories. Here are some of their features:

  • They contain stories about gods and goddesses such as
  • Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, or Parvati.
  • .They also contain details on how these deities were to be worshipped.
  • There are accounts as well about the creation of the world and about kings.
  • Puranas unlike Vedas could be read and heard by everybody including women and Shudras

6. Describe the contribution of Aryabhatta to Science. [V. Imp.]
Ans: The name of Aryabhatta emerged during this period. He became famous as a mathematician and astronomer. He wrote a book in Sanskrit known as the Aryabhatiyam. He stated that day and night were caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis, even though it seems as if the sun is rising and setting everybody. He developed a scientific explanation for eclipses as well. He also found a way of calculating the circumference of a circle, which is nearly as accurate as the formula we use today.

VII. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. What are stupas? Mention some of their striking features.
Ans: Stupas are Buddhist religious buildings made of brick and stone. There are several kinds of stupas.

  • Some are round and tall while some are big and small. Here are some striking features of stupas.
  • There is a small box, known as a relic casket, placed at the centre or heart of the stupa. The box contains bodily remains of the Buddha or his followers, or things they used, as well as precious stones and coins.
  • This box was covered with earth. Later, a layer of mud brick or baked brick was added on top. And then, the dome-like structure was sometimes covered with carved stone slabs. ‘
  • A path called the pradakshina patha was laid around the stupa. This was surrounded by railings. The entrance to the path was through gateways.
  • Devotees walked around the stupa in a clockwise direction, as a mark of devotion.

2. Describe the earliest Hindu temples.
Ans: Some Hindu temples were also built during this period. The deities worshipped in these shrines were Vishnu, Shiva and Durga. The most important part of the temples was the garbhagriha, which was a room where the image of the chief deity was placed. It was at this place that priests performed religious rituals and devotees offered worship to the deity.

The garbhagriha had a tower known as the shikhara built on its top. This marked the place as a sacred one. Building shikharas require careful planning. Most temples also had a mandapa. This was a hall like structure meant for the common people to assemble.

Mahabalipuram and Aihole in south India were famous for their temples. These were stone temples. The monolithic temples of Mahabalipuram were very beautiful. Each of these temples was carved out of a huge, single piece of stone. It is therefore they are known as monoliths. The Durga temple at Aihole was built about 1400 years ago.

3. Describe the two Sanskrit epics the Mahabharata and Ramayana.
Of Why are the epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana so popular even today?
Antw.
The Mahabharata and Ramayana are the most popular of the epics and other religious books of the Hindus. They are also famous among the followers of other religions. The causes of their popularity are almost the same. The story of the Mahabharata tells family drama followed by a great war between the two groups of the same family, the Kauravas, and Pandavas.

Here, we learn how are fights for the right cause. The Pandavas are dethroned and banished diplomatically by their cousin Duryodhana. They are always subjected to humiliation and injustice. Finally, they are put in a great battle to get their own right.

In the Mahabharata, we know how much tolerance one should have, how one can fight for a justified cause, how we should respect our elders, etc. There are so many teachings of the ideal life in it. The Gita, which constitutes a part of the Mahabharata is in itself considered a great epic. It unfolds all the mysteries of life, the life before, and life after.

In the same way, the Ramayana, written in the most popular language of the time, teaches us the high ideals of life. Rama, the most prominent character, shows how a man should follow the ideals of life. He possesses all the virtues of a highly idealistic and realistic human being. He follows the system in a humble way. He fights for justice and his right. This story is told in a very realistic way. It seems to be the story of a common man. So, it has a great appeal in our society today.


Kyk die video: Durga Temple, Aihole (Augustus 2022).