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Twaalf Antieke Persiese mitologiese wesens

Twaalf Antieke Persiese mitologiese wesens



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Die mitologie van enige beskawing weerspieël sy kernwaardes, grootste vrese en grootste hoop, en so is dit ook met die mitologie van antieke Persië. Die groot helde soos Karsasp, Thraetaona en Rustum spreek besonder Persiese waardes uit, maar is, soos met alle mitiese figure, herkenbaar aan mense van enige kultuur as rolmodelle waarvan die beste eienskappe die moeite werd is om na te boots. Dit geld ook vir baie wesens uit die antieke Persiese mitologie, die kragte vir goed sowel as kwaad, deurdat hulle universele bekommernisse van die menslike toestand raak deur die spesifieke besonderhede van hul karakters wat verskillende bekommernisse en moontlikhede simboliseer.

Die verhale wat die basis van die Persiese mitologie vorm, kom uit die vroeë Persiese godsdienstige oortuiging. 'N Mens verwys na hierdie - en soortgelyke verhale uit enige kultuur - in die huidige tyd as' mitologie 'slegs omdat die teologiese paradigma verander het en 'n heelal van baie gode, geeste, engele en demone deur die monoteïstiese of ateïstiese model vervang is . In hulle tyd sou hulle egter dieselfde basiese doel gedien het as wat die Skrif van enige godsdiens in die moderne tyd doen: om belangrike geestelike en kulturele waardes aan te leer en mense te verseker van orde en betekenis in die lig van 'n dikwels chaotiese en angswekkende wêreld.

Die verhale is deur die eeue mondelings oorgedra totdat dit neergeskryf is as deel van die godsdienstige tradisie van Zoroastrianisme in die Avesta (Zoroastriese skrif) gedurende die Sassaniese tydperk (224-651 nC) in die bewind van die konings Shapur II (309-379 CE) en Kosrau I (531-579 CE) en daarna volledig aangespreek deur die Persiese digter Abolqasem Ferdowsi (l 940-1020 CE) in sy epiese werk Shahnameh (“The Book of Kings”) geskryf tussen 977-1010 CE. Teen die tyd dat Ferdowsi aan die skryf was, het monoteïsme in die vorm van Islam die antieke Persiese godsdiens vervang, maar sy werk het steeds by 'n gehoor aanklank gevind en word steeds gedoen.

Antieke Persiese godsdiens

Die sentrale visie van die antieke Persiese godsdiens was 'n universele stryd tussen die magte van goed en kwaad, orde en chaos.

Die sentrale visie van die antieke Persiese godsdiens was 'n universele stryd tussen die magte van goed en kwaad, orde en chaos. Hierdie presiese tema is die grondslag van feitlik elke antieke wêreldgodsdiens in een of ander mate, maar vir die Perse was dit die betekenis van bestaan. Daar was twee kragte wat in die heelal aan die werk was, wat teenoor mekaar was en watter kant 'n mens ook al in lyn was met jou aardse reis en bestemming in die hiernamaals.

Aan die kant van die goeie was 'n panteon van gode en geeste onder leiding van die opperste godheid Ahura Mazda, die skepper van alles wat gesien en ongesiens was, en daarteenoor was Angra Mainyu (ook gegee as Ahriman), die gees van die bose, chaos en verwarring met sy legio demone en verskillende bonatuurlike (en natuurlike) wesens en diere. Ahura Mazda het mense met vrye wil geskep om die koers te kies wat hulle sou volg, en as 'n mens reg kies, sou jy goed lewe en 'n paradys in die hiernamaals vind, as jy swak was, sou jy 'n lewe van verwarring en twis beleef en in die pyniging van die hel na die dood.

Die wesens wat in die Persiese mitologie voorkom, val byna almal in een van hierdie twee kampe behalwe die Jinn (ook bekend as Djinn en beter bekend as Genies) en die Peri (faeries) wat die eenvoudige definisie weerstaan, aangesien hul rolle meer neutraal lyk en hul optrede afhanklik van omstandighede eerder as lojaliteit aan 'n gegewe saak. Alhoewel daar baie verskillende mitologiese wesens in die Persiese verhale is, is twaalf verteenwoordigend van die tematiese geheel:

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  • Gavaevodata
  • Simurgh
  • Huma Bird
  • Chamrosh en Kamak
  • Al (ook gegee as Hal)
  • Manticore
  • Peri
  • Suroosh en Daena
  • Jinn (Djinn)
  • Azhi Dahaka (Azhdaha)

Al hierdie entiteite het die menslike daaglikse lewe tot op een of ander manier beïnvloed. Sommige, soos die Peri of die Al, word beskou as 'n konstante in 'n mens se lewe, terwyl ander - soos Simurgh of Azhi Dahaka - 'n universele paradigma verteenwoordig wat die huidige persoon inlig. Of dit nou die een of die ander is, die natuurlike en bonatuurlike kragte wat die figure voorstel, word as redelik erken en daar is stappe gedoen om te verdedig teen die boosaardige en behoorlike respek te gee aan diegene wat net die beste vir die mensdom wou hê.

Onder laasgenoemde was honde wat die beskermende aspekte van goddelikheid en figuur verpersoonlik het in die voorstellings van sommige van die belangrikste welwillende wesens. Honde het bose geeste afgeweer, getroos en gelei en gekyk na die waardevolste besittings van 'n mens. Hulle is so belangrik geag dat hul rol as voogde behoue ​​gebly het sodra die vroeë godsdiens van die Perse weer voorgestel is deur die profeet Zoroaster (ongeveer 1500-1000 v.G.J.) wat hulle as die bewaarders van die Chinvat-brug bewaar het, die span oor die afgrond tussen die wêreld van die lewendes en die dooies. Soos alle ander diere, het die hond sy bestaan ​​te danke aan die lewegewende energie van een van die eerste van Ahura Mazda se skeppings, die oerbul.

Gavaevodata

Gavaevodata is die oorspronklike bul (ook bekend as die uniek geskepte bul, die oorspronklike bees, die primêre os) wat een van die vroegste skeppings van Ahura Mazda was. Die Allerhoogste Godheid het eers 'n lug geskep - 'n bol - en dit dan gevul met water en die water geskei met aarde, wat met verskillende soorte plantegroei geplant was, en daarna die Oervoudige Bul gemaak, wat skitterwit was en gloei soos die maan. Gavaevodata was so mooi dat dit die aandag van Angra Mainyu getrek het wat dit doodgemaak het, en daarna is dit na die maan vervoer en gesuiwer; uit sy gesuiwerde saad kom alle diere wat op die aarde se plantegroei sou voed en bemes. Sodra diere geskep is, het Ahura Mazda toe mense geskep en dan vuur, maar Gavaevodata was die eerste unieke entiteit op aarde en bepaal die hoë waarde wat die Perse op diere heg.

Simurgh

Simurgh-bekend as die hondvoël-was 'n enorme gevleuelde wese met die kop van 'n hond, die liggaam van 'n pou en die kloue van 'n leeu, soms ook met 'n menslike gesig voorgestel. Simurgh woon hoog in die Alburz -gebergte, wat 'n tydperk van 1700 jaar bestaan ​​het voordat hy 'n vuur van sy eie skepping ingeduik het en gesterf het, net om weer op te staan ​​(soos die latere Phoenix). Simurgh het vermoedelik groot wysheid en is veral prominent in die verhaal van die held Zal - wat sy grootgemaak het - en die geboorte van sy seun Rustum (ook as Rostom en Rustam), die grootste Persiese held. Sy het Zal geleer hoe om 'n moeilike geboorte deur die keisersnit te kry, en het hom ook in medisinale kruie vir genesing geleer. In die vroeë mites staan ​​sy bekend as Saena, die Groot Valke, wat in die boonste takke van die Boom van Alle Saad sit en deur haar vlerke te wapper, saad na die grond en oor die hele wêreld stuur om hul weg in die aarde te vind .

Huma Bird

The Huma Bird is 'n latere weergawe van Simurgh, wat na bewering vir ewig oor die aarde vlieg sonder om te land, en as die skaduwee daarvan op 'n individu sou val, sou die persoon geseënd en gelukkig wees gedurende hul lewens. Die Huma was verantwoordelik vir die legitimering van koningskap en sy beeld was prominent in Persepolis, die manjifieke rituele hoofstad van die Achaemenidiese Persiese Ryk, begin deur Darius I (die Grote, 522-486 vC). Die Huma word beskou as die heiligste voël, en die beseer of selfs probeer om dit te beseer het groot ongeluk meegebring. As iemand egter sien of selfs dink dat hy die voël bo -oor sien vlieg, was dit 'n groot seën. Mettertyd sou die Huma die konsep van hoogte en verligting simboliseer. Net soos Simurgh en die latere Phoenix, word gedink dat die Huma 'n ontsaglike lang lewe sal lei, in sy eie vlamme sal sterf en daarna homself kan baar.

Chamrosh en Kamak

Chamrosh en Kamak is ook reuse voëls; Chamrosh 'n krag vir goed en Kamak vir kwaad. Chamrosh het 'n hond se liggaam met die kop en vlerke van 'n arend. Dit leef onder die boom van alle sade, versamel die wat val wanneer Saena-Simurgh met haar vlerke klap en strooi dit in die wind en reënwolke wat die saad oor die hele aarde neersit. Chamrosh is ook 'n beskermende entiteit wat die Perse verdedig teen indringers van buite, veral stropers, wat op hulle neerslaan en wegvoer. Kamak speel presies die teenoorgestelde rol, voed op Perse en hul vee en vernietig dit. Kamak is so enorm dat sy verspreide vlerke die reën geblokkeer het, wat droogte na die land gebring het, en in die chaos wat gevolg het, het dit maklik prooi van mense en diere opgetel om van te eet. Die Persiese held Karsasp maak Kamak uiteindelik dood deur dit voortdurend met pyle te stort.

Al

Die Al was onsigbaar, tensy hulle gesien wou word, sodat slegs die gevolge daarvan mense bewus gemaak het van hul bestaan.

Die Al is 'n nagtelike roofdier wat by pasgeborenes prooi en een van die mees gevreesde bose geeste was. Dit word gewoonlik uitgebeeld as 'n ou vrou met skerp tande, lang, hare, en kloue wat swanger vroue ook kan benadeel of kan doodmaak en sou toeslaan as ma en kind slaap. Die Al was deel van 'n groter groep bose demone bekend as die Umm Naush - nagtelike roofdiere - wat self 'n subgroep was van die groter verskeidenheid demone wat bekend staan ​​as khrafstra - skadelike geeste of demone - wat lewens ontwrig en vernietig het. Die Al, soos die ander khrafstrawas onsigbaar, tensy hulle gesien wou word, maar slegs die gevolge daarvan het mense bewus gemaak van hul bestaan. Die generaal khrafstra manifesteer gereeld in die natuurlike wêreld en neem die vorm aan van wespe, steekmiere, roofdiere, knaagdiere, spinnekoppe en soortgelyke wesens.

Manticore

Die Manticore ('mensvreter') is 'n vreesaanjaende dier met 'n kop van 'n man, 'n leeu se lyf en 'n skerpioen se stert (of alternatiewelik 'n stert wat eindig in giftige kepels wat op prooi geskiet word). Dit is as onoorwinlik beskou, aangesien die vel so dik was dat geen wapen daardeur kon dring nie en dit vinniger beweeg as enige ander lewende wese op aarde. Die manticore kon enigiets behalwe olifante doodmaak en veral mense geniet, hulle heeltemal verslind en geen spore agterlaat nie, behalwe soms verdwaalde spatsels bloed. Dit skuil in die lang, onbewerkte grasse weg van dorpe en stede en slaan sonder waarskuwing af, behalwe dat dit soms lyk asof dit met 'n gegrom klink soos 'n harde basuin. Toe iemand in die gemeenskap vermis raak, en daar was geen idee wat met hulle gebeur het nie, word dit as die werk van 'n manticore beskou.

Peri

Die Peris is klein, lieflike, gevleuelde wesens - nie goed of kwaad nie - wat plesier vir mense speel, maar ook nuttig kan wees. Daar word vermoed dat hulle geeste was wat in die sprokiesvorm gevange was om die sonde of sondes uit die verlede te versoen, maar hulle word nie as onsterflik beskou nie en was beslis nie menslike siele nie. 'N Peri kan 'n boodskap van die gode bring, of afwisselend iemand mislei om die een of ander onwaarheid of 'n leuen te glo. Hulle verskyn grootliks in folklore as pranksters wat voorwerpe verberg of verkeerd lei, en hul gewildste manewales sou die ou Persiese ekwivalent wees van die wegsteek van 'n persoon se motorsleutels. Hulle is later deur die Moslem -Arabiere tot welwillende geeste verhef en het dieselfde doel as engele gedien om boodskappe van die goddelike te bring.

Suroosh en Daena

Suroosh simboliseer beskerming en Daena se eie gewete.

Suroosh is die engel wat op die Chinvat -brug staan ​​en Daena is die Heilige Maagd wat langs hom werk. Suroosh simboliseer beskerming en Daena se eie gewete. Beide help die pasgestorwenes by die kruising van lewe na dood. Nadat die siel die liggaam verlaat het, word daar gedink dat dit drie dae lank op die aarde sal bly terwyl die gode tot 'n besluit kom oor die lewe en die uiteindelike lot. Die siel nader toe die Chinvat -brug, wat deur twee honde bewaak word, wat die geregverdigde siel verwelkom en diegene wat boos is, weerlê. Daena sou verskyn en, vir die geregverdigde siel, 'n pragtige jong vrou wees, terwyl sy vir die veroordeelde sou verskyn as 'n lelike snert. Suroosh sou die siel beskerm teen demoniese aanval toe sy die brug oorsteek om die engel Rashnu, die oordeel van die dood, te ontmoet, wat sou besluit of die siel na die paradys van die House of Song of die hel van die House of Lies sou gaan.

Jinn

Jinn was bonatuurlike entiteite wat, net soos die Peri, nie onsterflik of menslike siele was nie. Daar word vermoed dat hulle eensame plekke buite dorpe bewoon - soos grotte of heuwels - en hulle het die mag om menslike denke en optrede te beïnvloed. Net soos die Peri, was hulle neutraal in die stryd tussen goed en kwaad en het hulle optrede blykbaar gebaseer op die huidige omstandighede. Jinn kan iemand die grootste wense gee, maar die eindresultaat tragies of ten minste negatief verdraai, maar kan net so maklik die begeerte van die individu eerbiedig om hul drome te verwesenlik. Oor die algemeen is hulle met agterdog bejeën, en amulette is gedra vir beskerming teen hul invloed. Hulle is veral bekend uit die Persiese werk Duisend nagte en 'n nag (ook bekend as Die Arabiese nagte) waar Jinn 'n deurslaggewende rol speel. Hulle is ook, net soos die Peri, deur die Moslem -Arabiere aangeneem as neutrale, hoewel potensieel gevaarlike, bonatuurlike kragte.

Azhi Dahaka

Azhi Dahaka was die groot driekoppige draak wat uit die leuens van Angra Mainyu geskep is om enige positiewe impuls in die wêreld te stuit en chaos te skep. Draakslange (azhi) verskyn gereeld in die Persiese mitologie as die verpersoonliking van boosheid en wanorde, en Azhi Dahaka was die vreesaanjaendste van hulle almal. Dit word beskryf as 'n duisend sintuie, en is dus bewus van enige moontlike bedreiging en kan daarteen verdedig, terwyl hy terselfdertyd weet waar sy prooi is. Dit is as onoorwinlik beskou en is eers finaal verslaan deur die groot Persiese held Thraetaona wat hom gevange geneem en gevange gehou het, en hom in kettings gehou het tot aan die einde van die wêreld, op watter tydstip hy deur die opgestane Karsasp, moordenaar van Kamak, gedood sal word.

Afsluiting

Hierdie syfers, en vele ander soos hulle, beliggaam die daaglikse vrese van die mense, soos die verlies van 'n kind (die Al) of die onverklaarbare dood of verdwyning (die manticore) of waarom gebeurtenisse in die lewe so skeef kan loop as alles blyk te wees so vlot verloop. Alternatiewelik het entiteite soos Suroosh en Daena of wesens soos Simurgh mense vertroue gegee dat hulle versorg word, dat daar iemand is wat na hulle kyk en hul belange beskerm.

'N Opvallende voorbeeld hiervan is die wese wat nog nie hier genoem is nie, bekend as die Karakadann/Koresk - beter bekend as die eenhoring - 'n skaam en ontwykende dier wat op afgeleë plekke by homself gehou het. Sy horing is vermoedelik 'n kragtige teenmiddel vir vergiftiging, en as dit gesien word, sal dit geluk bring. Selfs as u nooit 'n Koresk gesien het nie, sou u steeds kon hoop dat u eendag sou kon slaag en al u probleme opgelos sou word in 'n skielike reeks bonatuurlike geluk.

Die groot helde soos Thraetaona of Karsasp of Rustum wat die chaosmagte verslaan het, het dieselfde doel gedien: hulle staan ​​in die onsekerheid van die beginsels van goedheid, geregtigheid en orde en gee mense hoop dat hierdie ideale oor selfsug, wreedheid en chaos. Een van die sentrale waardes van die antieke Persiese kultuur was storievertelling, en deur hul ryk mitologie het hulle 'n paar van die mees onvergeetlike karakters en verhale in die wêreldgeskiedenis geskep wat die gehoor sedertdien gefassineer het.


Shahmaran

Shahmaran (Persies: شاهماران Şahmaran, aangesteek. 'Shah (koning) van die slange' Koerdies: Şahmaran/Şamaran, Turks: Şahmeran, Tataars: Şahmara of Zilant, Зилант of Aq Yılan, Chuvash: Вĕреçĕлен, aangesteek. 'Fire slang'), is 'n mitiese wese, half vrou en half slang, wat met verskillende variasies voorkom in die folklore van Iran, Anatolië, die Armeense Hooglande, [1] Irak en die Koerde.

Die naam Shahmaran kom van die Persiese woorde "Shah" en "Maran". [1] "Shah" is 'n titel wat vir Persiese konings gebruik word, [2] "mar" beteken slang, maar in meervoud beteken "mar-an" slange.


Inhoud

Aži (nominatief ažiš) is die Avestaanse woord vir 'slang' of 'draak'. [7] Dit stem ooreen met die Vediese Sanskrit -woord ahi, "slang", en sonder 'n sinistere implikasie.

Die oorspronklike betekenis van dahāka is onseker. Onder die betekenisse wat voorgestel word, is "steek" (bron onseker), "brand" (vgl. Sanskrit dahana), "man" of "manlik" (vgl. Khotanese daha), "groot" of "vreemd" (vgl. die Dahae -mense en die Vediese dasas). In die Persiese mitologie word Dahāka as 'n selfstandige naamwoord behandel, en is dit die bron van die Ḍaḥḥāk (Zahhāk) van die Shāhnāme.

Die Avestan -term Aži Dahāka en die Middelpers azdahāg is die bron van die Midde -Persiese Manichaïese demoon van hebsug Az, [8] Ou Armeense mitologiese figuur Aždahak, Moderne Persies 'aždehâ/aždahâ ', Tajik Persies 'azhdahâ ', Oerdoe 'azhdahā ' (اژدها), sowel as die Koerdiese ejdîha (ئەژدیها) wat gewoonlik 'draak' beteken.

Die naam migreer ook na Oos -Europa, [9] het die vorm "azhdaja" en die betekenis "draak", "draakin" [10] of "waterslang" [11] in Balkaniese en Slawiese tale aangeneem. [12]

Ten spyte van die negatiewe aspek van Aži Dahāka in die mitologie is drake gedurende die geskiedenis van Iraanse mense op sommige oorlogsbaniere gebruik.

Die Azhdarchid -groep pterosourusse is vernoem uit 'n Persiese woord vir 'draak' wat uiteindelik vandaan kom Aži Dahāka.

Aži Dahāka is die belangrikste en langste van die ažis van die Avesta, die vroegste godsdienstige tekste van die Zoroastrianisme. Hy word beskryf as 'n monster met drie monde, ses oë en drie koppe, listig, sterk en demonies. In ander opsigte het Aži Dahāka menslike eienskappe en is dit nooit net 'n dier nie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Aži Dahāka verskyn in verskeie van die Avestaanse mites en word op baie meer plekke in die Zoroastriese letterkunde in terme van parentese genoem. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 'n post-Avestan Zoroastrian teks, die Dēnkard, Aži Dahāka beskik oor alle moontlike sondes en bose raad, die teenoorgestelde van die goeie koning Jam (of Jamshid). Die naam Dahāg (Dahāka) word strafmatig geïnterpreteer as dat dit 'met tien (dah) sondes ". [ aanhaling nodig ] Sy moeder is Wadag (of Ōdag), self beskryf as 'n groot sondaar, wat bloedskande met haar seun gepleeg het. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In die Avesta word gesê dat Aži Dahāka in die ontoeganklike vesting Kuuirinta in die land Baβri gewoon het, waar hy die yazatas Arədvī Sūrā (Anāhitā), die godheid van die riviere en Vayu, die godheid van die stormwind, aanbid het. Op grond van die ooreenkoms tussen Baβri en Ou -Persiese Bābiru (Babilon), het later Zoroastriërs Aži Dahāka in Mesopotamië gelokaliseer, hoewel die identifikasie nie betwyfel kan word nie. Aži Dahāka het hierdie twee yazatas om mag gevra om die wêreld te ontvolk. Omdat hulle verteenwoordigers van die Goeie was, het hulle geweier.

In een Avestaanse teks het Aži Dahāka 'n broer met die naam Spitiyura. Saam val hulle die held Yima (Jamshid) aan [ verduideliking nodig ] en sny hom middeldeur met 'n saag, maar word dan teruggeslaan deur die yazata Ātar, die goddelike vuurgees. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Volgens die post-Avestaanse tekste, na die dood van Jam ī Xšēd (Jamshid), [ verduideliking nodig ] Dahāg het koningskap gekry. Nog 'n laat Zoroastriese teks, die Mēnog ī xrad, sê dit was uiteindelik goed, want as Dahāg nie koning geword het nie, sou die heerskappy deur die onsterflike demoon Xešm (Aēšma) geneem gewees het, en so sou die bose op die aarde geheers het tot aan die einde van die wêreld.

Daar word gesê dat Dahāg duisend jaar lank regeer het, begin vanaf 100 jaar nadat Jam sy Khvarenah, sy koninklike glorie, verloor het (sien Jamshid). Hy word beskryf as 'n towenaar wat regeer het met behulp van demone, die daevas (divs).

Die Avesta identifiseer die persoon wat uiteindelik van Aži Dahāka ontslae geraak het as Θraētaona seun van Aθβiya, in die Midde -Persies genoem Frēdōn. Die Avesta het min te sê oor die aard van Θraētaona se nederlaag teen Aži Dahāka, behalwe dat dit hom in staat gestel het om Arənavāci en Savaŋhavāci, die twee mooiste vroue ter wêreld, te bevry. Latere bronne, veral die Dēnkard, gee meer besonderhede. Daar word gesê dat Feyredon die goddelike uitstraling van konings toegerus het (Khvarenah, Nuwe Persies farr) lewenslank, en kon Dahāg verslaan en hom met 'n mace slaan. Toe hy dit wel doen, kom daar ongediertes (slange, insekte en dies meer) uit die wonde, en die god Ormazd het vir hom gesê om Dahāg nie dood te maak nie, sodat die wêreld nie deur hierdie wesens besmet raak nie. In plaas daarvan het Frēdōn Dahāg vasgeketting en gevange geneem op die mitiese berg Damāvand [ aanhaling nodig ] (later geïdentifiseer met Damāvand).

Die Midde -Persiese bronne profeteer ook dat Dahāg aan die einde van die wêreld uiteindelik sy bande sal breek en die wêreld sal verwoes en een uit elke drie mense en vee sal verteer. Kirsāsp, die ou held wat die Az ī Srūwar vermoor het, word weer lewendig om Dahāg dood te maak. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In Ferdowsi se epiese gedig, die Shāhnāmah, geskryf c. 1000 nC en deel van die Iraanse folklore, word die legende oorvertel met die hoofkarakter wat die naam Zahhāk gegee word en verander van 'n bonatuurlike monster in 'n bose mens.

Zahhāk in Arabië Redigeer

Volgens Ferdowsi is Zahhāk gebore as die seun van 'n heerser met die naam Merdās (Persies: مرداس). Vanweë sy Arabiese afkoms word hy soms genoem Zahhāk-e Tāzī (Persies: ضحاکِ تازی), wat "Zahhāk the Tayyi" beteken. Hy is knap en slim, maar het geen karakterstabiliteit nie en word maklik beïnvloed deur sy raadgewers. Ahriman kies hom dus as 'n instrument om wanorde en chaos te saai. As Zahhāk 'n jong man is, verskyn Ahriman eers vir hom as 'n glibberige, vleiende metgesel en oortuig hom geleidelik om sy eie vader dood te maak en sy koninkryk, skatte en leër te beërwe. Zahhak grawe 'n diep put bedek met blare op 'n pad na 'n tuin waar Merdās elke oggend sou bid dat Merdas val en vermoor word. Zahhāk klim dus op na die troon.

Ahriman stel hom dan voor by Zahhāk as 'n wonderlike kok. Nadat hy Zahhāk baie dae se heerlike feeste aangebied het (vleis bekendgestel het aan die voorheen vegetariese menslike kombuis), is Zahhāk bereid om Ahriman te gee wat hy wil. Ahriman vra bloot om Zahhāk op sy twee skouers te soen, en Zahhāk laat dit toe. Ahriman plaas sy lippe op Zahhāk se skouers en verdwyn skielik. Op een slag groei twee swart slange uit Zahhāk se skouers. Hulle kan nie chirurgies verwyder word nie, aangesien 'n ander slang groei om een ​​wat gesny is, te vervang. Ahriman verskyn aan Zahhāk in die vorm van 'n bekwame dokter. Hy raai Zahhāk aan dat die poging om die slange te verwyder vrugteloos is, en dat die enigste manier om die slange te kalmeer en te voorkom dat hulle hom doodmaak, is om hul honger te versag deur daagliks 'n bredie van twee menslike breine aan hulle te voorsien.

Zahhāk die keiser Edit

Op hierdie tydstip raak Jamshid, die heerser van die wêreld, arrogant en verloor hy sy goddelike reg om te heers. Zahhāk stel homself voor as 'n redder van ontevrede Iraniërs wat 'n nuwe heerser soek. Zahhak, wat 'n groot leër versamel, jaag jare lank op Jamshid voordat hy hom uiteindelik gevang het. Zahhak voer Jamshid tereg deur hom in die helfte te saag en klim na Jamshid se vorige troon. Onder sy slawe is twee van Jamshid se dogters, Arnavāz en Shahrnāz (die Avestan Arənavāci en Savaŋhavāci). Elke dag neem Zahhāk se agente twee mans vas en voer hulle tereg sodat hul brein Zahhak se slange kan voed. Twee mans, genaamd Armayel en Garmayel, probeer om mense te red om van die slange vermoor te word deur kookkuns te leer en Zahhāk se koninklike sjefs te word. Elke dag red Armayel en Garmayel een van die twee mans deur hom na die berge en verre vlaktes te stuur en die brein van die man te vervang met die van 'n skaap. Die geredde mans is die mitologiese stamvaders van die Koerde. [13] [14]

Die tirannie van Zahhāk oor die wêreld duur eeue lank. Een aand droom Zahhak daarvan dat drie krygers hom aanval. Die jongste vegter slaan Zahhāk met sy maag vas, bind hom vas en sleep hom af na Mount Damāvand toe 'n groot menigte volg. Zahhāk word wakker en skree so hard dat die pilare van die paleis bewe. Volgens die advies van Arnavāz, roep Zahhak wyse manne en geleerdes op om sy droom te interpreteer. Sy huiwerige konsultante bly stil totdat die mees onbevreesde van die mans berig dat die droom 'n visioen is van die einde van Zahhāk se bewind in die hande van Fereydun, die jong man met die mace. Zahhāk is verheug om die identiteit van sy vyand te leer ken, en beveel sy agente om die hele land te soek na Fereydun en hom te vang. Die agente leer dat Fereydun 'n seuntjie is wat gevoed word op die melk van die wonderlike koei Barmāyeh. Die spioene spoor Barmāyeh na die hooglandweide waar dit wei, maar Fereydun en sy ma het reeds voor hulle gevlug. Die agente maak die koei dood, maar word gedwing om na Zahhāk terug te keer met hul missie onvervuld.

Revolusie teen Zahhāk Edit

Zahhak leef die volgende paar jaar in vrees en angs vir Fereydun, en skryf dus 'n dokument wat getuig van die deugd en geregtigheid van sy koninkryk wat deur die oudstes van die koninkryk en die sosiale elite gesertifiseer sou word, in die hoop dat sy vyand oortuig sou word om te eis wraak. Baie van die byeengeroepe vergadering vergader die getuienis uit vrees vir hul lewens. 'N Smid genaamd Kāva (Kaveh) spreek egter woede uit omdat sy kinders vermoor is om Zahhāk se slange te voed, en dat sy laaste oorblywende seun tot dieselfde lot gevonnis is. Zahhak beveel dat Kāva se seun vrygelaat moet word in 'n poging om Kāva te dwing om die dokument te sertifiseer, maar Kāva skeur die dokument op, verlaat die hof en skep 'n vlag uit sy smid se voorskoot as 'n standaard van rebellie - die Kāviyāni Banner, derafsh-e Kāviyānī (درفش کاویانی). Kāva verklaar homself ter ondersteuning van Fereydun as heerser, en bring 'n skare byeen om hom te volg na die Alborz -berge, waar Fereydun nou as jong man woon. Fereydun stem in om die mense teen Zahhāk te lei en laat 'n mace vir hom maak met 'n kop soos 'n os.

Fereydun gaan voort om te veg teen Zahhāk, wat reeds sy hoofstad verlaat het, wat Fereydun met klein weerstand toekom. Fereydun bevry al die gevangenes van Zahhāk, insluitend Arnavāz en Shahrnāz. Kondrow, die penningmeester van Zahhāk, maak asof hy hom aan Fereydun onderwerp, maar ontsnap diskreet na Zahhāk en rapporteer aan hom wat gebeur het. Zahhāk verwerp die saak aanvanklik, maar hy is ontsteld om te verneem dat Fereydun Jamshid se dogters langs hom op trone sit soos sy koninginne, en onmiddellik terug na sy stad om Fereydun aan te val. Zahhāk vind sy hoofstad sterk teen hom gehou, en sy leër is in gevaar weens die verdediging van die stad. Aangesien hy die stad nie kan verminder nie, sluip hy as 'n spioen in sy eie paleis en probeer Arnavāz en Shahrnāz vermoor. Fereydun slaan Zahhāk neer met sy ossehoop, maar vermoor hom nie op advies van 'n engel nie, hy bind Zahhāk en sit hom in 'n grot onder die berg Damāvand. Fereydun bind Zahhak vas met 'n leeukel wat vasgemaak is aan groot spykers wat teen die mure van die grot vasgemaak is, waar Zahhak tot aan die einde van die wêreld sal bly.

"Zahhak Castle" is die naam van 'n ou ruïne in Hashtrud, Oos-Azerbeidjan, Iran, wat volgens verskillende kenners bewoon is vanaf die tweede millennia vC tot in die Timurid-era. Die Iranse organisasie vir kultuurerfenis, wat eers in die 19de eeu deur Britse argeoloë opgegrawe is, het die struktuur in ses fases bestudeer. [15]

  • Die verhaal van Zahhak se nederlaag van Jamshid en die daaropvolgende nederlaag teen Fereydun dien as die agtergrond van die 1992 Sega -videospeletjie Verdedigers van Oasis. 'N Afstammeling van Zahhak is 'n groot antagonis in die spel se plot.
  • Die Konami -videospeletjie Suikoden V het twee verwysings na Zahhak - 'n bose ridder met die naam "Zahhak" sowel as 'n groot skip met die naam "Dahak".
  • In Starcraft II: Heart of the Swarm, bestaan ​​daar 'n oer -zerg met 'n soortgelyke naam (Dehaka).
  • In die webkomiese Huisgenoot van MS Paint Adventures, Equius Zahhak is 'n trol met uiterste fisieke krag en 'n fassinasie met perde.
  • In die visuele romanSekien no Inganock - Wat 'n pragtige mense, word verkeerd gemanifesteerde Kikai 'Zahhak' genoem.
  • In die videospeletjie -reeks Massa-effek, 'n Quarian genaamd professor Zahak was betrokke by die skepping van die Geth, 'n korfbewussyn van kunsmatig intelligente masjiene.
  • In die Xenaverse, Zahhak (hierna verwys as Dahak) is die bonatuurlike (en deeglik Sataniese) teëstander op wie beide Xena en later Hercules Hercules: The Legendary Journeys moet verslaan om die wêreld te red van totale vernietiging. As Dahak op Hercules verskyn, lyk sy voorkoms soos 'n skaaldiertjie.
  • In Final Fantasy Legend III (bekend buite die Verenigde State as SaGa 3), word die intermediêre baas Dahak uitgebeeld as 'n akkedis met veel koppe.
  • In Prince of Persia: Warrior Within die Prins van Persië vlug van 'n kragtige, skaduryke figuur genaamd The Dahaka.
  • In Future Card Buddyfight die vriend van die hoofantagonis heet Demonic Demise Dragon, Azi Dahaka.
  • Die Marvel MAXTerror Inc. kwessies bevat 'n onsterflike skurk met die naam Zahhak, gebind aan twee demoniese slange. Tensy hulle met die brein van ander mense gevoed word, begin hulle sy eie eet.
  • In die Quest Corporation -videospeletjie Ogre Battle 64: Persoon van Lordly Caliber, Ahzi Dahaka is 'n eerbiedwaardige draak van die aarde -element wat gereeld in die laaste helfte van die spel voorkom.
  • In Hoërskool DxD, Azi Dahaka is 'n bose draak en word beskou as 'n baie sterk wese. Hy lei 'n terroriste groep saam met 'n ander Evil Dragon genaamd Apophis.
  • In die lig roman reeks Probleem Kinders kom uit 'n ander wêreld, nie waar nie?, Word Azi Dahaka voorgestel as 'n driekoppige wit draak en is hy een van die belangrikste antagoniste in die reeks.
  • In "In the Land of Angra Mainyu" deur Stephen Goldin, Nameless Places, Arkham House, 1975, het Zahhak uit sy sel ontsnap en die professionele held moet hom tot die oordeelsdag weer beperk.
  • In die Mount and Blade Warband mod Profesie van Pendor, Azi Dahaka is die bose slanggodin wat deur die Snake Cult aanbid word. Hulle het die Empire -faksie binnegedring en verteenwoordig 'n belangrike antagonis in die spel.
  • In Project Celeste, 'n fan -remake van Age of Empires Online, daar is 'n legendariese toerusting wat Zahhak's Sword of the Undying genoem word. [16]
  • In die Shadowverse kaartspel Azi Dahaka verskyn as 'n legendariese kaart van die Dragoncraft-klas wat afkomstig is van Chronogenesis Expansion.
  • In Mage: The Awakening, Word Dahhak uitgebeeld as 'n gevalle koning van Atlantis, sowel as die Aeon of Pandemonium.
  • In die Pathfinder -rolspel, Dahak is die god van chromatiese jakkalse en die seun van die jakkalse Apsu en Tiamat. Hy probeer om sy vader dood te maak en oor die hele draak te regeer.

Benewens Aži Dahāka word verskeie ander jakkalse en draakagtige wesens in die Zoroastriese skrif genoem:

  • Aži Sruvara - die 'horing draak'
  • Aži Zairita - die 'geel draak' wat doodgemaak word deur die held Kərəsāspa, die Midde -Persiese Kirsāsp. [17] (Yasna 9.1, 9.30 Yasht 19.19)
  • Aži Raoiδita - die 'rooi draak' wat deur Angra Mainyu bedink is om die 'daeva-induced winter 'dit is die reaksie op die skepping van Ahura Mazda van die Airyanem Vaejah. [18] (Vendidad 1.2)
  • Aži Višāpa - the 'dragon of poisonous slaver' that consumes offerings to Aban if they are made between sunset and sunrise (Nirangistan 48).
  • Gandarəβa - the 'yellow-heeled' monster of the sea 'Vourukasha' that can swallow twelve provinces at once. On emerging to destroy the entire creation of Asha, it too is slain by the hero Kərəsāspa. (Yasht 5.38, 15.28, 19.41)

Stories of monstrous serpents who are killed or imprisoned by heroes or divine beings may date back to prehistory and are found in the myths of many Indo-European peoples, including those of the Indo-Iranians, that is, the common ancestors of both the Iranians and Vedic Indians.

The most obvious point of comparison is that in Vedic Sanskrit ahi is a cognate of Avestan aži. However, In Vedic tradition, the only dragon of importance is Vrtra, but "there is no Iranian tradition of a dragon such as Indian Vrtra" (Boyce, 1975:91-92). Moreover, while Iranian tradition has numerous dragons, all of which are malevolent, Vedic tradition has only one other dragon besides Vṛtra - ahi budhnya, the benevolent "dragon of the deep". In the Vedas, gods battle dragons, but in Iranian tradition, this is a function of mortal heroes.

Thus, although it seems clear that dragon-slaying heroes (and gods in the case of the Vedas) "were a part of Indo-Iranian tradition and folklore, it is also apparent that Iran and India developed distinct myths early." (Skjaervø, 1989:192)


Inhoud

The Huma bird is said to never come to rest, living its entire life flying invisibly high above the earth, and never alighting on the ground (in some legends it is said to have no legs). [5]

In several variations of the Huma myths, the bird is said to be phoenix-like, consuming itself in fire every few hundred years, only to rise anew from the ashes. The Huma bird is said to have both the male and female natures in one body (reminiscent of the Chinese Fenghuang), each nature having one wing and one leg. Huma is considered to be compassionate, and a 'bird of fortune' [6] since its shadow (or touch) is said to be auspicious.

In Sufi tradition, catching the Huma is beyond even the wildest imagination, but catching a glimpse of it or even a shadow of it is sure to make one happy for the rest of his/her life. It is also believed that Huma cannot be caught alive, and the person killing a Huma will die in forty days. [6]

In Ottoman poetry, the creature is often referred to as a 'bird of paradise', [6] [7] and early European descriptions of the Paradisaeidae species portrayed the birds as having no wings or legs, and the birds were assumed to stay aloft their entire lives.

In Attar of Nishapur's allegorical masterpiece The Conference of the Birds, an eminent example of Sufi works in Persian literature, the Huma bird is portrayed as a pupil that refuses to undertake a journey because such an undertaking would compromise the privilege of bestowing kingship on those whom it flew over. In Iranian literature, this kingship-bestowing function of the Huma bird is identified with pre-Islamic monarchs, and stands vis-a-vis ravens, which is a metaphor for Arabs. [8] The legend appears in non-Sufi art as well. [9]

The kingship-bestowing function of the Huma bird reappear in Indian stories of the Mughal era, in which the shadow (or the alighting) of the Huma bird on a person's head or shoulder were said to bestow (or foretell) kingship. Accordingly, the feathers decorating the turbans of kings were said to be plumage of the Huma bird. [10]

Sufi teacher Inayat Khan gives the bestowed-kingship legend a spiritual dimension: "Its true meaning is that when a person's thoughts so evolve that they break all limitation, then he becomes as a king. It is the limitation of language that it can only describe the Most High as something like a king." [4]

The Huma bird symbolizes unreachable highness in Turkish folk literature. [11] Some references to the creature also appear in Sindhi literature, where – as in the diwan tradition – the creature is portrayed as bringing great fortune. In die Zafarnama of Guru Gobind Singh, a letter addressed to Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb refers to the Huma bird as a "mighty and auspicious bird".


The characters of Persian mythology almost always fall into one of two camps. They are either good, or they are evil. The resultant discord mirrors the nationalistic ideals of the early Islamic era as well as the moral and ethical perceptions of the Zoroastrian period, in which the world was perceived to be locked in a battle between the destructive Ahriman and his hordes of demonic dews and their un-Iranian supporters, versus the Creator Ormuzd, who although not participating in the day-to-day affairs of mankind, was represented in the world by the izads and the righteous ahlav Iranians.

The most famous legendary character in the Persian epics and mythology is Rostam. On the other side of the fence is Zahhak, a symbol of despotism who was, finally, defeated by Kāve, who led a popular uprising against him. Zahhak (Avestan: Aži Dahāka‎) was guarded by two vipers which grew out from both of his shoulders. No matter how many times they were beheaded, new heads grew on them to guard him. The snake, like in many other mythologies, was a symbol of evil, but many other animals and birds appear in Iranian mythology, and, especially, the birds were signs of good omen. Most famous of these is the Simurgh, a large beautiful and powerful bird and the Huma bird, a royal bird of victory whose plume adorned the crowns.

Peri (Avestan Pairika), considered a beautiful though evil woman in early mythology, gradually became less evil and more beautiful, until during the Islamic period she became a symbol of beauty similar to the houris of Paradise.

The conflict between good and evil is prevalent in Persian myth and Zoroastrianism.


10 bizarre mythical monsters you should know about by Halloween

Illustration by arif.aly (ZBrush Central)

Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal October 26, 2017

Over the years, we have been entranced, baffled, tantalized and even shocked by the monsters of well-known mythologies, be it the ubiquitous dragon, the gargantuan Kraken or the boisterous Minotaur. Fortunately, the list of legendary beasts and creatures hasn’t run out of potential candidates, even after numerous of the ilk having ‘identified’ starring roles in various cinematic blockbusters from around the world. So, as an ode to the forthcoming Halloween, let us talk about ten mythical monsters that have still not been able to take the center stage in pop-culture, in spite of their frightfully ‘monstrous’ credentials.

1) Amarok (from Inuit mythology) –

Illustration by Vinodrams

A fantastical giant wolf from the barren lands of the Arctic, the Amarok is said to hunt alone in contrast to the pack tendencies of its much smaller brethren. Many believe the legend of this lone wolf actually comes from real-time ecological periods when the untraveled deep woods were indeed populated by larger varieties of wolves (like the better known dire wolves). Some also draw parallels of this beast with the Waheela giant wolves that supposedly inhabited the northern parts of Canada. Illustration by Indigohx (DeviantArt)

Interestingly, according to famous Danish geologist Dr. Hinrich Johannes Rink, the term Amarok pertains to only a ‘fabulous’ monster for the Greenlanders, while other Arctic inhabitants believed the Amarok to be a monstrous wolf greater in size than a human being.

2) Aqrabuamelu (from Mesopotamian mythology) –

Illustration by Larkin Art (DeviantArt)

The Aqrabuamelu or the Scorpion Men are mentioned in many myths written in the Akkadian language, with the most famous descriptions being in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. They were said to be guardians of the sun god Shamash and were found around his abode at the Mashu mountains.

In terms of portrayal, the Aqrabuamelu are described to have astronomical proportions, with their heads supposedly touching the sky and their mere glances resulting in death. However, they were also depicted as nominally benevolent beings who warned travelers of any danger in their future journeys.

3) Camazotz (from Mayan mythology) –

Illustration by Tom Kelly (DeviantArt)

In terms of conventional zoology, all of the three known species of vampire bats are actually native to the New World. So, it really doesn’t come as a surprise that it is Mayan mythology that brings forth the legend of a mythical vampire creature. But the fascinating part is – the Camazotz’s legend does have many similarities to the well-known vampire stories of the later eras. For example, the Camazotz has been described as a purely evil entity with the sole aim to cause terror.

In fact, the legends pertain to the folkloric narrative when the Mayan Gods deliberately let loose the monster from its prison so as to destroy the entire race of Mayans – which would have made way for a new order of humans. This was supposedly done as a punishment to the existing civilization when the people revolted against the bloodthirsty divine will that demanded human sacrifices in return for protection.

4) Erymanthian Boar (from Greek mythology) –

Greek Mythological traditions have brought us a host of exalted creatures, including Kraken, Cyclops, Minotaur, Manticore, and Fury. But the enormous one-ton Erymanthian Boar has seemed to elude pop-cultural references for quite some time now. Residing in the vicinity of Mount Erymanthus, the boar was fabled because of its sharp yet strong canine teeth that were used to gore and impale unfortunate victims who had mistakenly wandered to the ominous location.

Oddly enough, the Erymanthian Boar was considered to be a repugnant form of the Greek god Apollo, who had changed himself into a monster to punish Adonis. But unfortunately for the ginormous creature, the demi-god Hercules successfully captured the boar – as outlined by one of his twelve heroic labors.

5) Ghatotkacha (from Indian mythology) –

Going against the grain of ‘evil’ monsters portrayed in various mythologies, the giant Ghatotkacha was described as a humble and loyal character in the world’s longest known epic poem Mahabharata. He was the son of Bhima, who was one of the heroes of this Sanskrit mythological work, and the giantess (rakshasa) Hidimbi.

Having the blood of the rakshasa endowed Ghatotkacha with many magical powers, including the ability to glide and the capacity to turn into a monstrous giant. Incidentally, he met his tragic death in his very giant form at the climactic Battle of Kurukshetra. According to the legend, when he fell down upon the adjacent soldiers, his massive body simultaneously buried 109,350 men and 21,870 elephants!

6) Gogmagog (from Anglican/Celtic mythology) –

Source: Mythical-Creatures Wiki (link)

The other G in our entries, Gogmagog was a muscular humanoid giant from the island of Albion (the ancient name for Britain). Sometimes described as more than 14 ft tall, the monster’s kind was said to have descended from demons. The folklore maintains Gogmagog himself was hideously repulsive in nature, and even draped himself in various animal skins to keep up his unpleasant and intimidating appearance.

Unfortunately for the giant, despite having the strength of 20 men, he was not really known for his tactical abilities. And that proved to the death knell when he was unceremoniously pushed off a steep cliff by the warrior Coineus in a melee combat duel.

7) Hecatoncheires (from Greek mythology) –

The Hecatoncheires was the collective name given to three monsters (Briareus, Cottus and Gyges) who were the children of Gaia and Uranus. And, they were not only known for their frightful enormity, but also for their ghastly arrangement of hundred arms and fifty heads. Even Uranus was so taken back by their ugliness that he decided to push them back into their mother’s womb. On failing to do so, they were subsequently banished to the underworld of Tartarus. Illustration by Silent Kitty (DeviantArt)

However, the Hecatoncheires more than made up for their revolting appearance when they helped the Greek gods in their fight against the Titans, who were also the offspring of Gaia and Uranus. As legend has it, the multi-limbed monsters had the better of their siblings partly aided by their capacity to launch a multitude of rocks at their opponents.

8) Kludde (from Belgian folklore) –

Illustration by ChameleonTech (DeviantArt)

A malicious spirit from the desolated parts of the Flemish countryside, the Kludde is said to have the ability to generally take the form of a winged black dog with a blue flame flickering around its macabre visage. Its wolfish nature had led many myth enthusiasts to define the Kludde as a werewolf or even a manifestation of the Devil himself.

Interestingly enough, the original spirit has been slated to be amorphous in nature, and hence the Kludde can take a myriad of forms – including that of a cat, a snake, a frog, a horse and even as a tree or a shrub. And, as every respectable monster, the supernatural being also has the power of speech and speed – both of which helps in ‘catching up’ with its victims.

9) Ogopogo (from Native American mythology) –

Finally, we have a marine-based monster in the form of the Ogopogo, a water serpent with seemingly affable flippers along its flanks and ominous horns along its head. An exceptional part of the folkloric traditions around the Okanagan Lake (presently in British Columbia, Canada), the native tribes even offered dead fishes and live cattle as sacrificial ‘presents’ to the cavernous behemoth.

Did we say cavernous? Well, the serpent supposedly resides inside the dark caverns underneath the deep lake, while the bones of its victims is said to be scattered around the shores of the ‘Monster Island’ on the lake. Some baleful descriptions even frightened the usually adventurous ferry commuters from the early part of the 20th century – so much so that they armed themselves in a daily fashion to defend against the monster during every crossing.

10) Sleipnir (from Norse mythology) –

Illustration by Lady Mischief (DeviantArt)

Sleipnir is possibly the ‘fastest monster’ in the world, courtesy of its eight-legs that carried the enchanted gigantic horse across the land, sea and even air. Of course, all of that speed was not just for bragging. Sleipnir is described as Odin’s personal mount, and so it helped the Allfather to travel in a blistering speed between Asgard and Earth.

Quite oddly, all of the super-exhilarating strength and elan are touted to come from Sleipnir’s magical marking on its teeth. And in an interesting note, archaeologists have found numerous depictions of an eight-legged horse from a few 8th-century figure stones etched on the island of Gotland, Sweden.

En as ons geen beeld, kunswerk of foto toegeskryf het nie, vra ons vooraf om verskoning. Laat weet ons asseblief via die 'Kontak ons' -skakel, wat bo die boonste balk en onder in die bladsy verskyn.


Other Mythical Creatures

Other cultures also have their own share of mythical creatures. The following list contains creatures common in Eastern folklore.

Basilisk

This serpent-like legendary creature in European mythology is known to kill with a look of its eyes. It is said to have a crest on its head, earning it its title as a serpent-king.

One of the earliest mentions of the basilisk is in Pliny the Elder’s Natural HIstory. Geoffrey Chaucer also mentions a similar creature called a basilicok in sy Canterbury Tales. Other famous writers like William Shakespeare, Robert Browning, and Jonathan Swift make allusions to this mythical creature in their writings.

Finally, in more modern literature, J.K. Rowling features a basilisk in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.

Bogeyman

This supernatural creature’s main aim is to scare children into good behavior. Mothers from generations past could have threatened their children with the bogeyman, making it easily connected with children’s bedrooms and bedtimes.

In modern literature, Stephen King’s Dit features a bogeyman-like character that teaches children not to trust clowns!

Dragons and Serpents

Dragons and serpents are common figures in world literature, but they do come in different forms. In Eastern folklore, these creatures typically do not have wings, and are known to have great cunning and intelligence. The ancient Near East mythologies describe dragons that look like giant snakes.

In Western legends, though, dragons are typically winged and horned, as well as fire-breathing. These pictures of dragons appear throughout modern literature, such as J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, George R. R. Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire, and J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter reeks.

Fairies

Fairies, also spelled faery or faerie, originate mostly in European folktales. Many cultures view fairies as elementals or spirits of the dead. Usually small, they generally have human-like features, magical powers, and a penchant for trickery.

Romantic art and Renaissance literature often feature fairies, especially during the Victorian and Edwardian years.

Fairies appear in great works of literature, including William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, J.M. Barrie’s Peter Pan, L. Frank Baum’s Oz series, Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte D’ Arthur, and the more modern Eoin Colfer’s Artemis Fowl reeks.

Goblins

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

European folklore from the Middle Ages brings us goblins in different forms, qualities, and abilities. The most common traits include greed, mischief, and magical capabilities.

But goblins are not exclusive to European folktales: in South Korea, a creature known as dokkaebi, which is common in children’s nursery rhymes and books, seems uncannily like the goblins. Japanese fairy tales also include a goblin. J.R.R. Tolkien features goblins in his Lord of the Rings trilogie.

Golem

These anthropomorphic beings, made of mud or clay, originated in Jewish folklore. Typically, magic brought these golems to life.

In the Talmud, the first man Adam was created first as a golem, a creature made of mud, that was later animated. In the Middle Ages, the Sefer Yetzirah, or Book of Creation, was apparently used as a reference on how to create and animate a golem.

A more modern reference to golems shows up in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett, He, She, and It by Marge Piercy, and The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon.

Griffin

Found mainly in Ancient Egyptian and Persian mythology, the griffin is a hybrid creature with the head and wings of an eagle and the body and back legs of a lion. The combination of both the king of birds and the king of the beasts gives the griffin a similar kingly stature.

Griffins are mentioned in The Life of Apollonius of Tyana by Flavius Philostratus. A griffin also appears in Dante’s The Divine Comedy, dragging a chariot that meets Dante in Earthly Paradise.

Mermaids

This half-woman half-fish is prominent throughout literature in many cultures: their stories sometimes revolve around sea tragedies such as drownings or shipwrecks, and many tales include a love story between a mermaid and a human.

Hans Christian Andersen popularized the mermaid in his fairy tale, The LIttle Mermaid. Other works featuring mermaids include The Sea Lady by H.G. Wells and The Fisherman and His Soul by Oscar Wilde.

Vampire

Vampires have taken on many different looks throughout the history of literature, and modern novels such as Anne Rice’s Interview with a Vampire en die Twilight series have shed new light on their character.

Still, the basic premise is that vampires feed on mortal blood in order to remain immortal. One of the earliest portrayals of vampires in literature includes Bram Stoker’s Dracula.

Pontianak

This Southeast Asian evil spirit is known in Malaysia and Indonesia, said to be the manifestation of women’s souls who had died in pregnancy.

These female spirits come with a white dress, pale skin, and long, lang hair. The Phillippine version of this creature goes by the name of “White Lady.”

You can find this creature in the Singapore-set novel entitled Ponti, by Sharlene Teo, which features three women connected by a Pontianak legend-themed film from the 70s.

Zombie

These humanoids, aka “the walking dead,” get their name from Haitian folklore, but the zombies we now know seem to be a mid-20th century development.

They are essentially walking corpses that want to consume human flesh. The TV series “Walking Dead,” among other modern films, gives us a gory picture of modern zombies.

Unicorn

The unicorn is probably one of the most popular mythological creatures, thanks to its commercialization through children’s TV shows and merchandise.

Its earliest appearance seems to be traced to early artworks in Mesopotamia, although ancient myths from China and India also made reference to it.

A common myth surrounding unicorns was that drinking from its horn could protect against poison, epilepsy, and stomach trouble.


Mythical Creatures: 15 Of The Strangest ‘Hybrids’ From Around The World

Previously, we talked about bizarre mythological monsters and impressive dragons you may have missed out on from popular media like television shows and movies. Well, this time around, with Halloween around the corner, we have decided to up the ante with a myriad of ‘hybrid’ mythical creatures that you may not have known about. So, without further ado, let us check out the brief history and mythology of fifteen of such elusive yet outlandish mythical creatures (ranging from the ancient to the medieval times) that emerge as unearthly crosses between familiar animals and humans. The myriad creatures, presented in alphabetical order, have their origins in myths and legends from different parts of the world.

1) Ammit (from Egyptian Mythology) –

Ominously translating to ‘devourer‘ or ‘soul eater’, the Ammit (also known as Ammut) was an underworld-dwelling ancient Egyptian goddess/demon who personified divine retribution. Having multifaceted anatomy of a lion, hippopotamus and a crocodile, she waited for the opportunity to devour the hearts of people who were deemed unworthy (their worthiness being measured by the scales of Ma’at) – thus cursing their ’empty’ souls to roam aimlessly for eternity, instead of otherworldly bliss. So, in essence, Ammit was not worshiped like other gods rather she epitomized the collective fear of Egyptians that pertained to ‘second death’.

2) Buraq (from Islamic Mythology) –

The Dome of Rock site (as part of the bigger and older Temple Mount) is venerated by Muslims because of its significance as the sacred spot from where Prophet Mohammed rose to heaven in his Night Journey. And, he was supposedly carried to heaven on a fantastical white-hued, horse-like creature named Buraq – that was half-mule (or smaller than a mule), half-donkey (or bigger than a donkey) and had wings. Oddly enough, the eastern sources like Persian and Indian art depict the Buraq to have a humanoid visage and peacock tail, but early-Islamic traditions mention no such specific features.

3) Gajasimha (from Indian Mythology) –

Art by Prasanna Weerakkody

According to Hindu mythology, the Narasimha (or Narasingha) was one among the ten Vishnu avatars with the head of a lion and body of a man. The Gajasimha is most probably a twist on this mythical being (or a variant of Hindu elephant god Ganesha), with its conspicuous elephant head and body of a lion. Unfortunately, there is not much information regarding the hybrid creature, except for numerous sculptural and painted depictions, mostly found in the temples of South East Asia and South India.

4) Hatuibwari (from Melanesian Mythology) –

Hatuibwari has been described to have the head of a human with four eyes, the torso of a huge serpent with imposingly grandiose wings, and sometimes also having four pendulous breasts that signify its status as the primordial ancestor of human beings. Mentioned in various traditions and folklore of Melanesia (a Pacific group of islands northeast of Australia), the Hatuibwari was most probably worshiped as a cosmic creature that created as well as nourished the early humans. Few sources have even put ‘him’ across as a masculine version of Mother Earth – thus serving as an antithesis to the commonly portrayed femininity of our planet.

5) Hippalectryon (from Greek Mythology) –

Credit: CuttlefishDreams Archive

A fantastical creature with depictions as old as 3,000 years, the Hippalectryon is derived from Cretan (or possibly Mycenaean) folklore as a beast with half-horse and half-rooster features. The Athenian comic playwright Aristophanes had described the Hippalectryon as an odd-looking creature with yellowish feathers. The very same author had also made a hypothesis that the origin of the hybrid beast had been influenced by Middle Eastern folkloric traditions. Other sources hint at how the creature may have been an alternative representation of the renowned winged-horse Pegasus. But the most interesting account arguably comes from Aristophanes’s own play ‘The Frogs‘, where he mentions how the Hippalectryon was so comically ugly that it invited laughter from people around, thus driving evil away for good.

6) Khepri (from Egyptian Mythology) –

Art by TorVic Ulloa (Art Station)

Intrinsically connected to the scarab beetle, Khepri was usually depicted as a man with a beetle head in Ancient Egyptian funerary papyri. There was a symbolic side to the whole affair of Khepri worship – with the god epitomizing the forces that moved the sun across the vast expanse of the sky. This connection was derived from the action of scarab beetles when they rolled balls of dung across the rigorous desert surface – while the young beetles emerged from inside the dung, from the eggs laid by the parent. This is in fact related to the Egyptian word ‘kheper‘, which roughly translates as – ‘to change’ or ‘to create’. In any case, Khepri was also considered as being subordinate to the more exalted sun god Ra.

7) Matsya (from Indian Mythology) –

Having the head of a human and underpart of a fish, the Matsya might appear to be a variant to the European-origin merman. However, the tradition of the Matsya is far older with the powerful entity being described in Vedic texts as one of the ten primary avatars of Vishnu (like our earlier mentioned Narasimha). And quite interestingly, in a strikingly similar vein to the Biblical account of Noah’s Ark, the Indian Manu also survived a catastrophic flood brought on by the gods, by building a great ark. This ark/boat was guided and pulled by the magnificent Matsya – a heroic feat that ultimately allowed Manu (and his family, animal pets and even collected plant seeds) to be safe to repopulate the earth.

8) Monocerus (from Medieval Legends) –

Derived from the Greek term Μονόκερος, the Monocerus simply pertains to an animal with a single horn, like the unicorn. However, Medieval bestiaries have given a fantastical twist to the hybrid creature by describing it as having the head of a stag, the body of a horse, the legs of an elephant and a tail of a boar. To top that off, the beast had only one horn, and it was supposedly used to aim the belly region of its opponents, namely the elephant!

9) Mušḫuššu (from Mesopotamian Mythology) –

An image that might be familiar to history enthusiasts from the reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate (of Babylon) in the Pergamon Museum, the Mušḫuššu, pronounced – ‘Mush·khush·shu‘ (also known as sirrušu) is rather a cryptic mythical creature which may have even influenced the Lernaean Hydra. In some narratives, the hybrid creature is the favored (or sacred) animal of none other than Marduk – the patron god of ancient Babylon. The name itself possibly refers to a ‘fierce snake’ or ‘splendid serpent’. To that end, the creature has been described as a dragon-like appearance, with a long neck, a horned head with a crest, and a serpentine tongue – complemented by lion (or feline) forelegs and hind legs of an eagle.

10) Nawarupa (from Burmese Mythology) –

Literally meaning having ‘nine forms’, Nawarupa, also known as byala (especially Arakenese myths), is a hybrid mythical creature that is said to have the multifarious composition from nine different animals. Often used in motifs that bedecked the royal barges, the creature is described as the having the conspicuous trunk of an elephant, the horns of a rhino, the eyes of a deer, the ears of a horse, the wings (or possibly tongue) of a parrot, the body of a lion, the tail of a peacock (or yak), and feet of Chinthe (the griffin like creatures often depicted in Buddhist pagoda complexes). A similar mythical critter known as the Pyinsarupa (‘five forms’) is used as a heraldic device of Myanmar’s current flagship air carrier.

11) Onocentaur (from Greek Mythology) –

Credit: DrawMill

Some of us must know about the renowned centaur, the mythical Greek beast with the head and torso of human and legs of a horse. Well, as it turns out, there is a less-impressive variant to the centaur, called the Onocentaur. Those who know their etymology must have already recognized its donkey credentials. And beyond Onocentaur’s ‘half-assed’ anatomy, the liminal being was supposedly mentioned for the first time by Pythagoras, while its female form was known as the onokentaura in Latin – as described by Roman author Claudius Aelianus. Furthermore, Greek poetic mythology makes mention of another exotic centaur hybrid known as Ichthyocentaur – with the upper torso of a man, the lower front of a horse and tail of a fish!

12) Pazuzu (from Babylonian Mythology) –

Bron: Shin Megami Tensei II

For those who ‘observe’ their movies might identify the Pazuzu from the famous horror-thriller ‘The Exorcist’. In mythological terms, the winged Pazuzu also had some ominous and unsightly aspects with its dog head, eagle-like feet, a scorpion’s tail, and a serpentine private part! As can be gathered from such frightful features, the monster was depicted as the demon of winds who could bring upon catastrophic famines during the rainy seasons. However, the Pazuzu was also invoked to lead the fight against other evil spirits, namely the Lamashtu, a malevolent Akkadian goddess who kidnapped infants by snatching them away from their mother’s breasts.

13) Qilin (from Chinese Mythology) –

In Chinese legends, the Qilin goes hand in hand with whimsicality and mysticism. Also known as the Chinese Unicorn, the spotting of the venerable beast signifies the birth (or death) of a sage or eminent ruler. The innocuous features of the creature are depicted as – having a body of a deer with a single horn, a tail of an ox and hooves of a horse, while their backs projected a vivacious palette of various colors that was complemented by a yellowish belly. Other descriptions of the Qilin entail dragon-like attributes with thick eyelashes and back scales. However, the most interesting episode of the Qilin would pertain to – when a real giraffe was (possibly) presented as the mythical creature to China’s Ming emperor Yongle.

14) Tarasque (from French Folklore) –

Tarasque is mentioned in various sources, but the most renowned account of the terrifying beast comes from the Medieval ‘bestseller’ Golden Legend (of Legenda sanctorum in Latin), compiled (possibly) in circa 1260 AD. It has been described as a dragon or a dragon-like creature with a head of a lion, a body of an ox covered with a turtle shell, legs (six of them) of a bear and finally a scaled tail that ended up like that of a scorpion. Volgens die Golden Legend, it dwelt in a marsh along river Rhone, and pounced upon unsuspecting travelers with its “sword-like teeth and sharp horns”. As for its origins, the mythical being was said to come from the region of Galatia (in present-day Turkey) – the homeland of its legendary bison-like parent, Onachus.

15) Wolpertinger (from German Folklore) –

Source: World of Warcraft Trading Card Game

A creature that is said to inhabit the picturesque forests of Bavaria, the origins of Wolpertinger might come from popular culture inspired by earlier myths and folklore. Often perceived as a ‘mashup’ of various animals and their parts, the Wolpertinger does bear similarity to the mythical Rasselbock from Thuringia (southern Germany) and even the Jackalope of America. To that end, the critter is described as having the head of a hare (or rabbit), the body of a squirrel (or hare), the antlers of a deer, and wings (and sometimes webbed feet) of a pheasant or duck. Interestingly enough, the popular lore associated with the Wolpertinger pertains to how they are only enticed by beautiful human females.


Which Greek Mythological Creature Are You? - Personality Quiz

The ancient mythology presented us to all kinds of fabulous creatures and beasts.

The Greek, Egyptian, and Persian mythologies introduced many of these fantastic creatures and produced some of the most fascinating tales.

Besides numerous deities and gods, the ancient Greek folklore also suggested the existence of many legendary creatures.

Many of those mythological monsters are hybrids, sometimes part-human or a combination of multiple animals.

The folklore tells us that these creatures possessed special powers like fire breathing, hypnosis, madness induction, superhuman strength, the ability to turn people into stone, and so on.

A few of the most popular creatures of Greek mythology are:

  • Cerberus - also known as the hound of Hades is a multi-headed dog that watches the gates of the Underworld.
  • Medusa - depicted as a winged human female with venomous snakes instead of her hair. She could turn anyone who looked at her face into stone.
  • Minotaur - a beast with superhuman strength portrayed as part man and part bull.
  • Cyclopes - giant one-eyed creatures.
  • Centaur - a creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body of a horse.
  • Hydra - was a serpent-like monster with many heads who would regrow and multiply if cut.
  • Chimera - a fire-breathing creature resembling a lion in the forepart, a goat in the midst, and a dragon behind.
  • Pegasus - a mythical winged divine horse.
  • Griffin - a legendary creature with the head and wings of an eagle and the body of a lion which was usually described as guarding gold treasures.

These are only a few of the most popular mythological beasts, but there are many other fabulous creatures that appear in the Greek tales and folklore.

Greek mythology usually describes these creatures as living in very distant places or guarding certain treasures, gates, or extremely valuable items.

Some of these monstrosities were actually the sons of various deities or kings or the result of their infidelity and infatuation.

We could talk all day about Greek mythology, gods, and the legendary creatures that these refer to, but that's not our purpose.

Since now you know a few things about the legendary creatures of this fascinating mythology, are you ready to take a fun personality quiz and find out which Greek mythological creature are you?

We have created a fun quiz that will determine which mythical beast you relate the most with based on your personality, preferences, and behavior.

The rules of the game are simple. Just answer all the questions as sincerely as possible and at the end of the quiz, we'll reveal the result. There is no time limit so take all the time you need.

Just click on the "Start Quiz" button below to begin the quiz.

Instruksies

Answer all the questions and at the end of the quiz you will receive your results. No answer is wrong or right.

This quiz is not based on any scientific studies and it is intended for entertainment purposes only.


The Hippogriff

The hippogriff has always been presented as a rare creature. Charlemagne’s knights were said to have liked hippogriffs better than horses and they used them more often. This creature is thought to be the result of a combination between a griffin and a mare, thus having the head of a vulture, the body of a horse, strong wings, and the front paws of a lion.

Roger délivrant Angélique (1824) by Louis-Édouard Rioult depicts the scene of Orlando Furioso where Ruggiero rescues Angelique while riding on a hippogriff. ( Publieke domein )

The hippogriff can supposedly fly faster and higher than any bird. Also, it was said to be first tamed by the magician Atlante. This creature is believed to have enough strength to fly from one part of the globe to the other. It is also known for teasing those who try to capture it, but once it is tamed it is very loyal.


Kyk die video: Theseus en de Minotaurus (Augustus 2022).