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Die Nederlanders en die ontdekkingstydperk

Die Nederlanders en die ontdekkingstydperk



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Die Europese streek wat bekend staan ​​as die Lae Lande (die huidige België en Nederland) was 'n agtergrond gedurende die groot Middeleeue. Oorlogvoering en huweliksalliansies het die Bourgondiese beheer verbreed. In 1516 word hertog Karel van Boergondië koning van Spanje; drie jaar later is hy gekroon as die Heilige Romeinse keiser as Karel V. 'n Vaste band is dus tussen magtige Spanje en die relatief swak Lae Lande gevestig.Die Protestantse Hervorming het 'n groot invloed op die Lae Lande gehad. Die lutheranisme het vroeë beduidende opgang gemaak, maar later is dit op baie gebiede deur Calvinisme verdring. Spaanse amptenare het egter protestantse winste teëgestaan, dikwels deur brutale vervolging. Weerstand het vinnig ontwikkel, veral namate die vrees gegroei het oor die oplegging van die gevreesde Spaanse inkwisisie. Hartstogte is nie bedaar toe Philip II van Spanje, 'n vurige Katoliek, die Lae Lande geërf het in 1555. Opstand ontplof in 1568, toe adellikes verenig onder Willem van Oranje (Willem die Stille). 'N Onvergeetlike gebeurtenis het plaasgevind in 1574, toe die Noord -Hollanders die digte (beskermende seewalle) oopgemaak het om hul vloot in staat te stel om oorstroomde landerye te vaar ter verdediging van die beleërde Leiden. Die Spanjaarde sou die Nederlandse onafhanklikheid eers erken aan die einde van die Dertigjarige Oorlog in 1648.Nederlandse verkenning en kolonisasieDie 1600's was 'n goue era vir die Nederlanders, net soos die 1500's vir die Spaanse. Die Nederlandse samelewing het hom verder onderskei deur 'n toevlugsoord vir onderdruktes te word, deur sy deure oop te maak vir Franse Hugenote en Jode van die Iberiese Skiereiland. Met die Spaanse sterkte aan die afneem na die nederlaag van die Armada (1588), het Nederlandse "seebedlers" begin om te prooi op swak verdedigde Spaanse en Portugese besittings. Hoogtepunte van die Nederlandse ingang op die middelste verhoog was die volgende:

  • Die Nederlandse Oos-Indiese Kompanjie (gestig 1602) is gestig om 'n waterroete na Asië te vind en onopgeëiste lande te beset wat dit tydens die proses ontdek het. Die onderneming het vinnig gegroei en die mededingende magte van Spanje, Portugal, Frankryk en Engeland uit die huidige Indonesië gedryf. In 1609 is die Engelse seevaarder Henry Hudson gestuur op 'n verkennende reis na Noord -Amerika.
  • In 1614 word die New Netherland Company gestig deur handelaarsgroepe in Hoorn en Amsterdam en ontvang 'n monopolie van drie jaar van die Nederlandse regering om grond tussen New France en die Engelse aansprake in Virginia te beset. In die volgende jaar is Fort Orange naby die huidige Albany-gebou opgerig. Die maatskappy bedryf die bonthandel winsgewend, maar hul handves is nie hernu nie, omdat min setlaars in die gebied gelok is. Die Nederlandse regering was oortuig dat permanente nedersettings nodig is om besittings uit die nuwe wêreld te behou teen die Franse en Engelse mededinging.
  • In 1621 is die Nederlandse Wes -Indiese Kompanjie gestig om aktiwiteite in Wes -Afrika en die Westelike Halfrond uit te voer. Die beleggers, ontvangers van 'n 24-jarige monopolie, het eers 'n permanente nedersetting gevestig op die gronde wat voorheen aan die New Netherland Company behoort het. In 1624 vaar 'n skeepsvrag Vlaamse Waals na die Nuwe Wêreld en versprei hulself dan deur die hele eis. Nedersettings is begin langs die riviere Delaware, Connecticut en Hudson, sowel as by die monding van die Hudson. Van die begin af was die afsonderlike ondernemings voortdurend bedreig deur 'n Indiese aanval en die meeste is laat vaar. Die fokus van die Nederlandse aktiwiteit was gefokus op die Nieu -Nederland en, in mindere mate, Fort Orange.
  • In 1634 neem die Nederlanders beslag op Spaanse besittings in die Wes -Indiese Eilande; hierdie eilande was die grondslag van wat later bekend sou staan ​​as die Nederlandse Antille.

The Dutch and the Age of Discovery - Geskiedenis

Na hierdie opdrag moet u die volgende terme kan definieer en bespreek:

  • Prins Henry "The Navigator", Christopher Columbus, Eratosthenes, Marco Polo, koningin Isabel van Kastilië, Vasco da Gama, Amerigo Vespucci, Ferdinand Magellan

U moes ook die volgende aangeleenthede oorweeg het:

  • Waarom het die Portugese see-ondersoeke onderneem?
  • Hoe kon die Middeleeuse Europeërs so seker gewees het dat die aarde 'n bol was?
  • Hoe het Eratosthenes die afstand rondom die aarde bepaal?
  • Waarom het Columbus geglo dat die tradisionele idees oor die afstand rondom die aarde verkeerd was?

U dink moontlik ook aan 'n paar sake wat ons nie direk aangespreek het nie:

  • As soveel mense reeds geweet het van die bestaan ​​van grond in die weste, wat het Columbus se ontdekkingsreis betekenisvol gemaak?
  • Wat het hierdie aktiwiteit veroorsaak wat ons The Age of Discovery and Exploration noem?
  • Was daar ander "ontdekkings- en verkenningsreise" aan die gang in Europa?

Die dieet van die Europeërs in die Middeleeue was redelik matig. Ten minste het hulle so gedink, en hulle was bereid om 'n hoë prys te betaal vir aromatiese speserye wat uit die Ooste gebring word. Naeltjies, tamarinde, mace, kaneel, allspice, neutmuskaat, saffraan, wit en swartpeper, anys en selfs suiker uit Indië en Indonesië het die handelsgoedere gelei wat gelei het tot 'n groot netwerk van handelsroetes wat versprei het oor die hele Eurasiese en Afrika -kontinent . Europa was aan die westelike punt van hierdie netwerk, en nadat hulle deur soveel hande gegaan het, was die speserye wat daar aangekom het, redelik duur. Die handelsstate van Italië-Genua, Pisa, Venesië, Napels, Palermo-het handelsposte in die oostelike Middellandse See en langs die kus van die Swart See gevestig, en dit was hulle wat die speserye op die laaste been van hul reis na Europa, en dit is hulle wat die speserye teen 'n hoë prys en met groot wins verkoop het.

Baie van die ander Europese state was afgunstig op die Italiaanse stadstate, veral omdat die aankoop van speserye hul ekonomie van goud en silwer afgetap het. In die middel van die vyftiende eeu het die Portugese regering besluit om die Italianers en ander middelmanne te probeer omseil en 'n waterroete na die bron van die speserye te vind. Onder leiding van prins Henry "The Navigator" (1394-1460), is goed beplande ekspedisies jaarliks ​​vanaf 1418 suidwaarts gestuur om die Afrika-kus te verken en forte en handelsposte langs die omvang daarvan te vestig. Teen 1444 het hulle Kaap Verde bereik en 'n florerende handel in goud, ivoor en ander goedere opgebou. In 1487 het Bartolomeo Dias die Kaap die Goeie Hoop afgerond, en dit het duidelik geword dat die seebane na Indië duidelik was.

Spanje was nie gelukkig oor die vooruitsig dat sy klein buurman beheer sou kry oor 'n handel wat dit die rykste koninkryk in Europa sou maak nie, maar die Spaanse heersers kon min daaraan doen. Hulle was gereed om 'n veldtog te begin om die Moslems byna die agt honderd jaar tevore van die laaste stuk grondgebied te verdryf, en hulle het baie min geld gehad om in iets anders te belê. Dit is waar Christopher Columbus inkom. Daar is baie wanopvattings oor Columbus dat dit goed sou wees om dit op te klaar. Die mees algemene wanopvatting is dat Columbus geglo het dat die wêreld rond is en dat almal dink dit is plat.

Trouens, almal het geweet dat die aarde 'n bol is. Konings is gewoonlik op muntstukke en elders uitgebeeld met 'n stok en 'n bal. Die stok is die septer, en die bal is die orbis terrarum, die simbool van die "sfeer van die aarde". Die kruisie bo-aan dui die ligging van Jerusalem aan en die T-vormige bande verteenwoordig die verdeling van die vastelande van Afrika, Asië en Europa.

Boonop het die meeste opgevoede Europeërs 'n goeie idee van hoe groot die aarde was. Dit is in ongeveer 240 vC nogal vindingryk bepaal deur Eratosthenes, 'n geleerde aan die biblioteek en museum in Alexandrië.

'N Ent suid van Alexandrië was daar 'n baie diep en baie reguit put, so diep dat sonlig eers op een dag van die jaar sy bodem bereik het. Eratosthenes het gesien dat die put direk na die middelpunt van die aarde moes wys, en dus was die son presies op die een keer gedurende die jaar presies bo die put. Hy het gedink dat die son so ver was dat sy strale amper ewewydig was toe hulle die aarde bereik het, en dat die middag op dieselfde tyd as by die put op enige plek direk noord of suid sou kom. Daarom het hy 'n lang en reguit paal 'n ent noord van die put opgerig, gebalanseerd sodat dit ook na die middelpunt van die aarde wys. Hy wag toe tot die middag en meet dan die lengte van die skaduwee wat die paal gooi.

Dinge was redelik eenvoudig daarna. Hy het die hoogte van die paal en die lengte van die skaduwee geken, sodat hy twee sye van 'n driehoek gehad het, en die paal was loodreg op die aardoppervlak, sodat hy 'n negentig grade binnehoek gehad het. Dit het dit maklik gemaak om hoek A te bereken, gevorm deur die paal en die sonstrale. Omdat hy geweet het dat wanneer 'n reguit lyn twee parallelle lyne kruis, die teenoorgestelde hoeke gelyk is, weet hy wat die hoek tussen sy pool, die middelpunt van die aarde en die diep put is. Aangesien hy die afstand tussen sy paal en die diep put ken, weet hy dat afstand dieselfde verhouding tot die afstand rondom die aarde het as hoek A tot die omtrek van 'n sirkel. Dit is 'n demonstrasie.

'N Eeu tevore het 'n Venesiaanse handelaar met die naam Marco Polo na China gereis en teruggegaan en 'n gedetailleerde verslag oor sy reise gelaat, sodat mense 'n goeie idee gehad het van hoe ver dit van Europa na China en Indië was. Dit was nie moeilik om die afstand van die aarde se omtrek af te trek en te besef dat u 'n lang entjie na die weste moet vaar om na Indië te kom nie.

So, waar kom Columbus in? Columbus was 'n ervare navigator uit die Italiaanse stad Genua wat al 'n geruime tyd geografie en ou reisrekeninge bestudeer het, insluitend dié van Marco Polo. Hy het die vreemde idee gekry dat die aarde nie rond is nie, maar gevorm het soos 'n eier, dat die ou geograwe dit die langpad gemeet het (van noord na suid), en dat die omtrek daarvan baie minder was as dit van oos af gemeet word na die weste. Sy syfers het getoon dat dit 'n relatief maklike seil was van die Kanariese Eilande (waar daar altyd 'n gunstige wind na die weste waai) na Indië.

Daar was 'n aantal baie goeie redes om sy teorieë oor die vorm van die aarde meer as 'n bietjie kras te beskou, maar die meeste mense wat in sulke dinge geïnteresseerd was, het geweet dat daar 'n groot landmassa was, nie so ver na die weste nie. . Die Vikings het 'n deel van die kus van Noord -Amerika in 1000 verken en kolonies in Groenland, Newfoundland en eilande in die monding van die St. Lawrence -rivier gevestig, kolonies wat lank bestaan ​​het. Wat meer is, die Vikings het verslae saamgestel van hierdie verkennings en nedersettings, berigte wat relatief bekend was, ten minste in Noord-Europa en Ysland. Boonop het die see rondom die St. Lawrence-riviermonding (die Grand Banks wemel van seelewe), en Portugese kabeljouvissers en Baskiese walvisjagters het jare lank op daardie waters gejag (en verwerkingsstasies op die strand opgerig). Die Europeërs het geweet van hierdie landmassa, maar die meeste was seker dat dit nie China of Indië was nie.

Tog was koningin Isabel van Kastilië bereid om te waag, selfs al was dit 'n langskoot, om die Portugese tot die rykdom van die Ooste te probeer verslaan. Sy het Columbus drie ou en lekkende skepe gegee-die kleinste nie groter as 'n moderne lewensboot nie-en het 'n klein tronk gestop om 'n bemanning aan hom te verskaf. Hy het suidwaarts na die Kanariese eilande gegaan, sy skepe weer ingerig, voorraad aangeneem en daarna die westewinde op 6 September 1492 gekry. Hy land op 12 Oktober op een van die eilande van die Bahamas, 'n reis van bietjie meer as vyf weke . Na 'n bietjie verkenning en 'n klein fort en garnisoen agtergelaat het, keer hy terug na Spanje. Hy land op 15 Maart 1493 en kondig aan dat hy Indië bereik het. Nie te veel mense het hom geglo nie, maar dit was genoeg vir Spanje om die pous te vra om 'n bevel teen die Portugese wat ooswaarts sou vaar na wat die Spaanse beweer nou hul gebied is.

Hierdie diplomatieke bakleiery duur egter nie lank nie, en in 1497 het 'n klein Portugese vloot onder bevel van Vasco da Gama 'n heen- en terugreis van Lissabon na Calcutta gemaak en teruggekeer. In dieselfde jaar het John Cabot, van Engeland, die kus van Noord -Amerika verken. In 1501 het 'n Portugese ekspedisie onder bevel van Amerigo Vespucci, uit die Italiaanse stad Florence, die Suid -Amerikaanse kus verken. Vespucci het later sy gevolgtrekking gepubliseer dat hierdie westelike landmassa 'n groot vasteland was, en geograwe het hierdie kontinent spoedig Amerika begin noem. Uiteindelik, in 1519-1522, kon 'n Spaanse vloot onder bevel van Ferdinand Magellan dit regkry om die hele wêreld te vaar.

In die daaropvolgende jare het Europese vloot-eers dié van die Spaanse en Portugese, en daarna die van die Franse, Engelse en Nederlanders-beheer oor die seestroke ter wêreld verkry. Waar die plaaslike bevolking dig was, het hulle versterkte nedersettings op die eilande van die kus gevestig, maar waar die plaaslike inwoners hulself nie effektief kon verdedig nie, het hulle die riviere binnelands ingetrek om kolonies te vestig om die ryk hulpbronne van die noodsaaklike maagdelike grond te benut.

OPDRAGTE

VEREISTE OPDRAGTE

Daar is 'n teksbeskrywing van die tydperk van ontdekking en verkenning wat u 'n oorsig van die tydperk en beweging sal gee. Die Discoverers -webtuiste bied 'n aantal skakels na volledige besprekings van verskeie dinge waarop ons net ingegaan het. Uiteindelik het die Library of Congress 'n groot uitstalling, genaamd 1492, opgestel wat die moeite werd is om te sien.

AANBEVELDE OPDRAGTE

As u die tyd het, wil u moontlik vroeg begin met die besoek aan Expo98, vanjaar se wêreldbeurs, wat in Lissabon, Portugal, gehou word en toegewy is aan The World's Oceans. Die webwerf is nog in aanbou, maar dit is lekker om te verken. Kyk gerus na The Portuguese Pavilion, wat die Portugese bydrae tot die opening van die seeweg ter wêreld bied. U kan baie uitvind oor die kennis van geografie in die tyd van Columbus deur die uitstalling Expanding Horizons te besoek.


The Dutch and the Age of Discovery - Geskiedenis

In 1609, twee jaar nadat Engelse setlaars die kolonie Jamestown in Virginia gevestig het, het die Nederlandse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie die Engelse matroos Henry Hudson aangestel om 'n noordoostelike deur na Indië te vind. Nadat hy sonder sukses na 'n roete bo Noorweë gesoek het, draai Hudson sy skip wes en vaar oor die Atlantiese Oseaan. Hudson het gehoop om 'n 'noordwestelike gang' te ontdek, waarmee 'n skip die hele Noord -Amerikaanse kontinent kon oorsteek en toegang tot die Stille Oseaan en van daaruit Indië sou kry. Nadat hy aan die kus van Cape Cod aangekom het, vaar Hudson uiteindelik in die monding van 'n groot rivier, wat vandag die Hudsonrivier genoem word. Hudson het tot by die huidige Albany gegaan voordat die rivier te vlak geword het sodat sy skip noord kon ry, en het teruggekeer na Europa en die hele Hudsonriviervallei vir sy Nederlandse werkgewers geëis.

Na onsuksesvolle pogings tot kolonisasie, het die Nederlandse parlement die "West India Company" gehuur, 'n nasionale aandelemaatskappy wat alle Nederlandse ondernemings in die Westelike Halfrond sou organiseer en toesig hou. Geborg deur die West India Company, het 30 gesinne in 1624 in Noord-Amerika aangekom en 'n nedersetting op die huidige Manhattan gevestig. Net soos Engelse koloniste in Virginia, het die Nederlandse setlaars egter nie veel belang gestel in die landbou nie, en het hulle gefokus op die meer winsgewende bonthandel. In 1626 arriveer die direkteur -generaal Peter Minuit in Manhattan, wat deur die Wes -Indiese Kompanjie belas is met die taak om die sukkelende kolonie te bestuur. Minuit het Manhattan -eiland "gekoop" van inheemse Amerikaanse Indiane vir die nou legendariese prys van 60 gulden, formeel gestig in New Amsterdam, en het 'n fort ver langs die Hudsonrivier, genaamd Fort Orange, gekonsolideer en versterk. Die kolonie het stadig gegroei, terwyl setlaars, wat reageer op 'n ruim grondtoelaag en handelsbeleid, stadig noordwaarts teen die Hudsonrivier versprei het.

Die stadige uitbreiding van Nieu -Nederland veroorsaak egter konflik met beide Engelse koloniste en inheemse Amerikaners in die streek. In die 1630's het die nuwe direkteur -generaal Wouter van Twiller 'n ekspedisie vanaf New Amsterdam na die Connecticutrivier gestuur na lande wat deur Engelse setlaars geëis is. Gekonfronteer met die vooruitsig van gewapende konflik, moes Twiller terugtrek en die ekspedisie herroep en enige aansprake op die Connecticut -vallei verloor. In die boonste dele van die Hudson-vallei rondom Fort Orange, (huidige Albany), waar die behoeftes van die winsgewende bonthandel 'n noukeurige beleid van vrede met die Iroquois-konfederasie vereis, het die Nederlandse owerhede vrede gehandhaaf, maar korrupsie en 'n laks handelsbeleid het geteister. die gebied. In die onderste Hudsonvallei, waar meer koloniste klein plase oprig, word inheemse Amerikaners beskou as 'n struikelblok vir Europese vestiging. In die 1630's en vroeë 1640's het die Nederlandse Direkteur -generaals 'n wrede reeks veldtogte gevoer teen die inheemse Amerikaners in die gebied, wat grootliks daarin geslaag het om die sterkte van die "River Indiane" te verpletter, maar ook daarin geslaag om 'n bitter atmosfeer van spanning en agterdog te skep tussen Europese setlaars en inheemse Amerikaners.


Die jaar 1640 was 'n keerpunt vir die kolonie. Die Wes -Indiese Kompanjie het sy handelsmonopolie laat vaar, sodat ander sakelui in Nieu -Nederland kon belê. Die wins het na Amsterdam gestroom en nuwe ekonomiese aktiwiteite aangemoedig in die produksie van voedsel, hout, tabak en uiteindelik slawe. In 1647 arriveer die suksesvolste van die Nederlandse Direkteur -generaals in New Amsterdam. Peter Stuyvesant het Nieu -Nederland in wanorde gevind. Die besorgdheid van die vorige direkteur -generaal oor die inheemse Amerikaners en grenskonflikte met die Engelse in Connecticut het ander dele van die koloniale samelewing baie verswak. Stuyvesant het 'n warrelwind van bedrywighede geword, bevele uitgereik, tavernes gereguleer, smokkel bekamp en gepoog om die gesag van sy amp af te lê op 'n bevolking wat gewoond was aan 'n lang reeks grootliks ondoeltreffende direkteur -generaals.

Uiteindelik het Stuyvesant sy oë gevestig op die klein nedersettings wat langs die Hudsonriviervallei tussen Fort Orange en New Amsterdam ontwikkel het. In 1652 het 60-70 setlaars van Fort Orange afgetrek na 'n gebied waar die Rondout Creek die Hudsonrivier ontmoet, die huidige plek van Kingston. Die setlaars het langs die vrugbare vloedvlaktes van die Esopus Creek langs die Esopus-Indiane, die oorspronklike setlaars van die gebied, geboer. Onvermydelik het grondgeskille die twee kante op die rand van oorlog gebring, met sowel die Europeërs as die Esopus -Indiane wat klein vandalisme en ontvoering beoefen het. In 1657, gesien die strategiese praktiese van 'n fort halfpad tussen New Amsterdam en Fort Orange, stuur direkteur -generaal Stuyvesant soldate uit New Amsterdam om die Esopus -Indiane te vermorsel en te help bou aan 'n voorraadhuis met 40 huise vir die setlaars. Aan boord het die setlaars hul skure en huise afgehaal en opdraand na 'n voorgebergte geberg wat oor die Esopus Creek -vloedvlakte uitkyk. Hulle het hul huise gerekonstrueer agter 'n muur van 14 voet hoog gemaak van boomstamme wat in die grond gestamp is, wat 'n omtrek van ongeveer 1200 x 1300 voet geskep het. Bedags het die mans hul ommuurde dorpie, wat direkteur -generaal Stuyvesant 'Wiltwyck' genoem het, verlaat om uit te gaan en met hulle landerye te boer, en die vroue en kinders is grootliks binne die voorraad gehou. Die dorpenaars het so geleef tot 1664, toe 'n vredesverdrag die konflik met die Esopus -Indiane beëindig het.

Hoewel Wiltwyck, die tweede groot nedersetting wat noord van New Amsterdam gevestig is, vinnig gegroei het, het die suksesse van die Stuyvesant -administrasie Nieu -Nederland in gevaar gestel. Die kolonie was redelik winsgewend, New Amsterdam het ontwikkel tot 'n hawedorp met 1500 burgers, en die ongelooflike diverse bevolking (slegs 50 persent was eintlik Nederlandse koloniste) van die kolonie het gegroei van 2 000 in 1655 tot byna 9 000 in 1664. "Probleme 'met inheemse Amerikaners was meestal verby, en stabiele gesinne het stadig enkele avonturiers vervang wat slegs in vinnige winste geïnteresseerd was. Nieu -Nederland het enorme rykdom vir die Nederlanders opgelewer, en ander buitelandse lande het afguns begin kry oor die rykdom wat uit die Hudsonriviervallei vloei.

Die Nederlanders verloor Nieu-Nederland tydens die Tweede Anglo-Nederlandse Oorlog in 1664 aan die Engelse slegs enkele jare na die vestiging van Wiltwyck. Langs die Weskus van Afrika het Britse chartermaatskappye met die magte van die Nederlandse Wes-Indiese Kompanjie bots oor die regte op slawe, ivoor en goud in 1663. Minder oor slawe of ivoor, die Anglo-Nederlandse oorloë het eintlik meer gegaan oor wie sou wees die dominante Europese vlootmag. Teen 1664 was die Nederlanders en die Engelse besig om voor te berei op die oorlog, en koning Charles van Engeland het sy broer, James, Hertog van York, groot Amerikaanse gebiede toegestaan ​​wat die hele Nieu -Nederland insluit. James het onmiddellik 'n klein vloot opgerig en dit na New Amsterdam gestuur. Direkteur -generaal Stuyvesant, sonder 'n vloot of 'n werklike leër om die kolonie te verdedig, was gedwing om die kolonie sonder 'n stryd aan die Engelse oorlogsvloot oor te gee. In September 1664 word New York gebore, wat die direkte betrokkenheid van Nederland in Noord -Amerika effektief beëindig het, hoewel die invloede van die Nederlandse argitektuur, beplanning en folklife op plekke soos Kingston nog steeds duidelik gesien kan word.


DIE NOORDELIKE RENAISSANCE

Na die uitvinding van die drukpers het die belangstelling in humanistiese studies na Noord -Europa versprei. Noord -Renaissance -skrywers, soos Erasmus en Thomas More, het hul eie gedrukte werke begin vervaardig wat deur klassieke skrywers geïnspireer is. Skrywers in die Noord -Renaissance is sterk beïnvloed deur Christelike humanisme en produseer werke wat meer gefokus was op Christelike beginsels en sosiale hervorming as Italiaanse Renaissance -skrywers, wat meer individualisties en sekulêr was in hul benadering. Erasmus van Rotterdam, 'n Nederlandse humanistiese geleerde, was een van die bekendste voorstanders van die Christelike humanisme. In sy boek, Die lof van dwaasheid, Gebruik Erasmus die Evangelies om verskeie Katolieke Kerkpraktyke, soos die rykdom van die biskoppe, te kritiseer. In die Evangelies was die Apostels arm. As die biskoppe probeer om soos die apostels te wees (soos hulle beweer dat hulle hul opvolgers is), moet hulle ook arm wees. Op hierdie manier het Erasmus 'n klassieke teks gebruik om te pleit vir sosiale hervorming.


Wat is die ontdekkingstydperk?

Die Age of Discovery verwys na die tydperk tussen die vyftiende en sewentiende eeu toe die mens nuwe lande begin ontdek en die wêreld verken het. Hierdie era, ook bekend as die Age of Exploration, het direkte verbindings tussen Afrika, Asië, die Amerikas en Oseanië gevind. Die reise wat mense van hierdie tydperk onderneem het, het gehelp om die eerste kaarte van die wêreld te ontwikkel.

Mense het begin verstaan ​​dat daar meer is as wat die oë van die planeet waarin hulle woon, sien, en die geheimenisse daarvan begin ondersoek. Hulle besef die belangrikheid van breedtegrade, lengtes en hoogtes en die verband daarvan met die wetenskap van kartering en posisionering. Verskeie instrumente en toestelle is uitgevind om die ontdekkingsreisigers te begelei in hul soeke na die ontdekking van nuwe plekke en die ontwikkeling van die wêreldkaart. Namate die bestaan ​​van verskillende plekke ontdek is, het die Age of Discovery handelsverhoudinge tussen kontinentale Asië, Afrika en die Amerikas aangegaan. Goud, speserye en silwer was destyds die belangrikste handelsartikels.

Die Portugese en die Spaanse het die belangrikste rol gespeel in die verkenning van die wêreld. Die Portugese seevaarder, Vasco Da Gama, ontdek Indië in die jaar 1498. Toe begin die ander Portugese ontdekkingsreisigers na die ooste en ontdek China en sy aangrensende lande en vestig sodoende handelsbetrekkinge met die hedendaagse Asië. In die jaar 1522 was die Spanjaard, Ferdinand Magellan, die eerste persoon wat die aarde omseil het. Die Engelse, Franse en Nederlanders het aan die einde van die 16de eeu die navigasietoneel betree en Australië (1606), Nieu -Seeland (1642) en Hawaii (1778) ontdek. Intussen, aan die einde van die 1500's en die vroeë 1600's, het die Russe Siberië ontdek en gevange geneem. Daar kan gesê word dat die geografiese kennis en die kaarte wat ons vandag gebruik, almal gebaseer is op die bevindinge van die Age of Discovery.

Die Age of Discovery strek van die laaste helfte van die vyftiende eeu tot die vroeë helfte van die agtiende eeu. Verskeie baanbrekende en progressiewe ontdekkings gedurende hierdie tydperk het tot hierdie naam gelei. Die belangrikste eksponente van hierdie era is Christopher Columbus en Amerigo Vespucci. Die ontdekking van nuwe lande het 'n nuwe stel geleenthede vir die wêreld oopgemaak. Meer ..


Nederlandse skeepsbou in die Goue Eeu

Richard W. Unger ondersoek hoe tegniese meerderwaardigheid, die ontdekking van die voordele van spesialisering in ontwerp en die uitgebreide ontginning van die ontdekking aan die begin van die sewentiende eeu die Nederlandse oorheersing van die Europese skeepsboubedryf gegee het.

Die skeepsboubedryf was een van die hoekstene van die ekonomiese welvaart van die goue eeu. Teen 1600 oorheers Nederlandse skeepsbouers die Europese mark en verkoop hulle produkte aan kopers van Riga in die Baltiese See tot Venesië in die Adriatiese See. Die sukses van die bedryf was gebaseer op die koste van 1nw en die tegniese superioriteit van sy produk. Nederlandse skeepsbouers het meer doeltreffende boumetodes gebruik en skepe van beter ontwerp as hul Europese mededingers vervaardig. Maar in die vyftiende eeu was Nederlandse skeepsvaarders ver agter hulle. Destyds het Duitse bouers 'n gemodifiseerde hulk vervaardig, wat die doeltreffendste grootmaatvervoerder in Noord -Europa was. Hierdie hulke het graan uit die Baltiese gebied na die Lae Lande gebring en sout teruggebring. Die volskip wat die voertuig vir Europese uitbreiding was, moes uit Suid-Europa na Nederland ingevoer word. Dit bevat 'n kombinasie van vierkantige en lateilseile, sy romp was van mediterrane konstruksie, die sterkte kom van die interne raam en nie van die buiteplank nie.

Om hierdie artikel verder te kan lees, moet u toegang tot die aanlyn -argief verkry.

As u reeds toegang gekoop het, of as u 'n druk- en argief -intekenaar is, moet u dit verseker aangemeld.


Geoktrooieerde Maatskappye

Onder die Tudor -vorste het 'n nuwe lewe, 'n gewaagde gees van avontuur, Engelse handelaars en seemanne gegryp. Die sogenaamde "Chartered Companies" of "Regulated Companies" wat in die sestiende eeu in Engeland georganiseer is, is die mees onvergeetlike. Die konstitusie van hierdie maatskappye het enige lid toegelaat om handel te dryf, binne die gebied van die regte en voorregte van die onderneming, uit eie rekening. Die Levant was die laaste van hierdie belangrike korporasies, en die beroemde Oos -Indiese Kompanjie was die eerste van die groot Engelse aandelemaatskappye. Dit dateer uit die laaste dag van die sestiende eeu. Maar al hierdie korporasies het handel gedryf, nie kolonisasie nie.

Veral prominent was die Company of Merchant Adventurers, 'n vereniging wat tot by die begin van die veertiende eeu teruggevoer kan word. Die eerste Engelse koninklike handves, wat nou nie herwin kan word nie, is gegee aan die Merchants of the Staple, wat in 1248 voorregte van John, Hertog van Brabant, ontvang het om handel te dryf in Nederland. The London Guild of Mercers, 'n onderneming van Engelse handelaars wat in 1296 met die eerste wolvervaardiging in Engeland begin het, en voorregte van John, Hertog van Brabant verkry het, sodat hulle in samewerking met alle ander Engelse handelaars in Antwerpen kon vestig. Hierdie handelaars is later saamgevoeg in die Broederskap of Broederskap van St.Thomas a Becket, 'n samelewing wat omstreeks 1358 floreer het, toe hulle beweer dat hulle ruim voorregte van Louis, graaf van Vlaandere, ontvang het om hul voorneme vir die verkoop vas te maak van Engelse woldoek te Brugge.

Koning Hendrik VII verban in 1493 al die Vlaminge uit Engeland en beveel dat alle omgang tussen die twee lande moet ophou waarop die aartshertog Philip, die soewerein van Nederland, op dieselfde wyse alle Engelse onderdane wat in sy heerskappy woonagtig is, verdryf het. Hierdie embargo het slegs 'n paar jaar geduur, soos Bacon opgemerk het, Henry VII was '' 'n koning wat rykdom en skatte liefgehad het, wat hy nie kon verduur nie, en ook geen belemmering om voort te gaan in die poort wat versprei het nie! '

Trade was restored at the behest of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, which a few years after this time (in 1505) was incorporated by royal charter under the title of The Merchant Adventurers of England. Presuming perhaps upon the aid they had afforded to the crown on this occasion, these London merchants appear to have now made an attempt to take possession of the whole foreign trade of the country. It was the Merchant Adventurers who, under the leadership of Sebastian Cabot, sent their vessels to the far East, sailed the Baltic, kept factors at Novgorod.

Towards the close of the reign of Edward VI efforts were for the first time made to open direct trading relations with Russia (or Muscovy, as it was then more commonly called) by the route leading round North Cape to the White Sea. This route was already known in Anglo-Saxon times. The expedition of Sir Hugh Willoughby in 1553 was equipped by a number of gentlemen and merchants to cut out the Portuguese spice trade with the Moluccas by opening direct communication with Cathay (China) by the north-east passage. Richard Chancellor, Captain of one of Willoughby's ships, had reached Archangel on the White Sea, and had been well received by the Tsar. Chancellor reached the Dwina in 1564, and the Muscovy Trading Company was founded in 1556 obtaining from the Grand Duke of Moscow exemption from duty and safe conduct, it carried English goods mostly cloth as far as the Caspian Sea and Persia.

The Baltic highway was already known to King Alfred from Ohthere's second voyage as far as Sleswig, and from Wulfstan's voyage into the 'East Sea' as far as Truso, near Danzig. These inland waters continued to be frequented from time to time by English skippers trading on their own account under charters from the Crown down to the time of Elizabeth, when the Baltic was constituted a closed sea in favour of an amalgamated English trading association, appropriately called the Eastland Company. This corporation received its first charter in 1579, being described as 'the Fellowship of Eastland Merchants.

The trade to the Levant had been early cultivated by the English, and had been the subject of negociation and of treaties. A Turkish Company for trade in the Levant was founded in 1581, trading partly on a joint, and partly on a separate stock. Into this trade the English staple produce and manufactures had been received and the returns were partly made up of assortments of the produce of the countries at the different ports in the Levant, and partly of Indian produce, which had been brought by the ancient routes of the Red Sea, and of the Persian Gulf, and by land carriage, to the Italian Republics.

Noble seamen, like Frobisher, went in search of a northwest passage to the Pacific, and more than one of them found death instead. English commerce increased rapidly. In the year 1585, Drake introduced tobacco into England the use of the weed soon became so general that cities counted as many tobacco shops as wine and beer shops.

The Marocco or Barbary Company was established by Patent granted in 1585 by Elizabeth to the Earls of Warwick and Leicester, and to forty others, for an exclusive trade to the territory of Marocco for a period of twelve years. To the Emperor, Muley Hamed, the Queen sent her Minister (Roberts), who remained in the country three years, and obtained some privileges for the English, particularly that in future none of the English should be made slaves in his dominions.

A London ship and pinnace having made a prosperous voyage to Benin in 1588, Elizabeth granted in that year a patent for ten years to two London merchants and to others of Exeter and other towns of Devonshire for an exclusive trade to the rivers Senegal and Gambia in Guinea, as all that region of West Africa was then called.

Though France took the lead as a North American colonizer, England followed close on her track. She created in 1606 two companies whose representatives and successors were to exercise an incalculable influence over the destinies of mankind, the South Virginia, or London Company, and the Company of Plymouth Adventurers. Neither was the actual corporation under which the Northern and Southern English colonies subsequently held title, nor were they really the first corporate bodies which tried, under English auspices, the experiment of combining trade and colonization on the East coast of North America.

They were the offspring of the heroic but futile efforts made by Raleigh and his lieutenant in the previous century, to found a colony in Virginia. The provisions of the Charter granted Sir Walter in 1583-1584, expressed conclusively the spirit which even then guided England in her colonization schemes. The Charter grants to the colonists "all the privileges of free denizens and persons native of England, in such ample manner as if they were born and personally resident in our said Realm of England." And they were to be governed according to such statutes as shall be by him or them established, provided they do not contradict the law of the Realm. The same principles and powers underlie the constitutions of all the subsequent colonies. The contrast between these simple and liberal charters and the concessions, edicts, and ordinances, under which the neighboring French colony was governed, accounts for the opposite course followed by the respective nations from their birth until to-day.

The colonization of both Virginia and Massachusetts was undertaken by trading companies, but the policy of these companies, however mistaken in many respects, was widely different from the purely selfish objects of the French companies. Moreover, they were popular in every sense, for the reorganized London Company enrolled as its shareholders 659 individuals and 56 trade guilds.

The Guiana Company charter was issued about the year 1609, when letters patent were granted to Mr. djarcourt, of Stanton-Harcourt, and sixty others, who had founded a station on the river Weapoco. The first English settlement in Guiana was effected by Captain Ley in 1605.

The Bermuda or Somers Isles Company of about one hundred and twenty members was incorporated by royal charter in 1612, when they purchased the islands from the Virginia Company, who, as first discoverers, claimed possession of them. The discovery, which, however, had been anticipated in the sixteenth century by the Spanish navigator Bermudez. The China Or Cathay Company charter was granted in 1635 by Charles I to Sir William Courten, Sir Paul Pindar, Captain John Weddel, and Endymion Porter to trade to China and Japan, as well as to any parts of India where the East India Company had not established themselves before December 12, 1635, but without prejudice to that company in other respects. A condition was that the grantees should, from the sea of China, Japan, or elsewhere, send one well-furnished ship to attempt the discovery of the North-West Passage. But the venture came to nothing.

The Canary Company was created in 1665 by Charles II., who granted a royal patent to sixty persons therein named, and to all others of his subjects who had within seven years past traded to the Canary Islands to the value of 6,000 yearly. The company was to enjoy the exclusive trade to the Canary Islands, under a Governor, Deputy-Governor, and twelve assistants. Of all the historical corporate bodies, this company had the briefest existence, its charter having been withdrawn on a suit brought against it before Parliament in the year 1667.

Considering the complete failure, from the point of view of colonization, of the chartered companies of the seventeenth century, the revival by England of this method of national expansion in the latter half of the nineteenth century may seem surprising. All the chartered companies of this day are, however, understood to be merely forerunners of Government, and speedily resign their charters for a pecuniary consideration, after giving the powers creating them a title to the district exploited.

The first discoverers of the great goldfield in South Africa are reported to be the Brothers Struben, owing to whose perseverance and patience the Witwatersrandt became the Eldorado of speculators' dreams. In 1886 this locality was declared a public goldfield by formal proclamation, and the South African golden age began. In a little while the regions north of the Limpopo began to be investigated, and each in their turn to yield up their treasures. In 1888 a concession to work mineral upon his territory was obtained from Lobengula, the Matabele king. A year later the British South Africa Company was founded. The Company having obtained its charter, no time was lost.

The British North Borneo Company, founded in 1881, gave place to a protectorate in 1888. The Royal Niger Company of 1886 sold its rights and territory to the British Government for 865,000 in 1900. The Imperial British East Africa Company, created in 1885, disposed of its possessions to the British Government in 1894 for 250,000. Cecil Rhodes' famous British South Africa Company remained longer in existence, but its powers as a governing body were very much crippled since the Jameson raid and the war against Lobengula. The German East Africa Company resigned its governing functions in 1890, and the German New Guinea Company followed its example in 1899.

The British African Commercial Companies alone undoubtedly added to the Empire about 2,000,000 square miles of territory, whose value is by some belittled, even as the worth of Canada was depreciated by the statesmen of France, as it also was by those of England when they resigned Kirke's conquest without a murmur. The charters of the modern companies differed in many material respects from those of the seventeenth century, but they resemble strangely, in their essential features, those of France in the seventeenth century, in so far as they are endowed with political functions while organized as money-making corporations.


Age of Exploration (16th-17th centuries)

A driving force for the exploration of the Arctic was the desire of European monarchs to find an alternate trading route to China, via either a Northwest Passage along the coast of North America, or a Northeast Passage along the coast of Siberia. A number of expeditions sought such routes in the 1500-1700s, which resulted in the discovery of much of northern North America, but no viable passage.

In 1524, under the direction of the king of France, Giovanni da Verrazano took the entrance to Hudson River (now New York City) to be the entrance for the passage, and ten years later Jacques Cartier likewise discovered the St. Lawrence estuary. The first Englishman to seek the passage was Martin Frobisher in three voyages up to 60°N between 1576 and 1578. On his first voyage, relations with the natives quickly became hostile, and a prisoner was brought back to England. John Davis followed in 1585, 1586, and 1587 charting the strait west of Greenland that now bears his name.

Financed by the Dutch, in 1609 the Englishman Henry Hudson followed Verrazano's course, and explored the river that now bears his name. The following year he discovered the vast inlet (now called Hudson Bay) beyond Davis Strait. Robert Bylot and navigator William Baffin undertook two expeditions in 1615 and 1616, exploring the north coast of Greenland up to 78°N and then along the Canadian archipelago to Lancaster Sound. Convinced it was only a bay, Baffin concluded that no Northwest Passage existed, and interest in searching for one waned for the next 200 years.

Other explorers were drawn to search for a Northeast Passage connecting the White Sea and Bering Sea. The Dutch navigator William Barents led three expeditions east of Novaya Zemlya, and on the third expedition in 1596 claimed Spitsbergen. From the early 16th century, Russian navigators used shallow draft vessels with reinforced bottoms (kochi) to cross the Kara Sea and explore the Ob and Yenisey rivers. Yermak's Cossacks expanded the Russian presence eastward, crossing the Ural Mountains in 1581. In 1601, Mangazeya town was founded at Taz River between the Ob and Yenisey rivers, and dozens of boats from Pomor lands began annual navigations.

Throughout the first quarter of the 17th century, a great number of merchants, trappers and Cossacks moved east and north, settled East Siberia and explored the northern Siberian coast. In 1610, the Yenisey River was navigated to its northern estuary and the coast to the estuary of the Pyasina was explored. Cape Chelyuskin was overtaken from the west in 1617, Yakutian Cossacks Ivan Rebrov and Ilya Perfilyev headed down to the Lena River estuary and made the first sea voyage to the Yana River in 1633, and in 1639, the Pacific shore was reached by Ivan Moskvitin and his detachment of Cossacks. In a 15-year timespan, all Siberian river estuaries from Khatanga to Kolyma had been discovered and a large part of the Northeast Passage from the White Sea to Kolyma estuary had been covered. Semen Dezhnev traversed the final segment in 1648, leading 90 Cossacks on a journey from the Kolyma to Anadyr Rivers, discovering the strait between Asia and America (proving that they were different continents) and passing the cape which now bears his name.

Francis, D., Discovery of the North: The Exploration of Canada's Arctic, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, Canada, 224 pp., 1986.

Imbert, B., North Pole, South Pole: Journeys to the Ends of the Earth, Harry N. Abrams, Publishers, New York, 192 pp., 1992.


Agtergrond

European medieval knowledge about Asia beyond the reach of Byzantine Empire was sourced in partial reports, often obscured by legends, dating back from the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great and his successors. In 1154, Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi created what would be known as the Tabula Rogeriana at the court of King Roger II of Sicily. The book, written in Arabic, is a description of the world and world map. It is divided into seven climate zones and contains maps showing the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only the northern part of the African continent. It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries, but it also demonstrated that Africa was only partially known to either Christians, Genoese and Venetians, or the Arab seamen, and its southern extent was unknown. Knowledge about the Atlantic African coast was fragmented, and derived mainly from old Greek and Roman maps based on Carthaginian knowledge, including the time of Roman exploration of Mauritania. The Red Sea was barely known and only trade links with the Maritime republics, the Republic of Venice especially, fostered collection of accurate maritime knowledge.

Indian Ocean trade routes were sailed by Arab traders. Between 1405 and 1421, the Yongle Emperor of Ming China sponsored a series of long-range tributary missions. The fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, India, Maritime Southeast Asia, and Thailand. But the journeys, reported by Ma Huan, a Muslim voyager and translator, were halted abruptly after the emperor’s death, and were not followed up, as the Chinese Ming Dynasty retreated in the haijin, a policy of isolationism, having limited maritime trade.


England and the High Seas

Throughout the 17th century, the British established numerous successful American colonies and dominated the Atlantic slave trade, which eventually led to creating the most powerful European empire.

Leerdoelwitte

Explain why England was interested in establishing a maritime empire

Belangrike wegneemetes

Kern punte

  • In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497 and he successfully made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland but did not establish a colony.
  • In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa, with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic trade system. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580.
  • In 1578, Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. In 1583, he claimed the harbor of Newfoundland for England, but no settlers were left behind. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh, who founded the colony of Roanoke, the first but failed British settlement.
  • In the first decade of the 17th century, English attention shifted from preying on other nations’ colonial infrastructures to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. The Caribbean initially provided England’s most important and lucrative colonies.
  • The introduction of the 1951 Navigation Acts led to war with the Dutch Republic, which was the first war fought largely, on the English side, by purpose-built, state-owned warships. After the English monarchy was restored in 1660, Charles II re-established the Navy, but as a national institution known, since then, as “The Royal Navy.”
  • Throughout the 17th century, the British established numerous successful American colonies, all based largely on slave labor. The colonization of the Americas and the participation in the Atlantic slave trade allowed the British to gradually build the most powerful European empire.

Sleutel terme

  • Jamestown: The first permanent English settlement in the Americas, established by the Virginia Company of London as “James Fort” on May 4, 1607, and considered permanent after brief abandonment in 1610. It followed several earlier failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke.
  • Plymouth: An English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691, first surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement served as the capital of the colony and at its height, it occupied most of the southeastern portion of the modern state of Massachusetts.
  • Roanoke: Also known as the Lost Colony a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement in the Americas. The colony was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh. The colonists disappeared during the Anglo-Spanish War, three years after the last shipment of supplies from England.
  • Navigation Acts: A series of English laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between every country except England. They were first enacted in 1651, and were repealed nearly 200 years later in 1849. They reflected the policy of mercantilism, which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside the empire, and minimize the loss of gold and silver to foreigners.
  • First Anglo-Dutch War: A 1652-1654 conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Caused by disputes over trade, the war began with English attacks on Dutch merchant shipping, but expanded to vast fleet actions. Ultimately, it resulted in the English Navy gaining control of the seas around England, and forced the Dutch to accept an English monopoly on trade with England and her colonies.

Inleiding

The foundations of the British Empire were laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot (Venetian born as Giovanni Caboto) to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Spain put limited efforts into exploring the northern part of the Americas, as its resources were concentrated in Central and South America where more wealth had been found. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after Europeans reached America, and although he successfully made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland (mistakenly believing, like Christopher Columbus, that he had reached Asia), there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year, but nothing was heard of his ships again.

The Early Empire

No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the Protestant Reformation had turned England and Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa, with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic trade system. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, and was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation. With his incursion into the Pacific, he inaugurated an era of privateering and piracy in the western coast of the Americas—an area that had previously been free of piracy.

In 1578, Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. That year, Gilbert sailed for the West Indies with the intention of engaging in piracy and establishing a colony in North America, but the expedition was aborted before it had crossed the Atlantic. In 1583, he embarked on a second attempt, on this occasion to the island of Newfoundland whose harbor he formally claimed for England, although no settlers were left behind. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh, who was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in 1584. Later that year, Raleigh founded the colony of Roanoke on the coast of present-day North Carolina, but lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.

Empire in the Americas

In 1603, James VI, King of Scots, ascended (as James I) to the English throne, and in 1604 negotiated the Treaty of London, ending hostilities with Spain. Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations’ colonial infrastructures, to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. The Caribbean initially provided England’s most important and lucrative colonies. Colonies in Guiana, St Lucia, and Grenada failed but settlements were successfully established in St. Kitts (1624), Barbados (1627), and Nevis (1628). The colonies soon adopted the system of sugar plantations, successfully used by the Portuguese in Brazil, which depended on slave labor, and—at first—Dutch ships, to sell the slaves and buy the sugar. To ensure that the increasingly healthy profits of this trade remained in English hands, Parliament decreed in the 1651 Navigation Acts that only English ships would be able to ply their trade in English colonies. In 1655, England annexed the island of Jamaica from the Spanish, and in 1666 succeeded in colonizing the Bahamas.

African slaves working in 17th-century Virginia (tobacco cultivation), by an unknown artist, 1670

In 1672, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean. From the outset, slavery was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies and later in North America. Until the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, Britain was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all slaves transported across the Atlantic.

The introduction of the Navigation Acts led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654), the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organization. English tactical improvements resulted in a series of crushing victories in 1653, bringing peace on favorable terms. This was the first war fought largely, on the English side, by purpose-built, state-owned warships. After the English monarchy was restored in 1660, Charles II re-established the navy, but from this point on, it ceased to be the personal possession of the reigning monarch, and instead became a national institution, with the title of “The Royal Navy.”

England’s first permanent settlement in the Americas was founded in 1607 in Jamestown, led by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company. Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the 1609 shipwreck there of the Virginia Company’s flagship. The Virginia Company’s charter was revoked in 1624 and direct control of Virginia was assumed by the crown, thereby founding the Colony of Virginia. In 1620, Plymouth was founded as a haven for puritan religious separatists, later known as the Pilgrims. Fleeing from religious persecution would become the motive of many English would-be colonists to risk the arduous trans-Atlantic voyage Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics (1634), Rhode Island (1636) as a colony tolerant of all religions, and Connecticut (1639) for Congregationalists. The Province of Carolina was founded in 1663. With the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in 1664, England gained control of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, renaming it New York. In 1681, the colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who preferred their temperate climates.

From the outset, slavery was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies. Until the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, Britain was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all slaves transported across the Atlantic. In the British Caribbean, the percentage of the population of African descent rose from 25% in 1650 to around 80% in 1780, and in the 13 Colonies from 10% to 40% over the same period (the majority in the southern colonies). For the slave traders, the trade was extremely profitable, and became a major economic mainstay.

Map of the British colonies in North America, 1763 to 1775. First published in: Shepherd, William Robert (1911) “The British Colonies in North America, 1763–1765” in Historical Atlas, New York, United States: Henry Holt and Company, p. 194.

Although Britain was relatively late in its efforts to explore and colonize the New World, lagging behind Spain and Portugal, it eventually gained significant territories in North America and the Caribbean.


SPANISH AND THE AGE OF EXPLORATION

Spanish is not only interesting but also somewhat complex. For instance, the Age of Exploration was a time created from trade occurring with the Middle East, which was later perpetuated once Christopher Columbus made the discover of another hemisphere in 1492. As Spanish conquistadors filtered into lands occupied by the Indians, gold was discovered, which started a huge period of adventure and exploration.

During the Age of Exploration, many brave men swept across the Ocean, some discussed in this article. For starters, Juan Ponce de Leon is most famous for his discovery of what we now call Florida. Although this explorer was formally trained to be a public servant and soldier, he set sail with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage.

Faithfully serving Spain, Ponce de Leon was selected to enter and colonize Puerto Rico. However, after Christopher Columbus died, the Crown of Spain refused to give any power to his son, Diego Columbus. Determined to win, Diego finally won his rights after battling with the Madrid courts. At that time, Ponce de Leon was taken out of office, feeling betrayed. Not interested in working under the leadership of Diego, de Leon headed out to explore northern areas, as well as the upper Bahamas.

In 1513, Ponce de Leon began sailing in the direction of Florida, actually making a spiritual journey to restore his damaged name. His ship&rsquos crew spotted land and landed near St. Augustine in six days. Arriving on land to find greenery and flowers, Ponce de Leon named the land Pescua Florida, which translates to &ldquoplace of flowers&rdquo. Unfortunately, de Leon was not able to secure funding for a second trip to Florida for another eight years but by 1521, he and 500 men such as artisans, farmers, and priest settled in the beautiful land of south Florida.

Another explorer who made a name for himself during the Age of Exploration was Panfilo de Narvaez. Noted for being a long-serving Caribbean soldier, Narvaez was hired in 1520 by Spanish authorities to take over and control the explorations of another mane, Hernan Cortes. Unfortunately, Narvaez was captured and imprisoned for three years. However, after being released, he took a voyage to Madrid to seek a grant for colonizing the Gulf Coast.

Meeting Cabeza de Vaca, the grandson of the man who had taken control of the Canary Islands, the two men joined forces, setting sail in 1527. Traveling with five ships and 400 men, Narvaez and Vaca landed just to the north of Tampa Bay. Wanting to discover another Mexico, the two men captured Ucita, the Indian leader but without the prisoner sharing any information on where gold could be found, Ucita&rsquos nose was cut off.

Vaca wanted to stay whereas Narvaez wanted to head back to Cuba, leaving the majority of his men to look for gold in the north. This move proved disastrous for the Spanish and Indian relation, something that did not heal for many years. Sadly, the legacy left by Narvaez was that of trickery, thievery, and violence. Returning to Florida, Narvaez continued to search for gold while others were battling the Indians. Eventually, one of Narvaez&rsquos ships capsized in a storm, causing him to drown. Vaca survived along with a small crew, living in an Indian village for two years. In the summer of 1536, Vaca made it to Mexico City!

Spanish Culture

Spanish History, Customs, Etiquette, Language and Culture

Another way to learn spanish is to learn about it's culture. How spanish people lived in past, their customs and etiquette, art, literature, wars etc.


Kyk die video: De vergeten Nederlanders (Augustus 2022).