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Steenmonument van Esarhaddon

Steenmonument van Esarhaddon



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Esarhaddon

Esarhaddon, ook gespel Essarhaddon, [5] Assarhaddon [6] en Ashurhaddon [7] (Neo-Assiriese spykerskrif: Aššur-aḫa-iddina, [8] [9] wat beteken "Ashur het my 'n broer gegee"), [5] was die koning van die Neo-Assiriese Ryk vanaf die dood van sy vader Sanherib in 681 vC tot sy eie dood in 669. Die derde koning van die Sargonid -dinastie, is Esarhaddon die bekendste vir sy verowering van Egipte in 671, [5] wat sy ryk die grootste gemaak het wat die wêreld nog ooit gesien het, en vir sy heropbou van Babilon, wat deur sy vader vernietig is. [10]

Nadat Sanherib se oudste seun en erfgenaam Ashur-nadin-shumi gevange geneem en vermoedelik in 694 tereggestel is, was die nuwe erfgenaam oorspronklik die tweede oudste seun, Arda-Mulissu, maar in 684 word Esarhaddon, 'n jonger seun, aangestel. Woedend oor hierdie besluit, vermoor Arda-Mulissu en nog 'n broer, Nabu-shar-usur, hul vader in 681 en beplan om die Assiriese troon in beslag te neem. Die moord, en Arda-Mulissu se strewe om self koning te word, het Esarhaddon se troonopkoms bemoeilik en hy moes sy broers eers verslaan in 'n ses weke lange burgeroorlog.

Sy broers se poging tot staatsgreep was onverwags en lastig vir Esarhaddon, en hy sou tot die einde van sy bewind geteister word deur paranoia en wantroue teenoor sy amptenare, goewerneurs en manlike familielede. As gevolg van hierdie paranoia was die meeste paleise wat Esarhaddon gebruik het, versterkings met hoë veiligheid buite die groot bevolkingsentrums van die stede. Miskien ook as gevolg van sy wantroue teenoor sy manlike familielede, kon Esarhaddon se vroulike familielede, soos sy ma Naqi'a en sy dogter Serua-eterat, tydens sy bewind aansienlik meer invloed en politieke mag uitoefen as wat vroue in enige vorige tyd toegelaat is. tydperk van die Assiriese geskiedenis.

Ondanks 'n relatief kort en moeilike bewind, en deur paranoia, depressie en konstante siekte, word Esarhaddon steeds erken as een van die grootste en suksesvolste Assiriese konings. Hy verslaan sy broers vinnig in 681, voltooi ambisieuse en grootskaalse bouprojekte in beide Assirië en Babilonië, voer suksesvol veldtog in Media, die Arabiese Skiereiland, Anatolië, die Kaukasus en die Levant, verslaan en verower Laer Egipte en sorg vir 'n vreedsame oorgang van mag na sy twee erfgename Ashurbanipal en Shamash-shum-ukin na sy dood.


Soldaatsteen

Die pad na Soldierstone - duisende pond gegraveerde graniet versteek in 'n bome naby die Continental Divide - is 'n reguit skoot van 100 voet van 'n afgesonderde grondparkeerterrein. Vanaf die nabygeleë Colorado-roete is dit twee vyfdes van myl. En tot 2014 was min besoekers aan die afgeleë deel van die Rio Grande National Forest daarvan bewus.

Selfs nou, as baie mense uit hul pad gaan om die 19-jarige gedenkteken te besoek, weet min wat hulle moet maak van die rotsagtige rots wat omring is deur 'n klipskerm wat op die bobeen hoog is. Ongeveer 50 meter van die sentrale merker is 36 sitaatstene van 300 pond, onder andere in Frans, Laotiaans, Thai, Viëtnamees en Arabies geëts.

'Dit lyk redelik afgeleë en byna ontoeganklik,' het Eben Yonnetti, 'n stapper van Colorado Trail, opgemerk. "Dit laat jou wel wonder oor die doel van so 'n monument en of dit selfs bedoel is om gesien te word. Of as dit net bedoel is om gestruikel te word en dat mense daaroor kopkrap."

Die U.S. Forest Service het geen aanlyn inligting oor die webwerf geplaas nie. Daar is geen interpretatiewe tekens nie. 'N Besoek aan die naaste veldwagterstasie gee mondelinge aanwysings oor hoe om daar te kom, plus 'n papierboekie met vet letters met die opskrif "Nie bedoel vir vertoning of wye verspreiding".

Die gebrek aan 'n amptelike verhaal rondom Soldierstone het 'n gerugmolen begin. Sommige sê die merker is onwettig op die Amerikaanse Bosdiensgrond. Ander, wat nuuskierig is oor hoe dit gebou is, het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat slegs 'n helikopter sulke groot klippe na so 'n afgeleë gebied kon skuif.

'Sommige mense sê' Wel, dit is weggesteek of dit is geheim '. Dit was regtig nie die geval nie, ”het Mike Blakeman, 'n woordvoerder van die Amerikaanse Bosdienskantoor, gesê. 'Ons het dit nie aktief bevorder nie.'

Die geskiedenis van Amerika se oorlogsmonumente op openbare lande is 'n proses en insette. Daar is komitees en soms subkomitees wat die werk van komitees hersien.

Waarom is 'n openbare gedenkteken wat op openbare grond gebou is, dan nou privaat gehou?

Die antwoord kom uit die begrip van die veteraan wat jare en tienduisende van sy eie dollars spandeer het om Soldierstone te bou: Stuart Allen Beckley.

Die paaie wat mense na Soldierstone lei, wissel. Veterane het al jare lank mond-tot-mond nuus oor die klip-artefak gedeel. Vir Mike Donelson, eienaar van Ark Valley Memorial, begin dit in 1990 toe 'n veteraan van die Amerikaanse weermag by die voordeur van sy winkel in Rocky Ford, Colorado, instap.

'Hy het in gedagte gehou dat dit gedoen sou word,' het Donelson gesê. 'U kan sien dat dit nie net iets is waaraan hy net gedink het nie, en gedink het dat dit 'n goeie idee sou wees om eendag te doen.'

Afgetrede Amerikaanse luitenant -kolonel Stuart Allen Beckley het in Texas gewoon, maar besit eiendom naby Westcliffe, Colorado.

Hy het tydens die Viëtnam -oorlog 'n loopbaan in die Amerikaanse weermag gemaak. Volgens sy familie het hy 'n paar spesiale magte gedoen en die Thaise weermag opgelei in teenopstandsmetodes. Hy het ook tyd in Laos deurgebring en uiteindelik in 1972 afgetree.

Toe Beckley Donelson die eerste keer nader, was sy plan om ''n klein gedenkprojek op te rig' wat 'onherinnerbare vriende uit ons Indochina -ervaring vereer'. Sy naam moes nêrens in verband daarmee verskyn nie.

Die bedoeling was om hulde te bring van Amerikaanse soldate aan vergete soldate uit "Viëtnam, Laos, Kambodja, die Hmong, die Montagnard -stamme van Sentraal -Viëtnam, die Koreane, Thais, Franse, Duitsers, Slawiërs, Noord -Afrikaners, Swart Afrikaners en ander van almal godsdienste en oortuigings wat gewillig of onwillig bestee is tydens die lang oorloë wat in die hoop, trots en tevergeefs, vir die mense van Indochina, 1945 tot 1975, verlore gegaan het. "

Maar die presiese ervarings wat Beckley gedryf het om Soldierstone te skep, is nog steeds 'n raaisel vir Donelson.

'Ek het altyd die gevoel gehad dat hy berou het - 'n paar dinge wat in sy ingewande geëet het, wat ek weet in Vietnam saam met sy manne moes gebeur het,' het Donelson gesê. 'Daar is baie dinge, omdat hy 'n [luitenant] kolonel was, op 'n behoefte-om-te-weet basis onthul is.

In 1990 het Beckley 'n lang korrespondensie geloods wat byna vyf jaar geduur het totdat dit gebou is.

Beckley was 'n produktiewe briefskrywer en beplanner wat 'n duidelike idee gehad het van wat hy wou hê. Donelson was 'n hardwerkende klipkapper wat die toewyding van Beckley gesien het om dit te bou. Hy het sy kliënt gevra om slegs vir materiaal te betaal, nie tyd en arbeid nie.

Die proses het begin met die aankoop van 15 300 pond grys klippe, groot soos groot grafstene. Voor die dae van rekenaar -gegenereerde beeldvorming, is aanhalings gekies, in vreemde tale vertaal en deur Beckley geverifieer. Donelson en sy assistent het alles met die hand geskuur.

"Vra jy genoeg vir jou werk?" Vra Beckley in 'n brief van September 1993. "Ek is seker dat sommige van hierdie klippe baie meer tyd/moeite gekos het as wat u in u skatting voorsien het."

Donelson het die voorstelle om meer salaris te betaal, uit die weg geruim.

Terwyl Donelson die klippe ingeskryf het, het Beckley na Colorado gereis om die plek vir Soldierstone te ondersoek. Die eerste plek, private eiendom wat hy in Westcliffe besit het, is oorweeg, maar uiteindelik is dit van die hand gewys.

Toe verskyn nog 'n voorloper.

'Ek is van plan om 'n week aggressief deur te soek na die Colorado -roete langs die Continental Divide vir 'n National Forest -terrein,' het Beckley in 1994 geskryf. in reserwe gehou sou ek nie toestemming kry om dit in die hoë Rockies te plaas nie, of sou ek sterf voordat ons installasie goedkeuring kry. "

Teen 1995 het Beckley ontdek dat hy kanker het en dat hy chemoterapie -behandelings ondergaan het. In 'n brief wat aan die Amerikaanse Bosdiensbeamptes gesmeek het, skryf hy dat hy "geen publisiteit, geen openbare kongresverhoor en geen media -betrokkenheid wil hê nie. Dit is 'n anonieme huldeblyk van Amerikaanse soldate aan vergete soldate."

In 1995 het die Bosdiens die plan groen verlig en 'n knik gegee na Beckley se voornemens om 'n lae profiel vir die gedenkteken te hou.


Jy sal ook dalk hiervan hou

Die film, geregisseer deur George Clooney en met die hoofrol, fokus op 'n peloton van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat deur Franklin D. Roosevelt aangesê is om artistieke meesterwerke van Nazi -diewe te red en terug te keer na hul regmatige eienaars.

Op hierdie noot het ons by TravelPulse besluit om na die grootste klipmonumente ter wêreld te kyk, wat op sigself kunswerke is. Dit is nie net ontsagwekkende besienswaardighede nie, maar die meeste van hulle het ook 'n groot historiese betekenis en moet ten minste een keer in u leeftyd gesien word.

Dus, sonder meer, is hier die top 10 klipmonumente ter wêreld.

Stonehenge, Wiltshire, Engeland

Ek sal begin met die voor die hand liggende.

Stonehenge - geleë in Wiltshire, Engeland - is 'n prehistoriese monument wat tot 3000 vC gedateer is.

Stonehenge het miskien al soveel jare die aandag van die wêreld getrek omdat dit so geheimsinnig is. Daar is talle teorieë oor hoe die groot klippe na hul bestemming verskuif is, asook talle teorieë rondom die oorspronklike doel van die monument. Omdat daar geen geskrewe rekords is van die kultuur wat Stonehenge gebou het nie, is dit moeilik om seker te weet.

Maar een ding is seker: die feit dat 'n kultuur wat so ver terug dateer, so 'n kolossale klipmonument kon bou sonder die gebruik van gevorderde tegnologie, is op sigself indrukwekkend.

The Parthenon, Athene, Griekeland

Die bou van die Parthenon het ongeveer nege jaar geneem en nog ses jaar om dit te versier.

Opgedra aan die godin Athena, staan ​​dit ongeveer 45 voet hoog, 228 voet lank en 101 voet breed.

Die tempel het sedert die oprigting in 438 vC 'n simbool geword van antieke Griekeland, die Atheense demokrasie en die westerse beskawing, en word ook beskou as een van die grootste Griekse kunswerke wat ooit geskep is, met baie ongelooflike standbeelde.

Die gebou is na al die jare natuurlik nie in 'n ongerepte toestand nie, maar om dit in die huidige vorm te sien, is 'n bewys dat die ou Grieke weet wat hulle doen as dit by argitektuur en kuns kom.

Mount Rushmore, Keystone, Suid -Dakota

Mount Rushmore, wat meer as 1,200 hektaar beslaan en meer as 5,700 voet bo seespieël styg, is skouspelagtig wat die grootte alleen betref.

Voeg die feit by dat dit standbeelde van 60 voet dra van die koppe van vier historiese Amerikaanse presidente, en u het 'n wêreldberoemde monument.

Ter ere van George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln en die eerste 130 jaar van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis, lok Mount Rushmore besoekers wyd en syd sedert die bouwerk in 1941 beëindig is.

Konstruksie moes uiteindelik gestaak word weens 'n gebrek aan befondsing ('n huldeblyk aan die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring, die Amerikaanse Grondwet en die koop van Louisiana was ook in die oorspronklike planne), maar wat die meesterbrein Gutzon Borglum en seun Lincoln gedoen het met die geld wat hulle gehad het, het gestaan die toets van tyd.

Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, Indië

Die Taj Mahal het sedert die voltooiing in 1648 'n simbool geword van groot argitektuur en wêrelderfenis.

Gebou deur die destydse keiser Shah Jahan ter nagedagtenis aan die derde vrou Mumtaz Mahal, bereik die Moslem-kunswerk 240 voet tot in die lug. Dit word so kosbaar beskou dat 'n beskermde gebied van 10 400 vierkante kilometer dit omring.

Die wit marmer mausoleum word beklemtoon deur 'n groot koepel en meegaande minarette, en dit bevat 'n skouspelagtige graf binne. Rondom die monument is 'n tuin van 980 vierkante meter.

Die Taj Mahal lok deesdae jaarliks ​​ongeveer vier miljoen besoekers.

Groot Piramide van Giza, El Giza, Egipte

Wat maak die Groot Piramide van Giza so opmerklik?

Wel, dit is een van die sewe wonders van die antieke wêreld, en dit is die enigste wat nog grootliks ongeskonde is.

Maar verder is dit ook meer as 450 voet hoog en die basis is meer as 750 voet lank.

Net soos Stonehenge, is daar 'n verskeidenheid teorieë oor hoe hierdie monument in antieke tye gebou is. Dit was die hoogste mensgemaakte struktuur ter wêreld vir meer as 3800 jaar. Dit bevat drie bekende kamers, met stygende en dalende gange, en word omring deur 'n kompleks van tempels, piramides en grafte.

'N Monument wat sedert ongeveer 2560 vC staan, verdien net 'n bietjie erkenning.

Moai -standbeelde, Paaseiland, Suidoos -Stille Oseaan

Paaseiland spog met 887 ou monumentale standbeelde genaamd 'moai' wat op mense lyk.

Daar word gesê dat hulle tussen 1100 en 1680 deur die antieke Rapa Nui -beskawing gebou is.

Hierdie beelde is gemaak van verskillende soorte rotse, waaronder basalt, obsidiaan, rooi scoria en tuff. Hulle was gemiddeld 13 voet lank en 14 ton. Die grootste en gewildste standbeeld word 'Paro' genoem, wat 82 ton weeg en meer as 32 voet lank is.

Die standbeelde is nie net interessant nie, vanweë die raaisel agter hul beweging, die Rapa Nui -mense het ook 'n lang pad gekom om hulle op Paaseiland te vestig, wat een van die meer afgeleë bewoonde plekke ter wêreld is.

Machu Picchu, Cusco -streek, Peru

Daar is verskeie teorieë agter die skepping van Machu Picchu, maar die 200 strukture wat 32 000 hektaar beslaan en meer as 2,400 voet bo seespieël styg, is 'n aanskoulike gesig.

Omring deur die Amasone -bekken op die oostelike hange van die Andes, is daar geen twyfel oor die skoonheid van hierdie plek nie. Dit is 'n noemenswaardige landbou-, godsdienstige, kulturele, seremoniële en sterrekundige sentrum. Dit word ook vereer deur argitekte en ingenieurs vir die ontwerp en die vermoë om moeiteloos in die natuurlike landskap in te skakel.

Machu Picchu, een van die voorste simbole van die antieke Inca -beskawing, is 'n bestemming wat die moeite werd is om te besoek en te bestudeer.

Die Romeinse Colosseum, Rome, Italië

Die toneel van tallose gladiatorgevegte en dieregevegte, die Colosseum - oorspronklik bekend as die Flaviese amfiteater - is nie net 'n groot skaal nie, dit is ook 'n simbool van antieke Rome.

Keiser Vespasianus het die elliptiese gebou in 72 nC in gebruik geneem voordat dit in 80 voltooi is.

Hoewel diere -aktiviste die geskiedenis van die Colosseum kan afskrik (na berig word 9 000 diere is tydens die geveg doodgemaak), kan die argitektuur, omvang en geskiedenis van die Italiaanse monument nie ontken word nie.

Leunende toring van Pisa, Pisa, Italië

Die skuins toring van Pisa was nie presies perfek beplan nie, maar danksy die opvallende onvolmaaktheid het dit een van die wêreld se mees herkenbare bakens geword.

Die 183 voet hoë kloktoring begin leun toe die sagte grond daaronder sy plek begin afneem. Op 'n stadium het dit 5,5 grade neig. Na herstelwerk in die 20ste en 21ste eeu, neig dit nou tot 3,99 grade.

'N Aanvulling op die katedraal in Piazza del Duomo en 'n kulturele simbool van mag, bly die skuins toring van Pisa wêreldwyd besoekers ontsag.

Maar is die skuins toring van Pisa 'n bewys van mag of uniekheid?

Groot Muur van China

En natuurlik het ons die Groot Muur van China.

Die Groot Muur strek ongeveer 5,500 myl van oos na wes China. Die draakagtige struktuur weef deur grasvelde, berge, woestyne en plato's, sy argitektoniese skoonheid word aangevul deur die natuurlike omgewing.

Dit spog met 'n geskiedenis van ongeveer 2000 jaar, met die bou daarvan in die tydperk van die strydende state in 476 vC. Dit het amptelik die Groot Muur toe keiser Qin Shihuang die verskillende afdelings tydens die Qin -dinastie verbind het om te beskerm teen die Hun -inval. Die meeste van wat u vandag sien, is geskep tydens die Ming -dinastie van 1368 tot 1644 nC.

Die monument is baie belangrik vir China en is 'n sentrale figuur in die land se mitologie.


Inhoud

Stone Mountain is 'n pluton, 'n soort stollingsindringing. Die koepel van Stone Mountain, wat hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit kwartsmonzoniet, is gevorm tydens die vorming van die Blue Ridge -berge ongeveer 300–350 miljoen jaar gelede (gedurende die koolstofperiode), deel van die Appalachiese berge. [8] Dit het ontstaan ​​as gevolg van die opwelling van magma vanuit die aardkors. Hierdie magma het gestol om graniet binne die kors te vorm, vyf tot tien myl onder die oppervlak.

Die Stone Mountain -pluton gaan op die langste punt in Gwinnett County ondergronds 14 kilometer verder. Talle naslaanboeke en Georgiese literatuur noem Stone Mountain as "die grootste granietstuk ter wêreld". [9] Hierdie wanopvatting is waarskynlik die gevolg van wanvoorstelling deur granietondernemings en vroeë parkadministrasie. Stone Mountain, hoewel dit dikwels 'n pienk granietkoepel genoem word, wissel eintlik in samestelling van kwartsmonzoniet [10] tot graniet en granodioriet. [11]

Die minerale in die gesteentes bevat kwarts, plagioklase veldspaat, mikroklien en muskoviet, met kleiner hoeveelhede biotiet en toermalyn. Die toermalyn is meestal swart van kleur, en die meerderheid daarvan bestaan ​​as optiese deurlopende skeletale [12] kristalle, maar veel groter, euhedrale pegmatitiese toermalynkristalle kan ook gevind word in die berg se talle, dwars-sny-felsiese dyke. In die graniet is xenoliete of stukke vreemde gesteentes ingeslote in die magma.

Die graniet het tydens die laaste stadiums van die Alleghenian Orogeny in die metamorfe gesteentes van die Piemonte -streek ingedring, wat die tyd was toe Noord -Amerika en Noord -Afrika gebots het. Met verloop van tyd het erosie uiteindelik die huidige berg met meer weerstandige stollingsgesteentes blootgestel. Hierdie indringing van graniet het ook aanleiding gegee tot Panola -berg en Arabia -berg, albei in DeKalb County, kleiner uitstortings verder suid van Stone Mountain.

Die top van die berg is 'n landskap met kaal rots- en rotspoele, en bied uitsigte oor die omliggende gebied, insluitend die skyline van die sentrum van Atlanta, dikwels Kennesaw Mountain, en op baie duidelike dae selfs die Appalachiese berge. Op sommige dae is die top van die berg in 'n swaar mis gehul, en die sig kan beperk word tot slegs 'n paar meter.

Die helder varswaterpoele op die top vorm deur reënwater wat in erode depressies versamel, en is die tuiste van ongewone mosselgarnale en feetjiegarnale. Die klein garnale verskyn slegs gedurende die reënseisoen. Deur die proses van kriptobiose kan die klein garnaleiers (of siste) jare lank in die uitgedroogde depressies dormant bly, in afwagting van gunstige toestande. Hierdie poele is ook die tuiste van verskeie federale gelyste seldsame en bedreigde plantspesies, soos swartkruidkil (Isoetes melanospora) en swembadsprite (ook genoem snorkelwort, Gratiola amphiantha). [13] [14]

Die berg se onderste hange is beboste. Die skaars Georgia-eikebome is die eerste keer op die top ontdek, en verskeie eksemplare kan maklik gevind word langs die aanlooproete en in die bos rondom die voet van die berg. In die herfs het die Konfederale geel madeliefie (Helianthus porteri) blomme verskyn op die berg en groei in rotsskeurings en in die groot beboste gebiede. Meer as 120 veldblomme, waarvan die meeste inheems is aan die Suidelike Appalachiërs en insluitend verskeie skaars of federale beskermde spesies, is op die berg geïdentifiseer. [15]

Konfederale geel madeliefie (Helianthus porteri)

Die grootste bas-reliëf-beeldhouwerk ter wêreld, die Confederate Memorial Carving, beeld drie konfederale leiers van die burgeroorlog uit: president Jefferson Davis en generaals Robert E. Lee en Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson (op hul gunstelingperde, Blackjack, Traveler, en Little Sorrel, onderskeidelik). Die beeld is 42 voet diep in die berg gesny, [16] en is 90 voet hoog, 190 voet breed, [17] en lê 400 voet bo die grond. [18]

Wie die eerste keer 'n Konfederale gedenkteken aan die kant van Stone Mountain gekry het, is lankal 'n kwessie van debat. Die geskrewe getuienis. wys op Francis Ticknor, 'n negentiende-eeuse dokter en digter van Jones County, Georgia. in 'n gedig van 1869. William H. Terrell, 'n advokaat in Atlanta en seun van 'n Konfederale veteraan,. stel dit in die openbaar op 26 Mei 1914 voor in 'n hoofartikel vir die Atlanta Grondwet. "[19]: 55 Drie weke later het Georgian John Temple Graves, redakteur van die New York Amerikaner, het voorgestel dat dit 'n standbeeld van 70 voet (21 m) van Robert E. Lee moet hê. [19]: 56

Die projek is sterk gevorder deur C. Helen Plane, [20] 'n charterlid van die United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) en die eerste president en die Ere -lewe -president van die Georgia State Division. [19]: 57 Nadat sy die goedkeuring van die Georgia UDC gekry het, stig sy die UDC Stone Mountain Memorial Association. Sy het die beeldhouer Gutzon Borglum vir die projek gekies en hom genooi om die berg te besoek (alhoewel sy, ondanks sy Ku Klux Klan -betrokkenheid, [19]: 79 "nie sy hand sou skud nie - hy was immers 'n Yankee"). [19]: 58–59 Sy ontmoet hom op die treinstasie in Atlanta, neem hom na haar gesin se somerhuis, Mont Rest, aan die voet van die berg en stel hom voor aan Sam Venable, [19]: 59 nog 'n aktiewe Klan -lid en eienaar van die berg. Borglum het ook Luigi Del Bianco aangewys, wat hy ook by Mount Rushmore sou betrek. [21]

Die oorspronklike plan van Borglum was: vyf groepe figure, vyf-en-sestig berede offisiere wat die state verteenwoordig (deur die state gekies), generaal Nathan Bedford Forrest en sy kavalerie-ongeveer 700 tot 1000 figure, elk van 35 voet (11 m) tot 50 voet (15 m) hoog. Daarbenewens het Borglum 'n kamer beplan om 'n kamer van 18 meter in die berg, 98 meter breed en 12 meter hoog, met 13 kolomme, te sny. [19]: 59–60

Venable het die noordelike gesig van die berg in 1916 aan die UDC verleen, op voorwaarde dat dit 'n aansienlike burgeroorlogmonument in 12 jaar sou voltooi. Finansies sowel as tegniese probleme vertraag vordering. Die Amerikaanse munte het 'n gedenk silwer Amerikaanse dollar van 1925 uitgereik met die woorde "Stone Mountain" in 1925 as 'n geldinsameling vir die monument. [22] Hierdie uitgawe, wat die goedkeuring van beide die kongres van 1926 en president Calvin Coolidge vereis het, was tot dusver die grootste kwessie van herdenkingsmuntstukke deur die Amerikaanse regering. [19]: 81

Finansiële konflikte tussen Borglum en die Vereniging het daartoe gelei dat hy in 1925 ontslaan is. [19]: 85 Hy vernietig sy modelle en beweer dat dit sy eiendom is, maar die Vereniging stem nie saam nie en het 'n lasbrief vir sy arrestasie uitgereik. Hy is gewaarsku oor die inhegtenisneming en het nouliks na Noord -Carolina ontsnap, wie se goewerneur, Angus McLean, geweier het om hom uit te lewer, [19]: 89 hoewel hy nie na Georgia kon terugkeer nie. Die aangeleentheid is baie gepubliseer en daar was baie bespreking en onenigheid, insluitend onenigheid tussen Sam Venable, die Vereniging en sy president, Hollins Randolph. [19]: 103, 116–119 Die gesig van Lee wat Borglum gedeeltelik voltooi het, is in 1928 van die berg af geblaas. [19]: 111

Borglum se volgende groot projek was Mount Rushmore.

Nadat 'n aantal beeldhouers hulle van die hand gewys het, [19]: 97 begin Augustus Lukeman die werk in 1925, met 'n ander, kleiner ontwerp. Dit was nog moeiliker om geld in te samel na die openbare debat en oproepe, en die werk het in 1928 gestaak. die Amerikaanse toetrede tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1941–45). [23]

In antwoord op Brown v. Onderwysraad van 1954 en die geboorte van die Burgerregtebeweging, in 1958, op aandrang van die segregasie -goewerneur Marvin Griffin, [6]: 21 het die wetgewer in Georgia 'n maatreël goedgekeur om Stone Mountain teen $ 1,125 miljoen te koop. In 1963 word Walker Hancock gekies om die snywerk te voltooi, en werk begin in 1964. Die kerfwerk is op 9 Mei 1970 tydens 'n seremonie gewy. [24] Die snywerk is op 3 Maart 1972 deur Roy Faulkner voltooi. [25] Faulkner in 1985 het die Stone Mountain Carving Museum (nou gesluit) op die nabygeleë Memorial Drive geopen ter herdenking van die kerf se geskiedenis. [26] 'n Uitgebreide argiefversameling wat verband hou met die projek is nou aan die Emory Universiteit, met die grootste deel van die materiaal wat van 1915 tot 1930 dateer, bied die hulpmiddel 'n geskiedenis van die projek en 'n indeks van die vraestelle in die versameling. [20]

Stone Mountain Park is amptelik geopen op 14 April 1965-100 jaar tot die dag na Lincoln se sluipmoord. [6] Vier vlae van die Konfederasie word op die terrein gewaai. [27] The Stone Mountain Memorial Lawn "bevat. Dertien terrassen - een vir elke Konfederale staat. Elke terras het die vlag wat die staat as lid van die Konfederasie gevlieg het." [28]


Klipmonument van Esarhaddon - Geskiedenis

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Zora Stone Monument Deel 1

Ry vinnig na Vah Ruta en ry noord na 'n hoogtepunt op die krans. Paraglide in die rigting van die monument, jy sal dit met min probleem regkry. Dit is reg op die pad op pad na die Zora -domein, so u het hierdie moontlik reeds gelees. Hierdie monument vertel van die skepping van Zora 's Domain as 'n reuse beeldhouwerk.


Steenmonument van Esarhaddon - Geskiedenis

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Inhoud

Mesopotamian royal titles vary in their contents, epithets and order depending on the ruler, dynasty and the length of a monarch's reign. Patterns of arrangement and the choice of titles and epithets usually reflect specific kings, which also meant that later rulers attempting to emulate an earlier great king often aligned themselves with their great predecessors through the titles, epithets and order chosen. As such, Akkadian-language royal inscriptions can be important sources on the royal ideology of any one given king and in exploring sociocultural factors during the reigns of individual kings. [1] [2]

Oorsprong Redigeer

Though there had been kings (and thus obviously royal titles) in Mesopotamia since prehistoric times, the first great "innovator" of royal titles was Naram-Sin of Akkad (r. 2254–2218 BC), the grandson of Sargon of Akkad and the fourth ruler of the Akkadian Empire. Naram-Sin introduced the idea of kingship in the four corners (e.g. the four inhabited regions of the Earth) with the title "King of the Four Corners of the World", probably in geographical terms expressing his dominion over the regions Elam, Subartu, Amurru and Akkad (representing east, north, west and south respectively). [3] It is possible that Naram-Sin might have been inspired to claim the title following his conquest of the city Ebla, in which quadripartite divisions of the world and the universe were prominent parts of the city's ideology and beliefs. Naram-Sin was also the first king to claim divinity for himself during his lifetime. Though both his father Manishtushu and his grandfather Sargon were recognized as divine, they had only been deified posthumously. [4] The adoption of the title "God of Akkad" may have been due to Naram-Sin winning a great victory over a large-scale revolt against his rule. Naram-Sin was also the first Mesopotamian ruler to adopt the epithet dannum ("mighty"). [5]

Another title heavily associated with the Akkadian rulers was šar kiššatim. The literal translation of this title is "King of Kish", Kish being one of the more prestigious Sumerian cities, often having been seen in the times preceding the Akkadian Empire as having some sort of primacy over the other cities in the region. Use of the title, which was not limited to kings actually in possession of the city itself, implied that the ruler was a builder of cities, victorious in war and a righteous judge. [6] By the time of Sargon of Akkad, "King of Kish" meant a divinely authorized ruler with the right to rule over all of Sumer, it might have begun to refer to some sort of a universal rule already in the centuries before Sargon's rise to power. [7] Through its use by Sargon of Akkad and his successors, the title would be altered in meaning from "King of Kish" to the more boastful "King of the Universe", which is how later rulers would interpret it for more than a thousand years. [8]

After the fall of Akkad, further titles would be introduced by the kings of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The founder of this dynasty, Ur-Nammu (r. 2112–2095 BC), combined the title of "king of Akkad" with the traditional "king of Sumer" in an effort to unify the north and south of Mesopotamia under his rule, creating the title of "king of Sumer and Akkad". Though the Akkadian kings had used both the titles of "king of Akkad" and "king of Sumer", the combined title was new. Sargon of Akkad had even during his reign explicitly been against linking Sumer and Akkad. There was some native Mesopotamian precedence for double titles of this kind, in the Early Dynastic III (c. 2900–2350) period, double titles were used by some kings with examples like "lord of Sumer and king of the nation" and "king of Uruk and king of Ur". These titles were unique to their respective rulers however, never appearing again, and repeated "king" at the mention of the second kingship. Ur-Nammu was acknowledged by the priesthood at Nippur and crowned as sovereign of the two lands surrounding Nippur "to right and left". [9] The fourth king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, Amar-Sin (r. 2046–2038 BC), was the first ruler to introduce the title šarru dannu ("mighty king"), replacing the earlier epithet dannum. [10]

When the Third Dynasty of Ur collapsed and its vassals once again became independent polities, the former vassal cities often only implicitly renounced their allegiance to Ur. Since the ruler of Ur was deified and thus technically a god, ruling titles like šar ("king") were applied to the principal deities of the cities. As a result, formerly subordinate titles such as šakkanakki en Išši’ak (both translating to "governor") became sovereign ruling titles. [10]

Assyrian and Babylonian titulature Edit

Over the course of the centuries after the fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the main kingdoms that would develop in Mesopotamia were Assyria in the north and Babylonia in the south. The kings of Assyria would title themselves as Išši’ak until the reign of the Middle-Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I of the 14th century BC, who once more introduced the title šar, signifying his role as an absolute monarch. [11]

Typically, Assyrian royal inscriptions usually glorify the strength and power of the king whilst Babylonian royal inscriptions tend to focus on the protective role and the piety of the king. [1] Assyrian titularies usually also often emphasize the royal genaeology of the king, something Babylonian titularies do not, and also drive home the king's moral and physical qualities while downplaying his role in the judicial system. [12] Assyrian epithets about royal lineage vary in how far they stretch back, most often simply discussing lineage in terms of "son of . " or "brother of . ". Some cases display lineage stretching back much further, Shamash-shuma-ukin (r. 667–648 BC) describes himself as a "descendant of Sargon II", his great-grandfather. More extremely, Esarhaddon (r. 681–669 BC) calls himself a "descendant of the eternal seed of Bel-bani", a king who would have lived more than a thousand years before him. [13]

Assyrian royal titularies were often changed depending on where the titles were to be displayed, the titles of the same Assyrian king would have been different in their home country of Assyria and in conquered regions. Those Neo-Assyrian kings who controlled the city of Babylon used a "hybrid" titulary of sorts in the south, combining aspects of the Assyrian and Babylonian tradition, similar to how the traditional Babylonian deities were promoted in the south alongside the Assyrian main deity of Ashur. [12] The assumption of many traditional southern titles, including the ancient "king of Sumer and Akkad", by the Assyrian kings served to legitimize their rule and assert their control over Babylon and lower Mesopotamia. [2] Epithets like "chosen by the god Marduk and the goddess Sarpanit" and "favourite of the god Ashur and the goddess Mullissu", both assumed by Esarhaddon, illustrate that he was both Assyrian (Ashur and Mullissu, the main pair of Assyrian deities) and a legitimate ruler over Babylon (Marduk and Sarpanit, the main pair of Babylonian deities). [14]

Most of the Neo-Assyrian titles that speak of the king's prowess, e.g. "great king", "mighty king" and even the old "king of the Universe", a title dating back to Akkadian times, were not carried over into the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire with two exceptions. The founder of the Neo-Babylonian empire, Nabopolassar (r. 625–605 BC) uses some of the titles (prominently "mighty king") in his early inscriptions, possibly due to his family originating as high-ranking officials for the Assyrians (a fact he otherwise was careful to mask). The final ruler of the Neo-Babylonian empire, Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC), took all three of the Assyrian titles in inscriptions late in his reign, deliberately aligning himself with the Neo-Assyrian kings, possibly to claim a universal empire as in the Assyrian model. [1]

Achaemenid and Seleucid use Edit

In the Cyrus Cylinder, Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire assumes many native Mesopotamian title following his 539 BC conquest of Babylon. Much like the late inscriptions of Nabonidus, the Cyrus Cylinder corresponds more to the traditional Assyrian royal titulary than it does the Babylonian. [1] When the Assyrian kings conquered Babylon, they titled themselves as both kings of Babylon and kings of Assyria. Since they were not technically legitimate Babylonian rulers in that they had not been born to the Babylonian throne, they stressed their legitimacy by deriving their kingship from the fact that they had held royal status before conquering Babylon. Cyrus does much the same in the Cyrus Cylinder, stressing that his father and grandfather were "kings of Anšan" and that Cyrus was the "heir to an eternal line of kingship". [15]

The Antiochus Cylinder, which describes how Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC) of the Seleucid Empire rebuilt the Ezida Temple in the city of Borsippa, is one of the last known documents written in Akkadian, separated from the previous Cyrus Cylinder by around 300 years. This cylinder also contains the last known example of an Akkadian-language royal titulary, applied to Antiochus himself. It is an important source on the self-presentation of Seleucid kings and on the relations between the Seleucid rulers and the inhabitants of Babylon (located near the recently founded Seleucid capital of Seleucia). The text of the cylinder as a whole combines and reshapes elements from the Babylonian and Assyrian traditions of royal titularies, sometimes breaking with tradition to introduce aspects of the Seleucid royal ideology. [16]

Though the titulature of Antiochus I used in the cylinder has in the past been interpreted as very traditionally Babylonian in its composition, especially compared to that of Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605–562 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian empire, only two titles in the Antiochus Cylinder actually align with titles consistently used by the Neo-Babylonian kings (those being "king of Babylon" and "provider of Esagila and Ezida". Other titles in the cylinder, including "great king", "mighty king" and "king of the Universe" are more characteristic of the Neo-Assyrian kings. [1]

Out of the titularies of all previous kings, the titulary of Antiochus most closely resembles that of Nabonidus in its arrangement though they are not identical, that of Antiochus combining Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian titles. It is possible given the large amount of time separating the Antiochus Cylinder from the last known previous example (the Cyrus Cylinder) and the rather simply and short nature of the titulary that it mixes traditions and ideas due to the limited amount of sources the scribe would have had to work with, but royal titularies were usually created with great care and consideration. It is possible that the mixture was chosen to specifically reflect a more Seleucid version of kingship, Assyrian titles like "mighty king" and "great king" fitting with the warrior king-idea used by the Seleucids in the rest of their empire. Universalizing titles like "king of the Universe" may simple have been appealing in lacking a geographical specification and that the king would not have to confine his realm to include just Babylon or Mesopotamia (which would have resulted from a title like "king of Sumer and Akkad"). [17] Similar to how Cyrus the Great stressed that his lineage was royal despite him not being born to the Babylonian throne, Antiochus titulary contains the information that he is the son and heir of Seleucus I Nicator (the first Seleucid king, r. 305–281 BC), who is referred to as "the Macedonian", connecting him with the kingship of Alexander the Great and his line and granting Antiochus further legitimacy. [15]

Titles centering on the king's person Edit

Descriptive titles similar to epithets, titles which center on the king's person. Titles and epithets which relate to the personality and position of the king account for about 24.9% of Neo-Assyrian titularies. [13]

English translation of title Title in Akkadian Notas
Great king [18] šarru rabû [18] Popular title designating the king as powerful enough to draw the respect of their adversaries, frequently used in diplomacy with other nations. [19]
Example users: Sargon II, [18] Esarhaddon [20]
King who has no equals in all of the lands [21] šarru ša ina kullat mātāti māḫiri lā īšû [21] Only recorded for Esarhaddon (r. 681–669 BC) and Ashurbanipal (r. 669–631 BC). [21] [22]
Example users: Esarhaddon, [21] Ashurbanipal [22]
Strong king [18]
Alternatively "Mighty king" [20]
šarru dannu [18] A popular title, especially in Assyria. [1]
Example users: Sargon II, [18] Esarhaddon [20]

Titles centering on the king's relationship to the world Edit

Titles describing the domain under the control of a king. Titles and epithets which relate to the worldly position of the king account for about 35.8% of Neo-Assyrian titularies. [13]

Specific locations and peoples Edit

English translation of title Title in Akkadian Notas
Governor of Assyria [23]
Alternatively "Viceroy of the god Assur" [24]
Išši’ak Aššur [23] Ruling title of the Old and Middle Assyrian kings. [23]
Example user: Shamshi-Adad I [23]
Governor of Babylon [18] šakkanakki Bābili [18] Ruling title of the Old Babylonian kings. [25] Title employed by some Assyrian kings who ruled over Babylon. [18]
Example users: Sargon II, [18] Esarhaddon [26]
Kassite king [27] šar Kaššu [27] Title used by the Kassite dynasty of Babylon. [27]
Example users: Agum III, [27] Karaindash [27]
King of Akkad [28] šar māt Akkadi [28] Literally "king of the land of Akkad". [28] Combined with "king of Sumer" by Ur-Nammu (r. 2112–2095 BC), thereafter only occurs in the combined form "king of Sumer and Akkad". [9]
Example user: Ur-Nammu [9]
King of Assyria [18] šar māt Aššur [18] Literally "king of the land of Assur". Ruling title of the Neo-Assyrian kings. [18]
Example users: Sargon II, [18] Esarhaddon [20]
King of Babylon [18] šar Bābili [18] Ruling title of monarchs of Babylon. [18]
Example users: Sargon II, [18] Esarhaddon, [20] Shamash-shum-ukin [29]
King of Babylon [27] šar māt Bābil [27] Literally "king of the land of Babylon". Rare variant of the Babylonian royal title recorded for some Kassite kings. [27]
Example users: Agum III, [27] Karaindash [27]
King of Karduniaš šar Karduniaš [27] Title used by the Kassite dynasty of Babylon, "Karduniaš" being the Kassite name for the kingdom centered in Babylon. [27]
Example users: Agum III, [27] Karaindash [27]
King of Padan and Alman [27] šar māt Padan u Alman [27] Literally "king of the land of Padan and Alman". Title only recorded for Agum III of Babylon (c. 1470 BC). [27]
Example user: Agum III [27]
King of Sumer [28] šar māt Šumeri [28] Literally "king of the land of Sumer". [28] Combined with "king of Akkad" by Ur-Nammu (r. 2112–2095 BC), thereafter only occurs in the combined form "king of Sumer and Akkad". [9]
Example user: Ur-Nammu [9]
King of the Akkadians [27] šar Akkadi [27] Variant of šar māt Akkadi only recorded for Agum III of Babylon (c. 1470 BC). [27]
Example user: Agum III [27]
King of the Amnanu [29] šar Amnānu [29] Expressing kingship over the Amnanu, an Amorite tribal group settled in Babylonia. [30] Only recorded for Shamash-shum-ukin (r. 667–648 BC). [29]
Example user: Shamash-shum-ukin [29]
King of the Kassites [27] šar Kašši [27] Title used by the Kassite dynasty of Babylon. [27]
Example users: Agum III, [27] Karaindash [27]

Dominance over Mesopotamia Edit

English translation of title Title in Akkadian Notas
Glorious King of the Lands [31] šar mātāti šarhu [31] Variant of "King of the Lands" recorded for Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (r. 859–824 BC). [31] [32]
Example users: Ashurnasirpal II, [31] Shalmaneser III [32]
King of Kings [33] šar šarrāni [33] Introduced by Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria (r. 1233–1197 BC), [33] "King of Kings" became an especially prominent title during the Achaemenid Empire after which it would be used in Iran and elsewhere up until modern times. [34]
Example users: Tukulti-Ninurta I, [33] Mithridates II [35]
King of Sumer and Akkad [28] šar māt Šumeri u Akkadi [28] Ruling title in the Third Dynasty of Ur, used for more than 1,500 years in later empires trying to claim its and the Akkadian Empire's legacy. [36]
Example users: Ur-Nammu, [9] Hammurabi, [36] Esarhaddon, [36] Cyrus [37]
King of the Lands [38] šar mātāti [38] Introduced in its simplified form by Ashurbanipal (r. 669–631 BC). [22] Saw occasional later use in the Achaemenid, Seleucid and Parthian Empires. [39] [38] [40]
Example users: Ashurbanipal, [22] Cyrus, [40] Phraates II [38]

Claims to universal rule Edit

English translation of title Title in Akkadian Notas
King of All Peoples [32] šar kiššat nišē [32] Recorded for two Middle Assyrian kings and two Neo-Assyrian kings. [32]
Example users: Tukulti-Ninurta I, [41] Ashurnasirpal II [32]
King of All the Four Corners of the World [42] šar kullat kibrāt erbetti [42] Variant of "King of the Four Corners of the World" used in the Middle Assyrian Empire. [43]
Example users: Tiglath-Pileser I, [43] Ashur-bel-kala [43]
King of the Four Corners of the World [44]
Alternatively "King of the Four Corners of the Universe", [45] usually shortened to "King of the Four Corners" [46]
šar kibrāt erbetti [44]
šar kibrāti arba'i [46]
šarru kibrat 'arbaim [8]
Popular title introduced by Naram-Sin (r. 2254–2218 BC). [45] Used in a succession of later empires until its final use by Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC). [37]
Example users: Naram-Sin, [45] Ashurnasirpal II, [44] Hammurabi, [47] Cyrus [37]
King of the Totality of the Four Corners including all their rulers [44] šar kiššat kibrāte ša napḫar malkī kalîšunu [44] Variant of "King of the Four Corners of the World" recorded for Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (r. 859–824 BC). [44]
Example users: Ashurnasirpal II, [44] Shalmaneser III [44]
King of the Universe [46]
Alternatively "King of All" [7] or "King of the World" [1]
šar kiššatim [46]
šarru kiššat māti [48]
šar-kiššati' [48]
Popular title introduced by Sargon of Akkad (r 2334–2284 BC). [48] Used in a succession of later empires until its final use by Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC). [1]
Example users: Sargon, [48] Esarhaddon, [46] Nabonidus, [1] Cyrus [37]

Titles centering on the king's relationship to the divine Edit

Titles describing the position of the king relative to the deities of the Ancient Mesopotamian religion. Titles and epithets which relate to the divine position of the king account for about 38.8% of Neo-Assyrian titularies. [13]

English translation of title Title in Akkadian Notas
Governor of Ashur [49] šakkanakki Aššur [49] Separated from Išši’ak Aššur in that this title refers to being a governor explicitly on behalf of the god Ashur, not as governing the region of Assyria. [49]
Example user: Shalmaneser III [49]
Governor of the Great Gods [49] šakkanakki ilāni rabûti [49] Only recorded for Shalmaneser III (r. 859–824 BC). [49]
Example user: Shalmaneser III [49]
Humble king [21] šarru šaḫtu [21] The title speaks about humility before the gods, the king would not have shown inferiority towards other rulers. [50]
Example user: Esarhaddon [21]
King who is his favourite [21] šarru migrišu [21] "His", "her" and "their" refers to the deities of ancient Mesopotamia. [50]
Example users: Esarhaddon, [21] Ashurbanipal [22]
King who is her favourite [21] šarru migriša [21]
King who is their favourite [21] šarru migrišun [21]
King who fears him [21] šarru pāliḫšu [21] "Him", "her" and "them" refers to the deities of ancient Mesopotamia. [50]
Example user: Esarhaddon [21]
King who fears her [21] šarru pāliḫša [21]
King who fears them [21] šarru pāliḫšun [21]
King who provides for him [18] šarru zāninšu [18] "Him", "her" and "them" refers to the deities of ancient Mesopotamia. [50]
Example user: Sargon II [18]
King who provides for her [18] šarru zāninša [18]
King who provides for them [18] šarru zāninšun [18]
Provider of Esagila and Ezida [1] zānin Esagil u Ezida [1] One of the most common royal titles of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, used by nearly all kings. [1]
Example users: Sargon II, [18] Nebuchadnezzar II [51]

Royal epithets generally served to highlight the qualities of a specific king, many rulers having at least some unique epithets. Typical of Babylonian titles is focusing on the benevolent and coercive attributes of any one given king with only few references to violence. Neo-Assyrian rulers, including Ashurbanipal, Esarhaddon and Shamash-shuma-ukin, frequently employed the epithet rē’û kēnu (meaning "righteous shepherd") to illustrate royal benevolence. Wisdom and competence are also common points of focus, Esarhaddon is for instance referred to as itpēšu ḫāsis kal šipri ("competent one who knows every craft"). [50]

Many epithets are religious in nature, usually focusing on the king as a "provider" (zānin) for the gods in some capacity, provider here meaning that the king is fulfilling his duty of providing required nourishments for the deities and keeping their temples in good condition. Considering the boastful nature of Esarhaddon's titles, his epithet kanšu ("submissive") may seem strange, his title šarru šaḫtu ("humble king") likewise so, but these titles refer to humility and inferiority in regards to the gods, for which this was appropriate. The Assyrian king would never have acknowledged inferiority in the earthly sphere. [50]

Epithets often also illustrate the king as selected to rule by the gods, the chosen words typically being migru ("favourite") and/or nibītu ("designate"). Shamash-shuma-ukin refers to himself as migir Enlil Šamaš u Marduk ("favourite of Enlil, Shamash and Marduk") and Esarhaddon refers to himself as nibīt Marduk Ṣarpanītu ("designate of Marduk (and) Sarpanit"). Marking the Assyrian king as the choice of the gods would have further legitimized his rule. [52] The king respecting the divine is sometimes expressed with words like palāḫu ("to fear") or takālu ("to trust in"). Ashurbanipal has the epithet rubû pāliḫšu/ša ("prince who fears him/her"). Religious epithets can also speak of the king's piety through his actions, typically focusing on construction (often utilizing the word epēšu, "build" or "make"). Shamash-shuma-ukin refers to himself as ēpiš Esagila ("he who (re)constructed Esagila"), referring to a major temple in Babylon. [53]

Another common theme for epithets is the king's relation to his people. Esarhaddon again being an example, he refers to himself as maḫīru kīnu ešēru ebūru napāš Nisaba ušaššû ina māti ("he who brought stable prices, successful harvests, (and) an abundance of grain to the land"). [30]

Assyrian epithets often emphasize the king as a military leader and relates war to the divine as an issue part of the idea of universal rule. Epithets like "the god Aššur gave me the power to let cities fall into ruins and to enlarge Assyrian territory" are common. [2]

Old Assyrian titulary: Ashur-nirari I

In one of his inscriptions, Ashur-nirari I, who reigned 1529–1503 BC, uses the following titles [24] :

Viceroy of the god Assur, son of Ishme-Dagan, viceroy of the god Assur, builder of the temple of Bêl, the elder.

Middle Assyrian titulary: Tukulti-Ninurta I

In one of his inscriptions, Tukulti-Ninurta I, who reigned 1233–1197 BC, uses the following titles [54] :

King of the Universe, the mighty king, the king of Assyria, favorite of Assur, priest of Assur, rightful ruler, beloved of Ishtar, who subjected the Kuti to their farthest border son of Shalmaneser, priest of Assur, grandson of Adad-nirari, priest of Assur.

Kassite titulary: Kurigalzu

In one of his inscriptions, the Kassite king Kurigalzu (there were two kings of this name Kurigalzu I and Kurigalzu II, it is unclear which one of them used these titles) [55] :

Great king, mighty king, king of the Universe, favorite of Anu and Enlil, nominated (for kingship) by the lord of the gods am I! King who has no equal among all the kings his ancestors, son of Kadashman-Harbe, unrivalled king .

Neo-Assyrian titulary: Esarhaddon

In one of his inscriptions, Esarhaddon, who reigned 681–669 BC, uses the following titles [56] :

The great king, the mighty king, king of the Universe, king of Assyria, viceroy of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, son of Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of Assyria, grandson of Sargon, the great king, the mighty king, king of Assyria who under the protection of Assur, Sin, Shamash, Nabu, Marduk, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Arbela, the great gods, his lords, made his way from the rising to the setting sun, having no rival.

Neo-Babylonian titulary: Nebuchadnezzar II

The titles preserved in Babylon for Nebuchadnezzar II, who reigned 605–562 BC, read as follows: [51]

King of Babylon, true shepherd, chosen by the steadfast heart of Marduk, exalted governor, beloved of Nabu, knowing one, wise one, who pays attention to the ways of the great gods, untiring governor, provider of Esagila and Ezida

Seleucid titulary: Antiochus I

The Antiochus Cylinder is the last known Akkadian-language royal inscription, separated from the last known previous one (the Cyrus Cylinder) by 300 years. At the time it was made, Akkadian was no longer a spoken language and the cylinder's contents were likely inspired by earlier royal inscriptions by Assyrian and Babylonian kings. [57] The Akkadian-language titulature (here translated into English) of the Seleucid king Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC) is preserved in the Antiochus Cylinder from Babylon and reads as follows: [58]

Great king, mighty king, king of the Universe, king of Babylon, king of the Lands, provider of Esagila and Ezida, foremost heir of Seleucus, the king, the Macedonian, king of Babylon


File:Detail of a stone monument of Shamash-shum-ukin as a basket-bearer. 668-655 BCE. From the temple of Nabu at Borsippa, Iraq and is currently housed in the British Museum.jpg

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Kilistra was most founded in the Hellenistic period, in the 2nd century BC. Its development was boosted by the favourable location, right on the so-called Royal Road.
This ancient highway was built by the Persian king Darius the Great in the 5th century BC to facilitate communication throughout his empire from Susa to Sardis. This road led through Kilistra to the west, to Antioch of Pisidia, which was visited during the first missionary journey by St. Paul. Because of this fact, some researchers speculate that he also visited Kilistra.

Antieke wêreldgeskiedenis

The location of the tomb of Alexander the Great is one of the greatest mysteries in history. Theories abound, with the most consistent being that the King of Macedonia is buried in Alexandria, the city in Egypt that he founded.
Now a Cambridge University history professor says that the tomb of Alexander the Great is definitely buried there, dismissing multiple theories that the remains of the great general had been transferred elsewhere.

GREEKREPORTER.COM

Alexander the Great Tomb: New Theory Points to Exact Location | GreekReporter.com

Antieke wêreldgeskiedenis

3500 years ago the Minoans achieved the absolute realism even partially in the unfortunately unknown masterpiece Kouros of Palekastro from the archeological museum of Sitia in Crete, which should be among the most famous findings of the Minoan civilization.

Antieke wêreldgeskiedenis

-An amazing underground world with an incredible history.

The catacombs were created in the 1780s from old quarry tunnels. They cover over 320 km of tunnels, some still unmapped, 20m under the city of Paris
The catacombs have been used for parties, movies, dining and much more.

Underneath the bustling city of Paris, sits an ossuary (or burial chamber) that contains the remains of over six million people. The catacombs were created from old limestone quarry tunnels to relieve the overflowing cemeteries of the city. In 1780, when the walls of Les Innocents, Paris’ main burial ground, began collapsing and bodies began poking through, it was time to move the city’s dead.

Between 1785 and 1787, Les Innocents was emptied. In the dark of night, the dead were piled high on carts and moved to their new location. Their bones were dumped into two of the old quarry wells and then moved into place by the miners. After the French revolution, more remains from other graveyards around Paris were moved into the catacombs. Since then, they have become both a fascinating and gruesome attraction in France’s capital city.

They were opened to the public in 1809 and were a great hit, especially amongst royalty and the well-to-do. For the first time, the public could see the skeletal decorative displays that the miners had made with the bones of the dead. Instead of just piling them up, they had lined the walls with skulls and created decorative patterns and displays such as crosses, circles, and hearts using other bones.

One of the most well-known decorations is the Barrel. It is a large structure that supports the roof of the tunnel made out of skulls and tibiae. It may seem strange and macabre to many people who visit the catacombs, but others believe that it is a beautiful, haunting tribute to Paris’ long dead. The miners created their displays out of respect for the departed.

The catacombs have been used for everything from parties to movies to growing mushrooms! In World War II, they were a hiding place for the French resistance who were planning their attacks on the Germans. They could also use them as an escape route when the Germans invaded the city. Once the Nazis had taken Paris, they used them too, creating underground bunkers in the extensive network of tunnels.

They became famous as a place for ‘cataphiles’ – young Parisians who liked to explore the tunnels and escape from the outside world. Although it has been illegal to enter the catacombs without a guide since 1955, it was possible to find other ways in up until the late 1980s, including through buildings on top of the tunnels.

Miners lined the walls with skulls and created decorative displays such as crosses, circles and hearts. Catacombs also boast of an underground swimming pool for tourist to cool off.

In 2004, Parisian police were on a training exercise in an unmapped section of the catacombs. Strangely they found someone had left a sign reading “Building site, no access,” and further in was a camera that was recording their entrance. They discovered a cavern that had been turned into a cinema with a giant screen, chairs, and a variety of films.

Not only that but in another cavern was a restaurant and bar. No one knew who had turned the tunnels into their own entertainment area. Mysteriously, a note was found that read, “Do not try and find us.” Today, the catacombs can still be visited. Just over a mile is open to the public for guided tours while the rest is off-limits.


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