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Rue Jeanne d'Arc, Verdun, 1916

Rue Jeanne d'Arc, Verdun, 1916



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Rue Jeanne d'Arc, Verdun, 1916

Rue Jeanne d'Arc, Verdun, tydens die geveg in 1916, met netjies georganiseerde puinhope uit die Duitse bombardement.


Le Studio Victoria, Nancy (Frankryk) - Aanbiedings en resensies

Le Studio Victoria -woonstel is 0,8 km van die sentrum van Nancy af en bied verblyf met openbare parkeerplek in die omgewing. Hierdie kamer met 1 slaapkamer het ook 'n kombuisie.

Ligging

Die eiendom is geleë in die distrik Haussonville - Blandan - Mon Désert - Saurupt, 3 km van die Iron History Museum. Alliance Square is binne 15 minute se stap weg. Tabarnake, Arzu'm Kebab en Bar Royal is 5 minute se stap weg. Die eiendom is naby Parc de la Pepiniere geleë.

Dit is 36 km van die lughawe Metz-Nancy-Lorraine af.

Kamers

Die wooneenhede het televisie, 'n yskas en 'n sitarea. Sommige van hulle het 'n balkon. Die slaapkamer het 'n matras met 'n kussing en veerkussings vir 'n gemaklike verblyf. Badkamergeriewe sluit 'n haardroër, badjasse en badhanddoeke in.

Eet en drink

Le Studio Victoria -woonstel het 'n kombuis met 'n mikrogolfoond, 'n elektriese ketel en 'n spens.


Inhoud

Vroeë lewe Redigeer

Henriette-Rosine Bernard [1] is op 22 of 23 Oktober 1844 gebore te 5 rue de L'École-de-Médicine in die Latin Quarter van Parys. [Nota 2] [2] Sy was die buite-egtelike dogter van Judith Bernard (ook bekend as Julie en in Frankryk as Youle), 'n Nederlandse Joodse hofmeester met 'n welgestelde of hoër klas klante. [3] [4] [5] [6] Die naam van haar pa word nie opgeteken nie. Volgens sommige bronne was hy waarskynlik die seun van 'n welgestelde handelaar uit Le Havre. [7] Bernhardt het later geskryf dat haar pa se familie vir haar opvoeding betaal het, daarop aangedring het dat sy as 'n Katoliek gedoop word en 'n groot bedrag nagelaat is om te betaal toe sy volwasse was. [7] Haar ma het gereeld gereis en het min van haar dogter gesien. Sy het Bernhardt by 'n verpleegster in Bretagne geplaas, toe in 'n kothuis in die voorstad Neuilly-sur-Seine in Parys. [8]

Toe Bernhardt sewe was, het haar ma haar na 'n kosskool gestuur vir jong dames in die voorstad Auteuil in Parys, betaal met geld van haar pa se familie. Daar tree sy op in haar eerste teateropvoering in die stuk Clothilde, waar sy die rol van die Koningin van die Feë beklee en haar eerste van vele dramatiese sterftonele opgevoer het. [8] Terwyl sy op die kosskool was, het haar ma tot die hoogste geledere van Paryse hofmeesters gestyg, saam met politici, bankiers, generaals en skrywers. Haar beskermhere en vriende was Charles de Morny, hertog van Morny, die halfbroer van keiser Napoleon III en president van die Franse wetgewer. [9] Op die ouderdom van 10, met die borgskap van Morny, is Bernhardt toegelaat tot Grandchamp, 'n eksklusiewe Augustinus -kloosterskool naby Versailles. [10] By die klooster speel sy die rol van die aartsengel Raphael in die verhaal van Tobias en die engel. [11] Sy het haar voorneme verklaar om 'n non te word, maar het nie altyd die kloosterreëls gevolg wat sy beskuldig is van heiligmaking toe sy 'n Christelike begrafnis met 'n optog en seremonie vir haar troeteldierhagedis gereël het nie. [12] Sy ontvang haar eerste nagmaal as 'n Rooms -Katoliek in 1856, en daarna was sy vurig godsdienstig. Sy het egter nooit haar Joodse erfenis vergeet nie. Toe sy jare later deur 'n verslaggewer gevra word of sy 'n Christen is, antwoord sy: "Nee, ek is 'n Rooms -Katoliek en lid van die groot Joodse ras. Ek wag totdat Christene beter word." [13] Dit strydig met haar antwoord, "Nee, nooit. Ek is 'n ateïs" op 'n vorige vraag van die komponis en landgenoot Charles Gounod as sy ooit sou bid. [14] Hoe dan ook, sy aanvaar die laaste rituele kort voor haar dood. [15]

In 1859 verneem Bernhardt dat haar pa oorsee oorlede is. [16] Haar ma het 'n familieraad ontbied, waaronder Morny, om te besluit wat sy met haar moet doen. Morny het voorgestel dat Bernhardt 'n aktrise moet word, 'n idee wat Bernhardt verskrik het, aangesien sy nog nooit in 'n teater was nie. [17] Morny het gereël dat sy haar eerste teateropvoering by die Comédie Française bywoon tydens 'n partytjie wat haar ma, Morny, en sy vriend Alexandre Dumas insluit père. Die toneelstuk wat hulle bygewoon het, was Britannicus, deur Jean Racine, gevolg deur die klassieke komedie Amphitryon deur Plautus. Bernhardt was so ontroer deur die emosie van die toneelstuk, dat sy hard begin snik en die res van die gehoor ontstel. [17] Morny en ander in hul geselskap was kwaad vir haar en het gegaan, maar Dumas het haar getroos en later vir Morny gesê dat hy glo dat sy bestem was vir die verhoog. Na die optrede noem Dumas haar 'my sterretjie'. [18]

Morny gebruik sy invloed saam met die komponis Daniel Auber, die hoof van die Konservatorium in Parys, om te sorg dat Bernhardt 'n oudisie doen. Sy het begin voorberei, soos sy dit in haar memoires beskryf het, "met die lewendige oordrywing waarmee ek enige nuwe onderneming omhels." [19] Dumas het haar afgerig. Die jurie bestaan ​​uit Auber en vyf vooraanstaande akteurs en aktrises van die Comédie Française. Sy was veronderstel om verse van Racine voor te dra, maar niemand het vir haar gesê dat sy iemand nodig het om vir haar leidrade te gee terwyl sy voordra nie. Bernhardt het aan die jurie gesê dat sy eerder die fabel van die twee duiwe deur La Fontaine sou voordra. Die jurielede was skepties, maar die ywer en patos van haar voordrag het hulle gewen, en sy is uitgenooi om 'n student te word. [20]

Debuut en vertrek uit die Comédie-Française (1862–1864) Redigeer

Debuut van Bernhardt in Les Femmes Savantes by die Comédie Française, 1862

Sarah Bernhardt in 1864, 20 jaar oud, deur fotograaf Félix Nadar

Bernhardt gefotografeer deur Nadar, 1865

Portret van Sarah Bernhardt deur Nadar, 1887

Bernhardt studeer toneelspel aan die Konservatorium van Januarie 1860 tot 1862 onder twee prominente akteurs van die Comédie Française, Joseph-Isidore Samson en Jean-Baptiste Provost. Sy het in haar memoires geskryf dat Provost haar diksie en groot gebare geleer het, terwyl Simson haar die krag van eenvoud geleer het. [21] Vir die verhoog verander sy haar naam van "Bernard" na "Bernhardt". Terwyl sy studeer, ontvang sy ook haar eerste huweliksvoorstel, van 'n welgestelde sakeman wat haar 500 000 frank aangebied het. Hy het gehuil toe sy geweier het. Bernhardt het geskryf dat sy 'verward, jammer en verheug' was, want hy was lief vir my soos mense hou van toneelstukke in die teater. [22]

Voor die eerste ondersoek vir haar tragedieklas, het sy probeer om haar oorvloed kroeserige hare reg te maak, wat dit nog meer onbeheerbaar gemaak het, en sy het met 'n erge verkoue afgekom, wat haar stem so neusig gemaak het dat sy dit amper nie herken het nie. Verder was die dele wat vir haar optrede toegewys is, klassiek en vereis noukeurig gestileerde emosies, terwyl sy romantiek verkies en haar emosies volledig en natuurlik uitdruk. Die onderwysers was haar 14de in tragedie en die tweede plek in komedie. [23] Weereens het Morny tot haar redding gekom. Hy het 'n goeie woord vir haar ingedien by die nasionale minister van kunste, Camille Doucet. Doucet het haar aanbeveel by Edouard Thierry, die hoofadministrateur van die Théâtre Français, [23] wat Bernhardt 'n plek aangebied het as pensioenlys by die teater, teen 'n minimum salaris. [24]

Bernhardt maak haar debuut op 31 Augustus 1862 by die maatskappy in die titelrol van Racine's Iphigénie. [25] [nota 3] Haar première was nie 'n sukses nie. Sy ervaar verhoogskrik en jaag oor haar rye. Sommige gehoorlede spot met haar dun figuur. Toe die optrede eindig, wag Provost in die vlerke, en sy vra om vergifnis. Hy het vir haar gesê: 'Ek kan jou vergewe, en jy sal jouself uiteindelik vergewe, maar Racine in sy graf sal dit nooit doen nie.' [26] Francisque Sarcey, die invloedryke teaterkritikus van L'Opinion Nationale en Le Temps, het geskryf: "sy dra haarself goed en spreek met volmaakte presisie uit. Dit is alles wat op die oomblik oor haar gesê kan word." [26]

Bernhardt het nie lank by die Comédie-Française gebly nie. Sy speel Henrietta in Molière's Les Femmes Savantes en Hippolyte in L'Étourdi, en die titelrol in Scribe's Valérie, maar het nie die kritici of die ander lede van die onderneming beïndruk wat haar vinnige opkoms ontstel het nie. Die weke het verloop, maar sy het geen verdere rolle gekry nie. [27] Haar warm humeur het haar ook in die moeilikheid laat beland toe 'n teaterdeurwagter haar as "Klein Bernhardt" aanspreek, breek sy haar sambreel oor sy kop. Sy het groot verskoning gevra, en toe die deurwagter 20 jaar later aftree, koop sy vir hom 'n huisie in Normandië. [28] By 'n seremonie ter ere van die verjaardag van Molière op 15 Januarie 1863 nooi Bernhardt haar jonger suster, Regina, om haar te vergesel. Regina staan ​​per ongeluk op die trein van die toga van 'n toonaangewende aktrise, Zaire-Nathalie Martel (1816-1885), bekend as Madame Nathalie. [29] Mevrou Nathalie stoot Regina van die toga af, sodat sy 'n klipkolom slaan en oor haar voorkop slaan. Regina en mevrou Nathalie begin op mekaar skree, en Bernhardt stap vorentoe en klap vir mevrou Nathalie op die wang. Die ouer aktrise val op 'n ander akteur. Thierry vra dat Bernhardt vir mevrou Nathalie om verskoning vra. Bernhardt het geweier om dit te doen totdat mevrou Nathalie Regina om verskoning gevra het. Bernhardt was reeds vir 'n nuwe rol in die teater geskeduleer en het begin oefen. Madame Nathalie het geëis dat Bernhardt uit die rol ontslaan word, tensy sy om verskoning vra. Aangesien nie een daarvan sou slaag nie, en mevrou Nathalie 'n senior lid van die onderneming was, moes Thierry Bernhardt vra om weg te gaan. [30]

Die Gymnase en Brussel (1864-1866) Redigeer

Haar gesin kon haar vertrek uit die teater nie verstaan ​​nie. Dit was vir hulle ondenkbaar dat iemand op 18 -jarige ouderdom van die mees gesogte teater in Parys sou wegstap. [31] In plaas daarvan het sy na 'n gewilde teater, die Gymnase, gegaan waar sy 'n onderstudie aan twee van die voorste aktrises. Sy het byna onmiddellik weer 'n skandaal op die verhoog veroorsaak toe sy genooi is om poësie op te neem tydens 'n onthaal in die Tuileries -paleis, aangebied deur Napoleon III en die keiserin Eugenie, saam met ander akteurs van die Gymnase. Sy het gekies om twee romantiese gedigte van Victor Hugo voor te dra, onbewus daarvan dat Hugo 'n bitter kritikus van die keiser was. Na die eerste gedig staan ​​die keiser en keiserin op en stap uit, gevolg deur die hof en die ander gaste. [32] Haar volgende rol by die Gymnase, as 'n dwase Russiese prinses, was heeltemal ongeskik vir haar, haar ma het haar vertel dat haar optrede 'belaglik' was. [31] Sy besluit skielik om die teater te verlaat om te reis, en net soos haar ma, om geliefdes aan te pak. Sy is kort na Spanje, daarna, op voorstel van Alexandre Dumas, na België. [33]

Sy het inleidingbriewe van Dumas na Brussel gebring en is toegelaat tot die hoogste vlakke van die samelewing. Volgens 'n paar latere verslae het sy 'n gemaskerde bal in Brussel bygewoon, waar sy die Belgiese aristokraat Henri, oorerflike prins de Ligne ontmoet en 'n verhouding met hom gehad het. [34] Ander berigte sê dat hulle mekaar ontmoet het in Parys, waar die prins gereeld na die teater gekom het. [35] Die verhouding is kortgeknip toe sy verneem dat haar ma 'n hartaanval gekry het. Sy keer terug na Parys, waar sy agterkom dat haar ma beter was, maar dat sy self swanger was weens haar verhouding met die prins. Sy het die prins nie in kennis gestel nie. Haar ma wou nie hê dat die vaderlose kind onder haar dak gebore word nie, en daarom verhuis sy na 'n klein woonstel in die rue Duphot, en op 22 Desember 1864 het die 20-jarige aktrise geboorte geskenk aan haar enigste kind, Maurice Bernhardt. [36]

Sommige berigte sê dat prins Henri haar nie vergeet het nie. Volgens hierdie weergawes het hy haar adres by die teater geleer, in Parys aangekom en saam met Bernhardt in die woonstel ingetrek. Na 'n maand keer hy terug na Brussel en vertel sy familie dat hy met die aktrise wil trou. Die familie van die prins stuur sy oom, generaal de Ligne, om die romanse te verbreek en dreig om hom te onterf as hy met Bernhardt trou. [37] Volgens ander rekeninge ontken die prins enige verantwoordelikheid vir die kind. [35] Sy noem die aangeleentheid later 'haar blywende wond', maar sy bespreek nooit die ouerskap van Maurice met iemand nie. Op die vraag wie sy pa is, het sy soms geantwoord: "Ek kon nooit besluit of sy pa Gambetta, Victor Hugo of generaal Boulanger was nie." [38] Baie jare later, in Januarie 1885, toe Bernhardt beroemd was, het die prins na Parys gekom en aangebied om Maurice formeel as sy seun te erken, maar Maurice het beleefd geweier en verduidelik dat hy heeltemal tevrede was om die seun van Sarah Bernhardt te wees. [39]

Die Odéon (1866–1872) Redigeer

Om haarself te onderhou na die geboorte van Maurice, speel Bernhardt klein rolle en onderstudies in die Port-Saint-Martin, 'n gewilde melodramateater. Vroeg in 1866 het sy 'n lesing gekry saam met Felix Duquesnel, direkteur van die Théâtre de L'Odéon (Odéon) op die linkeroewer. Duquesnel beskryf die lesing jare later en sê: "Ek het 'n wonderlike gawe gehad, intelligent tot genieus, met 'n enorme energie onder die voorkoms broos en delikaat, en 'n woeste wil." Die mede-direkteur van die teater vir finansies, Charles de Chilly, wou haar as onbetroubaar en te maer verwerp, maar Duquesnel was betower en hy het haar vir 'n beskeie salaris van 150 frank per maand vir die teater gehuur, wat hy uit sy eie sak. [40] Die Odéon was slegs die prestige tweede van die Comédie Française, en het in teenstelling met die baie tradisionele teater gespesialiseer in meer moderne produksies. Die Odéon was gewild onder die studente van die linkeroewer. Haar eerste optredes met die teater was nie suksesvol nie. Sy is in hoogs gestileerde en ligsinnige komedies uit die 18de eeu gespeel, terwyl haar sterk punt op die verhoog haar volkome opregtheid was. [41] Haar dun figuur het haar ook belaglik laat lyk in die sierlike kostuums. Dumas, haar sterkste ondersteuner, het ná een optrede gesê: "sy het die kop van 'n maagd en die liggaam van 'n besemstok." [42] Maar met verskillende toneelstukke en meer ervaring verbeter haar optredes gou, maar sy word geprys vir haar uitvoering van Cordelia in Koning Lear. [ aanhaling nodig ] In Junie 1867 vertolk sy twee rolle Athalie deur Jean Racine, die rol van 'n jong vrou en 'n jong seun, Zacharie, die eerste van vele manlike rolle wat sy in haar loopbaan gespeel het. Die invloedryke kritikus Sarcey het geskryf: "sy het haar gehoor soos 'n klein Orpheus bekoor." [42]

Haar deurbraakprestasie was in die herlewing van 1868 van Kean deur Alexandre Dumas, waarin sy die vroulike hoofrol van Anna Danby gespeel het. Die toneelstuk is in die begin onderbreek deur versteurings in die gehoor deur jong toeskouers wat uitgeroep het: "Down with Dumas! Give us Hugo!". Bernhardt spreek die gehoor direk aan: "Vriende, julle wil die regverdigheid verdedig. Doen julle dit deur Monsieur Dumas verantwoordelik te maak vir die verbanning van Monsieur Hugo?". [43] Hiermee het die gehoor gelag en toegejuig en stil geword. By die laaste gordyn het sy 'n enorme toejuiging ontvang, en Dumas het haastig agter die verhoog gegaan om haar geluk te wens. Toe sy die teater verlaat, het 'n skare by die verhoogdeur vergader en blomme na haar gegooi. Haar salaris is onmiddellik verhoog tot 250 frank per maand. [44]

Haar volgende sukses was haar optrede in die van François Coppée Le Passant, wat op 14 Januarie 1868 in die Odéon in première was, [45] wat die rol speel van die seuntroubadoer, Zanetto, in 'n romantiese renaissanceverhaal. [46] Kritikus Theophile Gautier beskryf die "delikate en teer sjarme" van haar optrede. Dit het 150 optredes gespeel, plus 'n kommandoprestasie in die Tuileries -paleis vir Napoleon III en sy hof. Daarna stuur die keiser vir haar 'n borsspeld met sy voorletters in diamante. [47]

In haar memoires skryf sy oor haar tyd by die Odéon: "Dit was die teater waarvoor ek die liefste was en wat ek net met spyt vertrek het. Ons was almal lief vir mekaar. Almal was gay. Die teater was 'n voortsetting van Alle jongmense het daarheen gekom. Ek onthou my paar maande by die Comédie Française. Die wêreldjie was styf, skinderig, jaloers. Ek onthou my paar maande by die Gymnase. Daar het hulle net oor rokke en hoede gepraat en gesels oor 'n honderd dinge wat niks met kuns te doen gehad het nie. By die Odéon was ek gelukkig. Ons het net daaraan gedink om toneelstukke op te sit. Ons het heeltyd soggens, middae geoefen. Ek was mal daaroor. " Bernhardt het saam met haar jarelange vriendin en assistent Madame Guerard en haar seun in 'n klein huisie in die voorstad Auteuil gewoon en self in 'n klein wa na die teater gery. Sy ontwikkel 'n hegte vriendskap met die skrywer George Sand en tree op in twee toneelstukke wat sy geskryf het. [48] ​​Sy ontvang bekendes in haar kleedkamer, waaronder Gustave Flaubert en Leon Gambetta. In 1869, toe sy welvarender geword het, verhuis sy na 'n groter woonstel met sewe kamers in Auberge 16, in die middel van Parys. Haar ma het vir die eerste keer in jare by haar begin kuier, en haar ouma, 'n streng Ortodokse Jood, het in die woonstel ingetrek om vir Maurice te sorg. Bernhardt het 'n diensmeisie en 'n kok by haar huis gevoeg, sowel as die begin van 'n versameling diere, sy het altyd een of twee honde by haar gehad, en twee skilpaaie het vrylik deur die woonstel beweeg. [49]

In 1868 het 'n brand haar woonstel, asook al haar besittings, heeltemal vernietig. Sy het versuim om versekering aan te skaf. Die borsspeld wat die keiser haar en haar pêrels aangebied het, het gesmelt, net soos die tiara wat deur een van haar geliefdes, Khalid Bey, aangebied is. Sy het die diamante in die as gevind, en die bestuurders van die Odeon het 'n voordele -optrede gereël. Die bekendste sopraan van die tyd, Adelina Patti, het gratis opgetree. Boonop het die ouma van haar pa 120 000 frank geskenk. Bernhardt kon 'n nog groter woning koop, met twee salonne en 'n groot eetkamer, op 4 rue de Rome. [50]

Oorlogsdiens by die Odéon (1870–1871) Redigeer

Die uitbreek van die Frans-Pruisiese Oorlog het haar teaterloopbaan skielik onderbreek. Die nuus van die nederlaag van die Franse leër, die oorgawe van Napoleon III by Sedan en die afkondiging van die Derde Franse Republiek op 4 September 1870 is gevolg deur 'n beleg van die stad deur die Pruisiese leër. Parys is afgesny van nuus en voedselvoorsiening, en die teaters is gesluit. Bernhardt het die leiding geneem oor die omskakeling van die Odéon in 'n hospitaal vir soldate wat gewond is tydens die gevegte buite die stad. [51] Sy het die plasing van 32 beddens in die voorportaal en die voorportale georganiseer, haar persoonlike sjef ingebring om sop vir die pasiënte voor te berei en haar ryk vriende en bewonderaars oorreed om voorrade vir die hospitaal te skenk. Behalwe die organisering van die hospitaal, werk sy as verpleegster en help die hoofchirurg met amputasies en operasies. [52] Toe die steenkoolvoorraad van die stad opraak, gebruik Bernhardt ou natuurskoon, banke en verhoogstutte vir brandstof om die teater te verhit. [53] Begin Januarie 1871, na 16 weke van die beleg, het die Duitsers begin om die stad met langafstand kanonne te bombardeer. Die pasiënte moes na die kelder geskuif word, en kort voor lank moes die hospitaal sluit. Bernhardt het gesorg dat ernstige gevalle na 'n ander militêre hospitaal oorgeplaas word, en sy het 'n woonstel in die Provencestraat gehuur om die oorblywende 20 pasiënte te huisves. Teen die einde van die beleg het Bernhardt se hospitaal meer as 150 gewonde soldate versorg, waaronder 'n jong voorgraadse student van die École Polytechnique, Ferdinand Foch, wat later in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog aan die bevel was van die Geallieerde leërs. [54]

Die Franse regering onderteken 'n wapenstilstand op 19 Januarie 1871, en Bernhardt verneem dat haar seun en gesin na Hamburg verhuis is. Sy het na die nuwe uitvoerende hoof van die Franse Republiek, Adolphe Thiers, gegaan en 'n pas gekry om na Duitsland te gaan. Toe sy 'n paar weke later na Parys terugkeer, was die stad onder die bewind van die Paryse gemeente. Sy verhuis weer en neem haar gesin na Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Sy keer later terug na haar woonstel in die rue de Rome in Mei, nadat die gemeente deur die Franse leër verslaan is.


Rue Jeanne d'Arc, Verdun, 1916 - Geskiedenis

US Army Communciations Zone, Europa
Bladsy 6: 819ste Hospitaalsentrum

Op soek na meer inligting van militêre/burgerlike personeel wat aan die Amerikaanse weermag in Duitsland van 1945 tot 1989. As u enige verhale of gedagtes oor die onderwerp het, kontak my gerus.

deur kolonel Herbert D. Edger, MSC (**)

Hierdie aanbieding sal in twee dele bestaan. Die eerste deel, wat die vredestydmissie van die 819ste Hospitaalsentrum , is nie geklassifiseer nie. Die tweede gedeelte, wat handel oor die noodmissie, word as geheim beskou. (Redakteur se nota: Die geklassifiseerde gedeelte word verwyder.)


(Fig. 2) Organisasiekaart van die personeel van die 819ste hospitaalsentrum (1964)

Die guns word teruggegee as gevolg van die feit dat die beampte van voorkomende medisyne, veearts en sanitêre ingenieur by die mediese afdeling, USACOMZEUR, in die hoedanigheid van die personeel van die 819ste hospitaalsentrum dien. Die res van die personeel van die sentrum verrig die voorgeskrewe funksies vir hul onderskeie belangstellingsgebiede.


(Fig. 3) Geografiese grense van gebiedsopdragte en depotkomplekse, 1964
(Oorspronklike kaart gewysig deur Walter Elkins)

In ooreenstemming met die verskaffing van mediese dienste in die hele USAREUR, is die USACOMZEUR -gebied verdeel in mediese diensgebiede (MSA's). Die Chinon MSA, ons grootste oppervlakte en die kleinste bevolking wat bedien word, ondersteun oor die algemeen die General Depot -kompleks van Ingrandes en Braconne. Die MSA's van Orleans en Seine voldoen oor die algemeen aan hul onderskeie gebiedsopdragte, met die uitsondering dat Fountainebleau, terwyl dit in die Seine Area Command geleë is, ingesluit is in die Orleans Medical Service Area. Die Verdun MSA lewer mediese dienste vir die Verdun- en Nancy General Depot -komplekse en ons Bremerhaven MSA bedien die USA Terminal Command, Europa.


(Fig. 4) Bedryfshospitale onder COMZEUR, 1964
(Oorspronklike kaart gewysig deur Walter Elkins)

Ons apteke beskik oor ten minste een voltydse geneesheer en nodige hulpverleners, en word beskou as die aanmeldingsfasiliteite vir die nodige polikliniese verslae. 'N Hulppunt dui slegs die deeltydse fasiliteite aan wat die dienste van 'n dokter bied, gewoonlik vir die gereelde siekoproep. Die verspreiding van hierdie fasiliteite bring die wye verspreiding van ons ondersteunde bevolking tuis. In Frankryk bied mediese ondersteuning 'n konstante stryd met die & quotTime en Trauma Gap, & quot; as gevolg van lang afstande en twyfelagtige padnette van apteke na hospitale.

Oor die algemeen het ons 'n tandheelkundige kliniek waar ons 'n apteek het. Waar ons 'n hulppunt het, gebruik ons ​​'n tandheelkundige korpsbeampte wat omring word deur behandeling.

In die Chinon MSA word drie van ons apteke beman deur dokters van die Arbeidsdiens, en een deeltydse dokter van Chinon dek Saumur. Drie apteke het slegs een dokter en daar is slegs een administratiewe beampte van die Mediese Dienskorps in die omgewing. In die Orleans MSA word dieselfde prentjie van sober personeel voortgesit, terwyl ons in die Seine MSA 'n uitsondering op my vorige verklaring het. Camp Des Loges bedryf die polikliniese diens van die hospitale, aangesien geen polikliniese afdeling in die hospitaal bedryf word nie op sigself. Aangesien die betrokke personeel dus as streng pasiëntgerig geïdentifiseer kan word, is dit meer as in die ander MSA's.

In die Verdun -gebied word die soberheid effens verlig, maar veranderinge in die oorspronklike plan vir die vermindering van die LOC laat ons glo dat ons 'n toename in die bevolking in hierdie gebied sal ondervind, sodat die voordeel verreken sal word.

Samevattend bied ons die werklike toegewysde krag, deur MSA, aan vir die 819ste hospitaalsentrum (Figuur 5). Ons is baie trots op die prestasies van die 2223 toegewyde individue wat uit die 819ste mediese span bestaan. Die probleme wat inherent is aan die verskaffing van voldoende mediese sorg aan 'n groot aantal individue wat oor 'n groot gebied versprei is, is welbekend. Ons voel ons doen dit meer as voldoende.

deur kolonel John E. Jordan, DC (***)

Die 819ste hospitaalsentrum werk met die hoofkwartier in die Harbord Barracks, ses kilometer suid van Orleans, Frankryk. Die sentrum, wat in Julie 1962 geaktiveer is, is volgens konvensionele lyne georganiseer. Die tandheelkundige chirurg is deel van die afdeling vir professionele dienste onder leiding van die adjunk -bevelvoerder van die sentrum. Daarbenewens tree die tandheelkundige chirurg op as 'n gelyktydige plig as 'n tandarts vir USACOMZEUR.

Die logistieke en administratiewe ondersteuning van eenhede wat aan USACOMZEUR toegewys is, word bewerkstellig deur geografiese dekkingsgebiede wat aan gebiedsopdragte of depotkomplekse toegewys is.

Ondersteuning vir Wes -Frankryk word verdeel tussen die Ingrandes General Depot -kompleks in die noorde en die Braconne General Depot -kompleks in die suide. Vir Sentraal -Frankryk word beheer oor die suidelike sektor toegewys aan die US Army Post, Orleans, en die noordelike sektor aan die US Army Post, Parys. Die oostelike deel van USACOMZEUR in Frankryk word bestuur deur die Verdun- en Nancy General Depot -komplekse (sien Figuur 3 in die artikel hierbo op die 819ste Hosp Cen). Ver in die noorde in Duitsland lê die hawe van Bremerhaven waarin die Amerikaanse weermagterminale, Europa, 'n integrale deel van USACOMZEUR is.

In ooreenstemming met die verskaffing van mediese en tandheelkundige dienste in die hele USAREUR, is die USACOMZEUR -gebied verdeel in mediese diensgebiede. Daar is vyf mediese diensgebiede (Chinon, Seine, Orleans, Verdun en Bremerhaven), met elkeen 'n gebieds tandheelkundige chirurg. Die algemene toesig van die tandheelkundige diens is die verantwoordelikheid van die tandheelkundige chirurg. 819ste hospitaalsentrum en USACOMZEUR.

Chinon MSA
Die Chinon Medical Service Area is die grootste in gebied en die kleinste in die bevolking wat bedien word, en ondersteun die General Depot -komplekse van Ingrandes en Braconne. Die eenheid wat tandheelkundige ondersteuning in hierdie gebied bied, is die 465ste Mediese Afdeling (Tandheelkundige Diens), met sy hoofkwartier in Poitiers. Hierdie eenheid het oorspronklik klinieke bedryf by Captieux, Braconne, Bussac, Fontenet, Rochefort, Croix Chapeau, Poitiers, Ingrandes, Saumur, Chinon en St. Nazaire. Met die herskikking van die Line of Communications (LOC), is sy gebied nou verminder tot klinieke met permanente personeel by Captieux, Ingrandes, Braconne, Poitiers en Chinon. Die klinieke in Croix Chapeau en St. Nazaire word op 'n gereelde basis bedryf deur 'n dokter en sy assistent wat een week per maand van een van die ander klinieke na hierdie stasies reis. Ortodontiediens word op dieselfde tipe rondreis verskaf deur die Ortodontis van Orleans wat een week per maand Poitiers besoek. Ander gevalle wat konsultasie met spesialiste vereis, word na die US Army Hospital in Orleans verwys. Om tandheelkundige sorg in hierdie gebied, wat ongeveer 100 myl breed en 300 myl lank is, te verleen, is die 465ste Mediese Afdeling, 'n KJ -eenheid, gemagtig aan tien offisiere en 15 aangewese mans. Een van die klinieke, wat in Captleux is, word beman deur 'n Poolse arbeidsdiensbeampte en sy Poolse arbeidsdiensassistent.

Orleans MSA
Die Orleans Medical Service Area bedryf ses klinieke in die Orleans- en Fontainbleau -omgewing. Klinieke by Harbord Barracks, Foret d'Orleans en die Amerikaanse weermaghospitaal, Orleans, word beman deur personeel wat by die vergrotingseenheid van die 34ste algemene hospitaal aangewys is. Klinieke by Saran Air Field en Coligny Caserne word beman deur KI -spanne, en die kliniek by Fontainebleau word beman deur die 6de algemene apteekvergroting. Hierdie tandheelkundige diens, wat die hoofkwartier USACOMZEUR en die hoofkwartier van die US Army Element Allied Forces, Sentraal -Europa ondersteun, het 19 beamptes en 28 aangewese personeel.

Tandheelkundige spesialiste wat in hierdie personeel voorsien word, is gekwalifiseerde personeel in mondchirurgie, periodontie en proststodontie. Die afdeling Vaste prostese (kroon en brug) word uitgebrei en daar word gehoop dat hierdie diens deur 'n toegewese OJT -beampte beman kan word.

Seine MSA
Die Mediese Diensgebied van die Seine bestaan ​​uit twee klinieke: een in Camp des Loges en die ander in die metropolitaanse Parys in die Marbeufstraat. Die tandheelkundige personeel is gemagtig binne die TD -uitbreiding van die 196ste stasiehospitaal. Hierdie kliniek ondersteun Amerikaanse personeel van SHAPE, EUCOM en die US Army Post, Parys. Hierdie klinieke is gemagtig 12 beamptes en 16 aangewese mans.

Binne hierdie magtiging word spesialiste in prostese, periodontia en vaste prostese (kroon en brug) verteenwoordig. Gevalle wat konsultasie in ander spesialiteite vereis, word na die US Army Hospital in Orleans verwys.

Verdun MSA
Die Verdun Mediese Diensgebied word ondersteun deur die 767ste Mediese Afdeling (Tandheelkundige Diens), 'n KJ -eenheid wat 12 beamptes en 18 aangewese personeel gemagtig het. Hierdie eenheid bedryf klinieke in Verdun Activity, Nancy Depot, Toul Depot, Jeanne d'Arc Caserne, Toul, Trois Fontaines Depot Activity, Vitry-le-Francois Depot en Brienne-le-Chateau Activity. Die kliniek by Metz Depot is tydens die herskikking van die LOC in 1964 gesluit.

'N Protodontis word by die Verdun -kliniek aangewys, en ander gespesialiseerde ondersteuning word deur die US Army Hospital, Landstuhl, verleen.

Bremerhaven MSA
Die enigste USACOMZEUR tandheelkundige diens buite Frankryk ondersteun die Bremerhaven Mediese Diensgebied. Hierdie diens bedryf 'n kliniek in die US Army Hospital, Bremerhaven. Dit is gemagtig drie beamptes en drie aangewese mans.

Met die uitsondering van ortodontie, word spesialiteitsondersteuning vir hierdie gebied verkry deur te verwys na die US Army Hospital, Frankfurt. Die ortodontis wat in Frankfurt gestasioneer is, besoek die tandheelkundige kliniek in Bremerhaven een keer per maand.

Die tandheelkundige chirurg, 819ste hospitaalsentrum, neem aktief deel aan die hersiening en aanbeveling van toerusting en verbeterings in voorraad. Planne vir uitbreiding en modernisering van klinieke word ook in hierdie kantoor hersien.

Program vir voorkomende tandheelkunde
Die program vir voorkomende tandheelkunde is 'n integrale deel van alle klinieke. Elke gebieds tandheelkundige chirurg hou toesig oor hierdie program by elke kliniek en die tandheelkundige chirurg van die 819ste hospitaal sentrum bied oorhoofse toesig oor die program.

Die onbeperkte belangstelling van alle lede van die kommando in die florerende en dinamiese program van voorkomende tandheelkunde vergoed die professionele personeel baie vir die vele ure se onderrig en behandeling wat hulle bygedra het.

In samewerking met hierdie kliniese program van voorkomende tandheelkunde, word pasiëntopvoeding na die troepe in die Troop Information & amp Education -programme en aan skoolkinders deur middel van roetine en tydige lesings in die skole oorgedra.

Die professionele onderwysprogram word beskou as 'n geïntegreerde deel van elke kliniek en word gereeld geprogrammeer. In die klein klinieke help die gebruik van bande, films en tydskrifte met die program. Meer uitgebreide programme word gehou by groter installeerders met besoekende konsultante wat saamwerk met die toegewysde personeel. Indien moontlik, word personeel wat by buiteklinieke gestasioneer is, aangemoedig en woon hulle by en neem deel aan hierdie breër programme.

Gedurende die afgelope jaar is die USACOMZEUR Regional Tandheelkundige aktiwiteit wat deur die 3de Regional Tandheelkundige aktiwiteit bedryf is, gesluit, die eenheid gedeaktiveer en die missie oorgeplaas na die 2de Regional Tandheelkundige aktiwiteit in Frankfurt.


Voormalige La Chapelle Army Hospital, nadat Amerikaanse magte Frankryk verlaat het (Franse poskaart)
La Chapelle Army Hospital outside of Orleans, France (US Army, 1955)

The hospital has been moved out of prefabs into a completely remodeled building. Seven prefabs served as the hospital on the La Chapelle site since it was organized in 1951 as the 302nd Field Hospital . These buildings provided space for 75 patients. The prefabs will now become troop billets.

The improved facility includes a new wing that connects two existing buildings and the latest in equipment. The expansion provides facilities for 250 patients and will end the need to evacuate major medical cases to US hospitals in Germany.

Also included in the new building are a PX, post office and chapel. The mess hall can serve 500 persons at a time.

An MP detachment will be assigned to the hospital.

50 French civilians are employed in the PX and mess hall and as building caretakers.

I had MOS 3200, General Medical Officer, as I had just finished my internship and joined under the Berry Plan.

Flew from Fort Dix to Paris via the Azores in October 1960.

Worked at the dispensary in Harbord Barracks in the AM running sick call. Worked in 34th Gen Hosp outpatient clinic in the PM.

The most exciting time was when the Berlin Wall construction began in August 1961. Learned my little dispensary was a 100-bed hospital and we had to be ready for the evacuees from Berlin if that happened. Thankfully, it didn't.

Worked the last year, 1962, in taking Obstetrics night call.

Located near Orleans, France, the city made famous by Jeanne d'Arc, is the small village of La Chapelle-St. Mesmin. Here, in the beautiful Loire River Valley, the chateaux country of France, is the U.S. Army Hospital operated by the 34th General Hospital .

The history of the building now housing the 34th begins with its construction in 1844 on the grounds of the Chateau de la Chapelle. The chateau, which was erected by Charles IX in 1584, is still standing and being used, although not by the hospital. The present day hospital was used as a seminary until the year 1905, when it was closed. The building remained unused until World War I, at which time it was re-opened as a hospital for war wounded. In 1918, it was converted into a 200-bed tubercular sanatorium and remained so until 1940. At the onset of World War II and the occupation of the Loire Valley by the German forces, the hospital was seized and turned into billets for Germain Engineer troops. Sometime in 1941, the French Government re-installed another military and tubercular hospital. In 1946 the building witnessed a complete evacuation, since many years of misuse left it in disrepair.

Since 1950 the buildings and property have been occupied and greatly developed by the U.S. Army. Die 302nd Field Hospital , the first U.S. Army unit to inhabit the old seminary, was replaced by the 34th General Hospital, in May of 1953.

Since the arrival of the 34th at the old seminary, many improvements have been made, making the hospital in La Chapelle-St. Mesmin the largest U.S. Army General Hospital in France, serving all allied personnel throughout the Communications Zone. The 34th General Hospital is also the operating agent of the Orleans Medical Service Area , including Orleans, Fontainebleau and Paris. This area consists of seven medical units and eight dental clinics, which are operated by approximately 950 officers, enlisted men and women.

A new wing, containing the most modern equipment and furnishings, was opened in August of 1960, which made it possible to improve and expand other medical and administrative sections housed in the main part of the hospital. The first floor of the new wing consists of an outpatient service, administrative and medical records rooms, an emergency room, eight examination rooms, a pharmacy, and an Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic. The OB-GYN Clinic on the second floor has examination rooms, an expectant fathers' waiting room, four labor rooms, and two delivery rooms. The Dermatology Clinic, plus a classroom and office for the Army Health Nurse, complete the floor. The third floor is composed of private and semi-private rooms totaling 24 beds, a full-view baby nursery, and a diet kitchen. The roof of the new wing contains a glassed-in sundeck, a roof garden, and the Language Laboratory.

The main section of the hospital is made up of Headquarters and other administrative offices, X-Ray, Laboratory, the Medical Library, Post Office, Snack Bar, Mess Hall, and wards totaling 214 beds.

Recreational facilities, which are offered to both the patients and duty personnel, include a movie theater, NCO and Specialist Club, Officers' Club Annex, softball diamond, tennis court, Special Services library, and the Red Cross Recreational Program, which is assisted by many of the local women's organizations.

To enhance French-American relations, as well as Franco-American understanding in Public Health, the 34th has a French Intern Program. Through this program, graduates of French medical schools can take their internship at the hospital. The program followed is the same as that followed by the American Medical Association.

The 34th General Hospital was formerly designated in 1917 as Base Hospital No. 34 at the Episcopal Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Its actual birth as a military organization took place on 7 September 1917, when it was officially mobilized under its present designation as the 34th General Hospital. The unit has previously served in France, England, Korea and Okinawa. In 1950, service in the Far East was interrupted when the unit was recalled to the States and inactivated. In 1952, the 34th was reactived and again ordered to Europe and has been here since.

Col Karl D. MacMillan, MC, Commanding Officer of the Hospital and of the Orleans Medical Service Area, started his Army career in 1929. Prior to his assignment as Commander of the 34th General Hospital, he was the Chief of the EENT Section, Valley Forge Army Hospital.


Former Army Hospital at Chinon, several years after US forces left France (French postcard)

The Best Museums in Lorraine

Learn about the region’s history and heritage at these great institutions

MÉMORIAL DE VERDUN

The Verdun Memorial commemorates the Battle of Verdun, where so many French and German soldiers died in 1916. It is situated on the battlefield and includes a museum displaying armaments, vehicles, uniforms and equipment from the conflict. www.memorial-verdun.fr

Musée de la Bière in Stenay

MUSÉE DE LA BIÈRE

The visitor attraction in Stenay, between the Château de Sedan and the Verdun remembrance sites, is dedicated to all things beer. Earn your tasting rights in the museum tavern by first learning about the history, science, agriculture and marketing of beer. www.museedelabiere.com

Musée Départemental d’Art Ancien et Contemporain

MUSÉE DÉPARTEMENTAL D’ART ANCIEN & CONTEMPORAIN

Highlights at this extensive museum in Épinal include ancient ivory zodiacal tablets, a Gallo-Roman statue of Hermaphrodite and a vase by Art Nouveau pioneer Émile Gallé. www.museedepartemental.vosges.fr

Maison de la Mirabelle

MAISON DE LA MIRABELLE

For five generations the Grallet-Dupic family has been harvesting plums from the thousands of trees on their land in the town of Rozelieures. Recently they started using the fruit to distil their very own Lorraine whisky, the region’s first. www.maisondelamirabelle.com

Musée de La Cour d’Or in Metz

MUSÉE DE LA COUR D’OR

The labyrinthine museum complex in central Metz boasts an exhaustive collection of Gallo-Roman sculptures, original remains of Metz’s Roman baths and medieval artefacts – spanning 2,000 years of history across 5,000m2 of exhibition space. musee.metzmetropole.fr

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nancy

MUSÉE DES BEAUX-ARTS DE NANCY

Overlooking place Stanislas, this grand building houses Nancy’s collection of 14th-20th century European art, including works by Delacroix, Manet, Monet and Modigliani. Don’t miss the Daum glassware in the basement. mban.nancy.fr

Musée de l’École de Nancy

MUSÉE DE L’ÉCOLE DE NANCY

Nancy was at the centre of the Art Nouveau movement and this museum in the former property of Art Nouveau patrons the Corbin family is one of the most important collections anywhere in the world. www.ecole-de-nancy.com

Museum-Aquarium de Nancy.

MUSEUM-AQUARIUM DE NANCY

In a lovely Art Deco building are 57 aquariums housing more than 300 species of marine life, plus a natural history gallery with some 600 preserved animals. The museum also holds regular temporary exhibitions. www.museumaquariumdenancy.eu

La maison de Robert Schuman

LA MAISON DE ROBERT SCHUMAN

Robert Schuman was one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO. Born in Luxembourg, he spent much of his life in Lorraine and lived in this house in Scy-Chazelles. www.centre-robert-schuman.org

Maison natale de Jeanne d’Arc

MAISON NATALE DE JEANNE D’ARC

One of France’s official historical monuments, this modest house in Domrémy-la-Pucelle, now painstakingly restored in the medieval style, is where Joan of Arc was born in 1412. www.domremy.fr/village-jeanne/maison-natale

Musée Les Mineurs Wendel

MUSÉE LES MINEURS WENDEL

Coal mining used to be a major industry in Lorraine. This museum in Petite-Rosselle celebrates the history of the black stuff from when it was first found here in the 1830s until the last mine closed in 2004. www.musee-les-mineurs.fr

Musée Baccarat


En Passant Par La Lorraine

The region is full of pretty towns you may never even have heard of, like Thionville, up near the border with Luxembourg. Photo: Shutterstock

There is in France a famous children’s song about a girl who walks through Lorraine in her clogs… Yet few foreign visitors follow in her footsteps. This is a shame as there is a rich and unique culture here with much to offer the intrepid. Dominic Bliss introduces us to the highlights

There did the name Lorraine hail from? Even the locals are unlikely to know that they have the 9th-century Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I to thank for the name of their region. He and his son, Lothair II, ruled huge swathes of the Frankish Empire, and one of their kingdoms – a vast province stretching from modern-day France’s eastern border all the way up to the north of Holland – was called Lotharingia, which later evolved into the French name Lorraine.

Modern-day Lorraine is much smaller than Lotharingia, but it still covers over 9,000 square miles from the Vosges in the south up to the borders with Belgium and Luxembourg in the north. The population of 2.35 million is mainly focused around the major cities and towns of Metz, Nancy, Vandoeuvre-lès- Nancy, Thionville and Épinal. In the big 2016 regional shake-up Lorraine became part of Grand Est. A shame, really, because if it suffered from a lack of identity before, it now risks being swallowed up by this mega-region.

The fountain at the centre of Metz’s place de la Comédie. Photo: OT Metz

Thank God for quiche Lorraine, then. Even if Lorraine as a region isn’t France’s most famous, at least this delicious tart has put its name firmly on the map. Any visitor really ought to try the genuine article (rather than the inferior versions that make their way abroad). The key is to cook it with Gruyère cheese and French lardons, rather than Cheddar cheese and bacon, as the Brits are wont to do. Other key ingredients include eggs, cream and milk.

The citadel at Bitche. Photo: Fotolia

Sharing a border with Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany, Lorraine has been invaded, annexed, liberated, and re-invaded countless times over the centuries. You can still pick out the Teutonic influence in the architecture of Metz, and in some of the food, though locals will emphasise their Frenchness at any opportunity. This is not surprising, given the way they were treated by the Germans during the Second World War. Unlike Alsace, which has its own Germanic language, there are very few hints of German heard in Lorraine, except in the Pays de Bitche, in the far northeast. Much of Lorraine is still part of the Paris Basin, with the plateau lorrain cut across by the Moselle, Meurthe and Meuse rivers. To the east the land becomes hilly, and then mountainous, as you reach the picturesque peaks of the Vosges.

St Etienne Cathedral in Metz. Photo: OT Metz

Most visitors will spend time in the very pretty city of Nancy which, at the beginning of the 20th century became world famous for its Art Nouveau furniture and its glass (don’t miss the Musée de l’École de Nancy), and still punches well above its weight thanks to the stunning place Stanislas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983. Built between 1752 and 1755 under the aegis of Stanislaus I, Duke of Lorraine and King of Poland, it’s the beating heart of Nancy, especially in the summer – and also in December, when it hosts Christmas parades. You can’t help but find it uplifting – even on the greyest of days, the sand-coloured paving stones put you in a positive frame of mind.

The fontaine de Neptune, place de Stanislas, Nancy. Photo: Fotolia

Visitors to Lorraine also head north up the River Moselle to Metz (pronounced ‘mess’), the regional capital. The medieval cathedral with its awe-inspiring stained-glass windows (some of them more recent additions by Marc Chagall) and 42-metre-high interior will take anyone’s breath away. It stands in contrast to the more solid Teutonic styles of the city’s post office and railway station.

Place Stanislas in Nance, recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Photo: Fotolia

Be sure to visit the Pompidou Centre in Metz, France’s largest temporary exhibition space outside Paris, with its three galleries, theatre, auditorium, distinctive roller-coaster of a roof, and 77-metre spire. Opened in 2010, it was designed by the Japanese architect Shigeru Ban, who says he was inspired to create the shape of the roof after he stumbled upon a traditional Chinese hat in an antiques shop in Paris. From above, the roof is hexagonal in shape.

Centre Pompidou Metz

“To the French, the hexagon is a symbol of their country, as it is similar to the geographical shape of France,” Ban explains. “Furthermore, the roof is composed of a pattern of hexagons and equilateral triangles inspired by traditional woven bamboo hats and baskets of Asia.” All this culture is sure to give visitors one hell of an appetite.

La Porte des Allemands – ‘the Gate of the Germans’ – is an icon of the city of Metz. Photo: OT Metz

Fortunately, Metz has an excellent dining scene. One of its highlights is La Table (formerly known as Le Magasin aux Vivres), a Michelin-starred restaurant inside the city’s old military arsenal. There’s even a private dining room here, where chef Christophe Dufossé likes to show off his skills in front of the diners. He lets his guests choose 12 ingredients in advance which he then combines into one glorious dish. If you’re lucky, he’ll do much of the cooking right there next to the table. Currently the rate is €175 per person, without wine. “I’m an adventurous epicurean,” Dufossé says. “A tireless pioneer of the senses, and a creative who’s always at boiling point.”

Metz’s place Saint-Jacques. Photo: OT Metz

Head west from Metz, along the A4 autoroute, and it’s not long before you come to the First World War battlefields around the town of Verdun. In February 1916 the Germans started to bombard the area north of the town with all the artillery they could muster. During the ensuing battle, which lasted until the end of that year, 300,000 soldiers on both sides died and a further 400,000 were wounded.

The Palais du Gouverneur was built at the turn of the 20th century for Kaiser Wilhelm II, the third and last Emperor of Germany. Photo: OT Metz

As the scene of such a tragedy, Verdun still looms large in the French national memory, much as the Battle of the Somme looms in British memory. In villages and towns all over France you will find memorials inscribed with the names of local men who were killed at Verdun. Surrounding the town is a series of battlefields, forts, cemeteries and memorials honouring all those who suffered. These include the Mémorial de Verdun, a key museum in the village of Fleury-devant-Douaumont Fort de Vaux, where French troops were forced to surrender Ossuaire de Douaumont, a memorial containing the bones of 130,000 unidentified French and German soldiers and the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery at Romagne-sous-Montfaucon, where more than 14,000 graves comprise the largest American graveyard in Europe.

Local heroine Joan of Arc

NATIONAL HEROINE

Lorraine also played a key part in medieval history, since this was the birthplace of Joan of Arc. You can find out all about this national heroine in her home town, Domrémy-la-Pucelle, southwest of Nancy, where the house she was born in has been restored as a museum there’s a historical centre next to it where you can learn all about Joan’s crucial role in the Hundred Years War.

The house in Domrémy-la-Pucelle where Joan of Arc was born. Photo: Office de Tourisme de l’Ouest des Vosges

Another important medieval symbol in Lorraine is the famous Cross of Lorraine, consisting of a vertical line crossed by two shorter horizontal bars. No one is quite sure how it came to be emblematic of this region, but, during the recent periods of history when Lorraine was occupied by the Germans, the cross came to represent French nationalism and France’s ambitions to regain her lost provinces. During the Second World War it was used on flags of the Free French Forces. Charles de Gaulle himself is celebrated by a 43-metre-high Cross of Lorraine in the village of Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, just to the west of Lorraine, where he died in 1969.

Basilique Sainte Jeanne d’Arc. Photo: Office de Tourisme de l’Ouest des Vosges

TIME FOR LEISURE

One town in Lorraine that receives more than its fair share of visitors is Amnéville, not far north of Metz. That’s thanks to its enormous leisure resort, Amnéville-les-Thermes. Only the most disgruntled misanthrope could fail to find something of interest here. More American in style than French, it includes a concert hall, artificial ski slope, theme park, thermal baths, tree-climbing park, zoo, casino, brewery, shopping centre, cinema, amusement park, golf course, bowling alley, ice rink and nightclub. You could easily spend a whole week here without running out of things to do.

A huge gathering of hot air balloons over the Parc Naturel Régional de Lorraine. Photo: Alamy

For more outdoorsy types, Lorraine has huge rural swathes of land you can lose yourself in. The Parc Naturel Régional de Lorraine is split into two sections, the larger lying west of Nancy and Metz, the smaller centred around the Étang de Lindre. Then, in the far east of Lorraine, are the Vosges mountains. One of France’s lesser-known (and lower-altitude) mountain ranges, they stretch for 75 miles from Belfort in Franche-Comté to the German border in the north, covering more than 2,000 square miles of heavily-forested upland in both Alsace and Lorraine. They are very green – and very easy to get lost in. The highest peak is the Grand Ballon (in Alsace), at 1,424 metres. Two of the Vosges’ regional parks – the Parc Naturel Régional des Vosges du Nord and the Parc Naturel Régional des Ballons des Vosges – cover parts of eastern Lorraine. In winter, the mountain range offers skiing in several resorts. The best known within Lorraine are Gérardmer-La Mauselaine, La Bresse-Hohneck and Ventron.

With its combination of beautiful countryside and wonderful cities, Lorraine has enough to keep tourists intrigued, whether they’re townies or country types. This explains much of its enduring appeal.

From France Today magazine

Dominic Bliss travelled to Lorraine using Loco2. Recognised in 2018 as the UK Transport Supplier of the Year, Loco2 enables low-cost booking for train travel throughout the UK and Europe. Loco2 is famous for offering a low CO2 way to travel, at a low price, hence the name. Users can buy tickets on mobile via the Loco2 app or on www.Loco2.com

Joan of Arc is perhaps France’s pre-eminent national heroine, and Lorraine is where she came from


A. Piatt Andrew to his parents August 18, 1916

A. Piatt Andrew at the AFS Headquarters in Paris, France in 1917.
Photograph by H.C. Ellis. Courtesy of the Archives of the American Field Service and AFS Intercultural Programs

Beskrywing

Courtesy of the Archives of the American Field Service and AFS Intercultural Programs

A. Piatt Andrew traveled to France in December 1914 to volunteer for the American Hospital organized by expatriates. Later, he worked to create a separate ambulance service to help the wounded from the front. The American Field Service recruited American college students and eventually had 2,000 volunteers even before the United States declared war. Philanthropist Anne Vanderbilt visited in 1916 to meet with Andrew and the staff. Her support was instrumental—she donated funds, and helped expand the hospital and organize the nurse corps.

The past month has seen great changes in the organization of our service, which will add to its efficiency and make our life much smoother and happier. The field service has become virtually a separate organization, and we are even to move our offices to another part of the city.

We have found a delightful old 18th century house, which, though in the heart of Paris, is surrounded by acres of romantic and deserted gardens - a place not lived in for a decade – the owners have loaned it to us, and it is now being fitted up with dormitories, refectory and living rooms for the boys, and offices for all our staff. Within a week we shall have everything transferred, and our address will no longer be Neuilly but 21 rue Raynouard, Paris.

In bringing all this to pass, the person to whom we are most indebted is Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt, who is a member of the ambulance committee, and who upon her arrival In Paris a month or so ago, began, as one of the press correspondents said, "to clear the Augean stables". Galatti came over on the steamer with her, and I lunched with her the day she arrived. She immediately saw our difficulties and briskly and crisply set about to clear them away, accomplishing more In a month than our ambassador, who is also on the committee, has accomplished in two years.

Mrs. Vanderbilt is a wonderful personality. She has a man's intelligence and force and a woman's grace and charm, very frank, utterly genuine, distinguished in appearance, interested in everything, and what I particularly like, a fine individual perspective about the things in life that are worth while. She reminds me often of Mrs. Gardner and above all in this, that she never thinks twice of her physical comfort when it might interfere with an interesting experience.

I have felt very grateful to her for everything she has done for us, and one night I rented a cinema machine and ran off our pictures in her house after dinner, and last week I arranged to take her to the front with me on an inspection trip. We left fairly early on Saturday morning in my open motor, she and I and de Clermont-Tonnerre and the driver, and after an all day drive, arrived in the late afternoon in the surroundings of Dieulouard and Pont-a-Mousson , which were so familiar a year ago. The section that used to be there last year was transferred to Verdun in February at the beginning of the battle, but Section 3 – the old Vosges section, which has recently been sent there, is living in the same villa in Pont and running to the same posts. We arrived at Pont about six of a sunny afternoon, and were greeted by Charley Codman and the rest of the boys, whom a month ago I had seen haggard and unshaven at Nexuills near Verdun, now clean and well rested. They were naturally a little curious about Mrs. Vanderbilt - it being an almost unheard-of thing for a woman to visit the lines - but she was rather perturbed because everything seemed so tranquil and smiling. "I know," she said, “it will be

my luck never to hear a gun. But I shall never admit when I get back that I haven't.” And though a little anxious myself on the same account, I assured her that if we did not hear them at Pont, I would guarantee to take her where she would hear them. We had just time before dinner to run up to the dressing stations - so we drove up through Montauville, past Clos Bois to Auberge St. Pierre, a ruined road house, the furthest point to which the ambulances of last year used to go. As we neared it, one of our batteries hidden in the bushes close to the road suddenly roared, and gave my companion a start, and a few minutes later we saw clouds of dust in a neighboring field as German shells arrived in return. At Auberge St. Pierre we visited the rooms where the wounded are brought in and the deep shell-proof shelters which have grown since last year, and walked a little way into one of the trenches leading to the front. When we got back to the villa and a happy dinner with the boys, Mrs. Vanderbilt felt, I think, satisfied with her glimpse of war. After dinner in the twilight, with several of the boys and Lieutenant Derode, the charming French officer in charge of the section, we strolled through Pont looking at the ruined houses - and then along the lovely slow-moving, shadow-reflecting Moselle - everything serene and silent except for the mitrailleuse which from time to time tap, tap, tapped, like woodpeckers up in the woods on the hill.

When we said "good night", Mrs. Vanderbilt was very grateful for what she described as "one of the most interesting" days of her lite. The town was utterly silent (but I thought it just as well to find in what room she was sleeping in case by any chance

something should occur during the night.) There are still electric lights in Pont, and I had one at the head of my bed and read myself to sleep as usual - a deep, tired sleep.

During the night I was suddenly awakened by a series of heavy crashes like claps of thunder, and then I heard the familiar whistle of shells overhead and more crashes, and more crashes, and gradually it dawned upon my drowsy consciousness that the city was being bombarded. Whir-r-r bang! Whir-r-r bang! Bang! Crash! Bang! Whirr-r-r, bang! They were coming in fast and falling very near. The light would not turn on, and I could not find a watch, but I pulled on a pair of socks, and in them and my pajamas felt my way into the hall. The boys downstairs were calling, "Doc, Doc, come down in the cellar." I called, “Mrs. Vanderbilt!" and got a quick reply, "Yes, yes." "Let's get down in the cellar.” We reached a dimly lighted shelter where already twenty or thirty half dressed Americans and Frenchmen were gathered. Some had come in from the street or neighboring houses. Some were in pajamas, some had their shirts outside their trousers - no one was really dressed - and when I looked at Mrs. Vanderbilt, I laughed until she was almost annoyed. Her lovely white hair which usually forms a proud pompadour was in a light braid down her back. With all its contrasts, the scene was amusing and not to be soon forgotten. Bang – whir-r – bang – the bombardment went merrily on outside and from the cellar door we saw clouds of red smoke mounting into the dark sky from houses that had caught fire in the vicinity. It all lasted about three-quarters of an hour

and then suddenly everything became silent. The Germans had had their revenge for a French aeroplane bombardment of Metz. They had ruined a few more houses in poor old Pont - but I doubt whether they have killed any of the people. Everybody knows enough now to run to the cellar as soon as the shells begin to arrive, so few are hurt by them. We had no calls for ambulances during the bombardment.

Next morning we breakfasted with the boys bright and early and had much laughter in recounting the experiences of the night - and before leaving Pont we crossed the river (one has still to cross the bridge separately, because the Germans can see you from the neighboring hill and might take pot shots at a group) and we visited the old ruined cemetery on the hillside - with its gaping graves and shattered tombstones - the cemetery where Mignot, our orderly of a year ago, is buried.

Then once more on the road - and on and on - this time following fairly close to the lines around St. Mihiel and up toward Verdun, running much of the time along roads protected from the German view by screens of burlap on evergreen branches. At Campigny we got out and visited the ruins of President Poincare's summer villa. The Germans have shelled it day after day for no particular reason except childish " Schadenfreude ", but everything was silent about the place while we were there. The house is on the slope of a sunny hill, and we picked an armful of roses from the President's deserted gardens. In the neighboring village, not a single soul remains - everything silent, serene and like a dream.

Once more on the road - we passed a troop of several hundred German prisoners - many of them mere boys. I snapped a group or two in my camera as they passed - and they grinned as I did so. I think that they were glad to be out of the war – poor driven cattle that they are.

During the day we visited four of our sections in the neighborhood of Verdun – had lunch with Section 2 in their barn at Les Montharions – spent an hour or so with Section 8 in an open field at Dugny, had dinner with Section 4 in their tent at Ippecourt and saw Section 1 in a wooded camp at Triancourt. Incidentally, too, we drove through the ruins of Verdun itself. (Very few buildings have escaped and many are in complete ruin, but the city is not "flat on the ground", like Ypres or Nieuport.) After such a long day, we were glad to climb into comfortable beds in the Hotel Mere Dieu at Chalons sur Marne .
It was a day well spent, and Mrs. Vanderbilt’s interest and sympathy must have cheered the men a great deal.

On Monday, we were off again for Rheims and Paris – another day of sunshine and good luck. I had been in Rheims a few weeks before but had not been in the cathedral since sixteen or seventeen years ago when in my student days I once spent an Easter there and, climbing the belfry, helped to ring the bells on Easter morning. We met a priest in the street and he took us through the wonderful old structure. I was happy to find it still so much intact. The marvelous old thirteenth century glass is mostly gone some of the stone window traceries are shattered and there are a few holes in the walls and roof, but the cathedral is so vast that these effects of bombardment

seem only incidental. With the windows gone, the cathedral has become infested with pigeons and the great aisles roar with the sound of their many wings.

We found the Hotel Lion d'Or which faces the cathedral had been reopened, and sitting at the open windows, through which we could look out at the majestic facade, we had our lunch in a room whose walls and partitions bear many scars of shells and bullets. We all felt that the vast cathedral had never been as beautiful as it is today. It still stands majestic and invincible. Many of its old carvings and statues are mutilated beyond possibility of repair. Its front is charred from fire - but the cathedral in its immensity still stands - and like the face of a beautiful woman who has passed through suffering, it has a beauty today which it never had before. As Mrs. Vanderbilt said, it is only right that the great agony that France is passing through today should leave its traces upon a building so closely associated with the history of France during the past six hundred years, and that the memories of 1914 and 1916 should thus be commemorated along with the souvenirs of Jeanne d'Arc and the wars of France in the centuries that have gone before.

I was happy to have been able to arrange these wonderful days for Mrs. Vanderbilt, as she has given us such full-hearted sympathy and has worked so hard to help us achieve our independence.

We are moving away from the hospital altogether and forever. I shall get a little apartment near by and move from Neuilly next week when my lease expires.


Old Photos, Pictures, Advertisements and Postcards from Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada


Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada

Canadian Scenery,
by N.P. Willis, Illustrated by William Henry Bartlett, 1842
Artwork

Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada

Église de Saint-Patrick
20, rue Gordon, Sherbrooke, QUÉBEC
Established 1887
Source: Google maps
Photograph

Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada

1904 ad
Dutch Mike
W. R. Webster & Co., Makers, Sherbrooke, P.Q.
St. John Daily Sun, St. John, New Brunswick - June 29, 1904
Advertisement

History Of The Arc De Triomphe Paris

Napoleon I had an ambition to make the capital of his empire the most beautiful city in the world. On 17 February 1806 plans for “a column dedicated to the glory of the Grand Armee” (currently the Place Vendome column) were confirmed and on the 18th of February, an Imperial decree authorized the completion of the Pantheon and the “erection of a triumphal arch at the entry to the boulevard by the site of the former Bastille prison that upon entering the Saint-Antoine district, one would pass through this “triumphal arch”.

In March 1806, architect Jean-Francois-Therese Chalgrin was given the task of finding the best possible location for the arch. He studied several different options and on May 9th, Napoleon agreed to the site: Place de l’Etoile. (1)

On May 11th 1806, the project was given to trusted architects Chalgrin and Jean-Arnaud Raymond. And on August 15th, 1806 the first stone was laid to coincide with Napoleon’s birthday. Several of the most prominent architects which included Antoine-Chrysostome Quatremere de Quincy, Charles Percier, Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart and Pierre-Francois-Leonard Fontaine, First Architect to Emperor Napoleon I, gave their opinions on the project.

It took over two years just to lay the foundations and Chalgrin had some unexpected good fortune in 1810 with the marriage of Napoleon and Archduchess Marie Louise von Hapsburg of Austria as he was able to see his drawings brought to life. A wood and painted canvas replica of the Arch was constructed the same as it was to be built. This ceremonial arch allowed Chalgrin to make some last second changes after seeing what it would look like.

The work was taken over by Louis-Robert Goust (Chalgrin’s former pupil), after the architect and designer, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811. Unfortunately, construction was halted in April 1814 after imperial defeat and invasion.

On 19 August 1824, architect Jean-Nicolas Huyot was commissioned to modify Chalgrin’s plans. Huyot had recently returned from an extensive study abroad of antique remains. Huyot proposed major changes which were deemed both risky and extravagant. On 12 May 1825, Charles X ordered that Chalgrin’s plans would be completed and 16 December of that same year, Huyot was removed from office by the Minister of the Interior for failing to comply with orders.

In January 1828, Huyot benefited from the fall of the Villele Ministry and again took over his post. Huyot would again and finally removed from this task on 20 July 1832 and would be replaced by Guillaume-Abel Blouet who would see to the completion of the Arch in 1836. (2)

The Astylar design in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture is by Jean Chalgrin. The Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe, namely Cortot, Rude, Étex, Pradier and Lemaire. And the main sculptures are treated as independent trophies applied to the vast masonry masses. The four sculptural groups at the Peace, are both by Antoine Etex.

The most renowned of them all, the Departure of the Volunteers, which is commonly called La Marseillaise, is by Francois Rude. And it was the face of the allegorical representation of France calling forth her people on this last sculptural group that was used as the belt buckle for the seven-star rank of Marshal of France. In the attic above the richly sculptured frieze of soldiers there are 30 shields engraved with the names of major revolutionary and Napoleonic military victories.

The inside walls of the monument lists the names of 558 French generals with the names of those who died in battle being underlined. Also inscribed on the shorter sides of the four supporting columns, you can see the names of the major battles of the Napoleonic wars. Yet the battles that took place in the period between the departure of Napoleon from Elba and his final defeat at Waterloo were not included. The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off, apparently on the day that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916.

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I rests beneath the Arc. France took the idea from the Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey in the United Kingdom. It was originally decided November 12th, 1919 to bury the Unknown Soldier’s remains in the Pantheon, but a public letter-writing campaign led to the decision to bury him beneath the Arc instead. Begun on Armistice Day 1920, it has the first eternal flame lit in Western Europe since the Vestal Virgins’ fire was extinguished in the year 391 and it burns in memory of the dead who were never identified in both World War I and World War II. The coffin was put in the chapel on the first floor of the Arc on November 10th 1920 and put in its final resting place on January 28th 1921. The slab above carries the inscription “Here lies a French soldier who died for his fatherland 1914-1918”.

Every year, on 11 November, a ceremony is held in commemoration of the anniversary of the armistice which was signed between France and Germany in 1918. Many famous victory marches have led past the Arc de Triomphe including the Germans in 1871, the French in 1918, the Germans again in 1940 and the French and the Allies in 1944 and 1945.

Articles are published regularly which feature unique insight into the design, construction and history of the Arc de Triomphe Paris in our article section.


Frankryk

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Kyk die video: Jeanne dArc, patronne secondaire de la France (Augustus 2022).