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Pine Cone gehou deur 'n Apkallu, paneel 4

Pine Cone gehou deur 'n Apkallu, paneel 4



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Hart simbool

Die hart simbool is 'n ideograaf wat gebruik word om die idee van die 'hart' in sy metaforiese of simboliese sin uit te druk. Die hart simbool word verteenwoordig deur 'n anatomies onakkurate vorm, en word dikwels gebruik om die middelpunt van emosie, insluitend liefde en liefde, veral romantiese liefde, voor te stel. Dit word soms vergesel of vervang deur die "gewonde hart" -simbool, uitgebeeld as 'n hartsimbool wat met 'n pyl deurboor word of as 'n hartsimbool wat in twee of meer stukke 'gebreek' is, wat dui op liefdevolle hartseer.


Princes Highway

'N Stel van vier seëls wat op 11 Augustus uitgereik is, herdenk die 100ste herdenking van die Princes Highway.

Hierdie kusweg wat Sydney en Melbourne verbind, word vernoem ter ere van die Prins van Wallis (later koning Edward VIII), wat Australië in 1920 besoek het.

Die eerste deel van die snelweg vanaf Melbourne het op 10 Augustus 1920 in Warragul, Victoria, oopgemaak. Nog 'n opening is gehou op 19 Oktober in Bulli, Nieu -Suid -Wallis.

'N 1920 Sydney Morning Herald verslag oor die opening van Bulli het gesê: & ldquoMr. Mutch [Thomas Davis Mutch, die minister van plaaslike regering], het by die benoeming van die pad gesê dat hy feitlik die hele Nieu -Suid -Wallis per trein, te voet en per fiets gereis het, maar hy weet nie van 'n mooier pad in die sy hele Australiese reise as die Prince & rsquos Highway. & rdquo

Uitstekende reisplakkate wat 'n deel van hierdie skoonheid bevat, word op die vier seëls van $ 1,10 afgebeeld.

'N Artikel op 'n Australia Post-webwerf vir versamelaars beskryf een van die plakkate as 'n beeld van die kobaltblou water van die mere wat die sluimerende vulkaniese kraters van Mount Gambier bewoon. & Rdquo

Kunstenaar John Charles Goodchild (1898-1980) het hierdie plakkaat, omstreeks 1930, geskep vir die Government Publicity and Tourist Bureau of South Australia.

Die volgende stempel toon 'n plakkaat in opdrag van die Victoriaanse Spoorweë en Geelong Publicity Council. Inskrywe & ldquoThe City With A Holiday Charm, en dit toon 'n illustrasie deur Isaac James Northfield (1887-1973) van Eastern Beach in Geelong.

Die ander twee seëls toon plakkate van die veertigerjare wat reis na stede bevorder. Die plakkaat van Melbourne is ontwerp deur Percy Trompf (1902 en ndash1964) en is ook in opdrag van Victorian Railways gemaak.

Richard Ashton (1913-2001) het die plakkaat met Sydney Harbour geskep terwyl hy as kuns- en publisiteitsbeampte van die New South Wales Department of Tourism and Immigration gewerk het.

Elke seël bevat die opskrif & ldquoPrinces Highway 1920-2020 & rdquo onder die plakkaat en 'n beeld van 'n vintage motor in die regter onderste hoek. Hulle is ontwerp deur Mure en is deur EGO in velle van 50 gedruk.


Inhoud

Die monument is vernoem Bere Ore vir 'n paar kolwers wat styg tot meer as 2700 m (2700 m) en 2700 m (910 voet), [10], wat meer as 610 m bo die staatsroetes 95 en 261 van Utah is. [11] Wingate Sandstone, die buttes en omgewing word al lank deur 'n aantal inheemse Amerikaanse stamme as heilig of betekenisvol beskou. Voorvaderlike huise in die Puebloan -krans wat meer as 3 500 jaar gelede dateer, is in die streek ontdek, slegs 'n paar van die beraamde 100 000 argeologiese terreine wat binne die monument beskerm is. [12] Die Comb Ridge -monokline loop deur die oostelike deel van die Shash Jáa -eenheid van die monument. [10]

Van die 1,35 miljoen hektaar van die oorspronklike monumentbenaming, hou die Bureau of Land Management (BLM) toesig oor 1,06 miljoen hektaar en bestuur die US Forest Service (USFS) 289,000 hektaar. [13] Van die 201,876 hektaar van die huidige monumentbenaming, hou die BLM toesig oor ongeveer 169,289 hektaar en bestuur die USFS 32,587 hektaar. [14] Die oorgrote meerderheid van die grond binne die nasionale monument is federale grond, hoewel die staat Utah ongeveer 109 100 hektaar binne die grense van die oorspronklike monument besit, terwyl 12 600 hektaar in privaat besit is. [13] Hierdie gronde in staatsbesit en in private besit is nie deel van die nasionale monument nie, en sal dit nie wees nie, tensy dit verkry word deur vrywillige verkope aan die federale regering. [13] Die aanwysing van die monument beïnvloed nie die regte van grondeienaars in of aangrensend aan die grense van die monument om toegang tot of gebruik te maak van hul eiendom nie. [13]

Die monument word mede-bestuur deur die BLM en die USFS (die Monticello-eenheid van die Manti-La Sal National Forest), [13] saam met 'n koalisie van vyf plaaslike inheemse Amerikaanse stamme-Navajo, Hopi, Ute Mountain Ute, Ute Indian Stam van die Uintah- en Ouray -reservaat, en die Pueblo van Zuni - wat almal voorvaderlike bande met die streek het. [15] [13] Die noordelike deel van die monument grens aan Canyonlands National Park, terwyl dele van die oorspronklike monument ook grens aan die Glen Canyon National Recreation Area en omring het Natural Bridges National Monument. [16]

Sommige kulturele spesiale bestuursgebiede bly binne die verminderde monumentgrense, waaronder die Newspaper Rock Petroglyph Panel en die Butler Wash Archaeological District National Register -terrein, terwyl ander sulke gebiede nie meer binne die monumentgrense is nie, insluitend die kwartel -rotskunspaneel, Big Westwater Ruin, die Sand Island Petroglyph Panel, en alles behalwe die laaste kilometers van die Hole-in-the-Rock Trail. [10] [17]: 2,3

Ekologiese veerkragtigheid is die sterkste op plekke met die minste steurnisse en die meeste biodiversiteit. Bears Ears is 'n veerkragtige landskap. Navajo -mense het 'n term vir sulke plekke van ekologiese verjonging: ons noem hulle Nahodishgish, of 'plekke om alleen gelaat te word'.

Robert S. McPherson, wat bekend is vir sy boeke oor Navajos en die vier hoeke, beskryf afbeeldings van weerlig, pylpunte, wind, slange en bere in die rotsformasies. [18]

Prehistories verdeel Comb Ridge 'n intensief gebruikte ou Puebloan -tuisland. Dit het later soortgelyke kulturele - sowel geestelike as praktiese - betekenis gehad vir Utes, Paiutes en Navajos en het 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die geskiedenis van Europese Amerikaanse vestiging. Om die verhaal te vertel van hierdie rots wat anders is as enige ander rock ter wêreld en die uiteenlopende mense wie se lewens dit geraak het.

Daar is meer as 100,000 argeologiese terreine wat binne die monument beskerm word. [19] [20] Die buttes en omgewing word al lank deur 'n aantal inheemse Amerikaanse stamme as heilig of betekenisvol beskou. [12] In hul voorstel om Bears Ears te laat aanwys as 'n nasionale monument, beskryf die Bears Ears Intertribal Coalition (BEITC) die 1,9 miljoen hektaar op die suidoostelike Utah -canyonlands Colorado Plateau as voorvadergrond. [19] [21] Die Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance (SUWA) het die Bears Ears beskryf as "die belangrikste onbeskermde kulturele landskap in die VSA" [20]

Reeds 13 000 jaar gelede het Clovis -mense, wat beskou word as die voorouers van die meeste van die inheemse kulture van die Amerikas, [22] [23]: 228 [24] [25] [26] die meeste gejag in Cedar Mesa, waarvan nou in die Bears Ears National Monument opgeneem is. Hulle gereedskap, insluitend die 'Clovis -punte', is daar gevind. Een van die oudste argeologiese terreine met Clovis -gereedskap in Utah is Lime Ridge Clovis Site. [3]

Na aanleiding van die Clovis -mense - minstens 2 500 jaar gelede - het Ancestral Puebloans die Bears Ears -gebied begin beset. Hulle het "mandjies, erdewerk en wapens" agtergelaat. [3] Dit is die voorvaders van die Hopi- en Zuni -mense wat "ongeveer 3 500 jaar gelede van voedsel na boerdery oorgegaan het". [21]: 8,9 Argeologiese terreine van die prehistoriese Amerikaanse suidwestelike kultuur wat 3 000 tot 2 000 gelede dateer, bevat 'n groot aantal mandjies wat gebruik is vir die berging van koring en vir die begrafnis. Die pre-voorvaderlike Puebloans-kultuur het bekend geword as die Basketmaker-kultuur. Die volgende periode, die Pueblo I -tydperk, het ongeveer 500 nC begin, gevolg deur Pueblo II en III. Die 'komplekse kultuurgeskiedenis' van hierdie vroeë boere is sigbaar in die oorblyfsels van 'enkelgesinswonings, graanskure, kivas, torings en groot dorpe en paaie wat dit met mekaar verbind'. [3]

Langs Comb Ridge (Navajo: Tséyíkʼáán) [27] [28]-'n "dramatiese geologiese vou" [28] met 'n paar kilometer breed en 80 myl lange met 'n paar van die bes bewaarde kranswonings-voorvaderlike Puebloans het in die "nisse en koring gekweek" [28] van ongeveer 900 tot 1350 nC. Hulle het sterk staatgemaak op makgemaakte mielies, boontjies en muurbal en 'n makgemaakte kalkoenras (Meleagris gallopavo). [29] In die Pueblo II -periode "bou" hulle reservoirs, damme en boerderyterasse in 'n poging om water vir landbougebruik op te vang en te bespaar. " [30] Deur c. In 1250 was die tuiste van die ou Puebloans in San Juan 'een van die mees bevolkte dele van Noord -Amerika'. [31]

Tussen die "middel van die 1200's en 1285" het "bykans 30,000 mense" uit die San Juan-streek verdwyn en hervestig in die Rio Grande-omgewing van New Mexico [31] en Arizona. [21]: 9 Hulle stap skielik weg van hul huis en laat kookpotte en mandjies agter. 'N 2015 -artikel in Natuur noem dit 'een van die grootste verdwyndade wat in die geskiedenis van die mens gedokumenteer is', waarin die San Juan -streek 'byna onmiddellik 'n spookland geword het'. [31] 'n 'Monsterdroogte' het die streek in die 1200's destabiliseer, en Mesa Verde het oorbevolk geraak. Toe 'n tweede droogte in die laat 1200's kom, begin die massa -uittog. [31]

Argeoloë en die Hopi "spoor Hopi -afkoms na die Ancestral Pueblo -mense, wat die Hopi noem Hisatsinom wat beteken "ons voorouers". [32]: 79 "Die Hopi het altyd die land wat deur hul voorouers beset was, as hulle s'n beskou: begrens deur die aansluiting van die riviere San Juan en Colorado in die noorde, die staatslyn Arizona-New Mexico in die ooste, die Mogollon en Zuni -rand in die suide en die San Francisco -pieke in die weste. " [32]: 82

Die Zuni's, wat afstammelinge is van beide die Ancestral Pueblo en Mogollon, het "baie lank" die woestyne van Utah, New Mexico, Arizona en die suide van Colorado bewoon. Hulle het 3000 jaar gelede 'begin met die besproeiing van koring'. Hulle was tot 4000 jaar lank in hul "huidige ligging". [33]: 328–29 [34] [35] [36]: 8

Aan die begin van die 16de eeu is inheemse Amerikaanse voorvaderlande, wat nou Four Corners genoem word, deur Spanje opgeëis as deel van Nieu -Spanje.

In 1848 is die grond uit Mexiko gekoop as deel van die Verdrag van Guadalupe Hidalgo. In die 1860's is die Navajos gedwing om hul voorvaderlande te verlaat in wat bekend geword het as die lang wandeling na Fort Sumner. [37] Baie Utah Navajos kon egter in die suide van Utah bly deur in canyons te skuil. Die geskiedenis van hierdie Navajo "verskil ietwat van dié van ander Navajos as gevolg van jare lange interaksie met Utes en Paiutes, sowel as Mormone en nie-Mormoonse setlaars, boere en handelaars". [38]

In die 1880's het John N. Macomb en Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden kaarte en beskrywings van die nok gepubliseer. [39]: 123 In 1880 volg 230 Mormoonse pioniers-die San Juan Mission-ekspedisie-die 320 myl in die Rock Trail "af" Cedar Mesa om Bluff, Utah te bereik, waar hulle die eerste Mormoonse nedersetting in Bluff in die suidooste van Utah. [21]: 7,8

In 1906 onderteken president Theodore Roosevelt die Wet op Oudhede van 1906 wat presidente die mag gee 'om nasionale monumente te skep-'n soort tweedevlak-nasionale park-wanneer federale grond voorwerpe bevat wat bedreig word deur buitemagte of wat veral noodgevalle verdien beskerming. " [40] in "erkenning van die blywende krag en waardigheid wat voortspruit uit die vroegste samelewings op hierdie kontinent." [21]: 39 Volgens 'n 2017 -artikel in Die Atlantiese Oseaan, is die "wet uitdruklik aangegee om plekke van historiese of inheemse belang te beskerm teen potjag, waarin Amerikaners artefakte van argeologiese terreine of verlate wonings sou plunder en dit dan op die onwettige mark sou verkoop." [40] Bears Ears is oor 'n aantal dekades gebuit en gevandaliseer. [19]: 1

In die dertigerjare is die gebied wat nou die Bears Ears National Monument is, opgeneem in 'n onsuksesvolle voorstel om 'n Escalante National Monument van 4,000,000 acres (1,600,000 ha) te vestig. [41]

In 1943 beskryf die westerse historikus en romanskrywer David Lavender (1910–2003) die gebied in sy boek One Man's West [42] as "'n miljoen en 'n kwart hektaar verbysterende verwoesting tussen die riviere San Juan en Colorado, 'n uitgestrekte driehoek land wat selfs vandag nog nie heeltemal in kaart gebring is nie." [41]

Een van die vroeë katalisators vir die versekering van monumentstatus vir Bears Ears was die gesamentlike aanval op 10 Junie 2009, genaamd Operation Cerberus Action, uitgevoer deur FBI en die Amerikaanse Buro vir Landbestuur (BLM) - "die land se grootste ondersoek na diefstalle van argeologiese en kulturele artefakte" - [43] in Blanding, 'n klein dorpie aan die oostelike grens van Bears Ears. [44] [45]

In Maart 2009 onderteken president Obama Utah Senator Bob Bennett se Washington County Lands Bill, "baie provinsies in Utah het versoek om insluiting in die volgende wetsontwerp" [46] Senator Bennett het inboorlinge in San Juan County, Utah, genooi om in gesprek te tree oor openbare grondbestuur van Bears Ore. San Juan County bevat dele van Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Hovenweep National Monument, Manti-La Sal National Forest en alle Natural Bridges National Monument, Rainbow Bridge National Monument en Bears Ears National Monument. Die "voorvaderlande van Bears Ears lê buite die voorbehoudsgrense", maar "het 'n spesiale historiese en geestelike betekenis vir plaaslike inboorlinge". [47] Die Utah Tribal Leaders Association begin gereelde besprekings oor onderhandelinge oor grondgebruik om 'die inheemse Amerikaanse belange op openbare gronde te bevorder'. [46]

In 2010 het die Utah Diné Bikéyah (UDB) begin werk aan 'n konsep wat gestuur moet word aan "verkose amptenare wat 'n wetsontwerp op grondgebruik opstel". Die UDB -konsep is onderskryf deur 'al sewe hoofhuise in Utah'. 'Dine', wat 'mense' beteken, is die naam wat Navajo -mense tradisioneel en histories gebruik om na hulself te verwys. [38] In 2010 word Bennett een van die mees prominente doelwitte van die Tea Party -beweging, omdat hy onvoldoende konserwatief was. Mitt Romney het Bennett ten sterkste onderskryf, maar hy is 'n plek op die primêre stembrief geweier deur die Republikeinse Konvensie van Utah in 2010. [48] ​​Omdat senator Bennett uit sy amp gedwing is, is die konsep nie ingedien nie. [47]

In 2011 het die UDB 'polities' betrokke geraak by Utah Navajos in die 'vroeë stadiums van die Public Lands Initiative -proses (PLI)'. [47] Hulle publiseer 'n boek met die titel Diné Bikéyah wat onderhoude saamgestel het met plaaslike ouderlinge en tradisionaliste wat hulle sedert 2010 versamel het. [47]

In 2012 het die Utah Diné Bikéyah (UDB) —Navajoland — amptelik as organisasie gestig. Die UDB het 2012 deurgebring in vergaderings met die Navajo Nation, die grootste reservaat in die Verenigde State, wat tot in die state Utah, Arizona en New Mexico strek en meer as 70 000 km2 beslaan. [49] Die Navajo -nasie en die provinsie San Juan het 'n memorandum van verstandhouding onderteken om "bewaringsgebiede te identifiseer, wildernis opsy te sit, mineraalgebiede voor te stel en ekonomiese ontwikkelingsgeleenthede na te streef." [47]

In 2013 kondig die verteenwoordiger van Utah, Rob Bishop, die oprigting van die Utah Public Lands Initiative (UPLI) aan. [50] [51] In 'n verslag wat deur Bishop, Jason Chaffetz en Chris Stewart opgestel is, word die Utah Public Lands Initiative beskryf as 'n 'plaaslik gedrewe inisiatief' om 'n oplossing te vind vir sommige van die 'mees uitdagende grondgeskille in die staat Utah ". Die inisiatief is "gewortel in die oortuiging dat bewaring en ekonomiese ontwikkeling saam kan bestaan ​​om Utah 'n beter plek te maak om te woon, te werk en te besoek". [52] SUWA het deelgeneem aan onderhandelinge met Bishop en Chaffetz en hul span "om 'n kompromie te vind wat 'n blywende beskerming vir Utah se. Openbare lande sou bied". [20]

In 2014 het die National Trust for Historic Preservation - in vennootskap met die All Pueblo Council of Governors, Friends of Cedar Mesa, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, die Conservation Lands Foundation en ander - Bears Ears by die National Treasures -program gevoeg. [53] In 2016 het die National Trust Bears Ears op sy jaarlikse lys van Amerika se mees bedreigde plekke ingesluit. [54]

In Julie 2015 het verteenwoordigers van die Hopi, Navajo, Ute Mountain Ute, Pueblo van Zuni en Ute Indian Tribe die 'historiese' [20] Bears Ears Inter-Tribal Coalition (BEITC) gevorm. [55] [17] Professor Charley Wilkinson van die Universiteit van Colorado, wat 'n 'lang geskiedenis van werk op die Colorado -plato' gehad het, het kort na die vorming daarvan op 'n 'pro bono -basis as senior adviseur' begin werk. Wilkinson het die presidensiële proklamasie van 1996 opgestel om die Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument op te stel. [56] [57] [58] In Oktober 2015 het die BEITC 'n voorstel voorgelê aan president Barack Obama, waarin die aanwysing van 1,900,000 hektaar (770,000 ha) as 'n nasionale monument ingedien word, waaronder Cedar Mesa, Indian Creek, White Canyon, Abajo Berge, Comb Ridge, Valley of the Gods en die samevloeiing van die San Juan- en Colorado -riviere. [59] [60] Die Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance het beskryf hoe 'n 'historiese koalisie van inheemse Amerikaanse stamme' die Bears Ears National Monument aangevra het om 'hulle mede-bestuursgesag te gee om hul voorvaderlike tuislande te beskerm'. [20]

Op 13 Julie 2016 het die verteenwoordiger van Utah, Rob Bishop, 'n konsepwetgewing onthul met die titel Utah Public Lands Initiative Act (UPLI), 'n wetsontwerp om 'groter bewaring, ontspanning, ekonomiese ontwikkeling en plaaslike bestuur van federale lande in Utah en vir ander doeleindes' te verskaf. [61] Bishop's UPLI -konsepwetsontwerp bied beskerming vir 1,100,000 hektaar (450,000 ha) deur verskeie kleiner wildernisgebiede en twee nasionale bewaringsgebiede. [62] Volgens 'n 29 Desember 2016 Die New York Times Biskop, een van die kritiekste op die oudheidwet, [63] is gekant teen die aanwysing van die Bears Ears National Monument. Hy ondersteun die herroeping of krimping van die benaming. [63] [64] [65] Na die vrystelling van die konsep, het die BEITC die besprekings onttrek, met vermelding dat dit onvoldoende en 'n afgeskaalde weergawe van hul oorspronklike plan was. [62] Die Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance noem Bishop's July 2016 UPLI die "ergste stuk wilderniswetgewing wat in die kongres ingestel is sedert die Wet op die Wildernis van 1964." In 2016 verklaar die SUWA dat die UPLI "die ontwikkeling van fossielbrandstof, gemotoriseerde ontspanning en beheer van openbare hulpbronne deur die staat Utah bevorder [en] bevat ongekende bepalings wat die federale grondbestuurders se vermoë om openbare lande vir die beskerming van natuurlike en kulturele hulpbronne ". [20]

Die Bears Ears Inter-Tribal Coalition (BEITC) was nie verteenwoordig tydens die veldverhore van die Senaat van 27 Julie 2016 oor die moontlike gevolge van grootskaalse monumentbenamings nie. [66]

Davis Filfred, afgevaardigde van die Raad vir die Navajo Nation Council, verwerp die aanbeveling van die minister van binnelandse sake, Ryan Zinke, op 12 Junie 2017 om die grense van Bears Ears National Monument te verklein. [67]

In Desember 2017 verminder Trump die grootte van die Bears Ears -monument van 1,35 miljoen hektaar tot 201,397 hektaar. [9] Volgens die departement van binnelandse sake e -pos dit Die New York Times toegang tot 'n suksesvolle regsgeding, en toegang tot moontlike steenkoolreserwes in die Grand Staircase-Escalante se Kaiparowits-plato was een van die sentrale faktore in Trump se besluit om die grootte van die monument met ongeveer 47%te laat krimp. [68] DOI -personeel is in die lente van 2017 deur sekretaris Zinke aangesê om moontlike steenkool-, olie- en aardgasafsettings sowel as moontlike weiveld en hout in beskermde gebiede te bereken. [68] Hulle het in die lente van 2017 berig dat daar na raming 11,36 miljard ton herwinbare steenkool op die Kaiparowits -plato is, wat 'een van die grootste steenkoolneerslae' in die land verteenwoordig. [68] Die Tye'dokumente onthul uitgebreide steun van uraanmaatskappye - soos Kanada se energiebrandstof - wat kaarte insluit wat in Mei aan Zinke voorgelê is, wat gebiede aandui wat die uraanmaatskappye' van die monument wou verwyder '. [69]

Op sy eerste ampstermyn het president Joe Biden 'n uitvoerende bevel onderteken waarin 'n herziening van die vermindering van die Bears Ears en Grand Staircase-Escalante-monumente hersien moet word. [9] Op 8 April 2021 begin Deb Haaland, die eerste Indiane wat genomineer is om die departement van binnelandse sake te lei, met die hersieningsproses ter plaatse by die Monument. [9]

Bears Ears word al jare lank gereeld gebuit en gevandaliseer. [19]: 1 [44] In 2009 het agente van die FBI en die Bureau of Land Management (BLM) toegeslaan op 16 huise in Blanding, na 'n federale ondersoek van twee jaar en die beskuldiging van 24 mense vir diefstal, ontvangs of poging tot verkoop van inheemse Amerikaners artefakte [45] van die honderde argeologiese terreine in die omgewing. [40] Hierdie voorval het 'n "vroeë vlampunt geword in die stryd oor die beheer van openbare gronde in die westelike Verenigde State." [45] Onder die gearresteerdes was 'n wiskunde -onderwyser, 'n broer van die provinsiale balju en 'n prominente dokter en sy vrou. Drie mense het na die klopjag selfmoord gepleeg. [45] Van Mei 2014 tot April 2015 was daar berigte van meer as 'n dosyn gevalle van 'ernstige plundering', wat wissel van 'kleinskaalse diefstal tot voorvaderlike oorskot wat rondgegooi word wanneer grafte geplunder word'. [19]: 35

'N Groep vrywilligers, genaamd Friends of Cedar Mesa, wat die Bears Ears -gebied patrolleer en voorvalle by die BLM aanmeld, het "sewe groot voorvalle van plundering in die Bears Ears -gebied opgespoor" in die eerste helfte van 2016, insluitend 'n poging om 'n " rotskunspaneel van 'n menslike figuur "uit 'n krans met 'n rotssaag. [44]

Daar is wettige roetes vir gebruik in die veld. Deur die jare het 'onverantwoordelike gebruik van veldvoertuie' egter 'die natuurlike landskap' en die argeologiese terreine beskadig. [19]: 35

Op 2 Mei 2016 het die Buro vir Grondbestuur en "Betrap lig!" het hul 'Respect and Protect Campaign' geloods om die publiek op te voed oor die beskerming van rotstekeninge, piktogramme, dinosourusbene en spore, onder baie van die ander brose funksies in Bears Ears. [70] [71]

Op 28 Desember 2016 kondig president Obama die 547,074 ha (137,874 hektaar) groot monument aan, insluitend die gelyknamige buttes en die omliggende landskappe, deur sy gesag ingevolge die oudheidwet te gebruik om nasionale monumente deur proklamasie te skep. [13] [3]

Die intertribale koalisie het voorgestel dat verskeie gebiede wat nie in die finale monument aangedui is nie, ingesluit word, insluitend die Abajo -gebergte (ook die Blue Mountains genoem), die onderste bereik van Allen Canyon Black Mesa, 'n 'groot strook land' langs die Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, rondom Mancos Mesa Raplee Anticline, en "die grootste deel van Lime Ridge tussen Mexican Hat en Comb Ridge." [41] Die weglating van hierdie gebiede uit die grense van die monument verteenwoordig 'n 'beduidende' toegewing vir diegene wat die monument se aanwysing teëgestaan ​​het. [41]

Reaksies Wysig

Die monument het mense verdeel in Blanding, Bluff en ander Utah -dorpe wat die grens oorskry, en sommige gesinslede wat oor die saak verdeeld is, het eenvoudig opgehou om met mekaar te praat. Tekens met '#rescindbearsears' strek oor vulstasies en voorste grasperke, wat strategies vermy word deur mense wat 'n pro-monument T-hemp gedra het.

Die monument is in San Juan County-'n graafskap van 8 000 vierkante kilometer met 'n yl bevolking van 16 895. Die federale regering besit ongeveer 60% van die grond in die graafskap, en 'inheemse Amerikaners, die kleinkinders van wit setlaars, korporasies, omgewingsbewustes, die federale regering' '[jockey] om dit en sy geskiedenis te beheer'. [72] Die monument se grondgebied van 2016 vorm ongeveer 30% van die gebied se gebied. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 'n Mei 2017 -onderhoud in Die New York Times Die 52-jarige James Adakai, "wie se Navajo-voorouers hier geslagte lank gewoon en gejag het", beskryf hoe: "Ons het baklei, ons het die eeu-oue stryd gewen: die monument. En nou is ons weer op die punt om te veg... En almal is teen ons. Die afvaardiging van die kongres in Utah, die goewerneur, die staatswetgewer, die provinsie. Hulle het 'n ander plan ". [72] Phil Lyman, wie se oupagrootjie in 1879 in Bears Ears aangekom het, het die benaming gekritiseer as '' gryp ',' wat die monumentbenaming gelykstel aan groot diefstal '. Lyman was bekommerd dat die monument -aanwysing 'hom en sy bure uit hul eie agterplase sou sluit'. [72]

Die Salt Lake Tribune het gemeld dat die reaksies op die monument se aanwysing in die staat wissel van 'verwoestend tot feestelik'. [73] Die benaming is geprys deur die Bears Ears Inter-Tribal Coalition (BEITC) van inheemse Amerikaners en omgewingsbewustes wat die veldtog om die land te beskerm gelei het. [74] President Navajo Nation, Russell Begaye, het geskryf dat die president se besluit "hierdie land sal beskerm as 'n nasionale monument vir toekomstige geslagte Navajo -mense en vir alle Amerikaners", terwyl samewerkende bepalings vir grondbestuur 'die verhouding tussen ons Navajo en Amerikaanse nasies versterk. " [75] Verteenwoordiger van Arizona, Eric Descheenie, 'n lid van die Navajo -nasie, het gesê: "Aan die einde van die dag is daar slegs 'n sekere plek in hierdie hele wêreld, op aarde, waar ons as inheemse mense hoort. En om te kan As u dit verseker, kan u geen geldwaarde daarop plaas nie. ” [73] Die oprigting van die monument is ook geprys deur die Mormon Environmental Stewardship Alliance. [73]

Republikeinse leiers het teleurgesteld gereageer op die aanwysing van die monument. Sommige navorsers en waarnemers het gesê dat dit moontlik is dat die verkiesde president Donald Trump of ander Republikeine 'n poging sou aanwend om die aanwysing terug te trek en die monument af te skaf, hoewel daar geen duidelike wetlike meganisme is vir die president om dit eensydig te doen nie. [76] Die Republikeinse goewerneur van Utah, Gary Herbert, het gesê dat hy 'meer as teleurgesteld' en 'diep ontsteld' was oor die eensydige besluit van president Obama. [73] Kongreslid Jason Chaffetz het op dieselfde manier gereageer. [77] Sean Reyes, prokureur -generaal van Utah, ook 'n Republikein, verklaar dat "Deur die toegang tot 'n groot deel van die openbare gronde in Utah aansienlik te beperk, verswak die president die vermoëns vir die bestuur van grond en versuim hy om die te beskerm wat die Wet op Oudhede bedoel het om te bevoordeel", en het aangekondig dat hy 'n regsgeding oor die kwessie beplan. [77] 'n Regsgeding teen die FBI en BLM weens sy 'hardhandige en oorywerige' plunderingstaking in 2009, is in Februarie 2017 van die hand gewys, maar 'bly 'n twispunt vir mense in [Blanding], waarvan baie ook gefrustreerd is die skepping van die nabygeleë Bears Ears National Monument. " [45] Utah -politici, waaronder senator Mike Lee (R), sowel as boere en sakegroepe, het die monument sterk gekant. [44]

Herroep voorstel Wysig

In Februarie 2017 onderteken die goewerneur van Utah, Herbert 'n resolusie wat deur die staatswetgewer van Utah aangeneem is waarin Trump gevra word om die aanwysing van Bears Ears as 'n nasionale monument te herroep. Daar is onsekerheid oor die gesag van 'n president om 'n monument wat kragtens die oudheidwet aangewys is, heeltemal te vernietig, soos dit nog nooit gedoen is nie. [78]

In reaksie daarop het die buiteklere -onderneming Patagonia aangekondig dat dit nie in 2017 of in die daaropvolgende jare die Outdoor Retailermark in Salt Lake City sal bywoon nie weens die teenkanting van die regering van Utah teen Bears Ears. Patagonië het ander kleinhandelaars aangemoedig om saam te gaan na 'n staat wat 'ons bedryf waardeer en openbare grondbewaring bevorder'. [79] [80] Op 16 Februarie kondig die Outdoor Retailer Market aan dat hy, nadat hy met die goewerneur gepraat het, nie meer sy jaarlikse beurs in Utah sou skeduleer nie (soos dit al 20 jaar gedoen het) weens die teenkanting van die regering van Utah Bears Ears National Monument. [81] Die Outdoor Retailer -vertoning het 50 000 besoekers en genereer jaarliks ​​$ 45 miljoen aan plaaslike uitgawes. [82]

Na die uittog uit Utah, probeer Colorado om gasheer te word vir die komende Outdoor Retailer -vertonings. Die organisasie Colorado Conservation het advertensies in Utah -koerante geplaas waarin staan: "Ons het sterker bier. Ons het groter pieke. Ons het meer ontspanning. Maar ons hou veral van ons openbare lande." [82] Sedert 2018 was Denver die gasheer van sowel die winter- as die somer Outdoor Retailer -vertonings. [83] [84] [85] [86] [87]

Op 21 Februarie 2017 het die Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance aangekondig dat dit 'n staatswye televisie -advertensieveldtog sal begin om ondersteuning vir Bears Ears National Monument te bou. [88]

Federale hersiening Redigeer

Op 26 April 2017 het die Trump -administrasie die ministerie van binnelandse sake opdrag gegee om 27 monumente van ten minste 100,000 hektaar groot te hersien deur middel van Uitvoerende Bevel 13792. [89] Die bevel het die departement aangesê om die vereiste van die oudheidwet in ag te neem dat reservate van grond nie oorskry nie 'die kleinste gebied wat verenigbaar is met die behoorlike versorging en bestuur van die voorwerpe wat beskerm moet word.'

Op 10 Junie 2017 het Zinke 'n tussentydse verslag uitgereik soos versoek in die Uitvoerende Bevel. Hy het 'n terugskrywing van die Bears Ears National Monument voorgestel. [90] [91] Op 24 Augustus 2017 het Zinke 'n finale verslag aan Trump gelewer. Die verslag vra dat Bears Ears, Cascade – Siskiyou, Gold Butte, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Pacific Remote Islands Marine en Rose Atoll Marine verminder word. [92]

Vermindering Redigeer

Op 4 Desember 2017 het Trump gelas dat die grootte van die monument met 85 persent (ongeveer 1,3 miljoen hektaar) verminder word. Die grense is herontwerp met twee nie -aaneenlopende eenhede met die naam Indian Creek en Shash Jáa, laasgenoemde eenheid bevat die Bears Ears -buttes. Trump het op dieselfde dag ook die grootte van die Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah met bykans 47 persent verminder. [6]

Die vermindering van die monument word beskou as 'n oorwinning vir Republikeinse amptenare en energiemaatskappye met mynhuurkontrakte vir fossielbrandstof en uraanafsettings, [93] en 'n nederlaag vir omgewingsbewustes en inheemse Amerikaanse stamme. [94] [95] Interne dokumente van die departement van binnelandse sake verkry deur Die New York Times sluit die staat Utah se belang in potensiële myninkomste op staatstrustgronde binne die oorspronklike monument in. Ongeveer 'n maand voordat die minister van binnelandse sake, Ryan Zinke, begin het met die hersiening van nasionale monumente, het senator Orrin Hatch se kantoor 'n kaart met verminderde monumentgrense aan amptenare van die departement van binnelandse sake gestuur. Die voorgestelde nuwe grense is meestal opgeneem in die werklike vermindering. [96]

Meer as 300 uraanmyn -eise is binne die oorspronklike monumentgrense geleë, met die oorgrote meerderheid van die eise buite die verlaagde grense. Energy Fuels, 'n Amerikaanse uraanprodusent, bedryf die enigste uraan- en vanadiummynfabriek in die VSA naby die oorspronklike grense van hul monument via hul filiaal Energy Fuels Resources. Volgens berigte in die media het die maatskappy saam met ander mynbouondernemings hard gepleit vir die vermindering. [97] [95] Energy Fuels verklaar dat hulle die Trump -administrasie slegs geringe grensaanpassings gevra het wat "ongeveer 2,5 persent van die totale grondoppervlakte van die monument sou beïnvloed" en dat hulle nie gevra het vir die vermindering van 85% nie. [98] Boonop verklaar die maatskappy dat dit geen aansprake in die monument het nie en dat mediaberigte wat beweer dat hulle eiendomme in die monument het, op 'n klerkfout berus. [99] Energy Fuels soon expects to produce rare earth elements, needed for various clean energy and advanced technologies. [100]

Bill proposing two monuments Edit

On December 4, 2017, Utah Congressman John Curtis, along with fellow Utah representatives Rob Bishop, Chris Stewart and Mia Love, introduced a bill that would codify the Trump administration's reduction of Bears Ears National Monument by creating two new national monuments in the remaining areas defined by the president. The monuments would be named Shash Jáa National Monument and Indian Creek National Monument. Shash Jáa would be managed by a council of seven members, including four from Native American tribes, while Indian Creek would be managed by a council of five with just one Native American member. [101]

On January 9, 2018, members of the Tribes of the Bears Ears Inter-Tribal Coalition testified against the bill with Shaun Chapoose, a member of the Ute Indian Tribe and Utah Business Committee, stating "Congressman Bishop’s [committee chairman] contempt for the United States government-to-government relationship with Indian tribes and the legislative process in his own Committee was on full display during the hearing." The bill would have effectively negated any legal challenges to the reduction. [102] The bill died in committee.

Legal challenges to the reduction Edit

Three separate federal lawsuits were filed by December 7, 2017 challenging the reduction of Bears Ears National Monument. [103] The plaintiffs include five Native American tribes, a private corporation, conservation groups, and several non-profit organizations and NGOs. The groups have argued that the reduction is not authorized by law. [6]

The three federal lawsuits are:

  • Natural Resources Defense Council v. Trump (and four administration officials) - filed by 11 environmentalist and conservationist groups who argue that "Only Congress—not the President—has the power to revoke or modify a national monument. President Trump’s proclamation purporting to dismantle Bears Ears National Monument exceeded his authority and is unlawful." The plaintiffs are the Natural Resources Defense Council, the National Parks Conservation Association, The Wilderness Society, Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance, Sierra Club, Center for Biological Diversity, Defenders of Wildlife, Grand Canyon Trust, Great Old Broads For Wilderness, Western Watersheds Project, and WildEarth Guardians. [104]
  • Hopi Tribe v. Trump - filed by five Native American tribes—the Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation, Ute Indian Tribe, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, and Zuni Tribe—against Trump and four administration officials. The plaintiff tribes argue that Trump's significant reduction in Bears Ears National Monument infringes on Congress's power in violation of the constitutional principles of separation of powers. The plaintiff tribes also argue that Trump's shrinkage violates the Antiquities Act of 1906. [105][106] , an outdoor retailer, has also sued over the reduction of Bears Ears. [107] Patagonia, like others in the outdoor recreation industry, has been outspoken against the Trump administration actions, posting on its website a message reading, "The president stole your land. In an illegal move, the president just reduced the size of Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monuments. This is the largest elimination of protected land in American history." [108]

The three suits were consolidated at the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in January 2018, and in January 2020 the plaintiffs filed for summary judgment. [109] The case was not yet decided at the time of the 2020 election.

Sixteen national monuments were reduced in 18 separate acts by previous presidents, but not by any president since 1963. [7] [92] The largest previous reduction by acreage was President Woodrow Wilson's 1915 removal of 299,370 acres (121,150 ha) from the Mount Olympus National Monument established by Theodore Roosevelt in 1909. The largest reduction by percentage was Navajo National Monument by 90% (from about 3715 acres [110] to 360 acres) [111] by President William Howard Taft in 1912 after he established it three years prior.


The Spiritual Significance of the Third Eye

The reputation of the third eye lies far beyond its physical properties, and becomes transcendent in its spiritual implications.

Developing the third eye is the doorway to all things psychic—telepathy, clairvoyance, lucid dreaming, and astral projection. It’s the quiet space within where we can touch God. The illusion of separation dissolves when we learn to master the far-reaching tools of the pineal gland. Because it’s inside the brain but outside the mind, a paradox is formed, creating a loophole to escape the contradiction of this reality. The Egyptians taught that when we can contain this paradox, freedom is achieved.

Every Mystery School taught the metaphysical ways of being: how to be awake within the dream, to walk between realities and surpass the limitations of humanity. No teaching is without its doctrines on the third eye, as it’s the first building block of all psychic skills.

Without a solid mastery of this chakra, no spiritual connections are possible, and we’re relegated to experiencing only a mundane third-dimensional life.

In the days of ancient Egypt when psychic development was at its peak, certain pineal exercises were developed. Rather than being the size of a pea, it’s told that the pineal gland was the size of a peach!


Aaronic Priesthood

As a result of the failure of the Israelites to observe the gospel law administered by Moses under the authority of the Melchizedek Priesthood, the Lord gave an additional law of performances and ordinances and “confirmed a priesthood also upon Aaron and his seed, throughout all their generations” (D&C 84:18) to administer it. This priesthood was of lesser power and authority than the priesthood of Melchizedek and was used to administer the outward ordinances, particularly as characterized by the ceremonies of the law of Moses. The terms Aaronic en Levitical are sometimes used synonymously (D&C 107:1, 6, 10), although there are some specific differences in the offices existing within the Levitical Priesthood. For example, the lesser priesthood was conferred only upon men of the tribe of Levi. However, within the tribe, only Aaron and his sons could hold the office of priest. And, still further, from the firstborn of Aaron’s sons (after Aaron) was selected the high priest (or president of the priests). Thus Aaron and his sons after him had greater offices in the Levitical Priesthood than did the other Levites.

The privileges of the priests were greater than those who functioned in the other Levitical offices, and a distinction between the two is evident when the scripture speaks of them as “the priests and the Levites” (1 Kgs. 8:4 Ezra 2:70 John 1:19). The priests could offer sacrifices for the people, burn incense on the altar, and teach the law, whereas the other Levites were employed in more menial tasks, such as the housekeeping of the tabernacle, keeping oil in the lamps, transporting the Ark of the Covenant, taking down and setting up the tabernacle when moving, and related tasks in assisting the priests (Num. 3:5–10 18:1–7 1 Chr. 23:27–32). The account of Korah’s rebellion against Moses and Aaron delineates some of the differences between the duties of the priests and those of the Levites. It also shows the error of aspiring to offices in the priesthood. Levite companions sought for the high priesthood, but as they were unworthy, the Lord destroyed them (Num. 16–18).

The Aaronic (or Levitical) Priesthood thus functioned only within the tribe of Levi, and the right to have it conferred upon one was determined by lineage and worthiness. As part of his rationale that the law of Moses was fulfilled, Paul makes a point of the contrast between the lineal requirement of the lesser priesthood and the nonlineal Melchizedek Priesthood, which was not confined to those of one tribe (see Heb. 7:1–3, 11–14 JST Heb. 7:3 [Appendix]). The lineal restrictions of that Aaronic (Levitical) Priesthood were lifted when the law of Moses was fulfilled, and thereafter the offices of the priesthood were conferred upon worthy men without limitation to the tribe of Levi. This appears to be the case in the Church as recorded in the New Testament and in the Book of Mormon (where there were no Levites) and is presently operative in the Church as it has been restored in the latter days.

The Aaronic Priesthood continued “with the house of Aaron among the children of Israel” from Aaron until John the Baptist, who was a priest in the Aaronic order (D&C 84:26–27), and by this authority he prepared the way for and baptized Jesus. Nineteen centuries later this same John was sent from heaven as a resurrected being to confer the Aaronic Priesthood upon Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery. This was done on May 15, 1829, near Harmony, Pennsylvania. At that time John outlined some of the duties, privileges, and limitations of the priesthood, specifying that the Aaronic Priesthood holds the keys of the ministry of angels and can perform baptisms by water but has not the authority to confer the gift of the Holy Ghost. The Aaronic Priesthood functions under the direction of the Melchizedek Priesthood (D&C 13 JS—H 1:68–72).

Although the Aaronic Priesthood is conferred in the Church today without restriction to the lineage of Aaron, the keys of this priesthood rightly belong to the firstborn of the seed of Aaron, and in the restoration of all things the office of bishop (president of the priests) will once again be conferred on one of that lineage, as it is designated by revelation to the president of the Church (D&C 84:14–21 107:13–17).


Fast, firm and effective

For everyone’s safety, restraints must separate staff and patients rapidly and reduce patient trauma. Pinel restraints have unique design features made for both comfort and security.

Restrain a patient in 30 seconds (vs. an industry average of 10 mins and 20 second)

The quick Velcro™ cuffs and long utility strap allow staff to control the patient quickly and without harm.

Each soft, custom molded cuff allows for optimal comfort and security. There are no tight spots or gaps, so blood flow should not be impeded.

With the Velcro™ application, the cuff can withstand a pull of 500 pounds (depending on the Velcro™ overlap and condition.)

The large utility strap helps protect staff and keep them safe from violence. Most importantly, it dissipates the patient's energy to fight. It also allows for even pressure on the clavicles and keeps the chest open for easy breathing. And it prevents the patient from sitting and tipping the stretcher while attached.

Our design does not force the legs apart, which will help prevent panic in patients with a history of sexual abuse.


In the anime

Ash and his friends arrived in Fortree City in Who's Flying Now?, just in time for its annual Feather Carnival, where people celebrate wild Flying-type Pokémon. During the festivities, they met Winona, the local Gym Leader, who was giving out rides on her giant Skarmory. James also encountered the Magikarp salesman, who sold him what he claimed to be a Chimecho, which James had wanted since his childhood, but turned out to be a disguised Hoppip. Soon after, James however came across a real Chimecho, which happily joined his team. Team Rocket later gatecrashed the festivities and attempted to steal all of the Flying Pokémon, though Winona, Ash, and his friends intervened. The interruption, however, meant that Ash's scheduled Gym battle had to be rescheduled for the following day.

In Sky High Gym Battle!, Ash had his battle against Winona and defeated her, earning his sixth Hoenn League Badge.


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A Guide to Christmas Antiques and Vintage Christmas Decorations

Ever wonder about that box of vintage Christmas decorations in the attic? From wooden nutcrackers to glass Christrmas tree ornaments to 1930’s Lionel model trains, this article can help you identify what vintage or antique Christmas items might be in that box. Your cherished decorations might be valuable, and even if not, you can sure have a whole lot of fun decorating with them!

Christmas Trees: From Simple to Space Age

Decorating the tree, like many modern Christmas traditions, was originally a German innovation. Nuts, fruits and candles were the most common decorations, and some families would later take the tree outside to share the ornaments with the animals.

Americans started decorating trees in the early 1800s, often covering them in garlands of popcorn or cookies baked in festive shapes. Christmas tree stands were occasionally made of cast iron, but more often a piece of wood was simply nailed to the tree bottom and covered with a piece of red velvet cloth.

During the late 1800s (Victorian era), Christmas decorations became much more elaborate, featuring elegant Christmas tree ornaments, baubles and garlands. In the space age 1950’s, Americans became enamored with newfangled aluminum Christmas trees, which were produced in silver, pink and even purple, rotated on electric tree stands with an electric light ‘color wheel’. Today these aluminum trees, especially in the rarer colors, are highly collectible.

Blown Glass, Wooden and Silver Christmas Tree Ornaments

German craftsmen began producing images of fruits, hearts, stars, and angels in glass in the mid-1800s, and their popularity soared. By the 1880s American entrepreneur F.W. Woolworth had begun importing these German glass and metal treasures to his five and dime stores all across the country, sparking a Christmas ornament craze in the U.S.

Folksy, homemade decorations like textile and wooden tree ornaments also became popular around this time, and many were constructed from miscellaneous household materials like wire, pressed tin, construction paper and cardboard, often using instructions published in magazines. The handmade German ornament trade floundered after World War I, so American innovators mechanized the process, mass-producing ornaments that were sent to other companies to be decorated, often by hand. The largest such American company was “Shiny-Brite.”

Vintage Department Store Christmas Ephemera

A 1933 Rice-Stix Christmas catalog

By the 1930’s, Christmas had become a big business, and children eagerly awaited the arrival of Christmas toy catalogs from the likes of Sears and Montgomery Ward. Department stores set up huge Christmas trees, places for kids to meet Santa, and sweeping window displays of their toys, often encircled by a lifelike Lionel train set. All the trappings of this era — the trains, the advertising, and even the catalogs, not to mention the toys, today are highly collectible.

Antique and Vintage Christmas Tree Lights

Although candles had long been used to illuminate Christmas trees, by 1882 one of Thomas Edison’s assistants decided to try the new electric lights for that purpose. After a decade or two of dangerous fire-causing experimental displays, the safety Christmas bulb was invented in 1917, and sold to the public in strings.

Peerless indoor Christmas lights

Christmas lights became popular in many shapes and sizes, like bubbling lights, figural lights, electric flameless candles, and novelty shapes like stars or hearts. By the 1950’s, most lights had taken on the teardrop shape we associate today with vintage Christmas lights.

Vintage Christmas Putz Villages and Antique Nativity Scenes

Good-Lite outdoor holiday lighting

Putz, or tiny Christmas village houses, are a longstanding Christmas decorating tradition. Often seen at the base of Christmas trees, on mantles, or atop side tables, they were introduced to the U.S. by the Pennsylvania Dutch in the late 1800’s.

Beginning as hand-carved wooden pieces, Putz villages were soon mass-produced in America, and also in Japan for the U.S. market. Japanese-made cardboard villages sold briskly in dime stores during the Depression. Today, these villages in good condition can be highly collectible.

Many Putz villages also featured a Nativity scene. Rendered in wood, cardboard, and ceramics, they almost always featured angels, shepherds, and animals, in addition to the holy family.

Vintage Nutcrackers, Elves and Reindeer

A Gloria Livaudais angel from Italy

The 1892 debut of Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker Suite ballet established nutcrackers as a Christmas holiday tradition. Although the first hinged nutcracker is attributed to the Romans, the ones we’re familiar with were first produced by German craftsmen in the early 1800s, as functional decorations in the shapes of soldiers, kings, woodsmen, and miners.

With their iconic beards and painted rosy cheeks, German nutcrackers soon found a large audience in America. U.S. GI’s brought them home during WW2, spurring a wave of collecting. Several makers, such as Steinbach, still produce collectible limited edition nutcrackers.

A 1962 Montgomery Ward Christmas catalog

Other iconic Christmas images which have spawned highly collectible decorative figurines and ornaments include elves, reindeer, and Christmas bells.

Vintage Santa Figurines and Christmas Advertising

The story of Santa Claus goes back to fourth century Myra (now Turkey), where the kindly old Bishop Nicholas became a patron for children and the poor. Dutch immigrants brought the lore of Saint Nick to America, and through mispronunciation of ‘Sinterklass’ (St. Nicholas), Santa Claus was born.

Santa’s likeness adorns many Christmas antiques and collectibles, from toys to vintage tree ornaments to centerpieces and tiny figurines. Celluloid figurines were among the earliest such incarnations: German craftsmen figured out how to shape this lightweight, plastic-like material into simple shapes in the early 1900’s, and American and Japanese manufacturers soon followed. But by the 1930’s the market for celluloid figures faded, thanks to their inflammability.

“Santa Claus” Xmas Tree Lighting Outfit

Coca-Cola was one of the first companies to jump on the Christmas bandwagon, helping to define Santa in the process. In the 1930’s the company began producing a number of Christmas advertisements featuring Santa enjoying Coke, which helped establish Santa as a gift giver clad in red. By the 1950’s, popular ornaments began depicting Santa as shorter, with more compact features and cartoonish expressions.

Vintage Christmas Records and Pop Memorabilia

Bing Crosby’s 1938 recording of ‘White Christmas’ launched a wave of popular Christmas record albums which are now highly collectible (and perfect background music for a snowy Christmas day, if you still have a turntable).

A Bing Crosby Christmas album

There’s a lot to choose from in this genre, from the now-rare Beatles Christmas albums to recordings by Elvis, Frank Sinatra, Gene Autry, Pearl Jam, and of course, Alvin and the Chipmunks! Not to mention the memorabilia associated with big screen Christmas movies like Miracle on 34th Street and other early films. Posters and other promotional materials from these older movies are often highly sought by collectors.

Collecting Antique and Vintage Christmas Items for the Future

“A Charlie Brown Christmas”

So whether you consider them antique, vintage, or just fun to remember holidays past by, hang on to those decorations and hand-me-downs in that box in the attic, not to mention the new Christmas items you pick up this year. You never know what might become a valuable antique 30 years from now!

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55 comments so far

I have a glass vintage Christmas tree ornament with a metal cap that says Made
By Grenier. Can you tell me anything about this?…. when it was made? It’s pinkish and kind of round/square with 4 snow flakes (I think they’re snow flakes). Thank you for anything you might know about this.

Of course, Americans made tree garlands in the early 19 too. Cellophane was a popular material in these early American decorations. As it ages, silver tinsel oxidizes and takes on a golden sheen, which can be a sought-after decorating item.

I have a set of Christmas lights that areover 60 years old, they have coloured plastic holders that a glass vile fits into which had clear liquid in but when lights were turned on and the liquid heated up coloured bubbles went up and down like a lava lamps. Some of the glass viles no longer have liquid in and obviously I have not used them for many years and electrics would not safe today. The look like large candles on the tree and are about 5 ins high. I have never seen any others like them they were given to me as a present when I was 5 years old. Has anyone got any information about them they were possibly made to be a shop display.

MRs Cassey….. Your comment made me smile. When I was about 3, my mother had a set of those lights, and they still worked. They were from her younger days. I remember watching them, amazed at the tiny bubbles. I think that was the last year we ever used them. It was about 1961 or 󈨂. I don’t know what ever happened to them, but I still have many of the ornaments from those long-ago Christmases…. and they were probably very old, even then, because Mom didn’t have much money for “fancies” with five kids to take care of. Since then, I’ve acquired a dozen colorful tin ornaments about 5″ high, but the edges are so dangerously sharp that I never use them. I even have some of the huge light bulbs (about 3″), but don’t have the light cords to use them on. Ohhhh, Chritsmas nostalgia… :D

I came across some heavy multi colored Christmas balls and i cant find any thing to compare them to they are hand blown almost look like small glass floats i think they are very old

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