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MAANDAG, 5 SEPTEMBER - Geskiedenis

MAANDAG, 5 SEPTEMBER - Geskiedenis


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In die konvensie, —Mnr. BREARLY, van die Committee of Eleven, het 'n verdere verslag as volg gemaak:

"1. Om by die klousule te voeg: 'om oorlog te verklaar', 'die woorde' en briewe van merk en vergelding te gee. '

"2. Om by die klousule te voeg, 'om leërs op te rig en te ondersteun', 'maar' is geen geld vir die gebruik daarvan vir 'n langer termyn as twee jaar nie. '

"3. In plaas van Artikel 12, Artikel 6, sê: 'Alle wetsontwerpe vir die verkryging van inkomste kom uit die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en is onderhewig aan veranderinge en wysigings deur die Senaat: geen geld word uit die Tesourie getrek nie, maar as gevolg van krediete wat deur die wet gemaak is. '

"4. Onmiddellik voor die laaste klousule van Afdeling I, artikel 7, moet u 'Om eksklusiewe wetgewing uit te oefen oor alle gevalle hoegenaamd oor die distrik (hoogstens tien kilometer vierkante meter), na afloop van bepaalde state en die aanvaarding van die wetgewer, word die setel van die regering van die Verenigde State; en om dieselfde gesag uit te oefen oor alle plekke wat aangekoop is vir die oprigting van forte, tydskrifte, arsenale, dokwerwe en ander noodsaaklike geboue. '

"5. 'Om die vooruitgang van die wetenskap en die nuttige kunste te bevorder, deur vir 'n beperkte tyd aan outeurs en uitvinders die uitsluitlike reg op hul onderskeie geskrifte en ontdekkings te verseker."'

In hierdie verslag word die eerste klousule aanvaar, nem. con.

Teen die tweede klousule het mnr. GERRY beswaar gemaak dat hy erkenning van toewysings aan 'n weermag vir twee jaar gegee het, in plaas van een; waarvoor hy nie 'n rede kon dink nie, dat dit impliseer dat daar 'n staande weermag sou wees, wat hy teëgestaan ​​het, so gevaarlik vir die vryheid - as onnodig, selfs vir so 'n groot land as hierdie - en indien nodig, 'n beperking op die nommer en tydsduur moet verstrek word. Dit was ook nie die regte tyd vir so 'n innovasie nie. Die mense sou dit nie verdra nie.

Meneer SHERMAN het opgemerk dat die krediete slegs toegelaat is, en nie vir twee jaar hoef te wees nie. Aangesien die wetgewer tweejaarliks ​​verkies moet word, sal dit ongerieflik wees om van krediete vir een jaar te betaal, aangesien daar moontlik geen sitting sal wees binne die tyd wat nodig is om dit te hernu nie. Hy moet homself, soos hy gesê het, hou van 'n redelike beperking op die aantal en voortbestaan ​​van 'n leër in vrede.

Die maatskaplike klousule is toe ooreengekom, nem. con.

Die derde klousule, mnr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS, het uitgestel om uit te stel. Dit is in die komitee ooreengekom op grond van kompromie; en hy moet hom vry voel om daarvan af te sien, as hy oor die algemeen nie tevrede is met sekere ander dele om afgehandel te word nie.

Mnr. PINCKNEY sekondeer die mosie.

Meneer SHERMAN was daarop gerig om onmiddellik gemak te gee aan diegene wat hierdie klousule as 'n groot oomblik beskou het, en om te vertrou dat hulle saamstem met ander behoorlike maatreëls.

Oor die vraag om uit te stel, -

New Hampshire, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, ja — 9; Massachusetts, Virginia, no — 2.

Daar is ooreengekom dat soveel van die vierde klousule wat verband hou met die setel van die regering, nem. con.

Op die oorblyfsel, te wete, "om dieselfde gesag uit te oefen oor alle plekke wat vir forte gekoop is, ens."

Mnr. GERRY het aangevoer dat hierdie bevoegdheid gebruik kan word om 'n spesifieke staat te verslaaf deur sy grondgebied op te koop, en dat die voorgestelde vestings 'n manier sou wees om die staat te ontwrig tot 'n onbehoorlike gehoorsaamheid aan die algemene regering.

Meneer KING het homself gedink dat die voorsiening onnodig was, aangesien die krag reeds betrokke was; maar sou na die woord "gekoop", die woorde "in diens" na toestemming van die wetgewer van die staat oorgaan. Dit sou die krag beslis veilig maak.

Mnr GOUVERNEUR MORRIS sekondeer die mosie, waarop ooreengekom is, nem. kon .; net soos die res van die klousule soos gewysig.

Daar is ooreengekom op die vyfde klousule, nem. con.

Die volgende resolusie en bevel word deur die komitee van elf gerapporteer:

Besluit dat die Verenigde State in die kongres versoek word om die sekretaris en beamptes van hierdie konvensie toe te laat en te laat betaal, in verhouding tot hul onderskeie dienstye wat toegelaat word aan die sekretaris en soortgelyke amptenare van die kongres. .

"Opdrag gegee dat die sekretaris 'n rekening vir die genoemde dienste en vir die toevallige uitgawes van hierdie konvensie aan die tesourie -kantoor van die Verenigde State moet uitreik en stuur."

Die besluit en die bevel is afsonderlik ooreengekom, nem. con.

Mnr. GERRY het kennis gegee dat hy artikel 19, 20, 21, 22 moet heroorweeg.

Mnr. WILLIAMSON het dieselfde kennis gegee oor die artikel wat die aantal verteenwoordigers bepaal, wat hy te klein vind. Hy wou Rhode Island ook meer as een toelaat, vanweë haar waarskynlike aantal mense, en sou ook alle voorwendsel wat uit haar afwesigheid by die geleentheid kon ontstaan, verstik.

Die verslag wat gister gemaak is oor die aanstelling van die uitvoerende gesag word dan opgeneem, -

Mnr. PINCKNEY hernu sy opposisie teen die mode; en argumenteer eerstens dat die kiesers nie voldoende kennis van die sterkste manne sal hê nie en sal beïnvloed word deur 'n gehegtheid aan die vooraanstaande mans van hul onderskeie state. Tweedens sou die verspreiding van die stemme die afspraak met die senaat verlaat, en aangesien die heraanstelling van die president dus van die senaat afhang, is hy die enigste skepsel van die liggaam. Ten derde sal hy saam met die senaat teen die Huis van Verteenwoordigers kombineer. In die vierde plek was hierdie verandering in die wyse van verkiesing bedoel om 'n tweede keer van die ongeskiktheid van die president ontslae te raak, waardeur hy lewenslank onder die vaandel van die senaat ontslae sal raak.

Mnr. GERRY het geen beswaar aangeteken teen hierdie plan om die uitvoerende gesag op sigself te vorm nie, maar moet in sy finale stemming beheer word deur die magte wat aan die president gegee kan word.

Mnr. RUTLEDGE was baie gekant teen die plan wat deur die komitee gerapporteer is. Dit sou die hele mag in die Senaat gooi. Hy was ook teen 'n herbevoegdheid. Hy het besluit om die verslag uit te stel en die oorspronklike plan van aanstelling deur die wetgewer op te neem, naamlik: "Hy word deur 'n gesamentlike stembrief deur die wetgewer verkies, waarby 'n meerderheid van die stemme van die teenwoordige lede sal wees. Hy sal sy amp beklee gedurende die termyn van sewe jaar, maar word nie 'n tweede keer verkies nie "

Oor hierdie mosie om uit te stel, -

Noord -Carolina, Suid -Carolina, ja - 2; Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, no — 8; New Hampshire. verdeel.

Kolonel MASON het erken dat daar besware was teen 'n afspraak deur die Wetgewer, soos oorspronklik beplan. Hy het nog nie besluit nie, maar sou besware maak teen die manier wat die komitee voorstel. Eerstens plaas dit die aanstelling in werklikheid in die hande van die senaat; aangesien dit selde sal gebeur dat 'n meerderheid van die stemme op een kandidaat val; en aangesien die bestaande president altyd een van die vyf hoogste sal wees, sal sy heraanstelling natuurlik afhang van die senaat. Tweedens, met inagneming van die bevoegdhede van die president en die van die senaat, sal 'n koalisie tussen hierdie twee takke tot stand gebring kan word. Die groot beswaar met hom sou verwyder word deur die senaat van die uiteindelike verkiesing te ontneem. Hy het gevolglik besluit om die woorde uit te skakel: "as die getal 'n meerderheid van die kiesers is."

Mnr. WILLIAMSON sekondeer die mosie. Hy kon nie tot die klousule instem sonder so 'n verandering nie. Hy verkies om die hoogste te maak, hoewel hy nie 'n meerderheid van die stemme het nie, president, as 'n verwysing na die senaat. Deur die aanstelling na die senaat te verwys, lê 'n sekere grondslag vir korrupsie en aristokrasie.

Mnr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS dink dat die punt minder van belang sou wees as wat dit aan beide kante veronderstel was. Dit is waarskynlik dat 'n meerderheid van die stemme op dieselfde man sal val; Aangesien elke kieser twee stemme moet gee, sal meer as een uur 'n meerderheid gee. Buitendien, aangesien 'n mens 'n stem uit 'n man uit die staat moet gee, en omdat hierdie stem nie weggegooi sal word nie, val die helfte van die stemme op die vooraanstaande en algemeen bekende karakters. Weereens, as die president tevrede gestel het, sal die stemme natuurlik op hom kom; en 'n meerderheid van hulle sal hom weer aanstel sonder om na die senaat te gaan. As hy nie hou nie, sal almal wat hom nie hou nie, sorg dat hulle stemme verenig word, om te verseker dat hy verdring word.

Kolonel MASON. Diegene wat meen dat daar geen gevaar bestaan ​​dat daar in die eerste instansie nie meerderheid vir dieselfde persoon is nie, moet die punt prysgee aan diegene wat anders dink.

Meneer SHERMAN herinner die teenstanders aan die nuwe voorgestelde manier: as die klein state die voordeel sou hê in die besluit van die senaat onder die vyf hoogste kandidate, sou die groot state in werklikheid die benoeming van hierdie kandidate hê.

geen.

Op die voorstel van kolonel MASON, -.

Maryland, Noord -Carolina, ja; die ander nege state.

Mnr. WILSON het besluit om die "senaat" uit te skakel en die woord "wetgewer" in te voeg.

Mnr. MADISON het dit as 'n primêre doel beskou om 'n uiteindelike toevlug tot enige deel van die wetgewer onwaarskynlik te maak. Hy was bang dat die voorgestelde wysiging die aandag van die groot state te veel op die benoeming van kandidate sou plaas, in plaas daarvan om te streef na 'n effektiewe aanstelling van die beampte; soos die groot state sou oorheers in die wetgewer, wat die finale keuse uit die kandidate sou hê. Terwyl die Senaat, waarin die klein state oorheers, die finale keuse sou hê, sou die gesamentlike poging van die groot State wees om die aanstelling in eerste instansie afdoende te maak.

Mnr RANDOLPH. Ons het in sommige revolusies van hierdie plan 'n sterk staking vir monargie gemaak. Ons doen nou dieselfde vir 'n aristokrasie. Hy het stilgestaan ​​by die neiging van so 'n invloed in die senaat oor die verkiesing van die president, benewens sy ander magte, om die liggaam in 'n werklike en gevaarlike aristokrasie te omskep.

Mnr. DICKINSON was ten gunste daarvan dat die uiteindelike verkiesing in plaas van die senaat aan die wetgewer gegee word. Dit was te veel invloed om by die liggaam gevoeg te word.

Oor die vraag wat deur mnr. WILSON gestel is,

Pennsylvania, Virginia, Suid -Carolina, ja — 3; Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, no — 7; New Hampshire, verdeel. - Meneer MADISON en WILLIAMSON het besluit om die woord "meerderheid" uit te skakel en "een derde" in te voeg; sodat die uiteindelike mag nie uitgeoefen kan word as minder as 'n meerderheid, maar nie minder nie as 'n derde, van die Kiesers vir dieselfde persoon stem.

Mnr. GERRY het beswaar daarteen gemaak dat dit drie of vier state in die mag sou plaas in wie hulle wil.

Mnr. WILLIAMSON Daar is sewe state wat nie 'n derde van die mense bevat nie. As die senaat wil aanstel, sal minder as 'n sesde van die mense die mag hê.

Oor die vraag, -

Virginia, Noord -Carolina, ja; die ander nege state, nr. Mnr. GERRY stel voor dat die uiteindelike verkiesing moet plaasvind deur ses senatore en sewe verteenwoordigers, gekies deur gesamentlike stemming van beide huise.

Die heer KING het opgemerk dat die invloed van die klein state in die senaat ietwat gebalanseer is deur die invloed van die groot state op die vooruitskrywing van die kandidate, en ook deur die instemming van die klein state in die komitee in die klousule wat die uitsluitlike oorsprong verkry geldrekeninge in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers.

Kol. MASON het besluit om die woord "vyf" uit te skakel en die woord "drie" in te voeg as die hoogste kandidate waaruit die senaat kon kies.

Mnr. GERRY sekondeer die mosie.

Meneer SHERMAN sou die plan vroeër prysgee. Hy sou sewe of dertien verkies.

Oor die vraag wat kolonel MASON en meneer GERRY gestel het, —Virginia, Noord -Carolina, ja; nege state, nee.

Meneer SPAIGHT en mnr RUTLEDGE het beweeg om "vyf" uit te druk en "dertien;" in te voeg. waartoe al die

Mnr. WILLIAMSON het oorgegaan om, na "Kiesers", die woorde "wie sal gestem het" in te voeg; sodat die kiesers wat nie stem nie, nie getel word nie, moontlik nie die aantal wat nodig is as 'n meerderheid van die geheel sal toeneem sonder om die besluit van die senaat te neem nie.

Oor hierdie vraag — Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, ja — 4; New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, South Carolina, Georgia, no -7.

Mnr. DICKINSON het, om dubbelsinnigheid uit die bedoeling van die klousule te verwyder, soos uiteengesit deur die stemming, na die woorde, "as die getal 'n meerderheid van die hele aantal kiesers is," die woord "aangewys . "

Oor hierdie mosie, —New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,. Maryland, Suid -Carolina, Georgia, ja - 9; Virginia, Noord -Carolina, no — 2.

Kol. MASON. Aangesien die manier van aanstelling nou gereguleer is, kon hy dit nie weerhou om sy mening te gee dat dit heeltemal ontoelaatbaar is nie. Hy sou die regering van Pruise verkies bo een wat alle mag in die hande van sewe of agt mans plaas, en 'n aristokrasie regstel wat erger is as absolute monargie.

Die woorde, "en van die stemme gee", word vir die doel in beweging ingevoeg, na die woorde: "Die wetgewer kan die tyd bepaal wanneer die kiesers bymekaargekom word" -

Die Huis verdaag.


BESIGHEID DIGESTE: MAANDAG, 5 SEPTEMBER 1988

Eastern begin Saterdag tot 4 000 lugdienswerkers ontslaan. Die stap volg op die plasing van 'n borg van $ 4,7 miljoen wat deur die hof beveel is om die ontslagen werknemers te vergoed indien drie van die vakbond se vakbonde 'n verdere appèl wen om die afdankings te stop. Laat Vrydag het 'n appèlhof die versoek van Eastern ' [Bladsy 27.] Wall Street kan teen die einde van die jaar tot 5000 meer poste verloor, voorspel ontleders. Sekuriteitsondernemings in New York het die betaalstaat die afgelope jaar reeds met 15 000 verlaag, grootliks weens die daling in die vorige aandele in Oktober. [27.] 'n Finansiële adviseur het uitbundig geleef terwyl hy voorgegee het dat hy aftreefondse van ten minste 50 dokters in Suid -Florida belê, het die Federale Buro vir Ondersoek gesê. [27.] Die mediasake

Volvo het voetbal bygevoeg tot 'n sportbemarkingsstrategie wat volgens die Sweedse motorvervaardiger hom by naamherkenning gehelp het. [30.] ABC verwag om geld te verloor op ' 'War and Remembrance ' ' as gevolg van sy sake-ooreenkoms met Herman Wouk, die skrywer van die roman waarop die mini-reeks gebaseer is. [30.] 'n Nuwe Engelstalige poniekoerant het Vrydag in Jerusalem begin. Dit lyk asof die Nasie, wat begin as 'n weekblad, daagliks met The Jerusalem Post meeding. [30.] Nuus 12 Long Island het die aandag van die kabel-TV-industrie getrek met sy 24-uur plaaslike nuusprogrammering. [30.] Internasionale verslag

Japannese belangstelling in die Franse wynbedryf het 'n storm in Frankryk laat ontstaan, waar die minister van landbou beswaar aangeteken het teen 'n poging van 'n Japanse onderneming om by die mees gesogte wingerd in Bourgondië betrokke te raak. Die eienaars van die wingerd dring daarop aan dat hulle dit nie verkoop nie. [27.] Japan se aandele-indeks-termynhandel in Japan het sterk begin ná Wall Street se goeie vertoning op Vrydag. [28.] Bonn se plan om belasting op spaargeld terug te hou, het gelei tot 'n uittog deur beleggers uit Wes -Duitse markdeposito's. [32.] Golf -tuine in die Beaufortsee is 'n duur lang skoot wat moontlik moet wag op 'n styging in die olieprys tot $ 25 per vat. [32.] Vandag 's Kolomme

Art D 'Lugoff hou die Village Gate al 30 jaar sterk, en hy vertraag nie. New Yorkers & amp. Co. [27.]

'N Federale regter en 'n hardnekkige prokureursfirma sukkel om beheer oor die saak A. H. Robins. Besigheid en die reg. [28.]


DPW vier Arbeidsdag, Maandag, 5 September

(Washington, DC) Die Departement van Openbare Werke van die DC het vandag aangekondig hoe dienste geraak sal word ter viering van Arbeidsdag, Maandag 5 September 2011.

Asblikversameling

Daar sal geen vullis- en herwinningsversamelings wees nie. Vullis- en herwinningsversamelings sal vir die res van die week na die volgende dag gly & rdquo. Byvoorbeeld, afval- en herwinningsversamelings van Maandag en rsquos word Dinsdag gemaak, en Dinsdag en rsquos word op Woensdag afgehaal. In woonbuurte met afvalversamelings twee keer per week word Maandag en Donderdag afhaal. Aflewerings wat normaalweg Dinsdag en Vrydag gemaak word, word Woensdag en Saterdag gedoen. Vullis- en herwinningshouers moet nie vroeër as 18:30 die aand voor afhaal geplaas word nie en om 20:00 op die dag (en) van die afhaal uit die openbare ruimte verwyder word.

Handhawing van parkering

Parkeerhandhawing, insluitend kaartjies skryf vir parkeerplekke, meters wat verval het, straatvee en spitsoortredings word opgeskort. DPW sal ook die sleep van verlate voertuie opskort. Die handhawing sal op Dinsdag 6 September hervat word. Aangesien die Nationals tydens die Labor Day -naweek op Nationals Park speel, sal DPW parkeerbeperkings in die Nationals Park -omgewing afdwing.

Ft. Totten

Die Ft. Totten Transfer Station (4900 John F. McCormack Road, NE) sal Maandag, 5 September, gesluit wees vir residensiële kliënte en sal weer Dinsdag, 6 September, heropen.

  • Behalwe vakansiedae, kan inwoners hul asblik en grootmaat items weekdae (13:00 tot 17:00) en Saterdae (8:00 tot 15:00) na Ft. Totten vir wegdoening.
  • Die volgende maandelikse afleweringsdag vir huishoudelike gevaarlike afval/e-fietsry/versnippering is Saterdag 3 September van 08:00 tot 15:00. Hierdie diens word gelewer op die eerste Saterdag van die maand, behalwe vakansiedae. Inwoners mag ongewenste giftige items, soos plaagdoders, batterye en motorolie, saambring. Elektronika, insluitend televisies, rekenaars en selfone, sal ook aanvaar word. Inwoners mag tot vyf bokse persoonlike papierdokumente en kredietkaarte saambring om gratis te versny. Kompos is ook slegs op Saterdae vir inwoners beskikbaar.
  • Om inwoners te akkommodeer wie se geloofsoortuigings hulle verhinder om giftige en elektroniese voorwerpe na die gereelde aflaai van die eerste Saterdag van die maand te bring, sal DPW hierdie items by Ft. Totten Transfer Station op Donderdag 1 September tussen 13:00 en 19:00. DPW kan nie items vir versnippering op Donderdae aanvaar nie, want die departement kan hierdie dokumente nie beskerm totdat die versnipperkontrakteur die eerste Saterdag van die maand aankom nie.
  • Aanwysings na Ft. Totten, 4900 John F. McCormack Road, NE: Ry ooswaarts op Irvingstraat, NW, draai links op Michiganlaan, draai links op John F. McCormack Road, NE en gaan aan tot aan die einde van die straat.

Ander dienste wat vir Arbeidsdag opgeskort is, sluit in gereelde skoonmaak van straat- en stegies en vermindering van hinder. Alle dienste hervat Dinsdag 6 September 2011.


    - Slag van Huoyi: Li Yuan verslaan 'n leër van die Sui -dinastie, wat die weg oopmaak vir die verowering van die keiserlike hoofstad Chang'an en die uiteindelike vestiging van die Tang -dinastie. - Verkiesing van Antipope Theodoric. - Philip van Swaben, prins van Hohenstaufen, word gekroon as koning van Duitsland (koning van die Romeine) - Pous Innocentius IV heilig Stanislaus van Szczepanów, vermoor deur koning Bolesław II. - Die statuut van Kalisz, wat Jode veiligheid en persoonlike vryhede waarborg en gee battei din jurisdiksie oor Joodse aangeleenthede, word afgekondig deur Bolesław die Vroom, hertog van Groot -Pole. - Pous Johannes XXI word gekies. - Stefan Dušan verklaar homself as koning van Serwië. - Slag van Kulikovo: Russiese magte verslaan 'n gemengde leër van Tatare en Mongole en stop hul opmars. - Michelangelo's David word onthul in Piazza della Signoria in Florence. - Slag van Orsha: In een van die grootste gevegte van die eeu verslaan Litouwers en Pole die Russiese leër. - Magellan – Elcano omseiling: Victoria arriveer in Sevilla en voltooi die eerste omseil tegnies.
      word gestig deur die Spaanse admiraal en die eerste goewerneur van Florida, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés.
    • Die Ridders van Malta lig die Ottomaanse beleg op Malta op wat op 18 Mei begin het.
      word eers getoets. (Spaans: El Gran Arreo) begin met duisende skape wat van die Argentynse voorpos van Fortín Conesa na Santa Cruz naby die Straat van Magellan gejaag word. [1]
    • In Londen word die lyk van Jack die Ripper se tweede moordslagoffer, Annie Chapman, gevind.
    • In Engeland word die eerste ses Football League -wedstryde gespeel.
      -Keiser Xuanzong van Tang († 762)-Ansgar, Duitse aartsbiskop en heilige († 865)-Ali al-Hadi, Hijazi (Wes-Arabier), 10de van die Twaalf Imams († 868)-Richard I van Engeland ( 1199) - Sancho II van Portugal († 1248) - Charles Martel van Anjou († 1295) - Bernardino van Siena, Italiaanse priester, sendeling en heilige († 1444) - Catherine van Bologna, Italiaanse non en heilige († 1463) [3] - John de Vere, 13de graaf van Oxford, Engelse bevelvoerder en politikus, Lord Great Chamberlain van Engeland († 1513) - Henry Medwall, eerste bekende Engelse dramaturg († 1501) - Ludovico Ariosto , Italiaanse dramaturg en digter († 1533) - Alfonso Salmeron, Spaanse priester en geleerde († 1585) - Marin Mersenne, Franse wiskundige, filosoof en teoloog († 1648) - Toyotomi Hideyori, Japannese edelman († 1615) - Johann Friedrich Gronovius, Duitse geleerde en kritikus († 1671) - Louis, Grand Condé, Franse generaal († 1686) [4] - Ferdinand IV, koning van die Romeine († 1654) - Nicolas de Grigny, Franse orrelis en komponis (d. 1703) - François Francoeur, Franse violis en komponis († 1787) - Ozias Humphry, Engelse skilder en akademikus († 1810) [5] - Yolande de Polastron, Franse opvoeder († 1793) - Tanikaze Kajinosuke, Japannese sumo -worstelaar , die 4de Yokozuna († 1795) - Carl Stenborg, Sweedse operasanger, akteur en regisseur († 1813) - August Wilhelm Schlegel, Duitse digter en kritikus († 1845) - Anne Catherine Emmerich, Duitse non en mistikus ( 1824) - Mustafa IV, Ottomaanse sultan († 1808) - NFS Grundtvig, Deense predikant, filosoof en skrywer († 1872) - Eduard Mörike, Duitse predikant, digter en akademikus († 1875) - Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, Franse argeoloog, etnograaf en historikus († 1874)-Giuseppina Strepponi, Italiaanse sopraan en opvoeder († 1897)-Karl von Ditmar, Duitse geoloog en ontdekkingsreisiger († 1892)-Jaime Nunó, Spaans-Amerikaans komponis, dirigent en regisseur († 1908) - Joshua Chamberlain, Amerikaanse generaal en politikus, 32ste goewerneur van Maine († 1914)
    • 1828 - Clarence Cook, Amerikaanse skrywer en kritikus († 1900) - Frédéric Mistral, Franse digter en leksikograaf, Nobelpryswenner († 1914) - Wilhelm Raabe, Duitse skrywer en skilder († 1910) - Antonín Dvořák, Tsjeggiese komponis en akademikus († 1904)-Paul Chater, sakeman en politikus in Indië, Hong Kong († 1926)-John Jenkins, Amerikaans-Australiese sakeman en politikus, 22ste premier van Suid-Australië († 1923)-Gojong van Korea (d. . 1919) - Georg Michaelis, Duitse akademikus en politikus, 6de kanselier van Duitsland († 1936) - Maria van die Goddelike Hart, Duitse non en heilige († 1899) - WW Jacobs, Engelse romanskrywer en kortverhaalskrywer († 1943)-Alexander Parvus, Wit-Russies-Duitse teoretikus en aktivis († 1924)-Seth Weeks, Amerikaanse mandoliespeler, komponis en orkesleier († 1953)-José María Pino Suárez , Mexikaanse politikus, vise -president van Mexiko, vermoor tydens 'n militêre staatsgreep († 1913) - Samuel McLaughlin, Kanadese sakeman en filantroop, stig die McLaughlin Carriage Company († 1972) - James William McCarthy, Amerikaanse regter († 1939) - Alfred Jarry, Franse skrywer en dramaturg († 1907)
    • 1873-David O. McKay, Amerikaanse godsdienstige leier, 9de president van The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints († 1970)-Inez Knight Allen, Mormoonse sendeling en Utah-politikus († 1937)-Harry Hillman, Amerikaanse hardloper en hekkie († 1945)
    • 1881 - Refik Saydam, Turkse dokter en politikus, 5de premier van Turkye († 1942) - Théodore Pilette, Belgiese renjaer († 1921) - Siegfried Sassoon, Engelse kaptein, joernalis en digter († 1967)
    • 1886 - Ninon Vallin, Franse sopraan en aktrise († 1961) - Robert A. Taft, Amerikaanse prokureur en politikus († 1953) - John Samuel Bourque, Kanadese soldaat en politikus († 1974)
    • 1894-Willem Pijper, Nederlandse komponis en kritikus († 1947)-Howard Dietz, Amerikaanse publisist en liedjieskrywer († 1983)-Jimmie Rodgers, Amerikaanse sanger-liedjieskrywer en kitaarspeler († 1933)-Tilly Devine, Engels-Australiese georganiseerde misdaadbaas († 1970)
    • 1900-Claude Pepper, Amerikaanse prokureur en politikus († 1989)-Hendrik Verwoerd, Nederlands-Suid-Afrikaanse joernalis en politikus, 7de premier van Suid-Afrika († 1966)-Jane Arbor, Engelse skrywer († 1994)-Andrei Kirilenko, Russiese ingenieur en politikus († 1990)-William Wentworth, Australiese ekonoom en politikus, 11de Australiese minister vir menslike dienste († 2003)-Józef Noji, Poolse hardloper († 1943)-Jean-Louis Barrault, Franse akteur en regisseur († 1994) - Patriarg Demetrios I van Konstantinopel († 1991)
    • 1914-Denys Lasdun, Engelse argitek, ontwerp die Royal National Theatre († 2001)-NVM Gonzalez, Filippynse skrywer, digter en skrywer († 1999)-Jan Sedivka, Tsjeggies-Australiese violis en opvoeder († 2009)- Derek Barton, Engels-Amerikaanse chemikus en akademikus, Nobelpryswenner († 1998)-Gianni Brera, Italiaanse joernalis en skrywer († 1992)
    • 1919-Maria Lassnig, Oostenrykse skilder en akademikus († 2014)-Harry Secombe, Wallies-Engelse akteur († 2001)
    • 1921 - Dinko Šakić, Kroaties bevelvoerder van die konsentrasiekamp († 2008) [6] - Sid Caesar, Amerikaanse komiese akteur en skrywer († 2014)
    • 1922 - Lyndon LaRouche, Amerikaanse politikus en aktivis, stig die LaRouche -beweging († 2019) - Rasul Gamzatov, Russiese digter († 2003)
    • 1923-Wilbur Ware, Amerikaanse kontrabassist († 1979)-Wendell H. Ford, Amerikaanse luitenant en politikus, 53ste goewerneur van Kentucky († 2015)
    • 1924-Marie-Claire Kirkland, Amerikaans-Kanadese prokureur, regter en politikus († 2016)
    • 1924 - Grace Metalious, Amerikaanse skrywer († 1964)
    • 1924-Mimi Parent, Kanadese-Switserse skilder († 2005)-Jacqueline Ceballos, Amerikaanse aktivis, stig die Veteran Feminists of America
    • 1925-Peter Sellers, Engelse akteur en komediant († 1980)-Bhupen Hazarika, Indiese sanger-liedjieskrywer, digter en regisseur († 2011)-Harlan Howard, Amerikaanse liedjieskrywer († 2002)
    • 1927 - Robert L. Rock, Amerikaanse soldaat en politikus, 42ste luitenant -goewerneur van Indiana († 2013)
    • 1927-Marguerite Frank, Amerikaans-Franse wiskundige-Christoph von Dohnányi, Duitse dirigent-Nguyễn Cao Kỳ, Viëtnamese generaal en politikus, 16de premier van die Republiek van Viëtnam († 2011)-Marion Brown, Amerikaanse saxofonis en komponis (d. 2010)
    • 1931-John Garrett, Engelse soldaat en politikus († 2007)-Patsy Cline, Amerikaanse sanger-liedjieskrywer en pianis († 1963)-Asha Bhosle, Indiese sanger [7]
    • 1933 - Michael Frayn, Engelse skrywer en dramaturg
    • 1933 - Jeffrey Koo Sr., Taiwanese bankier en sakeman († 2012)
    • 1933 - Eric Salzman, Amerikaanse komponis, vervaardiger en kritikus († 2017)
    • 1933 - Maigonis Valdmanis, Lets basketbalspeler en afrigter († 1999) - Rodrigue Biron, Kanadese politikus
    • 1934 - Ross Brown, Nieu -Seelandse rugbyspeler († 2014)
    • 1934 - Peter Maxwell Davies, Engelse komponis en dirigent († 2016)
    • 1934 - Bernard Donoughue, Baron Donoughue, Engelse akademikus en politikus - Roy Newman, Engelse admiraal - Edna Adan Ismail, Somalilandse politikus en aktivis [8]
    • 1937-Barbara Frum, Amerikaans-Kanadese joernalis († 1992)
    • 1937 - Archie Goodwin, Amerikaanse skrywer en illustreerder († 1998) - Adrian Cronauer, Amerikaanse sersant en radiogasheer († 2018)
    • 1938 - Kenichi Horie, Japannese matroos
    • 1938 - Sam Nunn, Amerikaanse prokureur en politikus - Carsten Keller, Duitse hokkiespeler en afrigter
    • 1939 - Guitar Shorty, Amerikaanse sanger en kitaarspeler - Quentin L. Cook, Amerikaanse godsdienstige leier
    • 1940 - Jerzy Robert Nowak, Poolse historikus en joernalis
    • 1940 - Jack Prelutsky, Amerikaanse skrywer en digter - Bernie Sanders, Amerikaanse politikus [9] - Brian Cole, Amerikaanse baskitaarspeler († 1972)
    • 1942 - Judith Hann, Engelse joernalis en skrywer
    • 1942-Sal Valentino, Amerikaanse rock-sanger-liedjieskrywer en kitaarspeler-Adelaide C. Eckardt, Amerikaanse akademikus en politikus-Peter Bellamy, Engelse sanger-liedjieskrywer († 1991)
    • 1944 - Margaret Hodge, Engelse ekonoom en politikus
    • 1944 - Terry Jenner, Australiese krieketspeler en afrigter († 2011) - Lem Barney, Amerikaanse voetbalspeler
    • 1945 - Kelly Groucutt, Engelse baskitaarspeler († 2009)
    • 1945-Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Amerikaanse sanger-liedjieskrywer en klawerbordspeler († 1973)
    • 1945 - Vinko Puljić, Kroaties kardinaal
    • 1945 - Rogie Vachon, Kanadese yshokkiespeler en afrigter - L. C. Greenwood, Amerikaanse voetbalspeler († 2013)
    • 1946-Aziz Sancar, Turks-Amerikaanse bioloog en akademikus, Nobelpryswenner
    • 1946 - Wong Kan Seng, sakeman van Singapoer, voormalige adjunk -premier van Singapoer [10] - Valery Afanassiev, Russiese pianis en dirigent
    • 1947 - Halldór Ásgrímsson, Yslandse rekenmeester en politikus, 22ste premier van Ysland († 2015)
    • 1947 - Ann Beattie, Amerikaanse romanskrywer en kortverhaalskrywer
    • 1947-Benjamin Orr, Amerikaanse sanger-liedjieskrywer en baskitaarspeler († 2000)
    • 1947 - Marianne Wiggins, Amerikaanse skrywer - Great Kabuki, Japannese worstelaar
    • 1948-Jean-Pierre Monseré, Belgiese fietsryer († 1971)-Edward Hinds, Engelse natuurkundige en akademikus-Ian Davidson, Skotse prokureur en politikus
    • 1950-Zachary Richard, Amerikaanse sanger-liedjieskrywer en digter
    • 1950 - Mike Simpson, Amerikaanse tandarts en politikus - Tim Gullikson, Amerikaanse tennisspeler en afrigter († 1996)
    • 1951 - Tom Gullikson, Amerikaanse tennisspeler en afrigter
    • 1951 - John McDonnell, Engelse politikus
    • 1951 - Dezső Ránki, Hongaarse pianis - Will Lee, Amerikaanse baskitaarspeler
    • 1952 - Geoff Miller, Engelse krieketspeler
    • 1952 - Graham Mourie, Nieu -Seelandse rugbyspeler - Pascal Greggory, Franse akteur
    • 1953-Stein-Erik Olsen, Noorse kitaarspeler-Mark Lindsay Chapman, Engelse akteur
    • 1954 - Ruby Bridges, Amerikaanse burgerregte -aktivis
    • 1954 - Michael Shermer, Amerikaanse historikus, skrywer en akademikus, stig The Skeptics Society - David O'Halloran, Australiese sokkerspeler († 2013)
    • 1955 - Terry Tempest Williams, Amerikaanse omgewingsbewaarder en skrywer - Mick Brown, Amerikaanse tromspeler
    • 1956 - David Carr, Amerikaanse joernalis en skrywer († 2015)
    • 1956 - Maurice Cheeks, Amerikaanse basketbalspeler en afrigter
    • 1956 - Stefan Johansson, Sweedse renjaer - Walt Easley, Amerikaanse voetbalspeler († 2013) - Bart Batten, Amerikaanse worstelaar
    • 1958-Brad Batten, Amerikaanse worstelaar († 2014)-Michael Lardie, Amerikaanse klawerbordspeler, liedjieskrywer en vervaardiger-Aimee Mann, Amerikaanse sanger-liedjieskrywer, kitaarspeler en aktrise
    • 1960 - David Steele, Engelse baskitaarspeler en liedjieskrywer
    • 1960 – Aguri Suzuki, Japanese race car driver – Timothy Well, American wrestler (d. 2017) – Alexandros Alexiou, Greek footballer
    • 1963 – Daniel Wolpert, American scientist – Michael Johns, American businessman and political activist
    • 1964 – Joachim Nielsen, Norwegian singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2000)
    • 1964 – Raven, American wrestler – Darlene Zschech, Australian singer-songwriter and pastor
    • 1965 – Tutilo Burger, German Benedictine monk and abbot – Peter Furler, Australian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer – Eerik-Niiles Kross, Estonian politician and diplomat
    • 1967 – James Packer, Australian businessman
    • 1967 – Kimberly Peirce, American director, producer, and screenwriter – Wolfram Klein, German footballer
    • 1968 – Ray Wilson, Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist – Lars Bohinen, Norwegian footballer and manager
    • 1969 – Oswaldo Ibarra, Ecuadorian footballer
    • 1969 – Chris Powell, English footballer and manager
    • 1969 – Gary Speed, Welsh footballer and manager (d. 2011) – Neko Case, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
    • 1970 – Paul DiPietro, Canadian-Swiss ice hockey player
    • 1970 – Nidal Hasan, American soldier, psychiatrist, and mass murderer
    • 1970 – Latrell Sprewell, American basketball player
    • 1970 – Lodi, American wrestler
    • 1970 – Andy Ward, Irish rugby player and coach
    • 1970 – John Welborn, Australian rugby player – David Arquette, American actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and wrestler
    • 1971 – Martin Freeman, English actor
    • 1971 – Lachlan Murdoch, English-Australian businessman
    • 1971 – Dustin O'Halloran, American pianist and composer
    • 1971 – Daniel Petrov, Bulgarian boxer
    • 1971 – Pierre Sévigny, Canadian ice hockey player and coach – Markus Babbel, German footballer and manager
    • 1972 – Os du Randt, South African rugby player and coach
    • 1972 – Lisa Kennedy Montgomery, American radio and television host – Khamis Al-Dosari, Saudi Arabian footballer (d. 2020)
    • 1973 – Gabrial McNair, American saxophonist, keyboard player, and composer
    • 1973 – Troy Sanders, American singer-songwriter and bass player
    • 1973 – Matteo Strukul, Italian writer and journalist – Marios Agathokleous, Cypriot footballer
    • 1974 – Tanaz Eshaghian, Iranian-American director and producer
    • 1974 – Braulio Luna, Mexican footballer
    • 1974 – Rick Michaels, American wrestler – Lee Eul-yong, South Korean footballer and manager
    • 1975 – Richard Hughes, English drummer
    • 1975 – Chris Latham, Australian rugby player
    • 1975 – Elena Likhovtseva, Russian tennis player
    • 1975 – Larenz Tate, American actor, director, and producer – Gerald Drummond, Costa Rican footballer
    • 1976 – Jervis Drummond, Costa Rican footballer
    • 1976 – Sjeng Schalken, Dutch tennis player
    • 1977 – Jay McKee, Canadian ice hockey player and coach – Gerard Autet, Spanish footballer and manager
    • 1978 – Emanuele Ferraro, Italian footballer
    • 1978 – Gil Meche, American baseball player
    • 1978 – Angela Rawlings, Canadian-American author and poet
    • 1978 – Rebel, American wrestler – Pink, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress – Kate Abdo, English journalist
    • 1981 – Selim Benachour, Tunisian footballer
    • 1981 – Māris Ļaksa, Latvian basketball player
    • 1981 – Morten Gamst Pedersen, Norwegian footballer
    • 1981 – Jonathan Taylor Thomas, American actor – Travis Daniels, American football player – Kate Beaton, Canadian cartoonist
    • 1983 – Diego Benaglio, Swiss footballer
    • 1983 – Will Blalock, American basketball player
    • 1983 – Chris Judd, Australian footballer
    • 1983 – Wali Lundy, American football player
    • 1983 – Lewis Roberts-Thomson, Australian footballer
    • 1983 – Sarah Stup, American writer and autism activist [11][12] – Bobby Parnell, American baseball player
    • 1984 – Vitaly Petrov, Russian race car driver
    • 1984 – Jürgen Säumel, Austrian footballer
    • 1984 – Tiago Treichel, Brazilian footballer
    • 1984 – Peter Whittingham, English footballer – Tomasz Jodłowiec, Polish footballer – Brett Anderson, Australian rugby league player
    • 1986 – Carlos Bacca, Colombian footballer
    • 1986 – Matt Grothe, American football player
    • 1986 – Dan Hunt, Australian rugby league player
    • 1986 – João Moutinho, Portuguese footballer
    • 1986 – Kirill Nababkin, Russian footballer – Alexandre Bilodeau, Canadian skier
    • 1987 – Danielle Frenkel, Israeli high jumper
    • 1987 – Wiz Khalifa, Haitian rapper and actor
    • 1987 – Illya Marchenko, Ukrainian tennis player
    • 1987 – Marcel Nguyen, German gymnast – Arrelious Benn, American football player
    • 1988 – Chantal Jones, American model and actress
    • 1988 – Rie Kaneto, Japanese swimmer – Gylfi Sigurðsson, Icelandic footballer
    • 1989 – Avicii, Swedish electronic musician (d. 2018) – Matt Barkley, American football player
    • 1990 – Tokelo Rantie, South African footballer
    • 1990 – Musa Nizam, Turkish footballer – Jos Buttler, English cricketer – Ignacio González, Mexican footballer
    • 1991 – Joe Sugg, British vlogger – Nino Niederreiter, Swiss ice hockey player
    • 1992 – Kilian Pruschke, German footballer – Will Bosisto, Australian cricketer
    • 1993 – Yoshikazu Fujita, Japanese rugby union player [13] – Marco Benassi, Italian footballer
    • 1994 – Cameron Dallas, American internet personality
    • 1994 – Bruno Fernandes, Portuguese footballer [14] – Ellie Black, Canadian gymnast [15] – Matheus Leist, Brazilian race car driver – Brennan Malone, American baseball pitcher – Gaten Matarazzo, American actor and singer [16]
      – Arbogast, Frankish general – Pope Sergius I (b. 650) – Leo IV the Khazar, Byzantine emperor (b. 750) – Ahmad ibn Isra'il al-Anbari, Muslim vizier – Antipope Clement III (b. 1029) – Sir Simon Fraser, Scottish knight, hung drawn and quartered by the English – Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, English politician, Lord High Constable of England (b. 1355) – Charles III of Navarre (b. 1361) – John Stokesley, English bishop (b. 1475) – Saint Thomas of Villanueva, Spanish bishop and saint(b. 1488) – Amy Robsart, English noblewoman (b. 1536) – Carlo Gesualdo, Italian lute player and composer (b. 1566) – Robert Fludd, English physician, mathematician, and cosmologist (b. 1574) – John Coke, English civil servant and politician (b. 1563)
    • 1644 – Francis Quarles, English poet and author (b. 1592) – Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish poet and politician (b. 1580) – Joseph Hall, English bishop (b. 1574) – Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Spanish mathematician and philosopher (b. 1606) – Michael Brokoff, Czech sculptor (b. 1686) – Ephraim Williams, American soldier and philanthropist (b. 1715) – Bernard Forest de Bélidor, French mathematician and engineer (b. 1698) – Enoch Poor, American general (b. 1736) – Ann Lee, English-American religious leader (b. 1736) – Peter Simon Pallas, German zoologist and botanist (b. 1741) – John Aitken, Scottish-American publisher (b. 1745) – Frédéric Ozanam, French scholar, co-founded the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul (b. 1813) – Joseph Liouville, French mathematician and academic (b. 1809) – Friedrich Baumfelder, German pianist, composer, and conductor (b. 1836) – Hermann von Helmholtz, German physician and physicist (b. 1821) – Vere St. Leger Goold, Irish tennis player (b. 1853) – Faisal I of Iraq (b. 1883) – Carl Weiss, American physician (b. 1906) – Hemmo Kallio, Finnish actor (b. 1863) – Rıza Nur, Turkish surgeon and politician (b. 1879) – Julius Fučík, Czech journalist (b. 1903) – Jan van Gilse, Dutch composer and conductor (b. 1881) – Richard Strauss, German composer and manager (b. 1864) – André Derain, French painter and sculptor (b. 1880) – Maurice Wilks, English engineer and businessman (d. 1904) – Dorothy Dandridge, American actress and singer (b. 1922) [17]
    • 1965 – Hermann Staudinger, German chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1881) – Bud Collyer, American game show host (b. 1908)
    • 1969 – Alexandra David-Néel, Belgian-French explorer and activist (b. 1868) – Percy Spencer, American engineer, invented the microwave oven (b. 1894) – Wolfgang Windgassen, French-German tenor (b. 1914) – Zero Mostel, American actor and comedian (b. 1915) – Willard Libby, American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908) – Nisargadatta Maharaj, Indian guru, philosopher, and educator (b. 1897)
    • 1981 – Roy Wilkins, American journalist and activist (b. 1901)
    • 1981 – Hideki Yukawa, Japanese physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1907) – Antonin Magne, French cyclist (b. 1904) – John Franklin Enders, American virologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1887) [18] – Denys Watkins-Pitchford, English author and illustrator (b. 1905) – Alex North, American composer and conductor (b. 1910) – Derek Taylor, English journalist and author (b. 1932) – Moondog, American-German singer-songwriter, drummer, and poet (b. 1916) – Bill Ricker, Canadian entomologist and author (b. 1908) – Laurie Williams, Jamaican cricketer (b. 1968) – Leni Riefenstahl, German actress, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1902) – Frank Thomas, American animator, voice actor, and screenwriter (b. 1913) – Noel Cantwell, Irish cricketer, footballer, and manager (b. 1932)
    • 2005 – Donald Horne, Australian journalist, author, and critic (b. 1921) – Hilda Bernstein, English-South African author and activist (b. 1915)
    • 2006 – Peter Brock, Australian race car driver and sportscaster (b. 1945) – Vincent Serventy, Australian ornithologist, conservationist, and author (b. 1916) – Ralph Plaisted, American explorer (b. 1927) – Aage Bohr, Danish physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1922)
    • 2009 – Mike Bongiorno, American-Italian television host (b. 1924) – Ronald Hamowy, Canadian historian and academic (b. 1937)
    • 2012 – Bill Moggridge, English-American designer, author, and educator, co-founded IDEO (b. 1943)
    • 2012 – Thomas Szasz, Hungarian-American psychiatrist and academic (b. 1920) – Goose Gonsoulin, American football player (b. 1938)
    • 2013 – Don Reichert, Canadian painter and photographer (b. 1932)
    • 2013 – Jean Véronis, French linguist, computer scientist, and blogger (b. 1955) – Marvin Barnes, American basketball player (b. 1952)
    • 2014 – S. Truett Cathy, American businessman, founded Chick-fil-A (b. 1921)
    • 2014 – Sean O'Haire, American wrestler, mixed martial artist, and kick-boxer (b. 1971)
    • 2014 – Magda Olivero, Italian soprano (b. 1910) [19]
    • 2014 – Gerald Wilson, American trumpet player and composer (b. 1918)
    • 2014 – George Zuverink, American baseball player (b. 1924) – Joaquín Andújar, Dominican baseball player (b. 1952)
    • 2015 – Andrew Kohut, American political scientist and academic (b. 1942)
    • 2015 – Tyler Sash, American football player (b. 1988)
    • 2015 – Joost Zwagerman, Dutch author and poet (b. 1963) – Hannes Arch, Austrian race pilot (b. 1967)
    • 2016 – Dragiša Pešić, Montenegrin politician, 5th Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (b. 1954)
    • 2016 – Prince Buster, Jamaican singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1938) – Pierre Bergé, French businessman (b. 1930)
    • 2017 – Blake Heron, American actor (b. 1982)
    • 2017 – Jerry Pournelle, American author and journalist (b. 1933)
    • 2017 – Ljubiša Samardžić, Serbian actor and director (b. 1936)
    • 2017 – Don Williams, American musician (b. 1939) – Gennadi Gagulia, Prime Minister of Abkhazia (b. 1948)
    • 2018 – Chelsi Smith, American singer and beauty pageant winner (b. 1973)

    Daniel Defoe published an pamphlet entitled "A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal the Next Day after her Death to One Mrs. Bargrave at Canterbury the 8th of September, 1705", purporting to document the details of the encounter between the living Mrs. Bargrave and the ghost of her dead neighbor Mrs. Veal.


    Updated August 2017 Price Basket 2008-2017

    Find more on our Latest Updated 2017 Price Basket We created this page to document
    1. Comparison 2008 to 2017
    2. Comparing prices and wages inflation
    %'s Below are approximations
    Price Basket: 32% increase from 2008 to 2017.
    Healthcare: 32% increase from 2008 to 2017.
    Consumer Price Index (CPI) : 15% increase from 2008 to 2017.
    Wages: 12% increase from 2008 to 2017.

    Incuded in the basket Basic Food and Groceries we all buy every week
    Other stats include 2008 - 2017 Each Year Prices for Gas, Movie Ticket, First Class Stamp, College Tuition, Wrangler Jeans, Average House Rent, Average House Purchase, KW/Hr Electric, Wages, Unemployment Percentage, Fed Base Rate Percentage, Dow Jones, Inflation US Gov, CPI US Gov, Gold per Ounce.

    1959 : The Post Office is introducing new direct dial pay phones in the UK which will not require connection via an operator, the new phones will accept 3d, 6d and 1s coins and payment will be needed only after the call is connected.

    Full Size Original Here:
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Telephone_box_in_Whitwell.JPG

    September 5th, 1967 : The changes to driving on the right hand side which came into law this weekend caused less problems and accidents than in a normal weekend due to the additional careful driving of Swedish Drivers becoming acquainted to the change.

    Full Size Original Here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Countries_driving_on_the_left_or_right.svg

    September 5th, 1978 : In England just off the coast of Harwich Roy Bates has declared that the new state of Sealand is outside British jurisdiction, The new state he has declared is an old abandoned steel antiaircraft fortress built during the second world war 7 miles out to sea. He plans to build a radio station which will also be outside British jurisdiction which will become one of the ever growing Pirate Radio Stations providing entertainment to the British Public.

    Full Size Original Here:
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Sealand_fortress.jpg

    1986 : Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked by four armed men dressed as security guards demanding to be flown to Cyprus at Karachi International Airport in Pakistan. The hijack ended after the aircraft lost power causing the hijackers to fire indiscriminately killing 22 passengers and injuring 150 others.

    Full Size Original Here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Pan_Am_747_LAX.jpg

    2002 : President Bush has promised to seek congress approval for "whatever is necessary" to oust Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq, Democrats in the senate are concerned that the president has not yet proved his case to go to war with Iraq.

    Full Size Original Here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:George-W-Bush.jpeg

    September 5th, 2004 : The current administration under George Bush is pushing through new laws which end many of the environmental protections put in place under the Clinton administration and maybe the most affected could be the worlds largest temperate rainforest "The Tongass Forest" in Alaska. Under earlier environmental controls "roadless rule" large areas of forestry were protected but there are new large scale logging plans not only for Tongass but other national forests.

    Full Size Original Here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tongassmap3.gif

    2007 : Apple has launched it's latest product the iTouch a mixture between an iPhone ( touch screen ) and an iPod which has built in wi-fi and a web browser allowing the device to download music via the onboard wi-fi iTunes store, prices have been announced as $299 with 8 gigabytes of memory for Apples latest gadget.


    Labor Day’s legacy

    In spite of its bloody aftermath, the creation of a Labor Day holiday made waves. In Canada, Prime Minister John Thompson also faced mounting pressure from the labor movement. On July 23, 1894—less than a month after the U.S. bill had passed—Thompson followed Cleveland’s lead in designating the first Monday in September an official holiday for workers.

    But the holiday did not improve conditions for the people it sought to honor, and was little more than lip service from politicians. As the U.S. House Committee on Labor said in its 1894 report on the legislation: “So long as the laboring man can feel that he holds an honorable as well as a useful place in the body politic, so long will he be a loyal and faithful citizen.” It would take another 44 years for the U.S. to set a minimum wage, mandate a shorter workweek, and limit child labor with the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Whatever the intentions, the creation of a holiday devoted solely to workers was nonetheless an important achievement for the labor movement. “Labor Day marks a new epoch in the annals of human history,” wrote Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor, in the New York Times in 1910. “Among all the festive days of the year. there is not one which stands so conspicuously for social advancement of the common people as the first Monday in September.”


    Labor Day History

    There’s disagreement over how the holiday began. One version is set in September 1882 with the Knights of Labor, the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations at the time. The Knights in New York City held a public parade featuring various labor organizations on September 5 — with the aid of the fledgling Central Labor Union (CLU) of New York. Subsequently, CLU Secretary Matthew Maguire proposed that a national Labor Day holiday be held on the first Monday of each September to mark this successful public demonstration.

    In another version, Labor Day in September was proposed by Peter J. McGuire, a vice president of the American Federation of Labor. In spring 1882, McGuire reportedly proposed a “general holiday for the laboring classes” to the CLU, which would begin with a street parade of organized labor solidarity and end with a picnic fundraiser for local unions. McGuire suggested the first Monday in September as an ideal date for Labor Day because the weather is great at that time of year, and it falls between July 4th and Thanksgiving. Oregon became the first U.S. state to make it an official public holiday. 29 other states had joined by the time the federal government declared it a federal holiday in 1894.

    Maguire or McGuire? Read more on this unusual coincidence in our FAQs below.

    What is the Haymarket affair?

    On May 4, 1886 — at a time when most American laborers worked 18 or even 20 hours a day — tens of thousands of workers protested in cities all across the U.S. to demand an eight-hour workday. Police in Chicago attacked both those peaceful protests and a workers planning meeting two days later, randomly beating and shooting at the planning group and killing six. When outraged Chicagoans attended an initially peaceful protest the next evening in Haymarket Square, police advanced on the crowd again. Someone who was never identified detonated a bomb that killed a police officer, leading cops to open fire on protesters and provoke violence that led to the deaths of about a dozen workers and police.

    The Pullman strike

    Ironically, Chicago was also the setting for the bloody Pullman strike of 1894, which catalyzed the establishment of an official Labor Day holiday in the U.S. on the first Monday of September.

    The strike happened in May in the company town of Pullman, Chicago, a factory location established by luxury railroad car manufacturer the Pullman Company. The inequality of the town was more than apparent. Company owner George Pullman lived in a mansion while most laborers stayed in barracks-style dormitories. When a nationwide depression struck in 1893, Pullman decided to cut costs the way a lot of executives at the time did — by lowering wages by almost 30% while he kept the rent on the dormitories he leased to his workers at pre-depression levels.

    Railroad boycott

    These conditions ultimately led workers to strike on May 11, 1894. The walkout gained the support of the nationwide American Railroad Union (ARU), which declared that ARU members would no longer work on trains that included Pullman cars. That national boycott would end up bringing the railroads west of Chicago to a standstill and led to 125,000 workers across 29 railroad companies quitting their jobs rather than breaking the boycott.

    When the Chicago railroad companies hired strikebreakers as replacements, strikers also took various actions to stop the trains. The General Managers Association, which represented local railroad companies, countered by inducing U.S. Attorney General Richard Olney, a former railroad attorney, to intervene. Indianapolis federal courts granted Olney an injunction against the strike, a move that allowed President Grover Cleveland to send in federal troops to break it up.

    A few days later, Cleveland realized that he had to act quickly to appease the country’s increasingly agitated labor movement. But he didn’t want to commemorate the Haymarket incident with a May holiday that would invoke radical worker sentiment. So Cleveland harkened back to the first established September 1882 holiday and signed into law that Labor Day in the U.S. would be celebrated on the first Monday in September.


    Oil went nuts after Russia and Saudi Arabia talked about freezing output

    At a press conference during the G20 summit currently going on in China, Saudi Arabia's energy minister Khalid al-Falih told reporters that the two countries held discussions about the state of the oil markets which brought them "closer together," according to a Reuters report.

    Al-Falih's conference was trailed as a "significant announcement" and appears to have disappointed many market participants, who were expecting that a decisive plan of action may be announced. As a result, the price of oil slipped somewhat from its pre-conference position.

    Prior to the announcement, both major oil benchmarks were higher by more than 4.5%, but both have now dropped substantially as of around 3:25 p.m. BST (10:25 a.m. ET). Here's how US WTI crude looks (note the substantial drop since mid-morning):

    The announcement came after Saudi deputy crown prince Mohammed bin Salman told Russian President Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of the summit that cooperation between the two countries would bring benefit to the global oil market, according to a report from Reuters.

    Russia and Saudi Arabia are probably the two most important oil producers on the planet, with Saudi Arabia the de facto leader of the OPEC cartel of oil-producing nations. Russia, alongside the USA, is one of the two biggest non-OPEC producers. What the two nations do regarding oil policy has profound effects on the markets. For example, at April's massively anticipated OPEC meeting about a freeze in production, Saudi Arabia refused to cooperate unless Iran joined in any production freeze, and, as a result the meeting ended up as a damp squib.

    With the two nations starting to work together, hopes for a solution to the massive glut in the oil industry are rising. However, we have seen promises of co-operation before. For instance, in August, Russian oil minister Alexander Novak told a Saudi newspaper: " With regard to the cooperation with Saudi Arabia, the dialogue between our two countries is developing in a tangible way, whether in the framework of a multi-party structure or on a bilateral level."


    Labor Day

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    Labor Day, in the United States and Canada, holiday (first Monday in September) honouring workers and recognizing their contributions to society. In many other countries May Day serves a similar purpose.

    When is Labor Day?

    Labor Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September in the United States and Canada. In 2020 Labor Day is on September 7.

    What is the purpose of Labor Day?

    The purpose of Labor Day is to honour workers and recognize their contributions to society.

    Where did Labor Day come from?

    Union leader Peter J. McGuire is generally given credit for the idea of Labor Day in the United States, but it was likely another leader, Matthew Maguire, who suggested to the Central Labor Union of New York a celebration honouring workers. This resulted in a parade of some 10,000 workers on September 5, 1882. By 1885 Labor Day celebrations were being held in a number of states, and in 1894 U.S. President Grover Cleveland signed into law a bill making Labor Day a national holiday.

    What is Labor Day weekend?

    Because many workers are not required to work on Labor Day, which is on a Monday, the weekend before the holiday has become known as Labor Day weekend. The long weekend is often used to celebrate with friends and family.

    What is the difference between Labor Day and May Day?

    Though Labor Day and May Day are both holidays intended to honour labourers, U.S. President Grover Cleveland was uneasy with the socialist origins of May Day, and in 1894 he made Labor Day the official U.S. holiday.

    In the United States, Peter J. McGuire, a union leader who had founded the United Brotherhood of Carpenters in 1881, is generally given credit for the idea of Labor Day. In 1882 he suggested to the Central Labor Union of New York that there be a celebration honouring American workers. On September 5 some 10,000 workers, under the sponsorship of the Knights of Labor, held a parade in New York City. There was no particular significance to the date, and McGuire said that it was chosen because it fell roughly halfway between the Fourth of July holiday and Thanksgiving. In 1884 the Knights of Labor adopted a resolution that the first Monday in September be considered Labor Day. The idea quickly spread, and by the following year Labor Day celebrations were being held in a number of states. Oregon became the first state, in 1887, to grant legal status to the holiday (although the state initially celebrated it on the first Saturday in June). That same year Colorado, New York, Massachusetts, and New Jersey established the holiday on the first Monday in September, and other states soon followed. In 1894 the Pullman strike in Illinois, as well as a series of unemployed workers’ riots on May Day in Cleveland, prompted U.S. Pres. Grover Cleveland to propose a bill that would make Labor Day a national public holiday. The bill, which was crafted in part to deflect attention from May Day (an unofficial observance rooted in socialist movements), was signed into law in June of that year.

    Over the years, particularly as the influence of unions waned, the significance of Labor Day in the United States changed. For many people it became an end-of-summer celebration and a long weekend for family get-togethers. At the same time, it has continued to be celebrated with parades and speeches, as well as political rallies, and the day is sometimes the official kickoff date for national political campaigns.

    In Canada the first parades of workers were held in 1872 in Ottawa and Toronto, and later in that year the law making labour unions illegal was repealed. McGuire was invited to speak at the celebration in 1882. In 1894 Parliament officially recognized the holiday in Canada.

    Most other countries honour workers on May Day (May 1). The day was a major holiday in communist countries, and it continues to be important where left-wing political parties and labour movements wield influence.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


    UPI Almanac for Monday, Sept. 5, 2016

    Today is Monday, Sept. 5, the 249th day of 2016 with 117 to follow.

    This is Labor Day in the United States.

    The moon is waxing. Morning stars are Neptune and Uranus. Evening stars are Venus, Mercury, Mars, Saturn and Neptune.

    Those born on this date are under the sign of Virgo. They include French King Louis XIV in 1638 outlaw Jesse James in 1847 distiller Jack Daniel in 1846 baseball Hall of Fame member Napoleon Lajoie in 1874 marketing research engineer A.C. Nielsen in 1897 movie producer Darryl F. Zanuck in 1902 author Arthur Koestler in 1905 retired Federal Reserve Board Chairman Paul Volcker in 1927 (age 89) comedian Bob Newhart in 1929 (age 87) singer/actor Carol Lawrence in 1932 (age 84) actor William Devane in 1937 (age 79) actor George Lazenby in 1939 (age 77) actor Raquel Welch in 1940 (age 76) film director Werner Herzog in 1942 (age 74) singer Al Stewart in 1945 (age 71) singer Loudon Wainwright III in 1946 (age 70) singer Freddie Mercury (Queen) in 1946 actor Dennis Dugan in 1946 (age 70) cartoonist Cathy Guisewite in 1950 (age 66) actor Michael Keaton in 1951 (age 65) rock musician Dweezil Zappa in 1969 (age 47).

    In 1774, the first Continental Congress convened in secret in Philadelphia.

    In 1877, Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse was fatally bayoneted by a U.S. soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson, Neb. A year earlier, Crazy Horse was among the Sioux leaders who defeated George Armstrong Custer's Seventh Cavalry at the Battle of Little Bighorn in Montana Territory.

    In 1882, 10,000 workers marched in the first Labor Day parade -- in New York City.

    In 1935, singing cowboy Gene Autry starred in his first Western feature, "Tumbling Tumbleweeds."

    In 1972, Palestinian militants invaded the Olympic Village outside Munich, West Germany, and killed 11 Israeli athletes and six other people.

    In 1975, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of mass murderer Charles Manson, failed in an attempt to shoot U.S. President Gerald Ford. Fromme was paroled in 2009 after 34 years in prison.

    In 1995, France conducted an underground nuclear test at the Mururoa Atoll in the South Pacific. It was the first of several -- all of which were met by protests worldwide.

    In 2006, Katie Couric, longtime co-host of the NBC Today Show, became the first solo female anchor on a major U.S. television network when she took over the "CBS Evening News."

    In 2007, wealthy, record-setting U.S. adventurer-aviator Steve Fossett, 63, vanished on a short flight in western Nevada. (He was declared dead five months later.) Among his many records, he was the first person to fly around the world solo in a balloon and first to fly around the globe solo without refueling.

    In 2012, a suitcase containing a human torso was found floating in Lake Ontario. Police said the remains, and other body parts discovered in Toronto-area parks and waterways, were those of Guang Hua Liu, 41, missing since mid-August. Her former boyfriend, Chun Qi Jiang, 40, was arrested. He was convicted of second-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison.

    In 2013, Walmart workers staged protests in at least 15 cities. They said they wanted better jobs and higher pay (at least $25,000 for full-time employees). A Walmart representative called the protests "a handful of union-orchestrated media stunts."

    In 2014, U.S. officials said Ahmed Abdi Godane, leader of the Somalia-based Islamic militant organization al-Shabab, was killed in an American airstrike. In 2012, the United States had posted a $7 million reward for his arrest.

    A thought for the day: "No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion." -- Nelson Mandela


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