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Massasoit II YT -15 - Geskiedenis

Massasoit II YT -15 - Geskiedenis



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Massasoit

II

(YT-15: dp. 202; IwI. 89'5 "; b. 24 '; dr. 8'6"; s. 9 k. A.
Ek I-pdr.)

Die tweede Massasoit (YT-15) is van stapel gestuur as A. W. Booth deur Neafie en Levy, Philadelphia, Pa., In 1898; verkry deur die vloot van die Moran Towing Service in Philadelphia 25 April 1898; en in opdrag van 21 Junie 1898, luitenant A. Reynolds in bevel.

Massasoit, wat tydens die Spaanse Amerikaanse oorlog aan die Noord -Atlantiese Vloot toegewys is, vertrek op 29 Junie 1898 uit Philadelphia en stoom met 'n sleepwa deur verskeie hawens aan die ooskus na Key West, Fla., Aankoms op 21 Julie. Daar het sy tot 21 Augustus opereer toe sy na Philadelphia gevaar het, en op 24 September by League Island Navy Yard aangekom het. Massasoit lewer werfdiens op League Island tot 25 Februarie 1899 toe sy na Key West seil. Sy is vir die volgende 12 jaar na die vlootstasie daar gestuur vir werf- en insleepdiens. Sy het kort seereise na nabygeleë hawens gemaak, en in Maart en Desember 1910 twee sleepreise na Havana, Kuba.

Op 23 April 1912 word Massasoit in die Norfolk Navy Yard aangestel en dieselfde dag vaar en op 3 Mei aankom. Sy het net in 1922 haar noodsaaklike diens aan die vloot verrig, met tussenposes se vaarte met bootjies na Indian Head, Annapolis en kleiner vlootinstallasies. Op 10 Maart 1922 word die sleepboot oorgeplaas na algemene diens in die 5de vlootdistrik totdat dit op 18 September 1930 in onaktiewe status geplaas is. Massasoit is in 1933 na Philadelphia gebring om in die gewone plek geplaas te word, en is op 17 Desember 1936 uit die vlootlys geslaan en verkoop aan Herman Spector van Philadelphia 25 Januarie 1937.


Temco T-35 Buckaroo

Die Temco T-35 Buckaroo (maatskappy se aanwysing TE-1) is in die laat veertigerjare ontwerp as 'n baie goedkoop afrigter vir kommersiële en militêre markte. Temco se versuim om 'n Amerikaanse lugmagbevel vir die Buckaroo te bekom, het hom genoodsaak om na nie-Amerikaanse regerings te gaan om die produksielyne aan die gang te hou, maar slegs 'n paar uitvoeropdragte het gerealiseer.

T-35 Buckaroo / TE-1
Die eerste YT-35 vir evaluering deur die USAF
Rol Ligte stut afrigter
Vervaardiger Temco Vliegtuie
Eerste vlug 1948, (TE-1B: 20 ​​Februarie 1950)
Inleiding 1948
Status Aktief [ verduideliking nodig ]
Primêre gebruiker Saoedi -Arabië
Nommer gebou 26 [ aanhaling nodig ]
Ontwikkel uit Globe Swift


Thunderbolt 15

Die eerste keer ontwikkel deur die Federated Commonwealth in die middel van die 3050's vir die Solaris-arena's, die Donderslag lanseerder is 'n uitvloeisel van standaard LRM -tegnologie. In plaas daarvan om 'n groep van vyftien missiele af te vuur, vuur die Thunderbolt 15 -lanseerder 'n enkele missiel af wat net soveel skade berokken as 'n Gauss -geweer. Die verhoogde skade word vergoed deur die effens verminderde omvang en verhoog die hitte en gewig van die wapen. Die Thunderbolt-missiel is ook meer kwesbaar vir anti-missielstelsels.

Thunderbolt -missielwerpers kan nie Artemis IV- of Narc -leidingstelsels gebruik nie, maar werk soos LRM's op elke ander manier.


Ten tyde van die aankoms van die pelgrims in Plymouth, het die ryk van die Pokanokets dele van Rhode Island en 'n groot deel van die suidooste van Massachusetts ingesluit. [5] Massasoit het in Sowams, 'n dorpie by Pokanoket in Warren, Rhode Island, gewoon. Hy was getrou aan mindere Pokanoket -sakkies. In 1621 stuur hy Squanto om tussen die koloniste in Plymouth te woon. [6]

Uitbrake van pokke het die Pokanokets verwoes, en Massasoit het 'n alliansie gesoek met die kolonies van New England teen die naburige Narragansetts wat 'n gebied wes van Narragansettbaai in Rhode Island beheer het. Samoset was 'n minderjarige Abenakki -sachem (sagamore) wat afkomstig was uit die Muscongusbaai -gebied in Maine, [7] en hy het Engels leer praat van vissers wat die waters gedryf het. Massasoit het hom gestuur om die koloniste te nader om uit te vind of hulle bedoelings vreedsaam was.

Massasoit het kritiese politieke en persoonlike bande gesmee met koloniale leiers William Bradford, Edward Winslow, Stephen Hopkins, John Carver en Myles Standish, bande wat ontstaan ​​het uit 'n vredesverdrag wat op 22 Maart 1621 onderhandel is. Die alliansie het verseker dat die Pokanoket neutraal bly tydens die Pequot -oorlog in 1636. [8] Volgens Engelse bronne het Massasoit die mislukking van Plymouth Colony en die hongersnood wat die pelgrims in die vroegste jare ondervind het, voorkom. [8]

Daar was 'n mate van spanning tussen Massasoit en die koloniste toe hulle weier om Squanto op te gee, wat Massasoit vermoed het dat hy hom verraai het. Dit is in Maart 1623 opgelos toe Massasoit ernstig siek was en Edward Winslow hom weer gesond gemaak het. [9] Na sy herstel berig Winslow dat Massasoit gesê het: "die Engelse is my vriende en is lief vir my. Terwyl ek lewe, sal ek nooit die vriendelikheid vergeet wat hulle aan my bewys het nie." [10] In ruil vir hul vriendelikheid, het Massasoit hulle gewaarsku teen 'n komplot teen hulle. Hy het verneem dat 'n groep invloedryke Massachusett -krygers van plan was om die kolonies van Wessagusset en Plymouth te vernietig, en hy het die pelgrims betyds gewaarsku.

Die alliansie het later jare onder ander spanning gekom, aangesien die koloniste na nuwe lande uitgebrei het om hul groeiende kolonie te ondersteun. Massasoit verkoop 'n stuk grond 14 myl in 1649 aan Myles Standish en ander van Duxbury in 1649 om spanning te verlig en die vrede te handhaaf. Die verkoop het plaasgevind bo -op Sachem Rock, 'n uitloop op die Satucketrivier in East Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Die webwerf is gelys in die National Register of Historic Places.

Massasoit het vyf kinders gehad: seun Wamsutta, wat tussen 1621 en 1625 gebore is, seun Pometecomet, Metacomet, of Metacom -seun Sonkanuchoo en dogters Amie en Sarah. Kort na sy dood gaan Wamsutta en Pometecomet na Plymouth en vra die pelgrims om hulle Engelse name te gee. Die hof het hulle Alexander en Philip genoem. Wamsutta, die oudste, het na die dood van sy vader 'n sakeman van die Pokanokets geword. [11] Hy sterf binne 'n jaar, en sy broer Metacom volg hom op in 1662. [12] Amie trou met Tispaquin en was die enigste van Massasoit se vyf kinders wat King Philip's War in 1676 oorleef het.

Roger Williams het uit die Massachusettsbaaikolonie gevlug om arrestasie en deportasie om godsdienstige redes te vermy en het die winter van 1635–36 by Massasoit gebly, wat hom die volgende lente grond langs die Seekonkrivier gegee het. Goewerneur Winslow het Williams aangeraai om sy nedersetting na die ander kant van die rivier te skuif omdat sy huidige ligging binne die perke van Plymouth Colony was. Williams het dit gedoen en Providence Plantations gestig, wat later deel geword het van die kolonie Rhode Island. [13]

Die halfeeu van vrede wat Massasoit so versigtig gehandhaaf het, het kort ná sy dood ineengestort. Wamsutta breek weg van sy vader se diplomasie en begin 'n alliansie met Connecticut Colony.

Massasoit was menslik en eerlik, het sy woord gestand gedoen en probeer om sy mense met vrede deur te dring. Hy het die pelgrims op hoogte gehou van enige oorlogsugtige ontwerpe deur ander stamme. [11] Dit is onduidelik wanneer Massasoit gesterf het. Sommige verslae beweer dat dit al in 1660 was, ander beweer dat hy so laat as 1662 gesterf het. Hy was destyds tussen 80 en 90 jaar oud. [11]

Wamsutta sterf skielik binne 'n jaar na sy opvolging, en Massasoit se tweede seun, Metacom, word sachem van die Pokanokets en hoofsakem van die Greater Wampanoag Confederacy. Hy het geglo dat Wamsutta deur die koloniste vermoor is, en dit was een van die faktore wat gelei het tot King Philip's War, een van die bloedigste oorloë in die koloniale Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

Standbeelde van Massasoit deur die beeldhouer Cyrus E. Dallin staan ​​naby Plymouth Rock, buite die Utah State Capitol -gebou, op die kampus van die Brigham Young University, by die Springville Museum of Art in Springville, Utah, en in Kansas City, Missouri, op die hoek van Hoofstraat en Emanuel Cleaver II Blvd. In Massachusetts word beide Massasoit Community College en Massasoit State Park [14] na hom vernoem.


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Wasanegin "Great Sachem" Massasoit

Wasanegin was die Massasoit (hoof) van die Pokenoket-stam en die Sachem (groothoof) oor die hele Wampanoag, 'n federasie met meer stamme. Sy posisie was ietwat soortgelyk aan 'n persoon wat beide 'n goewerneur van 'n Amerikaanse staat EN president van die hele Verenigde State was - terselfdertyd het die gebied van die Wampanoag bestaan ​​uit die grootste deel van die huidige Rhode Island, die onderste oostelike deel van die huidige Massachusetts met 'n deel van Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard en die hele oostelike helfte van die huidige Long Island (New York).

Wasanegin en sy mense het Christen sendelinge ontvang, waaronder die dogter van die stam Powhatan, Matoaka (mev. Rebecca Rolfe), bekend as Pocahontas, wat Wasanegin waarskynlik beïnvloed het toe hy sy dogter die Europese Christelike naam gegee het van Mary-Mary Margaret, wat sou wees die moeder van baie hoofde tot vandag toe.

Wasanegin is net 'n paar jaar voor die aankoms van die Mayflower oorlede, en dit sou sy seun, Ousamequin, die beroemde Wampanoag -hoof wees om die pelgrims in Plymouth te help, ongelukkig het die Engelse sy titel 'Massasoit' as sy naam verwar, en hy is sedertdien histories bekend onder sy titel, hoewel daar verskeie ander was wat die titel gedra het.


MayflowerHistory.com

Die Engelse en ander vroeë Europeërs wat in Amerika aankom, bespiegel gereeld oor die oorsprong van die inheemse Amerikaners. In 1637 het Thomas Morton, 'n prokureur uit Engeland wat by verskeie geleenthede in Amerika baie jare deurgebring het, geskryf: 'Dit was die mening van sommige mans, wat naamloos sal wees, dat die inboorlinge van New England uit die wedloop kan voortgaan van die Tartare, en kom van Tartaria [die wildernis van Asië] na die dele oor die bevrore see. " Morton het dit as 'n absurde idee beskou, want daar sou nie kos of vuurmaakhout wees om die lewe te onderhou nie. Hy het waarskynlik geglo dat die Indiërs afstam van die verspreide Trojane, wat na die Trojaanse Oorlog versprei het. Ander Engelsmanne het bespiegel dat die Indiane van een van die verlore stamme van Israel moet afstam. Argeoloë vandag, gebaseer op beide argeologiese en genetiese navorsing, glo dat die inheemse Amerikaners ongeveer 12 000 jaar gelede in een van die verskeie immigrasiegolwe in Amerika aangekom het, terwyl die hoofgolf oor die landbrug in die Beringstraat gekom het tydens die mees onlangse ys ouderdom. Onlangse genetiese navorsing het getoon dat inheemse Amerikaners afstam van die Mongoloïede van Sentraal -Asië en Siberië, hoewel sommige in Sentraal- en Suid -Amerika blykbaar genetiese bande het met die Polinesiese eilande van Suidoos -Asië.

Die Wampanog en ander Algonquiese mense het ongeveer 9 000 tot 12 000 jaar gelede die eerste keer in New England begin vestig, waar hulle hoofsaaklik 'n nomadiese jag- en versamelkultuur was. Teen ongeveer 1000 nC vind argeoloë die eerste tekens van landbou begin verskyn, veral die koringoes, wat 'n belangrike stapelvoedsel geword het, net soos boontjies en pampoen.

In 1525 het Giovanni da Verrazano, 'n Italiaanse seil onder die Franse vlag, 'n groot deel van die kuslyn van Virginia deur New England verken. Hy was een van die vroegste Europese ontdekkingsreisigers wat langs die kuslyn van die Wampanoag -mense by Narragansettbaai gestop het. Verrazzano teken aan dat die Wampanoag vreesloos aan boord gekom het, waaronder twee "konings" van veertig en twintig jaar oud. Verrazzano het opgemerk dat die Wampanoag 'baie liefdadig teenoor hul bure was'.

Baie min reise is na die streek gemaak vir die volgende driekwart-eeu, maar begin in die vroeë 1600's het Europese reise na New England baie toegeneem. In 1605 reis die Engelse seekaptein George Weymouth langs Cape Cod, waar hy vyf Indiërs gevange neem om saam met hom na Engeland terug te neem. Fransman Samuel de Champlain het in 1613 'n kaart van die hawe van Plymouth gemaak (foto links). Die rivier aan die bokant is Town Brooke in Plymouth, en verskeie dorpe en mielielande kan gesien word. 'N Groep Wampanoag in 'n kano en langs die oewer kan ook gesien word. 'N Jaar later reis kaptein John Smith na Cape Cod en maak sy eie kaart van New England. Toe John Smith vertrek, was een van die see -kapteins wat agtergebly het, kaptein Thomas Hunt, wat besluit het om 24 Indiërs terug te neem na Spanje om as slawe te verkoop. Hy lok hulle aan boord van sy skip en maak asof hy ruil vir beervelle, en vang dit dan aan boord. Hulle is gebind en het na Spanje geseil, waar hy daarin geslaag het om 'n paar te verkoop voordat 'n paar plaaslike Spaanse broeiers die res van die Indiërs in hegtenis geneem het. Een van diegene wat gevange geneem is, was Tisquantum ("Squanto"), wat in 1618 saam met 'n ander Engelse kaptein, Thomas Dermer, na New England sou terugkeer voordat hy in 1620 kennis maak met die pelgrims.

Toe die pelgrims in 1620 aankom, het hulle gevind dat baie van die voormalige Wampanoag -dorpe deur 'n plaag wat in 1617 en 1618 deur die bevolking versprei is, ontdek het. Hele dorpe, waaronder Tisquantum's Patuxet, is van die kaart afgevee. Die sakkie van die destydse Wampanoag, Massasoit, was naby die huidige Warren en Bristol, Rhode Island. Elke dorpie onder hom het sy eie leier, van wie die pelgrims baie teëgekom het tydens hul vroeë verkennings:

  • Aspinet. Die leier in Nauset, woonagtig op Cape Cod in die streek, miskien van die huidige Orleans en Eastham tot in Truro en Provincetown.
  • Iyanough. Die leier by Cummaquid, woonagtig op Cape Cod in die omgewing rondom wat nou Barnstable is.
  • Corbitant. Die leier by Nemasket, in die omgewing van die moderne Middleboro.
  • Obbatinewat. Die sachem van Shawmut, in die omgewing van Boston.

Drie Wampanoag -manne was aktief betrokke by die Pelgrims in die vroeë Plymouth en het as ambassadeurs, vertalers en adviseurs opgetree: Tisquantum, Hobomok en Tokamahaman.


Inhoud

Begin wysig

Die Baldwin Locomotive Works het 'n nederige begin gehad. Matthias W. Baldwin, die stigter, was 'n juwelier en witmaker, [2] wat in 1825 'n vennootskap met die masjinis David H. Mason aangegaan het en besig was met die vervaardiging van boekbinders se gereedskap en silinders vir drukwerk in Calico. Baldwin het toe vir sy eie gebruik 'n klein stilstaande enjin ontwerp en gebou, waarvan die afwerking so uitstekend was en die doeltreffendheid daarvan so groot was dat hy gevra is om ander soos dit vir verskillende partye te bou, en sodoende sy aandag op stoomingenieurswese gevestig het. Die oorspronklike enjin was in gebruik en het baie afdelings van die werke meer as 60 jaar lank aangedryf en word tans in die Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC vertoon.

In 1831, op versoek van die Philadelphia Museum, bou Baldwin 'n miniatuurlokomotief vir uitstalling wat so 'n sukses was dat hy daardie jaar 'n bevel van 'n spoorwegonderneming ontvang het om 'n lokomotief op 'n kort lyn na die voorstede van Philadelphia te ry. Die Camden en Amboy Railroad Company (C & ampA) het kort voorheen 'n lokomotief ingevoer (John Bull) uit Engeland, wat in Bordentown, New Jersey, gestoor is. Dit was nog nie saamgestel deur Isaac Dripps (onder leiding van Robert L. Stevens, president van C & ampA) toe Baldwin die plek besoek het. Hy ondersoek die losstaande dele en maak aantekeninge van die hoofafmetings. [3] [4] Bygestaan ​​deur hierdie syfers, het hy sy taak aangepak.

Die probleme om die uitvoering van hierdie eerste orde by te woon, was van so 'n aard dat dit nie maklik verstaan ​​kan word deur die hedendaagse werktuigkundiges nie. Moderne masjiengereedskap bestaan ​​eenvoudig nie; die silinders is verveeld deur 'n beitel wat in 'n blok hout vasgemaak is en met die hand gedraai word, maar die werkers moet geleer word hoe om byna al die werk te doen, en Baldwin self het dit baie met sy eie hande gedoen .

Dit was onder sulke omstandighede dat sy eerste lokomotief, gedoop is Ou Ironsides, is voltooi en beproef op die Philadelphia, Germantown en Norristown Railroad op 23 November 1832. Dit is onmiddellik in diens geneem en het meer as 20 jaar lank diens gedoen. Dit was 'n vierwielmotor en weeg 'n bietjie meer as vyf ton, die dryfwiele was 1,4 m in deursnee, en die silinders was 24 cm lank en 46 cm lank beroerte. Die wiele was van swaar gietysternawe, met houtspeke en -velde, en smeedijzerbande, en die raamwerk was van hout wat buite die wiele geplaas is. Dit het 'n ketel met 'n deursnee van 30 duim, wat 20 minute geneem het om stoom op te wek. Topsnelheid was 45 km/h. [5]

Vroeë jare Redigeer

Baldwin het gesukkel om die paniek van 1837 te oorleef. Die produksie het gedaal van 40 lokomotiewe in 1837 tot slegs nege in 1840 en die onderneming was baie skuld. [6] As deel van die oorlewingstrategie het Matthias Baldwin twee vennote aangeneem, George Vail en George Hufty. Alhoewel die vennootskappe relatief van korte duur was, het dit Baldwin gehelp om deur die ekonomiese moeilike tye te kom.

Zerah Colburn was een van vele ingenieurs wat 'n noue verbintenis met Baldwin Locomotive Works gehad het. Tussen 1854 (en die begin van sy weekblad, die Spoorwegadvokaat) en 1861, toe Colburn min of meer permanent in Londen, Engeland, gaan werk het, was die joernalis gereeld in kontak met M. W. Baldwin, soos opgeteken in Zerah Colburn: The Spirit of Darkness. Colburn was vol lof vir die kwaliteit van Baldwin se werk.

In die 1850's het die bou van spoorweë 'n nasionale obsessie geword, [7] met baie nuwe karre, veral in die Midde -Weste en Suid. Alhoewel dit die vraag na Baldwin -produkte verhoog het, het dit ook die mededinging verhoog namate meer ondernemings die lokomotiefproduksieveld betree. [7]

Tog het Baldwin probleme gehad om tred te hou met bestellings, en aan die begin van die 1850's het hy werkers betaal. [8] As u voordeel trek uit die menslike natuur, verhoog dit die aansporings en produktiwiteit. Teen 1857 het die onderneming 66 lokomotiewe opgedoen en 600 man in diens gehad. Maar nog 'n ekonomiese insinking, hierdie keer die Paniek van 1857, het weer begin sake doen. Die uitset het in 1858 met 50 persent gedaal. [9]

1860–1899 Redigeer

Die Burgeroorlog het aanvanklik rampspoedig vir Baldwin gelyk. Volgens John K. Brown in The Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1831–1915: 'n Studie in Amerikaanse nywerheidspraktyk, aan die begin van die konflik het Baldwin 'n groot afhanklikheid gehad van die suidelike spoorweë as sy primêre mark. In 1860 het byna 80 persent van die produksie van Baldwin gegaan na draers in state wat binnekort van die Unie sou afskei. [10] As gevolg hiervan het die produksie van Baldwin in 1861 meer as 50 persent gedaal in vergelyking met die vorige jaar. [10] Die verlies aan verkope in die suide word egter gebalanseer deur aankope deur die Amerikaanse militêre spoorweë en die Pennsylvania Railroad, wat sy verkeer laat toeneem het, aangesien Baldwin tydens die oorlog van 1861-1865 meer as 100 enjins vir draers vervaardig het. [10]

Teen die tyd dat Matthias Baldwin in 1866 sterf, het sy onderneming met Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works om die topposisie onder lokomotiefprodusente geveg. [11] Teen 1870 het Baldwin die voortou geneem en 'n dekade later vervaardig dit 2½ keer soveel enjins as sy naaste mededinger, volgens die Amerikaanse vervaardigingsensus. [12]

In 1897 word die Baldwin Locomotive Works aangebied as een van die voorbeelde van suksesvolle winkelbestuur in 'n reeks artikels deur Horace Lucian Arnold. [14] Die artikel beskryf spesifiek die Stuktariefstelsel wat in die winkelbestuur gebruik word.

Burton (1899) het opgemerk dat "in die Baldwin Locomotive Works seleksie van tariewe selde verander word. Sommige tariewe het die afgelope twintig jaar onveranderd gebly, en 'n werker is meer gewaardeer as hy kan, deur sy eie inspanning en vermoë, Hy het 'n absolute aansporing om sy opbrengs so veel as moontlik te verhoog, want hy weet dat hy nie deur sy eie inkomste sal lei tot die verlaging van stukwerk nie, en dus gedwing word om stil te bly verdere inspannings om dieselfde weekloon te handhaaf. " [15]

Aanvanklik het Baldwin nog baie meer stoomlokomotiewe op sy beknopte winkel in Broad Street, Philadelphia, [16] gebou, maar 'n toenemende produksiekuif begin na 'n terrein van 2,16 km2 in Springstraat in die nabygeleë Eddystone. , Pennsylvania, in 1906. Broad Street was vernou, maar tog was dit 'n groot kompleks, wat die grootste deel van 8 vierkante stadsblokke beslaan van Broad- tot 18th Street en Spring Garden Street tot by die Reading -spore net verby Noble Street. Eddystone aan die ander kant was versprei oor 600 hektaar. Die kapasiteit was meer as 3000 lokomotiewe per jaar. Die verhuising van Broadstraat is in die laat 1920's voltooi.

Vergulde ouderdom Redigeer

Die Amerikaanse spoorwegbedryf het tussen 1898 en 1907 aansienlik uitgebrei, met 'n binnelandse vraag na lokomotiewe wat in 1905 die hoogste punt bereik het. Ondanks hierdie oplewing het Baldwin baie uitdagings ondervind, waaronder die beperking van die ruimte in die Philadelphia -fasiliteit, inflasie, verhoogde arbeidskoste, arbeidspanning, die aansienlike toename in die grootte van die lokomotiewe wat vervaardig word en die stigting van die American Locomotive Company, 'n aggressiewe mededinger wat uiteindelik bloot as Alco bekend geword het. [18]

Van 1904 tot 1943 bemark Baldwin en Westinghouse elektriese lokomotiewe van Baldwin-Westinghouse en elektrisiteit van spoorweë, veral na die New Haven Railroad.

In 1906 het die Hepburn -wet groter regeringsowerhede oor spoorwegondernemings gemagtig en die Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) herleef, wat sy aktiwiteite verskerp het. Die ICC het die bevoegdheid gekry om maksimum spoorwegtariewe vas te stel en bestaande tariewe te vervang met 'net-redelike' maksimum tariewe, soos omskryf deur die ICC. [19]

Die beperking op spoorwegtariewe het die waarde van spoorwegeffekte verminder, en dit het beteken dat spoorweë opgehou het om nuwe toerusting, insluitend lokomotiewe, te bestel. Dit het moontlik die paniek van 1907 tot gevolg gehad, wat finansies en beleggings in nuwe aanlegte ontwrig het. [ aanhaling nodig ] Beide hierdie gebeure het 'n direkte negatiewe uitwerking op die spoorwegbedryf gehad, veral die lokomotiefbouers. [20]

Baldwin se lokomotiefproduksie het van 2 666 in 1906 tot 614 in 1908 gedaal. [21] Baldwin se besigheid is verder in die gedrang toe William P. Henszey, een van Baldwin se vennote, gesterf het. Sy dood het Baldwin aanspreeklik gehou vir $ 6 miljoen. [17] In reaksie hierop het Baldwin obligasies ter waarde van $ 10 miljoen opgeneem en vrygestel. [17] Samuel Vauclain wou hierdie fondse gebruik om Baldwin se vermoëns uit te brei, sodat dit gereed sou wees vir nog 'n oplewing. [17] Terwyl ander Baldwin -offisiere teen hierdie uitbreiding gekant was, het Vauclain se visie gewen dat Baldwin sy Eddystone -aanleg sou uitbrei tot sy voltooiing in 1928. [17] Teen 1928 het die onderneming alle lokomotiefproduksie na hierdie plek verskuif, hoewel die aanleg nooit sou exceed more than one-third of its production capacity. [22]

Eerste Wêreldoorlog Edit

Baldwin was an important contributor to the Allied war effort in World War I. Baldwin built 5,551 locomotives for the Allies including separate designs for Russian, French, British and United States trench railways. Baldwin built railway gun carriages for the United States Navy and manufactured 6,565,355 artillery shells for Russia, England and the United States. From 1915 to 1918, Remington Arms subcontracted the production of nearly 2 million Pattern 1914 Enfield and M1917 Enfield rifles to the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Baldwin expanded their Eddystone, Pennsylvania, shop opened in 1905 into the Eddystone Arsenal which manufactured most of these rifles and artillery shells before being converted to locomotive shops when the war ended. [23]

After the end of World War I Baldwin continued to supply export orders, as the European powers strove to replace large numbers of locomotives worn out by the war effort and European locomotive factories were still re-tooling from armaments production back to railroad production. In 1919 and 1920 Baldwin supplied 50 4-6-0 locomotives to the Palestine Military Railway that became the Palestine Railways H class. [24]

Weier wysig

After the boom years of World War I and its aftermath, Baldwin's business would decline as the Great Depression gripped the country and diesel locomotives became the growth market on American railways towards the end of the 1930s. During the 1920s the major locomotive manufacturers had strong incentives to maintain the dominance of the steam engine. [25] The Baldwin-Westinghouse consortium, which had produced electric locomotives since 1904, was in fact the first American locomotive builder to develop a road diesel locomotive, in 1925. [26] Its twin-engine design was not successful, and the unit was scrapped after a short testing and demonstration period. [27] Westinghouse and Baldwin collaborated again in 1929 to build switching and road locomotives (the latter through Baldwin's subsidiary Canadian Locomotive Company). The road locomotives, Canadian National class V1-a, [28] [29] No. 9000 and No. 9001, proved expensive, unreliable, frequently out of service, and were soon retired. [30] Westinghouse cancelled its efforts in the diesel locomotive field with the onset of the Great Depression, opting to supply electrical parts instead. [31] The early, unsuccessful efforts of Baldwin-Westinghouse in developing diesel-electric locomotion for mainline service led Baldwin in the 1930s to discount the possibility that diesel could replace steam. [32] In 1930 Samuel Vauclain, Chairman of the Board, stated in a speech that advances in steam technology would ensure the dominance of the steam engine until at least 1980. [33] Baldwin's Vice President and Director of Sales stated in December 1937 that "Some time in the future, when all this is reviewed, it will be found that our railroads are no more dieselized than they electrified". [33] Baldwin had deep roots in the steam locomotive industry and may have been influenced by heavy investment in its Eddystone plant, which had left them overextended financially and operating at a fraction of capacity as the market for steam locomotives declined in the 1930s. [32]

In contrast, ALCO, while remaining committed to steam production, pursued R&D paths centered on both steam mainline engines and diesel switch engines in the 1920s and '30s, which would position them to compete in the future market for diesel locomotives. [34]

In 1928 Baldwin began an attempt to diversify its product line to include small internal combustion-electric locomotives but the Great Depression thwarted these efforts, eventually leading Baldwin to declare bankruptcy in 1935. [17] At the invitation of the owners of the Geo D. Whitcomb Company, a small manufacturer of gasoline and diesel industrial locomotives in Rochelle, Illinois, Baldwin agreed to participate in a recapitalization program, purchasing about half of the issued stock. By March 1931 the small firm was in financial trouble and Baldwin filed a voluntary bankruptcy for Whitcomb with Baldwin gaining complete control and creating a new subsidiary, the Whitcomb Locomotive Company. This action would lead to financial losses, an ugly court battle between Baldwin and William Whitcomb, the former owner of the company, and bankruptcy for both parties. [35] [36]

Baldwin lost its dominant position in electric locomotives when the Pennsylvania Railroad selected General Electric's PRR GG1 instead of Baldwin's design in 1934.

When Baldwin emerged from bankruptcy in 1938 it underwent a drastic change in management. [32] The new management revived their development efforts with diesel power but the company was already too far behind. [32] In 1939 Baldwin offered its first standard line of diesel locomotives, all designed for yard service. By this time, GM-EMC was already ramping up production of diesel passenger locomotives and developing its first diesel road freight locomotive. [37]

As the 1930s drew to a close, Baldwin's coal-country customers such as Pennsylvania Railroad, Chesapeake and Ohio, and Norfolk and Western were more reluctant than other operators to embrace diesel technology, which could undermine the demand for one of their main hauling markets. All three continued to acquire passenger steam locomotives into the early postwar years, as dieselization was gaining momentum elsewhere in the rail industry.

In the late 1930s Baldwin and the Pennsylvania Railroad made an all-in bet on the future of steam in passenger rail service with Baldwin's duplex-drive S1 locomotive. It proved difficult to operate, costly to maintain, and unsuited for its intended service. Baldwin developed a revision of the same basic design with the T1, introduced in 1943. While the T1s could operate on more tracks than the S1, they still had many of the problems of the S1 and additional mechanical problems related to their unique valve design. The whole S1-T1 venture resulted in losses for PRR and investment in a dead-end development effort for Baldwin at a critical time for both companies. In the early 1940s Baldwin embarked upon its efforts to develop steam turbine power, producing the S2 direct-drive turbine locomotive in 1944. Baldwin's steam turbine program failed to produce a single successful design. Baldwin's steam-centered development path had left them flat-footed in the efforts necessary to compete in the postwar diesel market dominated by EMD and ALCO-GE.

Tweede Wêreldoorlog Wysig

The United States' entry into World War II impeded Baldwin's diesel development program when the War Production Board dictated that Alco and Baldwin produce only steamers and diesel-electric yard switching engines. The General Motors Electro-Motive Division was assigned the task of producing road freight diesels (namely, the FT series). EMD's distinct advantage over its competitors in that product line in the years that followed World War II, due to the head start in diesel R&D and production, is beyond doubt, however, assigning it solely to WPB directives is questionable. Longtime GM chairman Alfred P. Sloan presented a timeline in his memoir that belies this assumption, [38] saying that GM's diesel-engine R&D efforts of the 1920s and 1930s, and its application of model design standardization (yielding lower unit costs) and marketing lessons learned in the automotive industry, were the principal reason for EMD's competitive advantage in the late 1940s and afterward (clearly implying that the wartime production assignments were merely nails in a coffin that Baldwin and Lima had already built for themselves before the war). In his telling, the R&D needed to adapt earlier diesels (best suited to marine and stationary use) to locomotive use (more flexible output higher power-to-weight ratio more reliable given more vibration and less maintenance) was a capital-intensive project that almost no one among the railroad owners or locomotive builders was willing (latter) or able (former) to invest in during the 1920s and 1930s except for the GM Research Corporation led by Charles F. Kettering, and the GM subsidiaries Winton Engine Corporation and Electro-Motive Corporation. [38]

Baldwin made steam engines for domestic US railroads, the US Army, British Railways, and made around one thousand E or Ye type engines for the Soviet Union in the Lend Lease arrangement (of an order of 2000 or so engines with other builders contributing to the total). Baldwin obtained a short-term market boost from naval demand for diesel engines and the petroleum crisis of 1942–43, which boosted demand for their coal-fired steam locomotives while acquisition of EMD's diesel locomotives was in its most restricted period.

In 1943 Baldwin launched its belated road diesel program, producing a prototype "Centipede" locomotive which was later rebuilt to introduce their first major product in the postwar market.

During World War II Baldwin's contributions to the war effort included not only locomotives and switchers but also tanks. Baldwin was one of the manufacturers of several variants of the M3 tank (M3 Lee, M3A2, M3A3, M3A5) and later the M4 Sherman (M4, M4A2). A Baldwin subsidiary, the Whitcomb Locomotive Company, produced hundreds of 65-ton diesel electric locomotives for the Army and received the Army–Navy "E" award for production. [39] Baldwin ranked 40th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. [40]

End Edit

Between 1940 and 1948, domestic steam locomotive sales declined from 30 percent of the market to 2 percent. [41] By 1949, there was no demand for steam locomotives. [41] Baldwin's attempts to adapt to the changed market for road locomotives had been unsuccessful the reliability of their offerings was unsatisfactory, epitomized by notorious failures such as their "Centipede" diesel locomotives and their steam turbine-electric locomotives, which proved to be money pits unsuited for their intended service. In July 1948 Westinghouse Electric, which had teamed with Baldwin to build diesel and electric locomotives and wanted to keep their main customer in the rail industry afloat, purchased 500,000 shares, or 21 percent, of Baldwin stock, which made Westinghouse Baldwin's largest shareholder. Baldwin used the money to cover various debts. Westinghouse vice president Marvin W. Smith became Baldwin's president in May 1949. In a move to diversify into the construction equipment market, Baldwin merged with Lima-Hamilton on December 4, 1950, to become Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton. However, Lima-Hamilton's locomotive technology was unused after the merger and market share continued to dwindle. By January, 1952 Baldwin closed its factory in Rochelle, Illinois and consolidated Whitcomb production at Eddystone. In 1953 Westinghouse discontinued building electrical traction equipment, so Baldwin was forced to reconfigure their drive systems based on General Electric equipment. In 1954, during which time they were being virtually shut out of the diesel market, Baldwin delivered one steam turbine-electric locomotive to the Norfolk and Western Railway, which proved unsatisfactory in service. The last locomotives produced by Baldwin were three experimental RP-210 dual power passenger locomotives for the New York Central and New York, New Haven, and Hartford rail lines in 1956.

In 1956, after 125 years of continuous locomotive production, Baldwin closed most of its Eddystone plant and ceased producing locomotives. The company instead concentrated on production of heavy construction equipment. [37] More than 70,500 locomotives had been built when production ended. In 1965 Baldwin became a wholly owned subsidiary of Armour and Company. [42] Greyhound Corporation purchased Armour and Company in 1970, and in 1972 Greyhound closed Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton for good. [43]

Later steam locomotives Edit

Baldwin built many 4-4-0 "American" type locomotives (the locomotive that built America). Surviving examples of which include the 1872 Countess of Dufferin and 1875's Virginia and Truckee Railroad No.22 "Inyo", but it was perhaps best known for the 2-8-2 "Mikado" and 2-8-0 "Consolidation" types. It was also well known for the unique cab-forward 4-8-8-2 articulateds built for the Southern Pacific Company and massive 2-10-2 for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. Baldwin also produced their most powerful steam engines in history, the 2-8-8-4 "Yellowstone" for the Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway. The Yellowstone could put down over 140,000 lbf (622.8 kN) of Tractive force. They routinely hauled 180 car trains weighing over 18,000 short tons (16,071 long tons 16,329 t). The Yellowstones were so good that the DM&IR refused to part with them they hauled ore trains well into the diesel era, and the last one retired in 1963. Three have been preserved. One of Baldwin's last new and improved locomotive designs were the 4-8-4 "Northern" locomotives. Baldwin's last domestic steam locomotives were 2-6-6-2s built for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in 1949. Baldwin 60000, the company's 1926 demonstration steam locomotive, is on display at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. On a separate note, the restored and running 2-6-2 steam locomotive at Fort Edmonton Park was built by Baldwin in 1919.

Preserved Baldwin steam locomotives

There are many Baldwin built steam locomotives currently operating in the United States, Canada, and several other countries around the world. Out of all the Baldwin built steam locomotives that are operational or have operated in recent years, the most recognized locomotives are Reading 2101, Grand Canyon Railway 4960, Frisco 1522, Nickel Plate Road 587, Blue Mountain and Reading 425, Southern Pacific 2467, Southern Pacific 2472, Spokane, Portland and Seattle 700, the oldest surviving 2-8-2 Mikado type steam locomotive, Southern Railway 4501, the oldest surviving 4-8-4 Northern type steam locomotive, Santa Fe 3751, and the last domestic steam locomotive Baldwin built, Chesapeake and Ohio 1309.

In Australia, five of the twenty NSW 59 class Baldwin 2-8-2s which entered service in 1952-3 survive. [44] [ omsendbrief ] NSW had several classes of 19th century Baldwin locomotives including the L.304 (later Z21) class 2-6-0s [45] [ omsendbrief ] the O.446 (later Z23) class 4-6-0s [46] [ omsendbrief ] and the J.483 (later Z29) class 2-8-0s, [47] [ omsendbrief ] of which none survive.

Narrow-gauge and unconventional Edit

Baldwin Locomotive Works built steam engines for narrow-gauge railways as well. They also built many boilers for heating and powering buildings and industry. One of the more notable series of narrow-gauge locomotives built by Baldwin was the K-36 class Mikados of the Denver and Rio Grande Western RR. Built in 1925, the fleet of ten has seen only one scrapped (485 in 1955, as a result of falling into the turntable pit in Salida, Colorado). All of the nine remaining engines are operating today on the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, or the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad.

New Zealand Railways (NZR) was a major customer from 1879 when it imported six 2-8-0 based on the Denver and Rio Grande locomotives due to their similar rail gauge, these were given the road class of T. The next was a double emergency order of six 2-6-2 classed N and six 2-8-0 classed O after a British order for similar locomotives failed to meet ontime delivery and weight limitations specified in contract. Baldwins seized on the opportunity to impress the NZR with a prompt six-month delivery of all 12 locomotives. Thereafter NZR ordered Baldwin products to complement home built locomotives, including Tank versions 2-6-2 Wb and 2-6-4 Wd classes. Another four of the hard working N class were purchased in 1901. The popular 4-6-0 class of 22 Ub locomotives consisting of 10 1898 flat valve and 10 1901 piston valve (Baldwins supplying all but two) proved themselves well at the turn of the twentieth century with the last retiring as late as 1958. A requirement for a larger firebox version of the class ended up creating a whole new locomotive with the birth of the 4-6-2 wheel arrangement, the Pacific was born. They were classed as Q in NZR service and remained in use until 1957. Being a new type of locomotive, the Q class had their shortcomings but eventually performed well (Only one engine has been preserved, originally sold to the Newfoundland Railway in September 1920. Engine #593, affectionately known as the "Newfie Bullet", is being restored in Corner Brook, Newfoundland, Canada.) [48] In 1914 a later larger improved version, and last Baldwin product to be purchased by NZR was classed as Aa. They lasted until 1959. Like all American locomotives produced at the time, the Baldwins had 'short' lifespans built into them but the NZR were happy to re-boiler almost their whole fleet to give them a longer life of hard work. NZR were generally happy with their Baldwin fleet. A private Railway operating in New Zealand at the time exclusively purchased Baldwin products after facing the same difficulties with British builders the NZR had. The Wellington and Manawatu Railway (1881–1909) operated small fleets of 2-8-0(4), 2-6-2(6), 2-8-2(1), 4-6-0(2) and a large 2-8-4(1) tank locomotive. When the NZR took over the railway, its fleet was absorbed into sub-classes of those operating already in the main fleet. When NZR placed tenders for diesel locomotives in the 1950s, Baldwins applied but failed when EMD won the contract instead. Surprisingly only one NZR Baldwin product is operational, a class Wd 2-6-4 tank locomotive operating at the Ferrymead railway in Christchurch, the remains of a WMR 2-6-2 N, NZR 4-6-0 Ub, and two NZR 2-6-2 Wb tank locomotives are in the early stages of restoration.

A six-ton, 60-cm gauge 4-4-0 built for the Tacubaya Railroad in 1897 was the smallest ever built by Baldwin for commercial use. [49]

In the late 1890s, many British builders were recovering from an engineers' strike over working hours, leaving backlogs of orders yet to be fulfilled. This prompted British railways that were in immediate need for additional motive power to turn to Baldwin and other US builders. Examples of engines built in response include three batches of 2-6-0 tender engines for the Midland Railway, Great Central Railway, [50] and Great Northern Railway, respectively, as well as the Lyn, a 2-4-2T (tank locomotive) for the 1 ft 11.5 in (597 mm) gauge Lynton and Barnstaple Railway in England in 1898. The Cape Government Railways of South Africa also bought engines from Baldwin as a result of the strikes. Unfortunately, many of these engines were unpopular with the crews due to their designs being atypical, and many, including all of those built for the three standard gauge British railways and the Lynton and Barnstaple's Lyn, were scrapped when no longer needed. A replica of the latter locomotive has been constructed for the revived Lynton & Barnstaple Railway. [51]

Also during the late 1890s, two 2-6-2T "Prairie" tank engines were built for the Victorian Railways (V.R.) who gave them an "N.A" classification and road numbers of 1A and 2A. They were used as a trial on the new 2 ft 6 in ( 762 mm ) narrow-gauge railways. Fifteen more N.A class locomotives were built by the V.R., numbered 3A–17A. Unfortunately, only six have survived and both of the original Baldwin engines were among those scrapped.

To supply troops in France, 495 4-6-0PTs were built to the order of the British War Department in 1916/7. After the war surplus locomotives were sold, finding new uses in France, Britain and India. In Britain examples were used on the Ashover Light Railway, Glyn Valley Tramway, Snailbeach District Railways and the Welsh Highland Railway. The Welsh Highland Railway in Wales bought No 590, in 1923. It was apparently unpopular with crews although photographs show that it was used regularly until the railway was closed. It was scrapped in 1941 when the derelict railway's assets were requisitioned for the war effort. Some of the surviving examples in India have since been imported to the UK, one of which by the Welsh Highland Railway Ltd. who has restored it to represent the scrapped 590. Other Baldwin 4-6-0PT's imported from India include one owned by the Leighton Buzzard Railway-based Greensand Railway Trust that has been restored to working order, as well as two acquired by the Statfold Barn Railway in March 2013.

Baldwin also built six engines for the Manitou and Pike's Peak Railway, three of which were delivered in 1890, with the fourth being delivered in 1897. These engines featured steeply inclined boilers and used the Abt rack system to propel them up the average 16 percent grade. The last Baldwin engine was taken out of regular service in 1955. During the following years the engines were used as back-up engines and for snow removal. Three of the engines are currently on static display around Colorado. One (No. 1) is located at the Colorado Railroad Museum in Golden, Colorado. The other two on display are located in Manitou Springs, Colorado: one (No. 2) near city hall and the other (No. 5) at the Manitou and Pike's Peak Railway depot. The engine No. 4 is still in limited operation for photo opportunities and special events. However, it no longer completes the journey to the top of Pikes Peak due to the fact that many of the water tanks along the line have been removed. Engines No. 3 and No. 6 were scrapped and used for parts over the years.

Number 6 (builder plate number 12288), a 36" 2-6-0 was built by Baldwin in 1891 for the Surry Sussex & Southampton Railway in Virginia. The SS&S installed Southern valve gear, a graceful outside drive gear. The 6 was eventually sold to the Argent Lumber Company in South Carolina. In 1960, the 6 was purchased by southeastern Iowa's Midwest Central Railroad as part of a package deal including the 2 (below). It was the first locomotive to operate on a regular basis at the MCRR and was their main engine until 1971 when it was taken out of service for a major overhaul. Completed in 1988, this ground up rebuild included a new boiler and conversion to oil fire. A "medium" boiler repair was started in 2009, with the work completed in September 2010, in time for the 2010 Midwest Old Thresher's Reunion.

The Midwest Central Railroad also owns Number 2, a 36" 2-6-0, which was built for the New Berlin & Winfield Railroad in 1906. The NB&W operated an 8-mile (13 km) line in Pennsylvania for an agricultural community. The 2 hauled freight and passengers on this small operation until the mid-1910s. In 1917, the locomotive was sold to the Argent Lumber Company in South Carolina where it worked along with the 6 in swamp trackage, hauling logs to the mill in Hardeeville. Upon arrival at the MCRR in 1960, it received substantial repairs and was put into service by the early 1970s, replacing the 6 as the MCRR's main engine. In 1987, the 2 was taken out of service for a complete rebuild which is still in progress as of January 2011.

The Walt Disney World Railroad, which runs around the Magic Kingdom in Florida, has four operational Baldwin locomotives: a 1916 Class 8-C 4-4-0 No. 4 (The Roy O. Disney), twin locomotives No. 1 and No. 3, both 1925 Class 10-D 4-6-0 designs (The Walter E. Disney en die Roger E. Broggie, respectively) and a 1928 Class 8-D 2-6-0 No. 2 (The Lilly Belle). [52] [53] They originally worked on the Ferrocarriles Unidos de Yucatán, a 3 ft ( 914 mm ) railroad that operated in the state of Yucatán in Mexico. [52] In the late 1960s, they were all purchased by Disney imagineers Roger E. Broggie and Earl Vilmer for $8,000 each and restored to operating condition, while significantly altered from their original appearance to resemble steam locomotives from the 1880s. [52] [54] Three other operational Disney-owned Baldwin locomotives exist at Disneyland Park in California, where they operate on the Disneyland Railroad.

Electric locomotives Edit

From the early years of the 20th century Baldwin had a relationship with the Westinghouse Electric Company to build electric locomotives for the American market. The electric locomotive was increasingly popular electrification was expensive, but for high traffic levels or mountainous terrain it could pay for itself, and in addition some cities like New York, were banning the steam locomotive because of its pollution and the propensity for accidents in smoke-choked terminals. Baldwin built or subcontracted out the bodywork and running gear, and Westinghouse built the electrical gear. Both combined to have a similar arrangement with the Netherlands N.V. Heemaf and Werkspoor for the foreign markets. [55]

Baldwin built the famed EP-1 (1906), EF-1 (1912) and EP-2 (1923) box cab electric locomotives for the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. Baldwin also delivered the EP-3 box cab electric locomotives to the Milwaukee Road for use on their line between Harlowton, Montana, and Avery, Idaho.


11:59: A Cold War Mod

11:59 Development Team posted a topic in Mods, March 23, 2019

100 events, some of which are events that influence the AI's decisions (these events only popup for the AI, never the player) to ensure that it stays somewhat historical within the supported scenario: The Bear And The Eagle. Even more features such as custom province pictures for certain cities, the United Nations, and states and regions are also mentioned below.

Furthermore, the soundtrack has been completely redone, with 53 new songs. The interface has also been completely redone, so has the states (regions in the base game). Nothing has been spared. (Download by viewing our ModDB profile).

11:59 also features a realistic world map:


A Completely Redone Interface:


Detailed Demographic Maps:


Detailed Administrative Divisions, complete with

120 new provinces, and 1.309 new states:


New Terrain Pictures are also planned:

More features are evidently planned for the next release, 0.9b: The Sun Finally Set, with new decolonisation mechanics:


Kyk die video: Massasoit - The Right Place At The Right Time (Augustus 2022).