Artikels

Harold Williams

Harold Williams



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Harold Williams, die seun van 'n nie -konformistiese predikant uit Engeland, is op 6 April 1876 in Auckland, Nieu -Seeland, gebore. Sy pa het ook die Methodist Times geredigeer. Hy was 'n uiters intelligente student en was 'n uitstaande taalkundige, en daar word gesê dat hy uiteindelik vyf en twintig tale kon praat.

Nadat hy kortliks aan die Universiteit van Auckland gestudeer het, betree hy die metodistebediening. Geïnspireer deur die geskrifte van Leo Tolstoy, het hy 'n vegetariër, pasifis, sosialis geword en was hy 'n voorstander van 'die leer van die Christelike anargisme'. Eugene Grayland het aangevoer: "Sy geestelike meerderes het sy sienings wantrou en van sommige van die heterodoksboeke in sy biblioteek afgekeur, wat evolusie en sulke aangeleenthede raak."

In 1900 verlaat hy Nieu -Seeland en gaan na die Universiteit van München, waar hy filologie, etnologie, filosofie, geskiedenis en letterkunde studeer. Hy het deeltyds Engels gegee en sy Ph.D. in tale in 1903. Williams het ook as joernalis vir Die tye. Hy het ook gewerk vir die Manchester Guardian en die Morning Post in Rusland. Terwyl hy in die land was, ontmoet hy Ariadna Tyrkova, 'n lid van die Doema, 'n konstitusionele demokraat. Die egpaar is in 1906 getroud.

Sowel as sy joernalistieke werk, het Williams geskryf Rusland van die Russe (1914). H. G. Wells aangevoer in die Daaglikse nuus: "In 'n reeks briljante hoofstukke het doktor Williams 'n volledige en gebalanseerde verslag van die huidige Rusland gegee soos wat iemand kan begeer ... Dit is die mees stimulerende boek oor internasionale betrekkinge en die fisiese en intellektuele wese van 'n staat wat al baie jare voor die Engelse leser gestel is. "

Williams het Arthur Ransome ontmoet in 1914. Ransome het later gesê: "Hy (Williams) het vir my deure oopgemaak wat ek jare lank vir myself kon vind ... ek skuld hom meer as wat ek kan sê." Mense met wie hy kennis gemaak het, sluit in Sir George Buchanan, Bernard Pares, Paul Milyukov en Peter Struve. Volgens Roland Chambers, die skrywer van The Last Englishman: The Double Life of Arthur Ransome (2009): Williams het 'n groot invloed op Ransome gehad: "'n Skaam, vrygewige man 'n paar jaar ouer as hyself, met 'n pedagogiese reeks en 'n ontwapende hakkel. Ransome het baat gevind by Williams se ensiklopediese kennis van die Russiese geskiedenis, sy joernalistieke kontak en ook van 'n vriendskap met Williams se vrou, Ariadna Tyrkova, die eerste vroulike verteenwoordiger wat verkies is tot die Russiese parlement, of die staatsduma, en 'n passievolle voorstander van grondwetlike hervorming.In Williams se geselskap het Ransome nie net politiek bespreek nie, maar filosofie, geskiedenis en letterkunde het sy gesoek raad oor elke onderwerp en luister verbaas toe hy in een van die twee-en-veertig verskillende tale praat wat destyds in Rusland gebruik is. "

By die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was hy werksaam by die Daily Chronicle. Sy kennis van die politieke situasie is hoog op prys gestel en hy word 'n nie -amptelike adviseur van George Buchanan, die Britse ambassadeur in Rusland en Bernard Pares, Britse militêre waarnemer van die Russiese leër. Hy het hulle gewaarsku dat ontevredenheid toeneem en dat dit 'n gevaar is dat die mense in opstand kom teen tsaar Nikolaas II.

In Februarie 1917 skryf hy: "Alle aandag word hier toegespits op die voedselvraag, wat op die oomblik onverstaanbaar geword het. Lang rye voor die bakkerswinkels is lankal 'n normale kenmerk van die lewe in die stad. Grysbrood word nou verkoop in plaas van wit en koeke nie gebak word nie. merkwaardig humeurig en moedig tans die troepe wat op straat patrolleer aan. "

Williams het in Maart 1917 met Alexander Kerensky 'n onderhoud gevoer: 'Kerensky is 'n jong man in sy vroeë dertigerjare, van medium lengte, met 'n effense buk en 'n vinnige, wakker beweging, met bruinerige hare reguit geborsel, 'n breë voorkop al gevoer, 'n skerp neus en helder, skerp oë, met 'n mate van swelling in die ooglede as gevolg van gebrek aan slaap, en 'n bleek, senuweeagtige gesig wat skerp tap na die ken. in 'n grys, taamlik verslete pak, met 'n potlood wat uit sy borssak steek. Hy het ons met 'n baie aangename glimlag begroet, en sy manier was eenvoudigheid self. Hy het ons na sy studeerkamer gelei, en daar het ons 'n uur gesels. Ons het die situasie deeglik bespreek, en ek het die indruk gekry dat Kerensky nie net 'n oortuigende en entoesiastiese demokraat was nie, gereed om sy lewe op te offer as dit 'n behoefte was aan demokrasie - wat ek reeds van vorige kennis geken het - maar dat hy 'n duidelike, breë opvatting van die probleme en gevare van die situasie en was besig om voor te berei om hulle te ontmoet. ”

Williams verwelkom die omverwerping van Nicholas II: "Dit is 'n wonderlike ding om die geboorte van vryheid te sien. Met vryheid kom broederskap, en in Petrograd is daar vandag 'n stroom van broederlike gevoel. Oral sien jy dit in die strate. Die trams is nie tog hardloop, en mense is moeg vir eindelose loop. Maar die gewoonte is nou om jou taxi met volmaakte vreemdelinge te deel. Die polisie is weg, maar die dissipline is wonderlik. Almal deel die taak om dissipline en orde te handhaaf. 'n Vrywillige burgermag was gevorm en 7 000 mans wat as spesiale konstabels ingeskryf is, meestal studente, professore en manne van die professionele klasse oor die algemeen. Met behulp van af en toe klein patrollies van soldate, beheer hulle die verkeer, bewaak die banke, fabrieke en regeringsgeboue sekuriteit. "

Williams verwerp die idee dat Vladimir Lenin 'n belangrike rol in sake kan speel: "Lenin, leier van die uiterste faksie van die sosiaal -demokrate, het Maandagaand hier by Duitsland aangekom. Sy optrede om 'n gedeelte uit Switserland van die Duitse regering te aanvaar deur Duitsland wek hier intense verontwaardiging. Hy het teruggekeer en vuur geëis en die onmiddellike en onvoorwaardelike gevolgtrekkings geëis van vrede, burgeroorlog teen die weermag en die regering en wraak op Kerensky en Chkheidze, wat hy beskryf as verraaiers van die oorsaak van Internasionaal Sosialisme Tydens die vergadering van die sosiaal -demokrate is sy woede gister in doodse stilte ontvang, en hy is sterk aangeval, nie net deur die meer gematigde sosiaal -demokrate nie, maar ook deur lede van sy eie faksie. Lenin is absoluut sonder ondersteuners gelaat. gegee aan hierdie brandmerk was 'n gesonde teken van die groei van die praktiese gevoel van die sosialistiese vleuel, en die algemeen matige en verstandige toon van die Die konferensie van provinsiale werkers en soldate se afgevaardigdes was nog 'n hoopvolle aanduiding dat die revolusionêre koors verbygegaan het. "

Op 8 Julie 1917 word Alexander Kerensky die nuwe leier van die voorlopige regering. In die Doema was hy leier van die gematigde sosialiste en is hy beskou as die kampioen van die werkersklas. Williams het in die Daily Chronicle: "Die samestelling van die nuwe regering is in die omstandighede buitengewoon matig. Daar was, en is steeds gevaar van ekstremiste, wat Rusland dadelik in 'n sosialistiese republiek wil verander en onder soldate gewoel het, maar die rede is versterk deur 'n gevoel van gevaar van die Duitsers en die langdurige reaksiekragte wat die oorhand kry. "

Williams was van mening dat die Kornilov -opstand die situasie dramaties verander het en die invloed van die Bolsjewiste dramaties verhoog het: "Die Kornilov -saak het wedersydse wantroue versterk en die vernietigingswerk voltooi. Die regering is skaduagtig en onwerklik, en watter persoonlikheid het dit verdwyn voordat bedreiging van die Demokratiese Vergadering. Ongeag watter mag daar weer in die hande van die Sowjete gekonsentreer is, en soos altyd gebeur wanneer die Sowjets 'n monopolie van mag verkry, het die invloed van die Bolsjewiste geweldig toegeneem. Kerensky het teruggekeer van die hoofkwartier, maar sy prestige het afgeneem, en hy word nie aktief ondersteun deur regs of links nie. "

Alexander Kerensky was nou in gevaar en moes die Sowjets en die Rooi Wagte vra om Petrograd te beskerm. Die Bolsjewiste, wat hierdie organisasies beheer het, het op hierdie versoek ingestem, maar Lenin het duidelik gemaak dat hulle teen Lavr Kornilov sou veg eerder as om Kerensky. Binne 'n paar dae het die Bolsjewiste 25 000 gewapende rekrute ingespan om Petrograd te verdedig. Terwyl hulle loopgrawe gegrawe en die stad versterk het, is afvaardigings van soldate gestuur om met die opkomende troepe te praat. Vergaderings is gehou en Kornilov se troepe het besluit om Petrograd nie aan te val nie. Generaal Krymov het selfmoord gepleeg en Kornilov is in hegtenis geneem en in hegtenis geneem.

Leon Trotsky en Vladimir Lenin dring nou aan op die omverwerping van die voorlopige regering. Op die aand van 24 Oktober 1917 is bevele gegee dat die Bolsjewiste die treinstasies, die telefooncentrale en die Staatsbank begin beset het. Die volgende dag het die Rooi Wagte die Winterpaleis omsingel. Binne was die grootste deel van die land se kabinet, hoewel Kerensky daarin geslaag het om uit die stad te ontsnap. Die Winterpaleis is verdedig deur Kosakke, 'n paar junior weermagoffisiere en die Vrouebataljon. Om 21:00. die Aurora en die vesting van Petrus en Paulus het op die paleis begin skiet.

Die aanvalle op die Winterpaleis het min skade aangerig, maar die optrede het die meeste van die wat die gebou verdedig het, oorreed om oor te gee. Die Rooi Wagte, onder leiding van Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko, het die gebou binnegegaan en die ministers van die kabinet gearresteer. Albert Rhys Williams het berig: "'n Verskriklike wellus hou die skare in die greep - die begeerlikheid wat die pragtige skoonheid aanhits by die lang honger en lank ontken - die begeerlikheid van buit. Selfs ons as toeskouers is nie immuun daarvoor nie. Dit brand die 'n laaste oorblyfsel van terughoudendheid en laat 'n passie vlam in die are - die passie om te sak en te plunder. Hulle oë val op hierdie skatkis, en hulle hande volg. "

Op 26 Oktober 1917 vergader die All-Russian Congress of Soviets en gee die mag oor aan die Sowjetraad van Volkskommissarisse. Vladimir Lenin is tot voorsitter verkies en ander aanstellings was Leon Trotsky (Buitelandse Sake) Alexei Rykov (Binnelandse Sake), Anatoli Lunacharsky (Onderwys), Alexandra Kollontai (Sosiale Welsyn), Felix Dzerzhinsky (Binnelandse Sake), Joseph Stalin (Nasionaliteite), Peter Stuchka (Justisie) en Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko (Oorlog).

'N Totaal van 703 kandidate is in November 1917 verkies tot die Grondwetgewende Vergadering. Die Bolsjewiste was bitter teleurgesteld oor die uitslag, want hulle het gehoop dat dit die Oktoberrevolusie sou legitimeer. Toe dit op 5 Januarie 1918 geopen word, is Victor Chernov, leier van die Sosialistiese Revolusionêre, tot president verkies. Toe die Vergadering weier om die program van die nuwe Sowjetregering te ondersteun, stap die Bolsjewiste uit protes. Later die dag kondig Lenin aan dat die Grondwetgewende Vergadering ontbind is. Kort daarna is alle opposisie -politieke groepe in Rusland verbied.

Williams het in die Daily Chronicle: "As jy hier gewoon het, sou jy voel in elke been van jou liggaam, in elke vesel van jou gees, die bitterheid daarvan ... en meer genadeloos as enige indringende weermag. gruwels val op ons - roof, roof en die wreedste vorme van moord word deel van die atmosfeer waarin ons leef. Dit is erger as die tsarisme ... Die bolsjewiste beweer nie dat hulle illusies oor die werklike aard daarvan. Hulle behandel die bourgeoisie van alle lande met gelyke minagting; hulle roem in alle geweld wat teen die heersende klasse gerig word, hulle verag wette en ordentlikhede wat hulle as effektief beskou, hulle vertrap die kunste en verfyning van die lewe. Dit is niks vir hulle as die wêreld in barbaarsheid terugval tydens die groot omwenteling nie. "

Williams en Ariadna Tyrkova het nou uit die land gevlug. In 1921 het Wickham Steed, die redakteur van Die tye, het Williams 'n pos as leierskrywer aangebied. In Mei 1922 word hy aangestel as buitelandse redakteur. Hy beklee hierdie posisie tot sy dood op 18 November 1928. Ariadna publiseer 'n biografie van haar man, Vrolike gewer, in 1935.

Alle aandag word hier toegespits op die voedselvraag, wat vir die oomblik onverstaanbaar geword het. Maar die skare is oor die algemeen merkwaardig gemoedelik en jubel tans die troepe wat die strate patrolleer.

Toe al die sprekers hees en moeg was, was dit seker dat die hele Petrograd -garnisoen van 140 000 man na die rewolusie oorgegaan het. Maar die beamptes was nie by hulle nie. Onseker oor hul plig, onwillig om hul eed van getrouheid te verbreek, het hulle - maar net 'n paar - teruggehou en die dag in diep depressie deurgebring terwyl Petrograd juig.

Die samestelling van die nuwe regering is in die omstandighede buitengewoon matig. Daar was, en is steeds, gevaar van ekstremiste, wat Rusland dadelik in 'n sosialistiese republiek wil verander en onder soldate gewoel het, maar die rede word versterk deur 'n gevoel van gevaar van die Duitsers en die langdurige reaksiekragte wat toeneem die oorhand.

In talle gesprekke wat ek met soldate gehad het, is ek getref deur hul fundamentele redelikheid, hul gevoel vir orde en dissipline. Hulle wil vrymanne wees, maar besef hul plig as soldate baie sterk. Die meer gematigde sosialiste, die sogenaamde Plekhanov-party, wat oorlog voer, is baie nuttig as bemiddelaars, en sodra die nuwe regering sy grond verseker, sal die invloed van die ekstremiste verminder word.

Dit is wonderlik om die geboorte van vryheid te sien. Maar die gewoonte is nou om jou taxi met perfekte vreemdelinge te deel.

Die polisie is weg, maar die dissipline is wonderlik. Hierdie, met die hulp van af en toe klein patrollies van soldate, beheer die verkeer, bewaak die banke, fabrieke en regeringsgeboue en verseker veiligheid.

Soldate, met al hul vryheid, toon 'n gevoel van orde en dissipline wat in geen ander land skaars denkbaar sou wees nie. Gedurende die revolusie, toe die stad eintlik onder die beheer van duisende soldate was, gedra hulle hulle op 'n paar uitsonderings soos 'n deeglike heer. Ons het gehoor van geen gevalle van koelbloedige moord nie. Slegs die beamptes of polisie is dood wat op die soldate losgebrand het. Privaat eiendom is byna oral nougeset gerespekteer, en in die meeste gevalle was roof te wyte aan misdadigers wat as soldate vermom is.

Goeie nuus kom vanaand dat die gematigde groep in die Sowjet die oorhand kry, en die vooruitsigte is helderder as ooit. Prins Kropotkin (nou woonagtig in Brighton) en Plekhanov, veteraan van die sosialistiese ballinge, wat die kampioenoorlog as 'n oorlog van verdediging en bevryding was, is dringend uitgenooi om terug te kom om te help met die heropbou.

Verlede week se belaglike manifes (bevel nr. 1), uitgereik in die naam van die Raad van Arbeidsafgevaardigdes (die Sowjet), waarin 'n beroep op die soldate gedoen is om nie hul offisiere te gehoorsaam nie, word Kerensky skerp gekenmerk as 'n provokasie. Daar was 'n paar gevalle van ernstige dissiplinêre versteuring, maar die minister was vol vertroue dat hierdie fase, saam met die ander eksentrisiteite, binnekort sou verbygaan. Hy verklaar: "Die algemene uitwerking van die bevryding sal, ek is oortuig, 'n enorme opheffing van die gees van die troepe gee, en so die oorlog verkort. Ons wil hê die soldate moet voel dat hulle ook vrymanne is. ”

Die Raad van Arbeids- en Soldate -Afgevaardigdes (die Sowjet) is nou 'n onhandige liggaam van meer as 'n duisend lede wat deur die arbeiders van al die fabrieke en die soldate van elke kompanie van die opstandige regimente verkies is. Hierdie liggaam word beïnvloed deur sosialiste, waarvan sommige gematig en redelik is, en besef al die kompleksiteit van die huidige situasie, terwyl ander ekstremiste is wat gretig is om hul leerstellings onmiddellik uit te voer.

Kerensky is 'n jong man in sy vroeë dertigerjare, van medium lengte, met 'n effense buk en 'n vinnige, wakker beweging, met bruinerige hare wat reguit opgeborsel is, 'n breë voorkop al gevoer, 'n skerp neus en helder, skerp oë, met 'n mate van swelling in die deksels as gevolg van gebrek aan slaap, en 'n bleek, senuweeagtige gesig wat skerp afneem teen die ken. Sy hele gedagte was dié van 'n man wat die massa kon beheer.

Hy was geklee in 'n grys, nogal verslete pak, met 'n potlood uit sy borssak. Ons het die situasie deeglik bespreek, en ek het die indruk gekry dat Kerensky nie net 'n oortuigende en entoesiastiese demokraat was nie, gereed om sy lewe op te offer as dit nodig was vir demokrasie - wat ek al van vorige kennis geken het - maar dat hy 'n duidelike, breë opvatting gehad het van die probleme en gevare van die situasie, en was besig om voor te berei om dit te hanteer.

Lenin, leier van die uiterste faksie van die sosiaal -demokrate, het Maandagaand hier by Duitsland aangekom. Tydens die vergadering van die Sosiaal -Demokrate is sy wilde uitbarsting gister in doodse stilte ontvang, en hy is sterk aangeval, nie net deur die meer gematigde sosiaal -demokrate nie, maar ook deur lede van sy eie faksie.

Lenin is absoluut sonder ondersteuners gelaat. Die skerp afstoot wat aan hierdie brandmerk gegee is, was 'n gesonde teken van die groei van die praktiese gevoel van die sosialistiese vleuel, en die algemeen gematigde en verstandige toon van die konferensie van provinsiale werkers en soldate se afgevaardigdes was nog 'n hoopvolle aanduiding van die heengaan van die revolusionêre koors.

Die Kornilov -saak het wedersydse wantroue verskerp en die vernietigingswerk voltooi. Kerensky het teruggekeer uit die hoofkwartier, maar sy aansien het gedaal, en hy word nie aktief ondersteun deur regs of links nie.

Lenin is 'n interessante figuur. Dit is absurd om hom as 'n Duitse agent te beskou. Ek verbeel my dat Lenin, om sy doel te bereik, bereid is om alle beskikbare middele te gebruik, en as die Duitsers geld of offisiere wil voorsien om 'n sosiale revolusie in Rusland te bewerkstellig, aanvaar hy selfs hul dienste met graagte.

Blote geld vir sy persoonlike gebruik kon so 'n man nie versoek nie. Hy is heeltemal eiesinnig, onbewus van die werklikheid, onbewus van wat hy as die burgerlike moraliteit beskou, onbewus van onmiddellike gevolge. Hy sien slegs sy doel, die volledige en geforseerde vestiging van sosialisme in Rusland.

Van konstruktiewe krag het die Bolsjewiste niks, maar hulle het 'n enorme mag om te vernietig. Hulle kan 'n wildernis maak en dit vrede noem. Uiteindelik kan hulle die weermag demoraliseer en dit tot 'n menigte van honger, plunderende groepe verminder, wat dwarsdeur die land sal stroom, die spoorweë sal blokkeer, die burgerlike bevolking tot hongersnood en die uiterste van terreur sal verminder en soos wolwe sal veg oor hul prooi. Dit kan hulle doen in die naam van vrede.

Uit verskillende oorde van die stadstoetse, met rooi vlae met inskripsies vir die kieser, het hulle na die sentrum opgeruk en een vir een is deur Rooi wagte en matrose afgevuur en versprei. Versperrings is naby die Taurida -paleis opgerig, matrose en rooi wagte is in gerieflike binnehowe gestasioneer: al die metodes wat so bekend was onder die ou regime, is in werking gestel.

Die grootste deel van die skietery het op die Liteiny Prospect plaasgevind. Die aantal dood en gewond was blykbaar nie groot nie, in ag genome die hoeveelheid ammunisie wat bestee is. Onder die vermoorde en gewonde was verskeie werksmanne en studente en een lid van die konstituent, die boer Loginov. Verontwaardiging is intens.

By die opening van die vergadering was die galerye vol, meestal met Bolsjewistiese ondersteuners. Matrose en rooi wagte, met hul bajonette wat in verskillende hoeke hang, het op die vloer van die huis gestaan. Regs en links van die Speaker se tribune sit die Volkskommissarisse en hul assistente. Lenin was daar, kaal, rooibaard, kort en taamlik stewig. Hy was blykbaar by 'n goeie gees en het lustig gesels met Krylenko (opperbevelhebber van die weermag). Daar was Lunacharsky en mev Kollontai, en 'n aantal donker jongmanne wat nou aan die hoof van die verskillende regeringsdepartemente staan ​​en skemas beraam vir die oplegging van onlegerde sosialisme op Rusland.

Na 'n lang wag het 'n SR voorgestel dat die senior adjunk, Shvetsov, die verrigtinge moet open. Die Bolsjewiste in die huis en galerye het 'n huil van verontwaardiging opgewek, op die lessenaars geslaan en met fluitjies en katoproepe die stadige, swaar loopvlak van 'n bejaarde man met lang hare na die tribune begelei. Shvetsov lui, maar die gedreun gaan voort. Die Bolsjewiste skud hulle vuiste, verskeie jaag na die tribune, twee of drie jong mans in uniform lê Shvetsov in die hand, en die geveg het eers opgehou toe Sverdlov, president van die Uitvoerende Komitee van die Bolsjewistiese Sowjet, verskyn het , het die ou heer afgetree.

As jy hier woon, voel jy in elke been van jou liggaam, in elke vesel van jou gees, die bitterheid daarvan ...
Ek kan jou nie vertel van al die wreedhede, die hewige oordrewe dinge wat Rusland van einde tot einde en meer genadeloos as enige indringende weermag verwoes nie. Dit is erger as die tsarisme ...

Die Bolsjewiste beweer geen illusies oor die werklike aard daarvan aan te moedig nie. Dit is niks vir hulle as die wêreld in barbaarsheid terugval in die storm van die groot omwenteling nie.


Harold oor die geskiedenis | Black History Month en baanbrekende Afro -Amerikaanse dokters

Beide American Heart Month en Black History Month word in Februarie gevier. Alhoewel die een 'n belangrike geleentheid bied om op die las van kardiovaskulêre siektes te fokus, vier die ander die bydraes van Afro -Amerikaners in die loop van die geskiedenis. In hierdie maand se aflewering van Harold on History, dink ek dit is gepas om die twee te kombineer en te fokus op sommige van die baanbrekende Afro -Amerikaanse dokters wat 'n belangrike bydrae gelewer het tot die transformasie van kardiovaskulêre sorg en die verbetering van die hartgesondheid.

Daniel Hale Williams, MD (1856-1931): Williams was een van Chicago se eerste Afro-Amerikaanse dokters toe hy aan die Northwestern Medical School in 1883 studeer het. In 1891 stig hy die Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses in Chicago, wat die eerste nie-gesegregeerde hospitaal in die Verenigde State word wat ook in swart besit en bedryf word. onderwys en opleiding vir swart dokters en verpleegsters verskaf. In 1893 was Williams een van die eerste dokters wat 'n suksesvolle oop-hartoperasie ondergaan het, wat op die perikardium geopereer het om 'n steekwond aan die bors te herstel. Twee jaar later stig hy die National Medical Association as 'n professionele organisasie vir swart mediese praktisyns. Hy word 'n charterlid en die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse dokter in die American College of Surgeons in 1913.

Fotokrediet: Howard University

Edward William Hawthorne, MD, PhD, FACC (1920-1986): 'N Professor en hoof van die departement fisiologie aan die Howard -universiteit en dekaan van die Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Hawthorne was 'n pionier in die gebruik van groot diernavorsing in kardiovaskulêre fisiologie en het seminale ondersoeke gedoen na miokardiale kontraktiliteit en hartspiermeganika. Hy was 'n nasionaal erkende spesialis in kardiovaskulêre navorsing en die oorsake van hipertensie.

Fotokrediet: J Natl Med Assoc

John Beauregard Johnson, MD, FACC (1908-1972): 'N Professor en hoof van die Howard University Department of Medicine in 1949, was Johnson 'n baanbreker in die gebruik van angiocardiografie en hartkateterisering as diagnostiese hulpmiddels. Hy was ook een van die eerste kardioloë wat gefokus het op die uiteenlopende gevolge van hipertensie onder Afro -Amerikaners. Johnson word ook erken as die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse dokter wat verkies is as 'n genoot van ACC.

Vivien Theodore Thomas, MD (1910 -1985): Sonder enige opleiding na die hoërskool, het Thomas bo armoede en rassisme uitgestyg om 'n pionier in die hartoperasies te word en 'n onderwyser in operatiewe tegnieke vir baie van die land se vooraanstaande chirurge. As chirurgiese tegnikus ontwikkel Thomas in die veertigerjare die prosedures wat gebruik word om blou babasindroom te behandel. Hy was die assistent van die chirurg Alfred Blalock, besturende direkteur, in die eksperimentele dierelaboratorium van Blalock by Vanderbilt en later aan die Johns Hopkins Universiteit in Baltimore, MD. In 1976 kry hy 'n eredoktorsgraad en word hy aangestel as chirurginstrukteur vir die Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Daniel D. Savage, MD, PhD, FACC (1944-1990): Savage, 'n epidemioloog, navorser en skrywer, het 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die totstandkoming en werking van die minderheidsafdeling van die Framingham Heart Study. Hy word ook toegeskryf aan die vestiging van linkerventrikulêre hipertrofie as 'n onafhanklike risikofaktor vir skielike hartsterfte.

Elijah Saunders, besturende direkteur, FACC (1935-2015): Saunders het letterlik die boek oor hipertensie by Afro -Amerikaners geskryf. Hy word ook erkenning gegee vir sy baanbrekende pogings om pasiënte op te voed om bewus te maak van hoë bloeddruk in kerke en kapperswinkels in die deelstaat Maryland.

Edward Sawyer Cooper, besturende direkteur: Cooper was die eerste Afro -Amerikaner wat 'n ampstermyn as professor aan die University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1972 ontvang het. Hy is in 1992 verkies as die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse president van die American Heart Association en was voorsitter van die skryfkomitee wat die wetenskaplike verklaring gelewer het. op Kardiovaskulêre siekte en beroerte in Afro-Amerikaanse en ander rasse-minderhede.

Charles L. Curry, MD, FACC: Curry, die eerste Afro -Amerikaner wat opleiding in kardiologie aan die Duke -universiteit ontvang het, het ook die eerste Afro -Amerikaner geword wat die sertifikaat van die American Board of Internal Medicine ontvang het. Hy was 30 jaar lank direkteur van kardiologie aan die Howard -universiteit en was die eerste Afro -Amerikaner wat in die ACC se kuratorium gedien het.

Richard Allen Williams, MD, FACC: Williams stig die Vereniging van Swart Kardioloë in 1974 met die fokus op die bevordering van die voorkoming en behandeling van kardiovaskulêre siektes, insluitend beroerte, by Afro -Amerikaners en ander minderhede en om billike gesondheid te bewerkstellig deur die uitskakeling van ongelykhede by alle mense van kleur. Hy was ook die outeur van die 900 bladsye Handboek van swartverwante siektes in 1975, waarin die mediese toestande wat uniek is vir Afro -Amerikaners, gedetailleer is.

Edith Irby Jones, besturende direkteur: Jones is toegelaat aan die University of Arkansas College of Medicine in 1948, en was die eerste Afro-Amerikaner wat ingeskryf het vir 'n wit mediese skool in die suide. In 1959 word sy die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse vroulike inwoner in die Baylor College of Medicine -aangeslote hospitale in Houston. In 1985 is sy verkies as die eerste vroulike president van die National Medical Association. Sy was 'n sterk advokaat teen ongelykhede in die gesondheidsorg.

Jay Brown, MD, FACC (1944-1994): As hoof van kardiologie in die Harlem -hospitaal in New York, het Brown die erkenning gekry dat hy die Harlem -hospitaal se akute koronêre sorg -eenheid herbou het. Hy was die projekdirekteur van die Heart of Harlem Healthy Heart-program en het nuwe benaderings ontwikkel om kardiovaskulêre siektes in die middestad te voorkom, wat wissel van kerkgebaseerde gesondheidsprogramme tot die bevordering van gesonde kos in kruideniersware en restaurante.

Kim Allan Williams Sr, MD, MACC: Williams is die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse president van die ACC. Hy is tans die James B. Herrick, MD, professor in hartnavorsing en hoof van kardiologie aan die Rush Medical College in Chicago. Hy was ook voorsitter van kardiologie aan die Wayne State University School of Medicine in Detroit, waar hy die Urban Cardiology Initiative begin het. Hy het die HEART -program (Helping Everyone Assess Risk Today) ontwikkel om kerke en gemeenskapsgroepe op hartsiektes en beroerte te ondersoek en was 'n groot voorstander om die verwoestende gevolge van kardiovaskulêre siektes in die Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap te verminder.

Gary H. Gibbons, besturende direkteur: Gibbons is direkteur van die National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, die derde grootste instituut by die National Institutes of Health (NIH). Hy was voorheen voorsitter van die Departement Fisiologie en professor in fisiologie en geneeskunde aan die Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta. Hy word erken vir sy werk oor kardiovaskulêre gesondheid van minderheidsbevolkings en fokus op die ontdekking van nuwe bemiddelaars van vaskulêre siektes.

Elizabeth Odilile Ofili, MBBS, MPH, FACC: Ofili, 'n nasionale en internasionaal erkende klinikuswetenskaplike wat gefokus het op kardiovaskulêre verskille en die gesondheid van vroue, was die eerste vroulike president van die Vereniging van Swart Kardioloë. Sy het die inisiatief gelei om die belangrikste African American Heart Failure Trial (AHEFT) te implementeer, waarvan die bevindinge gelei het tot 'n verandering in die praktykriglyne vir die behandeling van hartversaking by Afro -Amerikaners. Sy is tans direkteur en senior mededekaan by die Clinical Research Center en Clinical and Translational Research by Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, GA.

Jennifer Mieres, MD, FACC: Mieres, een van die voorste hedendaagse kenners en advokate vir pasiënte op die gebied van kardiovaskulêre siektes by vroue, is mede -dekaan van fakulteitsake by Northwell Health. Sy was ook die eerste vroulike president van die American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. Sy het die ACC se 2014 Women in Cardiology mentorskapstoekenning ontvang vir haar toewyding en toewyding om vroue in kardiologie te mentor.

Hannah Valantine, besturende direkteur: Valantine is die eerste hoof ooit vir diversiteit aan wetenskaplike personeellede by NIH. Haar rol is om die poging van NIH om die biomediese navorsingspersoneel te diversifiseer, te lei deur 'n visie en omvattende strategie te ontwikkel om werwing en behoud uit te brei en inklusiwiteit en billikheid in die hele biomediese navorsingsonderneming te bevorder. Voor NIH was Valantine aan die Stanford Universiteit waar sy as senior mededekaan vir diversiteit en leierskap aan die Stanford School of Medicine gedien het, en professor in kardiovaskulêre medisyne aan die Stanford University Medical Center.

Hierdie lys is geensins omvattend nie. Vier Afro -Amerikaners in kardiologie op Twitter deur u gunsteling foto te deel. Gebruik #TheFaceOfCardiology en #HeartMonth in u plasings. Moenie vergeet om @ACCInTouch te merk nie.

Sleutelwoorde: ACC -publikasies, Kardiologie Tydskrif, ACC18, ACC jaarlikse wetenskaplike sessie, Afro -Amerikaners, Geskiedenis, Dokters, Siviele regte, Kardiovaskulêre sisteem, Kardiovaskulêre siektes


Bou 'n beter toekoms

Gedurende die 20ste eeu het Afro -Amerikaners nie net aangedring op insluiting nie, maar op gelyke verteenwoordiging. Die gebied van argitektuur was geen uitsondering op hierdie baanbrekende pogings nie.

Baanbrekende Afro -Amerikaanse argitekte, soos Harold L. Williams, Norma Merrick Sklarek en John S. Chase, het die beroep uitgebrei en die weg gebaan vir 'n nuwe generasie, waaronder Philip G. Freelon en Michael Marshall.

Harold L. Williams

Harold L. Williams (1924-2015) was 'n beroemde argitek wie se werk op openbare diens gefokus het. Williams het 50 jaar lank in die veld gewerk, hoofsaaklik in Suid -Kalifornië. His designs helped physically shape the southern-California landscape, while his work as a mentor and advocate continues to impact architects and the community today.

Williams was born in Flemingsburg, Kentucky, and raised in Cincinnati, Ohio. As an artistic child, he gained an interest in architecture at a young age. He was inspired by renowned architect Paul R. Williams (no relation), who also worked in California. Paul R. Williams was the first African American member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). Paul R. Williams and Harold L. Williams met in 1944 and maintained a friendship throughout the remainder of their lives. During a tribute dinner for Paul’s retirement in 1973, Harold presented a speech in honor of his predecessor.

Careful thought, good design and fresh ideas, multiplied by the strength of numbers and reinforced by the minority experience in this country can and will contribute to the solution of the problems confronting our environment. Our concern is that this contribution not be restricted by past and current barriers to equal participation in the mainstream of national life.

Excerpt from the Preamble to the Constitution and Bylaws of the Southern California Association of Minority Architects and Planners, 1972

Williams was committed to promoting community, within Southern California and among African American architects. His firm, Harold Williams Associates, focused on buildings that served the public good, such as schools, civic centers and city halls. He served on the Committee for Simon Rodia’s Towers (also known as the Watts Towers), which still stands today as a remarkable landmark of the Watts neighborhood. He also designed a new Watts Tower Art Center in 1967 to serve the community. Williams’ acclaimed design for the Compton City Hall and Civic Center, with a memorial to Dr. Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., marked a new era, moving the city and its changing demographics into the future.

Williams spearheaded a professional effort to increase diversity in the field by founding the Southern California Association of Minority Architects and Planners (MAP) in 1969. MAP was a forerunner to the National Organization of Minority Architects (NOMA), which Williams helped found in 1971. NOMA’s mission is to “champion diversity within the design professions by promoting the excellence, community engagement, and professional development of its members.” 12 architects worked together to create NOMA. Just as he was influenced and inspired by Paul R. Williams, Harold L. Williams sought to increase the mentorship opportunities and professional relationships among black architects at a time when so few were in the field.

Pin-back button from NYCOBA / NOMA, after 1992. A2018.56.1.1.1

Norma Merrick Sklarek​

In addition to Harold L. Williams and Paul R. Williams, Norma Merrick Sklarek (1926-2012) also broke down barriers in the field. Her story illustrates the difficulty not just for African Americans, but also for women to gain a professional foothold.

Sklarek was born in Harlem, New York. She was encouraged by her father, who taught her carpentry, to pursue architecture. When Sklarek graduated from Columbia University’s School of Architecture, she was one of only two women in her class and one of the first African American women in the country to receive a license to practice architecture. Sklarek worked at numerous firms throughout her career including Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Gruen and Associates Welton Beckett Associates and the Jon Jerde Partnership. At Gruen and Associates, she became the firm’s first black female director. In 1985, she co-founded Siegel, Sklarek, and Diamond with Margot Siegel and Katherine Diamond. At the time, it was one of the largest women-owned architecture firms in the United States.

“Norma Sklarek: A Licensed Architect” from an oral history interview with Norma Sklarek from The National Visionary Leadership Project

Like Paul R. Williams and Harold L. Williams, Sklarek also worked on projects in Southern California, including the Pacific Design Center in Los Angeles and Terminal One at the Los Angeles International Airport. Sklarek was well-known for her project management skills, particularly for large-scale jobs. She served as a principal of project management at the Jerde Partnership, where she worked on the Mall of America in Minneapolis.

Sklarek was the first African American woman elected to the Fellows of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA), an honor awarded to only 3% of AIA members. Harold L. Williams and John S. Chase were also part of this exclusive group due to their contributions to the field. She received the AIA’s Whitney M. Young Jr. Award for working to address social issues by promoting racial and gender diversity in the field. Through her social engagement, leadership and management skills, and design expertise, Sklarek helped expand and inspire the field of architecture.

Whitney M. Young Jr. award received by Norma Merrick Sklarek, 2008. TA2018.23.7.1.11.1

John S. Chase

Alongside Harold L. Williams and 10 others, architect John S. Chase (1925-2012) helped to co-found NOMA. Chase used his career to foster a professional community. Chase was born in Annapolis, Maryland, but spent most of his career in Houston, Texas. In 1950, when Chase began attending graduate school at the University of Texas in Austin, he was the first African American student to do so. Two days before his enrollment, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled to integrate the school. After graduating from the University of Texas in 1952, Chase became the first African American architect licensed in Texas.

Drafting tools used by John S. Chase, mid-late 20th century.

Chase’s work in Texas expanded the reach of African American architects into new areas of the country, adding to growing centers in California and on the East Coast. He started his own firm, John S. Chase, FAIA Architects, which eventually expanded to four locations in Houston, Austin, Dallas and Washington, D.C. In Houston and Austin, Chase designed churches including the Olivet Baptist Church and the David Chapel Missionary Baptist Church. Chase had a particular interest in church architecture and wrote his master’s thesis on "Progressive Architecture for the Negro Baptist Church."

Much of Chase’s work involved building projects on the Texas Southern University campus, including the Thurgood Marshall School of Law, the Ernest S. Sterling Student Life Center and the Roderick R. Paige School of Education building. Like other pioneering architects, Chase recognized the integral connection between education, professionalism, mentorship, and promoting diversity in the architectural field. Chase’s work laid the foundation for future architects. In 1980, Chase became the first African American appointed to the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts. Another renowned architect, Philip G. Freelon, received this honor as well.

Philip G. Freelon

Philip G. Freelon has used his professional career to create architecture that serves African American communities. Freelon, a Philadelphia native, graduated from North Carolina State University’s College of Design with a Bachelor of Environmental Design and received a Master of Architecture degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Freelon was inspired by previous generations of African American architects, including Julian Abele who designed iconic buildings in Philadelphia and much of Duke’s original campus in North Carolina. In 1990, Freelon founded his own firm, The Freelon Group, in Durham, North Carolina. The Freelon Group was one of the partners responsible for the planning, design, and construction of the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Freelon’s work on public buildings in Washington, D.C., also includes the Anacostia Neighborhood Library and the Tenley-Friendship Neighborhood Library.

Freelon has a long history of designing African American cultural institutions, including the Museum of the African Diaspora in San Francisco, the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture in Baltimore, the Center for Civil and Human Rights in Atlanta, and the Harvey B. Gantt Center for African-American Arts + Culture in Charlotte. Freelon is keen to create architecture that is accessible and inspiring to all people. These designs highlight the connection between a building’s architecture, its purpose and its community.

“NC State: Phil Freelon, Community Builder”

Freelon highlights the ways that architecture can be inclusive and accessible to their communities.

I like to do projects that enhance the lives of everyday people, like campus buildings, libraries, museums and government buildings. That’s why I love working in the public sector. I derive a tremendous amount of pride in developing places that everyday people can experience. I like to create beauty in everyday lives.

Philip Freelon, 2015. Interview with NBC News

Earlier architects, such as Harold L. Williams, Norma Merrick Sklarek and Paul R. Williams, laid the foundation for future generations of African American architects. The challenges they tackled and the community ties they developed helped foster the growing number of young black architects to enter and expand the field. While their efforts have increased the opportunities for black architects, they are still severely underrepresented. Like the mentorship and professional network efforts of Harold L. Williams and Paul R. Williams, Freelon also works to grow the future of the profession. According to NOMA, only 2% of licensed architects in the U.S. are African American. Working as an adjunct professor and guest lecturer, Freelon has sought to increase diversity in the field. In 2016, Freelon and architecture firm Perkins+Will established the Phil Freelon Fellowship Fund at the Harvard Graduate School of Design to expand opportunities for underrepresented students. By designing buildings that serve the public, Freelon’s work opens architecture to a wider audience.

Michael Marshall

Architect Michael Marshall, like Philip G. Freelon, has also contributed to the expanding cultural landscape in Washington, D.C. Marshall, a D.C. native, works as the Design Director and Principal of Michael Marshall Design. Marshall received architecture degrees from the Washington Technical Institute, The Catholic University of America and Yale University.

Marshall’s career is built on that of earlier professionals and shows the interconnectedness of the small, but growing, number of African American architects. John S. Chase designed some of the architecture at the Washington Technical Institute, which eventually merged into the University of the District of Columbia (UDC). Chase worked on the buildings for Allied Health and Environmental Science, Physical Education and Ancillary Service. At this same school, Marshall completed the two-year program for Architectural Engineering Technology in 1977. Connecting both their educations and professional careers, Chase and Marshall worked on projects for their respective alma maters: Chase for the University of Texas in Houston and Marshall at UDC in Washington, D.C.

Architectural illustration of the new Student Center at UDC by Michael Marshall, 2011. TA2018.24.2.1

Marshall’s career has focused on improving architecture throughout the nation’s capital. His work supports both his hometown and African American institutions. Marshall’s projects include the Chuck Brown Memorial and the Horace Mann Elementary School, as well as the design for the interior for the renovated Howard Theater, which reopened in 2012. The variety of projects Marshall has worked on have enhanced the landscape and diversity of the D.C. community and architectural scene.

We need to come back and give back. The university needs us. We need to give back with our talents, our services, our knowledge. We need to be here.

Michael Marshall Discussing the UDC Student Center Project

The careers of these five architects demonstrate the strides that have been made in the field of architecture. Through the creation of NOMA, professional and community activism, mentorship efforts and renowned design, African American architects have helped shape the industry and inspired one another. The perseverance, ingenuity and success of Harold L. Williams, Norma Merrick Sklarek, John S. Chase, Philip G. Freelon, and Michael Marshall should be lauded. However, given the low number of African American architects licensed today, there remains a lot of work to do. These distinguished architects have laid the groundwork for future architects to build upon.

Written by Tess Christiansen, cataloger, and Lindsey Bestebreurtje​, curatorial assistant


Harold B. Williams

/>Reverend Jerry Moore and Harold B. Williams founded the Conference of Minority Transportation Officials (COMTO) to provide a forum for minority professionals in the transportation industry.

Williams was a former FTA associate administrator and longtime director of civil rights for FTA’s predecessor organization, UMTA. He was also deputy commissioner of equal educational opportunity in the U.S. Department of Education. At U.S. DOT, under both Democratic and Republican presidents, Williams helped develop far-reaching regulations for equal opportunity in public transportation, including Title Vl., and equal access to service. He also created diversity and inclusion regulations regarding workforce and the use of small, minority, and woman-owned businesses in all federally funded or assisted public transportation. Following his retirement from DOT, he was a consultant to public transit agencies and on issues of equal opportunity.

1300 I Street NW
Suite 1200 East
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 496-4800
Fax: (202) 496-4324


The Gospel Harmony Boys

How can we begin to recount all the many experiences, the people, the successes and setbacks since our founding so many years ago in 1952 that have brought us to where we are today? The following history is our attempt to convey to you our heritage, taking you back to the beginning, and tracing the highlights of our long journey to this present day. The Gospel Harmony Boys ever cherish our roots, and are grateful for the labors of those who have made our current labor possible.

(The following is excerpted from the Gospel Harmony Boy's 25th anniversary album insert, written by Homer Fry.)

In 1952, a young man named Harold Lane was discharged from service and returned to his home town of Huntington, West Virginia. It was his dream to start an outstanding gospel music group that would be different from other area groups, not only in sound, but in presentation. Till this time, quartets traveled with armfuls of song books and sheet music, performing it exactly as written. Harold, with his excellent music background, wanted to do some special arranging of the material and commit it to memory for performance.

With this objective in mind, he and a close friend, Leonard Adams, began searching for other personnel for the group that became The Gospel Harmony Boys. This group consisted of Harold Lane, who sang lead and contributed musical leadership Leonard Adams, who sang tenor and managed the group J. B. Short, who sang the bass and John Embry, who sang baritone. Carlos Day soon became the first regular pianist after Don Owens and Martha Ramsey helped get the group started. In early 1953, they presented their first programs and were welcomed with open arms by area gospel music enthusiasts.

Standing: Gray "Pappy" Johnson, Leonard Adams, Carlos Day Seated: John Embry, Harold Lane (1954, in WSAZ Studio)

In 1954, Gray Johnson, who became so well known to millions of TV viewers as "Pappy", joined the Harmony Boys to sing the bass. Then, in early 1955, Harold received a job offer from the Homeland Harmony Quartet, so he packed up and moved to Nashville for a year. During his absence Dale Musgrave filled the lead spot. Also about this time, an employment transfer sent John Embry and Leonard Adams out of state to work. and Carlos Day accepted the Lord's call into full-time ministry as a pastor. Asbury Adkins came to sing tenor, and two other young men became members of the Harmony Boys family: Harold Patrick came to play piano, and Homer Fry became the new baritone singer. I sure wish we could have let you hear this combination of members, but, unfortunately, no tape was available.

Harold Lane, Gray "Pappy" Johnson, Asa Legrand, Homer Fry Johnny Bruce at piano (1957)

The next personnel changes occurred when Asbury left to join his family group, and Harold Patrick ran off to play for a little known family group called The Goodmans. He later joined Jim Hill to form The Golden Keys Quartet. Johnny Bruce became the Harmony Boys' keyboard man and little Asa LeGrand came on board to sing tenor. "How Far Am I From Canaan" was recorded in 1957 by the group consisting of Asa, Harold, Homer, Gray, and Johnny. We also recorded "Look Up" in 1958.

In May, 1958, the Harmony Boys were scheduled to sing at the McConnell Tabernacle near Logan, West Virginia. On our return trip, we were involved in a head-on collision which injured several of the guys, but Johnny Bruce the most critically. He was unable to return to his position with us, and Carlos Day came back during his absence. It was this group that released the quartet's first long play album, "I'm Redeemed", in 1961, leaving behind the days of the 78 rpm recording."

Richard Lucas, Gray "Pappy Johnson, Harold Lane, Homer Fry, Asa LeGrand (1964)

Richard "Dick" Lucas joined us in 1962 when Carlos left to devote more time to his ministry. That was the group that recorded one of our most popular albums. Its title song, "Little Biddy Chapel", quickly became an area favorite. As guests of one of the first local TV shows in Huntington, West Virginia, the Harmony Boys' TV work began in 1953 on WSAZ-TV and later moved to WHTN-TV. This program became an important part of Sunday viewing for thousands of West Virginia, Kentucky, and Ohio families for the next 17 years. The theme song from that television show, "Someone to Care", became a Gospel Harmony Boys trademark.

In 1964, the Harmony Boys signed with Skylight Records in Nashville, Tennessee. A special Harold Lane arrangement of "Jesus Loves Me" became the most popular song from that album, and was most recently rerecorded in 2004 on "Our Heritage".

In 1965, Carlos returned to the group again, but only for two years. In 1967, he became seriously ill and was forced to give up the rigorous road life. Harold Lane also left the group during that time to join Nashville's Famous Speer Family where he spent the next twenty years before retiring in 1987. These departures opened the door for the return of Harold Patrick to the keyboard and the arrival of a new man, Sonny Sites, as the Harmony Boys' lead singer. "I found A Savior" (1967) and "Jesus Can Save" (1968) were two of our most requested songs during those years.

In 1969, Asa left us and Roger Horne came to sing tenor. Gayle Tackett also joined the group in '69 playing bass guitar. Both Roger and Gayle's stay was short. They soon joined other groups: Roger, The Cathedrals, and Gayle, The Singing Goffs. "Crying in the Chapel" was a great GHB hit during those years."

Back: Calvin Thompson, Homer Fry Front: Sonny Sites, Clacy Williams, Harold Patrick (1975)

In 1971, the Lord led Clacy Williams our way to sing tenor, and Greg Tingler came in '72, to play bass guitar. "After 20 years of entertaining and blessing audiences, Pappy decided to retire in 1974. During those twenty years, not all was a bed of roses for Gray. He suffered three major heart attacks, but with the Great Physician's help, he always bounced back to do a fantastic job singing bass. During the time of Gray's recuperation, a young man named Ransom Fry made himself available to sing Pappy's lines, and we lovingly considered him a member of our organization. "When Gray retired, The Harmony Boys auditioned many bass singers and selected a young man from Allen Junction, West Virginia named Calvin Thompson, who has in his own right become one of the finest in gospel music today.

Homer Fry, Calvin Thompson, Clacy Williams, Sonny Sites, Harold Patrick, Greg Tingler (1976)

That pretty well tells the story of the first twenty five years of The Gospel Harmony Boys. Many songs have been sung, many miles traveled, and, praise God, many souls won. "As you've probably already noticed, we consider The Harmony Boys organization a family. There's a mutual feeling of love and respect among our membership. There are no ex-members, only inactive ones."

(The remaining history from this point until 1999 will soon be completed.)

The GHBs had operated continuously since 1952, when Harold Lane (who left the group in 1968 to spend the next 25 years as the arranger and lead singer of the famous Speer Family Quartet) organized them, until 2002, when financial difficulties made it advantageous for them to discontinue their ministry. In so doing, the group celebrated their 50th anniversary with a huge reunion concert to bid farewell to well over a thousand supporters who turned out for the event at the Stoutsville, Ohio Campground on that beautiful Labor Day Weekend in 2002. It appeared at the time that the remarkable history of the Harmony Boys had drawn to an end. Or so it seemed.

River City - Jack Hanks, Vince Owens, Steve Black, Clacy Williams (2001)

In the fall of 1999 , soon before The Harmony Boys began winding down, lead singer Steve Black, baritone Jack Hanks, and tenor Clacy Williams (all former GHB members) recruited Vince Owens to play piano, and the group began singing, using the name The River City Boys. At the time, veteran Calvin Thompson travelled with them as often as he could to sing bass, helping delight audiences throughout the "river cities" of West Virginia and Ohio where the group was based, and beyond. While the name was new, the traditional harmony and arrangements were unmistakably familiar to Harmony Boys fans. Even during this time, the group began taking on the shape of things to come when Greg Tingler, a long time GHB member, temporarily filled the lead spot in 2002.

Eventually, after the official retirement of the Harmony Boys in 2002, mounting pressure from other former GHB members convinced them to reinstate the Harmony Boys name. So, in December 2004, continuing the legacy of service and praise that so many wonderfully talented friends and brothers in Christ had dedicated their lives to creating, The Gospel Harmony Boys were alive and well!

Rusty Ballinger signed on to sing baritone when Jack had to leave the group, and was present during the reformation period. The lead position was difficult for the group to maintain at first Dale Chambers filled the lead spot vacated by Steve Black, followed for a brief time by Scott Mullins. Then, in early 2006, veteran GHB lead Greg Tingler stepped back to the platform. Calvin, of course, was still holding down the low end, by now full-time Vince reluctantly left the piano spot vacant when he moved from the area where the group was based, but remains active in other areas for GHB.

So, you can see the group membership has changed a bit since the River City days of 1999 through 2003, but The Gospel Harmony Boys are going stronger than ever today.

The Gospel Harmony Boys, Reorganized - Front, left to right: Dale Chambers, Clacy Williams, Rusty Ballinger Back: Calvin Thompson (2004)

Clacy has said , "We are pleased that God has opened the door for us to once again represent Him, and also thankful for the wonderful group of men who have ably served Him through the name Gospel Harmony Boys for so many years. We are grateful for the continued friendship of the legendary members of the group like Homer Fry, Harold Lane, Asbury Adkins and Dale Musgrave, whom God has given us the privilege to know, admire, and respect. Though many of the older members have reunited in Heaven, it is truly a pleasure for us to continue their legacy. It is a heritage of praise, service, and brotherhood that they worked diligently to create over the 54 years since the group's inception. It is a humbling experience to continue the ministry they so boldly engaged."

Thank you for your interest in the Gospel Harmony Boys, and for taking the time to read the history, with all its turns and surprises, of one of America's longest serving and most respected Gospel Quartets. We sincerely hope you enjoyed your odyssey through our past. Please feel free to send us your comments and suggestions. We'd love to hear your reaction to the GHB story. Maybe you have an inspiring or funny Gospel Harmony Boys story of your own that we can add to the web site for others to enjoy. Additionally, we solicit your prayers as we continue our efforts to serve Him with just the Gospel, done in Harmony, by some of His Good ol' Boys. We look forward to seeing you at one of our concerts, and we would love to hear from you via email.

Harmony Boys , Gospel Harmony Boys , GHB logo, and Harmony . Our Middle Name logo are registered trademarks of The Gospel Harmony Boys, 2004. The Gospel Harmony Boys' website is developed and maintained by Vince Owens Site photography by Frank Ball News and gallery photo contributions by Frank Ball and Sherley Crowder. This page was last updated 31-Jan-2021


The Exception and the Rule

According to design historian Emily Eerdmans, Julian Abele was the first Black architect to attend the renowned French architecture school École des Beaux-Arts. Even though he attained top credentials for his field, he often did not get credited for his work&mdashmost likely due to the color of his skin, says Eerdmans.

While not the first Black architect licensed in America, Abele was arguably the most prominent of his time, working at the prestigious (and otherwise all-white) firm Horace Trumbauer, where he contributed to more than 250 projects, including Harvard University&rsquos Widener Memorial Library, an array of Gilded Age manses in New York City and surrounding areas, and much of Duke University&rsquos campus.

It wasn&rsquot until 1986&mdashnearly 40 years after his death&mdashthat Abele began to be more widely recognized for his extensive work on the formerly all-white university campus. While his legacy had likely been heralded by some university historians and faculty, Susan Cook, a senior at Duke (and Abele&rsquos grandniece), helped establish the architect&rsquos name on campus as an honorable contributor to its striking architecture. His portrait became the first of a Black person at the university to be hung in the foyer of the Allen Building&mdashone of his designs&mdashlater that year, and in 2016, Duke&rsquos main quad (which was designed by Abele) was renamed in his honor.

If Abele was the rule of a 20th-century Black architect (like him, many other talented Black architects of his day found success in the shadows, designing buildings they knew they wouldn&rsquot be recognized for or even allowed to enter), the legendary Paul Revere Williams was certainly the exception. But his success did not come easily.

&ldquoWilliams started out working for a white architectural firm, and when he opened his own, he came into big trouble and had to do what I so consistently see in the day, and that is: come up with a gimmick,&rdquo says Michael Henry Adams, historian, author, and design aficionado.

Adams explains that prospective clients would come into Williams&rsquos office not knowing he was Black and would want to leave once they discovered he was. Williams would respond by saying that he was "actually very busy at the moment but would still be interested in learning more about the potential clients&rsquo needs and creative vision," Adams says.

&ldquoEven though people would tell him he wasn&rsquot capable once they found out he was Black, they would often still explain their project to him anyway,&rdquo Adams says. &ldquo[Williams] taught himself how to draw upside down, so that as they were describing their vision [from across the table from him], he would bring it to life before their eyes. It caught people&rsquos attention, and many would end up hiring him. After awhile, he had done so many things, and he was clearly so immensely talented, he was able to get the opportunities he did.&rdquo

From designing Frank Sinatra&rsquos Hollywood home&mdashcomplete with a bed that would jet out to the balcony upon pressing a button, per Sinatra&rsquos request&mdashto remodeling the iconic Hotel Ambassador in Beverly Hills, Williams became a pioneer for aspiring Black architects and designers everywhere, and his legacy continues on to this day.

While Williams&rsquos daughter, Norma Harvey, became a respected interior designer who worked with her father on the interiors of high-profile projects, interior design seemed even harder for Black creatives to break into than architecture. This also made it difficult for affluent Blacks to hire Black interior designers. Adams notes that Vertner Woodson Tandy, the acclaimed Black architect, designed Black entrepreneur and aristocrat Madame C. J. Walker&rsquos beautiful Villa Lewaro, while its interiors were designed by a white man.

&ldquoOne of the greatest challenges of my life is trying to search and sort out Blacks who worked in interior design,&rdquo Adams says, who is currently working on a book about the subject. &ldquoIt&rsquos a tremendously difficult task finding photographs of rooms or just people in general.&rdquo

For example, Adams says while he discovered Abele had an interest in interiors, and became known for such among wealthy white circles in 1920s Philadelphia, he was unable to discover any other information about Black interior designers in the first half of the 20th century for quite some time.

&ldquoNow, we have the miracle of being able to do searches in digitized newspapers and, as a consequence, I have, by using the words negro designer, decorator, of interior decorator, found dozens of Black interior designers who were established as early as 1910,&rdquo Adams says. &ldquoThere&rsquos still a lot of work left to do on assessing their work and how good it was.&rdquo

Thankfully, his countless hours of research have yielded some fascinating results, specifically regarding two designers: Harold Curtis Brown and Sogata. &ldquoThis knowledge and these men's legacies were already there, and some people are already aware, but the frustrating thing is that I have yet to find enough about them,&rdquo Adams says.


Local excellence - national expertise

With eight offices across London and the South East, we pride ourselves in providing expert service and peerless market knowledge in specific local markets.

SHW is the trading name of Stiles Harold Williams Partnership LLP, a firm of national independent property advisors based in London and the South East of England.

We are well-known in the market for our expertise in office, industrial, and retail property, supported by our specialists in Investment, Town Planning, Development, Healthcare & Medical, Roadside, Charities, LPA Receivership, Airports, Leisure and Leasehold Reform.

We are a wholly owned business with 30 Equity Partners dedicated to providing the best service possible to our clients, a number of which SHW have been providing advice for over 100 years.

We have almost 200 staff across eight offices. We are regulated by RICS and are members of ARMA, ARMA-Q, NARA, RTPI and IRRV.

Stiles Harold Williams Partnership LLP is registered in England and Wales - Registered number OC375748.

Our registered office address is: Lees House, 21-33 Dyke Road, Brighton, East Sussex, BN1 3FE

VAT number: GB 692 7716 90.

We trade subject to the rules and regulations of our governing body the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and Bsi 9001 approved.


E. Harold Williams

The funeral E. Harold Williams, 57, of 201 N. Indiana Ave., will be at 11 a.m. Saturday at the Simpson-Cleveland Funeral Home Chapel, with Rev. Dr. Bruce W. Chapman, pastor of Asbury United Methodist Church, officiating. Spring burial will be in Pulaski Cemetery.

Mr. Williams was pronounced dead on arrival Wednesday morning at Mercy Hospital, after being stricken with an apparent heart attack at his home.

Calling hours will be from 7 to 9 p.m. Friday at the funeral home, with members of Watertown Masonic Lodge 49 meeting for a memorial service at 7. Memorial donations may be made to the American Heart Association.

Surviving are his wife, Brigitta a son, Stephen, Watertown a daughter, Mrs. Robert (Pamela) Holtz, Watertown two grandchildren his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Ezra Williams, Henderson Harbor, and an aunt, Elizabeth Matheson, Henderson Harbor and Mount Plymouth, Fla.

Born at Sandy Creek on June 2, 1931, a son of Ezra and Dorothy Hill Williams, he moved with his family to Watertown, where he was graduated from Watertown High School in 1949.

Mr. Williams served with the Army in Germany from 1950 until 1953.

He married Brigitta H. Krause Jan. 10, 1954, in Watertown.

In 1965, he was graduated from Syracuse University, and later worked as a salesman with his father for Barney's Paint Headquarters. Following that, he was employed by the Imperial Wallpaper Co., and finally for the Sherman-Williams Paint Co., until ill health forced him to retire.

Mr. Williams was a member of Watertown Masonic Lodge 49.

Hierdie webwerf word aangedryf deur The Next Generation of Genealogy Sitebuilding v. 13.0.3, geskryf deur Darrin Lythgoe en kopieer 2001-2021.


[Letter from Harold M. Williams to Jack Davis, December 5, 1994]

Photocopy of a letter from Harold M. Williams, President and CEO of the J. Paul Getty Trust, to Jack Davis, co-director of North Texas Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts. The letter is in regards to an inviation from the Center inviting Davis to attend a special dinner for guests on January 12, 1995 at the National Gallery of Art, the dinner will be in conjunction with the Getty Center for Education in the Art's fifth national conference January 12 - 14, 1995 in Washington, D.C. The purpose of the dinner is to recognize the accomplishments of the Davis' … continued below

Fisiese beskrywing

Skeppingsinligting

Konteks

Hierdie brief is part of the collection entitled: D. Jack Davis Art Education Collection and was provided by the UNT Libraries Special Collections to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 145 times, with 8 in the last month. More information about this letter can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this letter or its content.

Skrywer

Persoon genoem

Person who is significant in some way to the content of this letter. Bykomende name kan in onderwerpe hieronder verskyn.

Gehore

Kyk na ons webwerf vir hulpbronne vir opvoeders! Ons het dit geïdentifiseer brief as 'n primêre bron binne ons versamelings. Researchers, educators, and students may find this letter useful in their work.

Verskaf deur

Spesiale versamelings van UNT Libraries

Die afdeling Spesiale versamelings versamel en bewaar skaars en unieke materiaal, waaronder skaars boeke, mondelinge geskiedenis, universiteitsargiewe, historiese manuskripte, kaarte, mikrofilms, foto's, kuns en artefakte. Die departement is geleë in UNT se Willis -biblioteek in die leeskamer op die vierde verdieping.

Kontak Ons

Descriptive information to help identify this letter. Volg die onderstaande skakels om soortgelyke items op die portaal te vind.


WILLIAMS Genealogy

WikiTree is 'n gemeenskap van genealoë wat 'n toenemend akkurate gesamentlike stamboom groei wat vir ewig 100% gratis is vir almal. Sluit asseblief by ons aan.

Please join us in collaborating on WILLIAMS family trees. Ons het die hulp van goeie genealoë nodig om 'n heeltemal gratis gedeelde stamboom om ons almal te verbind.

BELANGRIKE KENNISGEWING EN VRYWARING: U HET 'N VERANTWOORDELIKHEID OM VERSIGTIG TE WEES OM PRIVAATINLIGTING TE versprei. WIKITREE BESKERM DIE GEVOELIGSTE INLIGTING, MAAR SLEGS TOT DIE GEDEELTE IN DIE DIENSVOORWAARDES EN PRIVAATHEIDSBELEID.