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Robert Anderson

Robert Anderson


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Robert Bernerd Anderson is gebore in Burleson, Texas, op 4 Junie 1910. Hy studeer aan die Universiteit van Texas Law School. Hy het as advokaat gewerk totdat hy in 1932 lid van die Texas State House of Representatives geword het. Die jaar daarna is hy aangestel as assistent -prokureur -generaal van Texas. In 1934 word hy 'n Texas State Tax Commissaris.

Anderson het die KTBC -radiostasie gekoop. In 1943 verkoop hy dit vir $ 17,500 aan die vrou van Lyndon B. Johnson. Teen 1951 verdien die stasie $ 3,000 per week.

Anderson, 'n goeie vriend van Sid Richardson en Clint Murchison, het president geword van die Texas Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association.

Toe Dwight Eisenhower die presidentskap wen, word Anderson sekretaris van die vloot. In Mei 1954 verlaat mnr. Anderson sy vlootpos om adjunkminister van verdediging te word. Van 1957 tot 1961 dien hy as president Eisenhower se sekretaris van die tesourie. In hierdie pos het hy wetgewing ingestel wat voordelig is vir die oliebedryf.

Nadat hy sy amp verlaat het, was hy bedrywig in sake-, beleggings- en banksake, en het hy diplomatieke missies namens president Lyndon B. Johnson uitgevoer. Daar is ook berig dat hy as konsultant en lobbyist vir Sun Myung Moon en sy Church of Unification gewerk het.

In 1987 is Anderson skuldig bevind aan belastingontduiking. Dit het verband gehou met moontlike geldwassery waarby 'n ongeregistreerde bank wat hy bedryf het, betrokke was. Hy is uitgeskakel en tronk toe gestuur.

Robert B. Anderson is op 14 Augustus 1989 in New York oorlede.

Anderson se kragtige invloed op Lyndon Johnson en die posisie wat Anderson aangeneem het in die bestuur van die finansiële beleid van die Johnson -administrasie, was van die begin af bekend en voorspelbaar. Hulle is 'n intieme bondgenoot vir dertig jaar van politiek in Texas en Washington. Hulle was veral intiem in die opstel van 'n olieprogram wat sonder veel openbare bewustheid tot 'n omstrede krisis ontwikkel het wat eers deur Kennedy se dood onderbreek is.

Die saadjie van die program is regtig meer as 'n kwarteeu gelede geplant op 'n passasierstrein wat deur die nag klap. Daar is verskeie weergawes van wat gebeur het, maar een gaan op hierdie manier: oliemiljoenêr Sid Richardson, en president Roosevelt se seun Elliott, en Bill Kittrell, 'n soort protegie van Sam Rayburn en 'n bekende man oor Texas, hou mekaar geselskap op 'n reis na Washington. Maar die gesprek begin sak, so Richardson stuur Kittrell in die stoelmotor om 'n vierde te soek vir 'n ronde brug. Langsaam kom Kittrell terug met 'n jong leër-kolonel agterna, 'n oopkopgenoot met die naam Dwight Eisenhower.

Uit die treinreis het 'n sterk vriendskap ontstaan ​​tussen Eisenhower en Richardson; na die oorlog, toe Eisenhower deur albei politieke partye gehaas word, het sy olie -vriendin in Texas in Parys opgedaag om hom te vertel dat as hy ooit in die politiek sou kom, hy op baie Richardson -geld kon reken.

Presies wat die vrygewigheid wat Richardson getoon het, was nog nooit meer as 'n wanvoorstel nie, maar dit was blykbaar genoeg om Eisenhower matig dankbaar te maak. Toe Richardson en ander Texas -oliemanne Robert Anderson aanbeveel het, het Eisenhower hom sekretaris van die vloot genoem. Die belangrikheid hiervan vir oliemanne in Texas is 'n kwessie van byna komiese spanning. Anderson, 'n inwoner van Fort Worth wat in 'n land geleë is, het niks van vlootsake geweet voordat hy die pos gekry het nie, maar dit maak nie saak nie; al wat hy nodig gehad het om te weet, was dat Texas die grootste olieproduserende staat is en dat die vloot die grootste verbruiker van olie is, sowel as verhuurder van waardevolle gronde aan gunstige olieondernemings. Uit hierdie produsent-verbruiker-verhouding werk dinge redelik natuurlik, en dit was hierdie elementêre kennis wat later John Connally (wat jare lank deur die goeie kantore van sy mentor Lyndon Johnson was, as advokaat van Sid Richardson gedien het en later eksekuteur van die Richardson -landgoed) en Fred Korth, ook inwoners van Fort Worth, sulke bekwame sekretarisse van die vloot, volgens Texas -standaarde ...

Eisenhower, op aandrang van Richardson en Lyndon Johnson, het hom na die kantoor van minister van finansies benoem, en op 21 Junie (1957), tien dae nadat hy sy geskenk -olie -eiendom verkoop het, was Anderson vry en duidelik om aan die senaat se finansiële komitee te sê dat hy het geen eiendom gehad wat in stryd sou wees met sy belang in die kabinetspos nie.

'N Paar weke later is Anderson in 'n kabinetskomitee aangestel om die olie -invoersituasie te "bestudeer"; uit hierdie studie het die huidige program gekom wat die groot oliemaatskappye, veral die internasionale oliereuse, met ongeveer een miljard dollar per jaar baat.

Alhoewel Standard of Indiana, een van die maatskappye wat betrokke was by Anderson se miljoen dollar, die gevolglike invoerprogram tot groot sukses gebruik het, het hy binne 'n paar jaar van 'n maatskappy sonder buitelandse aandele na een van die grootste oorsese olie-ontdekkingsreisigers oorgegaan, maar daar was niks onwettig in hierdie wedersydse voordeel. Anderson kan niks anders as 'n swak smaak aangekla word nie.

Anderson is ook nie alleen verantwoordelik gehou vir die formule van die olie -invoerprogram nie; glad nie. Insiders van die industrie het geglo-en hul oortuigings is in industriële publikasies gedruk-dat Lyndon Johnson en sy bondgenoot in alle opsigte wat verband hou met wetgewing oor die oliebedryf, net so invloedryk in die vorming van die program, wyle senator Robert Kerr van Oklahoma. Kerr, 'n eienaar van die Kerr-McGee Oil Company, het baie goed gevaar onder die nuwe olieprogram, maar sy houding teenoor belangebotsing was besonder gemaklik. 'Hel,' het hy eenkeer opgemerk, 'as almal hulle vanweë persoonlike belangstelling onthou het, twyfel ek of u 'n kworum in die Amerikaanse senaat kan kry oor enige onderwerp.'

Fletcher Knebel in die Des Moines Register het die talle geskenke wat op die plaas Eisenhower aangebied is, noukeurig gelys, waaronder 'n John Deere-trekker met 'n radio daarin, 'n volledig toegeruste elektriese kombuis, verbeterings in die landskap en ponies, en Black Angus se stuurwaarde ter waarde van altesaam meer as 'n halfmiljoen dollar. Vergelyk hierdie uitbarsting met die $ 1,200 diep vries - en die gevolglike herrie daaroor - wat president Truman gegee het deur 'n vriend van generaal Harry Vaughn in Milwaukee. Maar geen koerant het ingegaan op die uiters kompromittêre feit dat die onderhoud van die plaas Eisenhower deur drie oliemanne betaal is nie - W. Alton Jones, voorsitter van die uitvoerende komitee van Cities Service; B. B. (Billy) Byars van Tyler, Texas, en George E. Allen, direkteur van 'n twintig korporasies en 'n groot belegger in olie saam met majoor Louey Kung, neef van Chiang Kai-shek. Hulle het 'n streng privaat huurooreenkoms onderteken, waarvolgens hulle die plaaskoste moes betaal en die winste moes invorder. Internal Revenue kon, nadat hulle by die ooreenkoms ingegaan het, geen bewyse vind dat die oliemanne probeer het om die plaas as 'n winsgewende onderneming te bedryf nie. Internal Revenue het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die geld wat die oliemanne op die plaas gestort het, nie as 'n besigheidsuitgawe afgetrek kon word nie, maar as 'n direkte geskenk aangemeld moes word. Deur die amptelike beslissing van die Internal Revenue Service het drie olielede Ike dus meer as $ 500 000 gegee terwyl hy besluite neem wat gunstig was vir die oliebedryf. Die geld het gegaan vir kapitaalverbeterings soos: die bou van 'n skuur, $ 30,000; drie kleiner skure, ongeveer $ 22,000; opknapping van 'n skoolhuis as 'n huis vir John Eisenhower, $ 10,000; opknapping van die hoofhuis, $ 110,000; landskap van 10 hektaar rondom die Eisenhower -huis, $ 6,000; plus aansienlike uitgawes vir die personeel, insluitend 'n plaasbestuurder van $ 10 000 jaar.

Hoe die geld betaal is, word onthul in 'n brief van 28 Januarie 1958, en geskryf uit Gettysburg deur generaal Arthur S. Nevins, Ike se plaasbestuurder. Gerig aan George E. Allen in Washington en B. Byars in Tyler, Texas, het dit begin, "Beste George en Billy" en die werking van die plaas in detail bespreek. Dit het gedeeltelik gesê:

"Nuwe onderwerp - Die fondse vir die boerdery word laag. Elkeen van julle sou my ook die gewone bedrag van $ 2500 laat betaal. 'N Soortgelyke bedrag sal van W. Alton Jones se fondse na die vennootskaprekening oorgeplaas word."

In die linkerhoek van die brief is die notasie dat 'n kopie na W. Alton Jones gestuur is.

Gedurende sy agt jaar in die Withuis het Dwight Eisenhower meer gedoen vir die land se private olie- en gasbelange as enige ander president. Hy het wetgewing aangemoedig en onderteken wat 'n beslissing van die Hooggeregshof oorhandig het wat buitelandse olie aan die federale regering gee. Hy het kantoorruimte in die Withuis gegee aan 'n komitee van olie- en gasmanne wat 'n verslag geskryf het waarin wetgewing aanbeveel word wat aardgaspypleidings deur die Federal Power Commission sou verwyder. In sy aanstellings by die FPC was elke kommissaris wat Ike genoem het, behalwe een, William Connole, 'n pro-industrie man. Toe Connole beswaar maak teen die verhoging van die gasprys, het Eisenhower hom uit die kommissie onthef aan die einde van sy termyn.

Op 19 Januarie 1961, 'n dag voor sy vertrek uit die Withuis, onderteken Eisenhower 'n prosedure -instruksie oor die invoer van oorblywende olie wat vereis dat alle invoerders moet oorskakel en 15 persent van hul kwotas moet afstaan ​​aan nuwelinge wat 'n deel van die aksie wil hê. Een van die grootste begunstigdes van hierdie uitvoerende bevel op die laaste oomblik was Cities Service, wat tot dusver geen oorblywende kwota gehad het nie, maar wat volgens Ike se nuwe bestelling ongeveer 3000 vate per dag toegeken is. Die hoof uitvoerende beampte van Cities Service was W. Alton Jones, een van die drie getroue bydraers tot die instandhouding van die plaas Eisenhower.

Drie maande later vlieg Jones na Palm Springs om die afgetrede president van die Verenigde State te besoek toe sy vliegtuig neerstort en Jones dood is. In sy aktetas is $ 61 000 in kontant en reistjeks gevind. Daar is nooit 'n verduideliking aangebied nie - in werklikheid is daar nooit deur die selfvoldane Amerikaanse pers gevra nie - waarom die hoof van een van die voorste oliemaatskappye van Amerika vlieg om die voormalige president van die Verenigde State met $ 61,000 in sy aktetas te sien . (438-440)

In 1961 is John Foster Dulles dood. Allen Dulles is heraangestel as hoof van die CIA as die heel eerste besluit wat deur president-president Kennedy aangekondig is. En president Eisenhower het teruggetrek na 'n plaas van 576 hektaar naby Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Die plaas, destyds kleiner, is in 1950 deur generaal en mev. Eisenhower vir $ 24 000 gekoop, maar teen 1960 was dit ongeveer $ 1 miljoen werd. Die grootste deel van die verskil was die geskenke van Texas -oliebestuurders wat verband hou met Rockefeller -oliebelange. Die oliemanne het omliggende grond vir Eisenhower onder dummy -name aangeskaf, dit met vee en groot, moderne skure gevul, vir uitgebreide opknappings aan die Eisenhower -huis betaal en selfs tjeks uitgeskryf om die gehuurde hulp te betaal.

Hierdie oliebestuurders was medewerkers van Sid Richardson en Clint Murchison, miljardêr in Texas, wat saam met Rockefeller -belange gewerk het aan sommige eiendomme in Texas en Louisiana en om die prys te behou.

van olie. Van 1955 tot 1963 het die Richardson-, Murchison- en Rockefeller-belange (insluitend Standard Oil Company of Indiana, wat 11-36 persent in die besit was van Rockefeller ten tyde van die senaatsyfers wat vroeër verwys is, en International Basic Economy Corporation, wat 100 was) persent in besit van Rockefeller en waarvan Nelson Rockefeller president was) het daarin geslaag om 'n stuk $ 900,000 van hul olie-eiendom in Texas-Louisiana aan Robert B. Anderson, Eisenhower se sekretaris van die tesourie, weg te gee.

In die Eisenhower -kabinet het Anderson die span gelei wat 'n stelsel ontwerp het waarvolgens kwotas deur die wet bepaal is oor hoeveel olie elke onderneming uit goedkoop buitelandse bronne na die VSA kan bring. Hierdie bonanza vir gevestigde krag is in 1958 uitgevaardig en het veertien jaar geduur. Dit is amptelik gedoen vanweë die 'nasionale belang' om 'n afhanklikheid van buitelandse olie te voorkom.

In werklikheid het die invoergrense Amerikaanse oliepryse kunsmatig hoog gehou, huishoudelike reserwes uitgeput en die vraag na olie oorsee verminder, waardeur buitelandse oliepryse verlaag is sodat Europese en Japannese vervaardigers beter kon meeding met hul Amerikaanse mededingers. Dit is natuurlik moeilik vir 'n leek om te verstaan ​​hoe een van hierdie dinge in die nasionale belang is.

Intussen het president Kennedy die staatsdepartement oorgegee aan Dean Rusk, wat onder president Truman verskeie hoë poste in die departement beklee het. Nege jaar lank - die hele Eisenhower -interregnum vir die Demokrate en daarna sommige - was Rusk as president van die Rockefeller -stigting beklee.

Het iemand opgehou om te dink dat die man met die Amerikaanse buitelandse beleid van 1953 tot 1977 op die betaalstaat van die Rockefeller -gesin was? En dat van 1961 tot 1977 hy (wat Rusk en Kissinger bedoel) by die Rockefellers aanwesig was vanweë sy solvensie?

In April 1976 het William Zylka, 'n sakeman van New Jersey en werksaam by die CIA, kolonel Contreas na Iran begelei om met ambassadeur Helms te vergader. Zylka het 'n lang verhouding met die CIA gehad deur Eisenhower se tesourie -sekretaris, Robert Anderson, wat informeel dosyne sakelui as agentskap se bates bestuur het; nog een van hulle was Zylka se vriend William Casey, wat later DCI geword het tydens die Reagan -administrasie.


Robert G. W. Anderson

Robert GW Anderson is die voormalige president en uitvoerende hoof van die Science History Institute, 'n rol wat hy van Januarie 2017 tot Mei 2020 beklee het. Hy was voorheen tussentydse president en het sedert 2006 as bestuurslid gedien. in samewerking met die raad van direkteure, raad van opsieners, erfenisraad en senior leierskap om die instituut se verbintenis na te kom om ons wetenskaplike verlede vir almal toeganklik te maak. Hy was 'n belangrike rol in die transformasie van die Chemical Heritage Foundation in die Science History Institute in Februarie 2018.

Anderson, wat verskeie grade aan die Universiteit van Oxford behaal het - insluitend chemie, onelastiese neutronverstrooiing en Britse argeologie - het sy museumloopbaan begin as 'n geskiedenis -kurator by die Royal Scottish Museum. Hy verhuis later na die Science Museum in Londen, waar hy hoof van die chemie -afdeling word, en keer terug na Skotland om toesig te hou oor die samesmelting van die Royal Scottish Museum en die Museum of Antiquities in die National Museum. Van 1992 tot 2002 was hy direkteur van die British Museum.

Anderson, 'n bekroonde navorser en geleerde, het ook as raadslid gedien by baie wetenskaplike geskiedenis-, museum- en geesteswetenskappe-organisasies in Europa en die Verenigde State. Ander rolle sluit in vise -president van die Universiteit van Cambridge, Clare Hall, en president van die British Society for the History of Science.


Geskiedenis

The History of Anderson dateer uit 1886 toe Robert Anderson 'n winkel en 'n poskantoor wat hy Anderson genoem het, geopen het. Die eerste nedersetting in die omgewing was by Beaver Springs.

Die stad Anderson het begin groei nadat die spoorlyn van Goodman deur Anderson tot by Noel uitgebrei is. Marshall E Meador het die stad Anderson platgetrek. Anderson is op 7 Desember 1909 in 'n stad ingelyf. E.T. Doty was die eerste burgemeester en J.W. Towner het die stadsmarshall geword.

Die aarbei-industrie het in die herfs van 1903 begin toe bessies van die Anderson Co-Operative Fruit Growers Association gestuur is. Hierdie bedryf sou groei totdat Anderson bekend geword het as die 'Strawberry Capital of the World'. In die vroeë vyftigerjare het hierdie plaaslike bedryf egter afgeneem as gevolg van hewige mededinging van die westelike/suidelike state. Die Chamberlain Canning Company het miljoene vars groente uit die omgewing ingemaak. Die Seven Valley Cheese Company verwerk ook melk van die boere in die omgewing. As gevolg van uitstekende spoorverbindings, spog Anderson met 'n broeikas- en voermolen.


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Ons geskiedenis vier | Majoor Robert Anderson

Kolonel Anderson Parkway in Hurstbourne het sy naam gekry van kolonel Richard C. Anderson van die Revolusionêre Oorlog (1750-1826), wat begrawe is in 'n familie begraafplaas by die ingang van die stad Seaton Spring Parkway buite Hurstbourne Parkway.

'N Historiese merker op die snelweg op die terrein vertel van Anderson and his Soldier's Retreat -huis, wat in die tagtigerjare van die parkweg af gerekonstrueer is.

Om meer te wete te kom van sy seun, majoor Robert Anderson van die Burgeroorlog (1805-1871)-'n Louisvillian wat by Soldier's Retreat grootgeword het-gee 'n volledige besoek per boot aan die Fort Sumter National Monument in Charleston Harbour in South Carolina.

Majoor Anderson word beskou as 'n nasionale held nadat hy bevel gegee het oor die federale magte wat Fort Sumter verdedig het toe die konfederale troepe die eerste keer op die fort afgevuur het, met die aanvang van die burgeroorlog op 12 April 1861.

'N Klippilaar by die oorblyfsels van die fort, wat nou Fort Sumter National Monument genoem word, bring hulde aan Anderson, saam met museumuitstallings en brosjures by die fort en aan die kus in Charleston.

Robert Anderson studeer in 1825 aan die U.S. Military Academy in West Point en dien in die volgende 25 jaar in verskeie militêre konflikte. In Desember 1860, toe Suid -Carolina van die Unie afskei, is Anderson na Charleston gestuur om die eiland se forte te beveel.

In afwagting op 'n konfederale aanval, het hy sy garnisoen met 85 lede die dag na Kersfees in 1860 na die meer verdedigbare Fort Sumter, gebou op 'n sandstaaf in Charleston Harbour, verskuif.

Anderson en sy troepe het vier maande lank aangehou, waartydens Abraham Lincoln op 4 Maart 1861 as president ingehuldig is. Genl Pierre G.T. Beauregard het geëis dat Anderson op 11 April sou oorgee - maar hy het geweier.

Na 'n bombardement van twee dae het hy uiteindelik oorgegee, en hy en sy bevel is per skip na New York ontruim.

Hulle het Sumter 34 uur lank verdedig totdat "die kwartiere heeltemal verbrand is", die mure ernstig beskadig is en die hoofhekke deur 'n brand vernietig is, "sê 'n brosjure van Fort Sumter." Wonderbaarlik is niemand aan weerskante dood nie. "

Na meer as 30 jaar se bouwerk, is die nog onvoltooide fort 'grootliks tot puinhope' gereduseer.

WES PUNT VERBINDING

Beauregard was in 1837 een van Anderson se artilleriestudente by West Point "en verwelkom nie die moontlikheid om op sy ou vriend en voormalige instrukteur te skiet nie," lui die brosjure.

'Anderson het dadelik 'n held in die noorde in New York geword', sê die ensiklopedie van Louisville.

Na raming het 100 000 mense bymekaargekom in Union Square in Manhattan om Anderson te vereer en die vlag van 33 sterre wat hy uit die fort gered het, te groet, voordat Anderson en die vlag op 'n werwings- en geldinsamelingstoer deur die noorde gaan, volgens www.civilwar.org .

Anderson is deur Lincoln in opdrag van 'n brigadier -generaal aangestel en was in beheer van die werwing van die troepe van die Unie in Kentucky en het later aan die hoof van die unie -leër se departement van die Cumberland gelei.

Swak gesondheid het hom gedwing om uit sy werk te tree. Maar aan die einde van die oorlog is Anderson gekies om die vlag van die Verenigde State oor die ruïnes van Fort Sumter te hys.

Hy trou in 1845 met Aliza Bayard Clark van Georgia, en hulle het vier kinders. Op soek na beter gesondheid, het Anderson in 1870 na die suide van Frankryk gegaan, waar hy gesterf het. Hy word begrawe in West Point.

Die eienaars van die huidige Soldier's Retreat House Brooks en Marilyn Bower is in Januarie vereer met 'n toekenning van die Louisville Historical League vir die oprigting van 'n museum in die Hurstbourne -huis.

Die museum bring hulde aan die Anderson-gesin en die eienaar van die moderne huis, die ontslape eiendomsontwikkelaar L. Leroy Highbaugh Jr. 'n weerligstraal.


Ближайшие родственники

Oor Brevet -majoor -generaal Robert Anderson (VSA)

Robert Anderson (14 Junie 1805 – 26 Oktober 1871) was 'n Amerikaanse militêre leier. Hy dien as 'n offisier van die leër in die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, bekend vir sy bevel oor Fort Sumter aan die begin van die oorlog. Daar word gereeld na hom verwys as majoor Robert Anderson, met verwysing na sy rang in Fort Sumter. Later, in 1871, sterf hy in Frankryk op 66 -jarige ouderdom.

Anderson is gebore in 'Soldier's Retreat' naby Louisville, Kentucky. Hy studeer in 1825 aan die United States Military Academy (West Point) en ontvang 'n kommissie as tweede luitenant in die 2de Regiment of Artillery. Hy het in die Black Hawk War van 1832 gedien as 'n kolonel van vrywilligers in Illinois, waar hy onderskeid gehad het deur twee keer kaptein Abraham Lincoln in en uit diens te neem. Nadat hy in 1833 as eerste luitenant teruggekeer het na die weermag, dien hy in die Tweede Seminole-oorlog as assistent-adjudant-generaal in die personeel van Winfield Scott, en in die Mexiko-Amerikaanse oorlog, waar hy ernstig gewond is by Molino del Rey, en vir wat hy 'n brevet -promosie tot majoor ontvang het. Uiteindelik ontvang hy 'n permanente bevordering tot majoor van die 1ste Regiment Artillerie in die Gereelde Weermag op 5 Oktober 1857. Hy is die skrywer van Instruction for Field Artillery, Horse and Foot in 1839. [1]

Toe die suidelike state begin afskei, het majoor Anderson, 'n voor-slawerny, voormalige slawe-eienaar van Kentucky, getrou gebly aan die Unie. Hy was die bevelvoerder van Fort Sumter by die Charleston Harbour in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, toe dit destyds gebombardeer is deur magte van die Konfederale State van Amerika. Die artillerie -aanval is onder bevel van brig. Genl P. G. T. Beauregard, wat Anderson se student by West Point was. Die aanval het op 12 April 1861 begin en het voortgeduur totdat Anderson, op 14 April, die sterk fort in die getal en in die buitekans was, die fort oorgegee het. Die geveg het begin met die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog. Niemand is in die geveg aan weerskante dood nie, maar een soldaat van die Unie, Daniel Hough, is tydens 'n saluut van 100 kanonne dood.

Anderson se optrede by Fort Sumter het van hom 'n onmiddellike nasionale held gemaak. Hy is bevorder tot brigadier-generaal, effektief op 15 Mei. Anderson het die fort van 33 sterre saamgeneem na New York, waar hy deelgeneem het aan 'n patriotiese saamtrek van Union Square wat vermoedelik die grootste openbare byeenkoms in Noord-Amerika was daardie tyd. Anderson het toe 'n hoogs suksesvolle werwingstoer deur die Noorde onderneem. Sy volgende opdrag plaas hom in 'n ander sensitiewe politieke posisie, bevelvoerder van die departement van Kentucky (later hernoem tot die departement van die Cumberland), in 'n grensstaat wat amptelik neutraliteit verklaar het tussen die strydende partye. Hy het in die pos gedien vanaf 28 Mei 1861 totdat swak gesondheid deur sy brigade vervang moes word. Genl William T. Sherman, op 6 Oktober 1861.

Generaal Anderson se laaste toewysing van sy militêre loopbaan was as bevelvoerder van Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island, in Augustus 1863. By toeval was Fort Adams generaal Beauregard se eerste toewysing nadat hy aan West Point afgestudeer het. Anderson tree op 27 Oktober 1863 amptelik uit die weermag en tree nie verder op nie.

Dae na die oorgawe van Robert E. Lee by Appomattox en die effektiewe afsluiting van die oorlog, keer Anderson terug na Charleston in die uniform van 'n brevet-generaal (posisie op 3 Februarie 1865) en, vier jaar nadat hy die 33-ster-vlag in oorgawe, het dit met triomf oor die herowerde, maar erg geslaan Fort Sumter tydens seremonies daar verhoog. (Dieselfde aand, 14 April 1865, is president Abraham Lincoln vermoor). 'N Opmerklike na-oorlogse prestasie van Anderson het plaasgevind in Braintree, Massachusetts, in 1869, toe hy Braintree besoek het om die toekoms van die Amerikaanse weermag te bespreek met die & quotfather of the United States Military Academy, & quot-generaal-majoor Sylvanus Thayer. 'N Gevolg van die besoek was die stigting van die Militêre Akademie se Vereniging van Gegradueerdes (AoG). [2]

Graf by die West Point -begraafplaas Anderson sterf in Nice, Frankryk, en word begrawe op die West Point -begraafplaas.

Anderson se ma Sarah Marshall was die eerste neef van hoofregter John Marshall. Anderson se broer, Charles Anderson, het van 1865 tot 1866 as goewerneur van Ohio gedien. 'N Ander broer, William Marshall Anderson, was 'n Westerse ontdekkingsreisiger en advokaat in Ohio. Hy was 'n ywerige Katolieke en Konfederale simpatiseerder en verhuis kortliks na Mexiko tydens die bewind van keiser Maximilian in die hoop om 'n Konfederale kolonie daar te vestig. W. Marshall Anderson se seun, Thomas M. Anderson, was 'n brigadier-generaal wat in die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog en die Filippyns-Amerikaanse oorlog geveg het.

Anderson was die oom van ambassadeur Larz Anderson, 'n sosiale persoon in Washington, DC, wat sy huis geskenk het om as die hoofkwartier van die Society of the Cincinnati te dien. Hy was ook die oupagrootjie van die akteur Montgomery Clift [6] (slegs as die verhaal van Clift se ma oor haar aanneming en gesinslyn korrek is - sien Montgomery Clift) en die eerste neef wat twee keer van William Clark en George Rogers Clark verwyder is.

Robert Anderson (14 Junie 1805 – 26 Oktober 1871) was 'n Amerikaanse militêre leier. Hy dien as 'n offisier van die Unie -leër in die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, bekend vir sy bevel oor Fort Sumter aan die begin van die oorlog. Daar word gereeld na hom verwys as majoor Robert Anderson, met verwysing na sy rang in Fort Sumter.

Dae na die oorgawe van Robert E. Lee by Appomattox en die effektiewe afsluiting van die oorlog, keer Anderson terug na Charleston in die uniform van 'n brevet-generaal (posisie op 3 Februarie 1865) en, vier jaar nadat hy die 33-ster-vlag in oorgawe, het dit met triomf oor die herowerde, maar erg geslaan Fort Sumter tydens seremonies daar verhoog. (Dieselfde aand, 14 April 1865, is president Abraham Lincoln vermoor).


Robert O. Anderson (1917-2007)

Robert O. Anderson is op Sondag 2 Desember 2007 oorlede. Soos die onderstaande artikel beskryf, was hy een van die land se voorste sakemanne. Sy vele bydraes tot die oliebedryf, tot die ekonomie van New Mexico en tot die verantwoordelike bedryf van sake, het van hom 'n blywende legende gemaak. Die Robert O. Anderson School of Management is in 1974 genoem as 'n huldeblyk aan hom, en ons sal die naam nou met trots as 'n gedenkteken dra. Ons almal by Anderson is aangeraak deur hierdie wonderlike man.

Robert Orville Anderson, petroleumbestuurder, boer en boereleier, was aktief in die oliebedryf sedert hy in 1939 aan die Universiteit van Chicago afgestudeer het met 'n Bachelor of Arts -graad.

Mnr. Anderson was 17 jaar lank die uitvoerende hoof van Atlantic Richfield Company (voorheen bekend as Atlantic Refining Company), 21 jaar lank as voorsitter van die direksie en vir 23 jaar as lid van die raad. Mnr. Anderson het in 1986 by die onderneming afgetree om 'n onafhanklike olie- en gasmaatskappy te stig. Hy was van September 1986 tot Februarie 1994 as voorsitter en hoof uitvoerende beampte van Hondo Oil & amp Gas Company, Roswell, New Mexico.

Mnr. Anderson was voorsitter van die direksie van die Federale Reserwebank van Dallas van 1961 tot 1964. Hy was ook die raad van direkteure van Chase Manhattan Bank, New York, Columbia Broadcasting System, New York First National Bank van Chicago Weyerhaeuser Company , Tacoma, Washington en Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. van Los Angeles. Gedurende sy leeftyd het sy besighede onder meer die ondersoek, produksie, raffinering en bemarking van olie, veeteelt en voerbedrywighede, mynbou en meule en algemene vervaardiging ingesluit.

Mnr. Anderson se eerste voltydse pos in die oliebedryf was in 1939 by American Mineral Spirits Company, 'n filiaal van Pure Oil Company, Chicago. In 1941 verkry hy 'n aansienlike belang in 'n klein raffinadery in Artesia, New Mexico, waarna hy en sy gesin na New Mexico verhuis het. In die volgende 15 jaar het hy verskeie raffinaderye gekoop en uitgebrei en Wilshire Oil Company van Kalifornië gekoop, wat daarna aan Gulf Oil Corporation verkoop is.

Mnr. Anderson het in 1951 in die Raad van Direkteure van die National Petroleum Council gedien en het talle eregrade en toekennings ontvang, met erkenning vir sy uitgebreide belangstelling in openbare en liefdadigheidsake. Hy was die eerste ontvanger van die Charles A. Lindbergh -toekenning vir beduidende prestasie in 1978, opgeneem in die Junior Achievement Business Hall of Fame in 1986. Hy was die eerste ontvanger van The Dwight D. Eisenhower Medal of Excellence in 1989. Hy was die erevoorsitter van Aspen Institute, Aspen, Colorado voorsitter van Lovelace-Anderson Endowment Foundation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Hy was die stigter van die Internasionale Instituut vir Omgewing en Ontwikkeling, Londen en was 'n Life Trustee van die California Institute of Technology en die Universiteit van Chicago, en was lid van die National Advisory Board van die University of New Mexico Anderson School of Management. Mnr. Anderson het ook van 1987 tot 1992 op die Raad van Regente van die New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology gedien, en in 1994 is hy aangewys as Uitnemende Professor, Departement Petroleum- en Aardgasingenieurswese.

Mnr. Anderson is gebore in Chicago op 13 April 1917. Hy en sy vrou Barbara het sewe kinders en was 68 jaar getroud. Hy was 90 jaar oud toe hy op 2 Desember 2007 in sy huis in Roswell oorlede is.


Geskiedenis

Dit is 'n understatement om te sê dat die geskiedenis van Tinnie Silver Dollar diep loop. Die agterste kroeg is uit Chicago ingebring en was na bewering eens die eienaar van die legendariese gangster Al Capone.

Die gebrandskilderde glas is uit Duitsland ingevoer. Antieke meubels van so ver as San Francisco en skilderye van mense soos Peter Hurd versier die kamers. Benjamin Harrison, die 23ste president van die Verenigde State, word in die eiendomstitel genoem.

Die eenmalige winkel en poskantoor, wat oorspronklik 'Analla' genoem is na 'n vroeë intrekganger, is in 1909 deur die Raymond-gesin gekoop en na Tinnie hernoem na hul dogter.

Tinnie Grace Raymond

Vyftig jaar later het die eiendom weer van eienaar verander. Die nuwe eienaar, Robert Anderson, het die gebou gerestoureer en baie bygevoeg van wat besoekers vandag sien: 'n steakhouse en 'n sitkamer, 'n uitgestrekte stoep, stoepe wat omhul is en die kenmerkende kloktoring.

Oorspronklike Tinnie Merchantile Binne Tinnie Merchantile

Analla of Tinnie: Dit is 'n nedersetting op US 380 vier myl oos van Hondo. Dit het 'n poskantoor gehad van 1903 tot 1909 as Analla. Vandag staan ​​dit bekend as Tinnie. It was named for Jose Analla who first settled the area. It is mostly a ranching community. It is near the large caves or Las Cuevas. It was sometimes referred to as Cuba. Tinnie is an unincorporated community located in Lincoln County, New Mexico, United States. The community is located on U.S. Route 70 22 miles (35 km) east of Ruidoso Downs. Tinnie has a post office with ZIP code 88351. [1][3]

The Tinnie post office was established on April 27, 1903, with Isidro Annalla as postmaster until November 12, when Pedro Annalla became postmaster. He remained only two months and Sallie A. Murray took the office and remained until the Raymonds bought the store from the Anallas in 1906. The Raymonds built the Present Tinnie Mercantile from adobes made on the place.

The most of the people at that time were Spanish Americans but the Raymonds had a little blond daughter, named Tinnie. The people thought she was beautiful and got Mrs. Oney Raymond to change the name of the post office to Tinnie in honor of the little girl. Mrs. Raymond told them that a petition would have to be sent to Washington. A petition was circulated and nearly everyone signed it. The name was then changed to Tinnie on April 5, 1909. Mrs. Raymond remained postmaster until April 7, 1914, when Henry D. Murray was appointed. He was followed by Andrew N. Coward. On Jan. 6, 1923 Mrs. Raymond again became postmaster and with the exception of a short period when Walter B. Rose was the postmaster, April 1, 1929, to December 26, 1932. She continued until her retirement on July 31, 1954, a total period of nearly fifty years. Her daughter, Virginia Guest took the office and served until Arthur Clements was appointed Dec. 12, 1959.

Robert O. Anderson of Roswell bought the building in 1959 and decided to preserve the old country store. He spent several hundred thousand dollars, adding a porch all around the building, a tower and a pavilion besides putting in the Silver Dollar Bar and a steak house. Many of the old things were in the place but a lot more were gathered from as far away as San Francisco by John Meigs, an artist who lives at San Patricio. Mr. Meigs was commissioned by Mr. Anderson to plan and oversee the building.

Entrance to the Silver Dollar Bar

Arthur Clements retired May 31, 1971, and his daughter, Fannette McKinney, became the officer in charge at that time and appointed postmaster Dec. 9th, 1972. February 15th, 1975 the post office was moved to its present site where Fannette has her fountain and gift shop, too.

Nearby ghost towns are White Oaks and Jicarilla. Why did the Ghost Towns of New Mexico disappear? Several forces caused the towns to vanish such as mines going broke, local landowners being bought out, the railroad moving its facilities, and the widespread use of the automobiles which allowed people to travel to larger towns for supplies. Other nearby towns are: Carrizozo and nearby villages include: Capitan, Corona, and Ruidoso.

Still in operation after 110 years, with a beautiful boutique full of unique wares, and the elegant steakhouse with an ambiance of yesteryear The Silver Dollar is the perfect venue for weddings, holiday parties, or any other special gatherings. Let us make your next event one to be remembered. Give us a call at (575) 653-4425.


Robert Anderson - History

THROUGH THE YEARS
The story of why Pea Soup Andersen's is fondly remembered, by millions who visit from all parts of the world, begins with the story Anton and Juliette Andersen and their family restaurant, whose traditions have been faithfully followed through the years. The staff at Andersen's understand this and take pride in continuing the light, easy charm which has always made it "a treat to eat at Pea Soup Andersen's". Here is the story of Anton and Juliette and the pea soup craze they built.

THE LAND OF GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY
It all began on Friday, June 13th, 1924, when Anton Andersen, born in Denmark purchased a piece of the Golden State, California. Once a Mexican land grant owned by Jose Maria Covarrubias and Joaquin Carrillo of Santa Barbara, the land was purchased by the Buell brothers in 1865. R.T. Buell turned the land into a prosperous horse and cattle ranch and dairy farm, named Rancho San Carlos de Jonata. R.T. Buell married Miss Emily Budd in 1892 and they had five children. When Mr. R.T. Buell died in 1905 he was buried in the family plot, now the parking lot of Pea Soup Andersen's Hotel. His body was later moved to Oak Hill Cemetery in Ballard.

The area of Buellton began to change rapidly after the turn of the century. By 1911 Danish settlers were pouring into the area starting farms and businesses. William Budd, brother of Mrs. Emily Buell, opened a post office and it became an official United States Post Office in 1920. When the highway was diverted through Buellton in 1924 and electricity was brought to the valley, it seemed the right time to make their move. Anton and Juliette Andersen purchased a small parcel of land and building from William Budd and opened a restaurant.

AN ELECTRIC STOVE AND AN IDEA
Anton, who was trained in exclusive restaurants in Europe and New York, put his tuxedo in mothballs and donned a bib apron, soon to become his personal trademark. He and his charming wife, Juliette, opened a tiny restaurant and named it "Andersen's Electric Cafe," in honor of their prized possession, a new electric stove.

It was a complete about-face for Andersen, who had just come from New York, where he had been associated with world-class establishments such as Marguerey, Voisin, Louis Sherry and other notable establishments and restaurateurs of the day. He helped open the Los Angeles Biltmore until he tired of the rat race (as he put it) associated with city hotels. So, from catering to the gourmet trade, Anton and Juliette began their new venture by serving simple, wholesome everyday foods: hot cakes and coffee, ice cream sodas and such, to highway travelers. Their first customers were the salesmen, tourists and truck drivers who drove the main highway between Los Angeles and San Francisco.

The cafe was on the road to the fabulous Hearst Castle at San Simeon and as this was the heyday of Hearst's newspaper empire, many of the Hearst writers and reporters, such as Arthur Brisbane and 0.0. McIntyre developed the habit of stopping at Andersen's. Their praise of excellent food and hospitable atmosphere was carried in their newspaper columns throughout the entire country.

In 1928, the Andersen's sank a well and built a hotel and dining room for their now quite popular cafe. They named their new establishment the "Bueltmore," a play on words referring to Anton's days with the Biltmore.

Anton was quite a character, especially famous for his extraordinary capacity to remember faces and names without error. Soon celebrities were stopping for a meal on their way up and down the coast. Apparently the young Victor Borge was among the famous people who visited Andersen's in the early days. When he would enter the cafe the two men, Victor and Anton, would let out a whoop followed by rapid fire Danish at full volume, much to the amazement of the other customers. At the same time, many Californians were discovering Andersen's and learning to plan their outings and trips to enable them to make the stop.

"P.S." WE LOVE YOU
Juliette was a gracious woman, warm and friendly to all those around her. She was from the east of France and an expert cook, so she prepared many of the recipes she had brought with her the most popular with the customers was her split pea soup. Many special dishes now appear on the large Andersen's menu, and still the most popular specialty of all and the one which finally changed the name of the restaurant is Juliette's tasty and nourishing split pea soup.

With the demand for their split pea soup increasing steadily, the Andersen's soon had to locate large suppliers of peas far from their area. Just three years after the first bowl was served, they were amazed to realize they needed to order ONE TON of peas! When Anton faced the problem of what to do with one ton of peas, he solved it by putting them in the window, proclaiming the restaurant, "The Home of Split Pea Soup," the slogan it carries to this day.Though a ton of peas seemed a staggering amount then, Andersen's today "splits" many tons of peas every month, transforming them into the famed soup. ..averaging thousands of bowls a day!

In recognition of the restaurant's pre-eminence as probably the world's foremost pea purchaser, the pea growers of Idaho have named Andersen's the location for the start of the annual "National Split Pea Soup Week" every November, to honor the pea and the delicious soup it makes.

There's no secret about Juliette's Soup recipe. quite the contrary, for Pea Soup Andersen's even has bags of split peas with the recipe for sale in their gift shop. But, even with the recipe, many find that their soup just doesn't taste quite the same as the restaurant's. Perhaps it's the magical touch that Juliette lent to the cauldrons and ladles so many years ago!

ROBERT "PEA SOUP" ANDERSEN
Their Son, Robert, returned to the family business after graduating from Stanford in the 1930's. Robert was by all accounts a very forward-looking man. When he returned to Buellton, Robert established the billboards for which the restaurant became known.

In the early thirties a cartoon appeared in the old "Judge" magazine. It was one of a series by the famous cartoonist Forbell, under the heading of "Little Known Occupations." The cartoon showed the little known occupation of splitting peas for pea soup, with two comic chefs standing at a chopping table, one holding a huge chisel, splitting peas singly as they came down a chute.

Andersen obtained permission to use the idea for advertising. He even adopted his nickname "Pea Soup," the eventual trademark and official name of the family business. In 1941, Robert married Rosemary Mohan. She immediately became active in the family business and opened a gift shop which remains today filled with wonder for children and adults alike. Their only son, Rob, was born in 1942.

WORLD WAR II ERA
During World War II, the restaurant closed to the public. The hotel rooms were used to house military personnel stationed locally and meals were served to servicemen and their families. Robert also purchased a small building across the street from the hotel and converted it to a canteen. The canteen was operated by the American Women's Voluntary Services (A.W.V.S.), patterned after a program begun in England. The canteen was called "Co Na Mar Corner," representing all the services: Coast Guard, Navy, Marines and Army. The local Valley members took turns providing meals for the servicemen on weekends.

THE BIRTH OF HAP-PEA AND PEA-WEE
After the war, Pea Soup Andersen's opened with a flourish. Robert commissioned Disney-trained artist Milt Neil to re-draw the two cartoon chefs to use for promotion and they became the Pea Soup Andersen's trademark. The big fellow (Hap-Pea) is shown having all the fun and the easy side of the work, as the little one (Pea-Wee) holds the chisel, looking sad and a bit frightened, always in danger of the big mallet. A contest was held and from thousands of entries the names Hap-pea and Pea-Wee were chosen.

SERVICE TOWN U.S.A.
In 1947, the new coast highway was rerouted through the center of Buellton. Although the town businesses were forced to give up 20 feet of their property for the new highway, they felt is was worthwhile. A number of businesses developed to meet the needs of the highway travelers. In the same year the name of the restaurant was changed to "Pea Soup Andersen's", the name that remains to the present. At the same time Buellton was nicknamed "The Home of Split Pea Soup", a name Andersen's is still proud of today.

A NEW ERA
Robert "Pea-Soup" Andersen decided he needed a break from the high paced family business and in April of 1965 sold the Buellton restaurant to Vince Evans. The new owner of Pea Soup Andersen's was a larger than life personality, well known and already an established leader in the Santa Ynez Valley. At the end of World War II, Vince began a career in acting and developed a close friendship with fellow actor Ronald Reagan, who later purchased a ranch in the Santa Ynez Valley. Vince and his wife Margery moved to a 900-acre ranch south of Buellton in 1959. They raised cattle, grew alfalfa and operated a feed store. When he purchased Pea Soup Andersen's, he jumped into his newest adventure with the same high energy and enthusiasm that he displayed for many other ventures.

The business thrived under Evans' hand. By then the restaurant was purchasing 50 tons of peas each year, enough for three-quarters of a million bowls of soup! He built an aviary and filled it with parrots, he installed a train for children to ride that went from the restaurant to the area where the motel now stands, and even had a miniature wild animal park for two years. The park was discontinued in 1970 to make way for the addition of a Danish style motel in 1970. In 1979, Vince purchased an English Pub that had stood for over 100 years at the Liverpool railway station in London. The Pub was reconstructed in Buellton and opened as a bar and entertainment center. He also expanded the Pea Soup Andersen's empire and opened the Santa Nella Location in 1976.

Vince had expansive dreams and the energy to make the dreams a reality. Unfortunately, neither dreams nor energy could change the cards fate dealt him. On April 23, 1980, Vince, his wife Margery and their 21 year old daughter, Venetia, were tragically killed in a small plane crash just minutes from the Santa Ynez Valley airport.

BUELLTON TODAY
Buellton has always been the "Gateway to the Santa Ynez Valley," feeding traffic north, south, east and west. The Central Coast is now famous for many reasons and Pea Soup Andersen's remains at the top of the list. In the early 1960's Highway 101 was moved to its present location. The former highway, now named the Avenue of the Flags remains the main street of Buellton. It has been converted into an attractive parkway featuring a proud row of American flags and is host to many community events, car shows and parades. Pea Soup Andersen's remains an integral part of the community as a central meeting place for the Santa Ynez Valley and the Tri-Counties of Ventura, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo. Andersen's stays close to its roots by catering special events, such as weddings, film shoots, family celebrations and more.

CURRENT OWNERSHIP
After the death of the Evan's Family, Pea Soup Andersen's went through multiple ownership changes. For the first time in many years the two remaining locations are under the same ownership. Milt Guggia, a Central Coast restaurateur, purchased Pea Soup Andersen's Buellton in 1999 and Pea Soup Andersen's Santa Nella in 2007. He remembered coming to Pea Soup Andersen's as a child with his grandparents and wanted to continue the tradition for future generations. Milt and his management team work diligently to continue to preserve the family warmth and memories made here at Pea Soup Andersen's.

With all its expansion, growth and popularity, Pea Soup Andersen's still counts among its very favorite customers the same people who were friends of Anton and Juliette. those loyal friends. the highway travelers and their families!


Robert Anderson - History

Ironically, Father Knows Best is loved by its fans and disliked by its critics for the same reason: its ideal of the “typical American family”. After World War II, Americans had a bright future ahead, and optimism abounded. Father Knows Best reflects this mood, and was an “improvement” on reality, the way TV shows and movies used to be. The program was like a Norman Rockwell painting- filled with cheery lovable characters and a non-threatening humor that was middle America’s idea of itself. It was an air-brushed, touched-up portrait of family life that people could aim for. It spoke to the sunny ideal of how we could live our own lives. Every episode had a message, something to say that would touch the television audience. In outright defiance of the 1950’s sitcom formula of “zany wives, blustering chowder-head husbands and sassy children one step away from juvenile delinquency”, Father Knows Best portrayed a family that was surprising similar to real people. The parents managed to ride through almost any family situation without violent injury to their dignity, and the three Anderson youngsters were presented as decently behaved children who respected and loved their parents. A newspaper critic at the time wrote that “Jim Anderson may be the first intelligent father permitted on TV since they invented the thing”.

Like many shows of the period, Father Knows Best began on radio (NBC in 1949), 5 years before becoming a television series. It competed with nineteen other family shows then on the air waves, and out-survived them all. The characters were created by Ed James and he wrote more than 100 scripts for the radio version. Jean Vander Pyl- the voice of “Wilma” on the Flintstones- played the role of Margaret Anderson on many broadcasts. 197 radio shows were broadcast over 5 years. (116 of those episodes can be found on the internet in various forms.)

In 1953, Robert Young and his partner Eugene B. Rodney decided to try the format out on TV. In partnership with Screen Gems, a pilot was developed. It was aired on the Ford Theatre in 1953 and was entitled “Keep It in the Family”. It starred Robert Young, in the identical “Father Knows Best” home (soundstage), but with an entirely different cast. It was decided the family in the pilot episode wasn’t good enough to belong to such a “sterling father”, so the hunt was on for a new cast. “For such an out-of-the-ordinary TV father”, said Eugene B. Rodney, ” we didn’t want a TV family stereotype. Our Bud had to have a teen-age boy’s abstraction, not flipness. More than thirty boys read the test script, but only one could say the gag lines – the Bud-isms- flat, able to resist a “this-is-a-joke-see?’ lilt.” “As an example”, said Mr. Rodney, “when Jim, worried about Betty’s going steady, reads aloud a newspaper story about a girl eloping and taking $200 with which her aunt was to buy a TV set, our Bud had to be able to look up and ask seriously, ‘What size screen, dad? Billy Gray was the only actor that could do it the way we wanted”.

Seventy-eight girls were interviewed for Kathy. Mr. Rodney commented, “We got dozens of adorable little blondes. We finally picked a Kathy (Lauren Chapin) who had absolutely no acting experience, because she wasn’t precocious-seeming. Same with our Betty (Elinor Donahue) she had to be attractive, but not sophisticated. For Margaret, we needed a woman who was a real mother, pretty enough to have a Robert Young for a husband, but a Rock of Gibraltar in her own family”. Jane Wyatt rejected the role the first time it was offered to her. She was living in New York City with her Husband, Edgar Ward, and their two sons, and was interested in TV roles there. But Eugene Rodney wouldn’t budge. He sent Miss Wyatt a script anyway. She fell in love with the script and accepted.

Movie Actor Robert Young created and defined the role of Jim Anderson. His approach to playing Jim Anderson was perfect he radiated affection, admitted his own shortcomings and had an uncanny ability to view life from the same perspective as his fictional children. In terms of temperament, directors have referred to Young as Hollywood’s most unstarlike star! He worked hard, seeked direction, apologized for fluffs in lines, was dependable, and got his sleep nights instead of prowling night clubs. He was already happily married to Elizabeth for 24 years when he began Father Knows Best and remained married to her the rest of his life.

Father Knows Best debuted on CBS on October 3, 1954. A few weeks after the show began, the sponsor (Kent Cigarette’s), became dissatisfied with its low rating in the audience poll and decided not to extend the twenty-six week contract. Fans sent letters of protest, with most people hitting the theme that “this is one of the very few shows that our whole family, young and old, watches and likes. We even learn something from it”. Television columnists took up the crusade, urging audiences to write to the President of the CBS network and suggesting that Father might have a higher rating in the polls if it were shown earlier ten p.m. they said, was too late for a family show. Father Knows Best even won the 1954 Sylvania award for “outstanding family entertainment”. But CBS and Kent Cigarette’s cancelled the show anyway. Just when the show seemed scheduled to leave the air for good, the Scott Paper Company (seeing the public response) picked up the sponsorship contract, and moved it to the NBC network at an earlier hour (8:30 p.m.). From there, the rest is history. Within a year 19 million households tuned in to watch Father Knows Best on Wednesday evenings. By 1960 it was finishing in the top ten every week, becoming an institution!

The set for the Anderson home was a $40,000 combination of illusion and reality. Its two floors, patio, driveway and garage sprawled over Columbia Pictures’ Stage 11 (although some incorrect sources say it was stage 10). There was one area for all four bedrooms, with interchangeable, wallpapered walls, that could be made to look like any of four different bedrooms. The kitchen was real. Every morning coffee and sweet rolls were served in it. Lunches were kept in the Anderson’s refrigerator. The Kitchen actually had red wallpaper, white cabinets and blue countertops- but to the TV audience, it was all in shades of gray.

Unlike many studios that used live audiences and three cameras, Screen Gems used one camera on a closed set. Many artists claim that the one-camera process is better because the technique results in a more “intimate image or feel” for the viewer. Screen Gems also “paid attention to the details” with their closed sets, making sure most major rooms had four (not three) walls. This allowed for many different camera angles, anywhere in a room, that made the audience feel like they were in a “real” house. The show was shot with 35mm black and white film (but most prints for networks ended up being on16mm film). It was shot on film because Eugene B. Rodney said, “There’s nothing that’ll grow ulcers faster than trying to do a live show with children”.

Rehearsals were held on Mondays and Tuesdays, with the last three days of the week given over to actual filming. If they didn’t finish, they had to work Saturdays (which was most of the time). Peter Tewksbury, the director for 4 seasons, added extra rehearsals, which made for the longer shooting schedule. He wanted the cast to rehearse so every move was natural and automatic. “We would even go through all the physical gestures, like buttering toast or reading a book, while we rehearsed our lines. The idea was to never lose your concentration. We rehearsed one scene so much that, when filming started, I actually pantomimed the scene rather than using props”, says Elinor Donahue. Each episode cost about $25,000 to produce. The production company stayed about seventeen shows ahead of the air dates. Over six seasons, 203 episodes originally aired. All seasons have now been put out on DVD! Of the 203 episodes- 187 are uncut, meaning they run the full 26 minutes. 15 episodes are syndicated prints running 22 1/2 minutes, (14 of them on the season 1 DVD, and one on the season 5 DVD). In theory, we can say there is one episode still lost, #170 Margaret Goes Dancing. But this episode, made in 1958, is a flashback episode, so maybe only 3-4 minutes of new material is missing, as the original episode #11 was substituted.

Father Knows Best became such a part of American pop-culture that in 1959 the U.S. Treasury Department commissioned a 30-minute episode called 󈬈 Hours in Tyrant land”. Never to be aired, it was distributed to schools, churches and civic groups to promote the buying of savings bonds. (This VERY RARE episode treat is on the Season One DVD.)

Scripts were the most important thing to Eugene B. Rodney and Robert Young. “Good scripts weren’t big action or bagfuls of jokes”, Rodney said. “We sought character, motivation”. The two major writers for the show were Roswell Rogers and Paul West. They got their ideas from their own family life, Mr. Rogers having three children, and Mr. West having four. They looked for scripts that people would say, “that happened to us once”. Many scripts contained what Rodney called “built-in moral lessons”.

The two major directors were Peter Tewksbury and William D. Russell. Mr. Russell directed the first 62 shows. He was a big man with a big voice, who was able to weep easily. Robert Young used to say the cast gauged the effectiveness of any sentimental scene by watching Russell after he yelled, “Cut!” If Russell’s cheeks were all wet, all was well. Peter Tewksbury was a young thirty-three year old who directed the majority of the remaining 141 episodes. When ready to shoot, the assistant director would yell, “QUIET!” Mr. Tewksbury would then deviate from the standard director’s call and say, “All right, now. HAPPY! ACTION!

The producer was Eugene B. Rodney, who was in partnership with Robert Young as the owners of the series. Mr. Rodney would weep happily and copiously as he dubbed in the sound and laughs on each show. He loved the series. When people suggested the series approached over-sentimentality, Eugene declared, “If I ever get a director so cynical that he can’t feel it deep in his heart when a little girl places a crippled sparrow in a nest and then goes upstairs to her room and prays to God that that sparrow lives-why, I’ll fire him!” Says Jane Wyatt about Eugene B. Rodney, “Gene is like that. He knows everything there is to know about this show. After my first season, I went to him and asked how I could improve my characterization. He looked at the ceiling for a moment and said, ‘Love your children as much as you love your husband’. He was right. I’d been concentrating on building up a firm, strong relationship between Jim and Margaret and had been neglecting the children.” The talents, values and attitudes of all the people involved in the show made it the success it was.

In 1960, Robert Young grew tired of the role he had been playing on radio and television for eleven years. He felt the family had outgrown the original premise of the show, as it was time for Betty to get married and Bud to join the army, so they decided to call it quits. (For a more detailed account, read the official statement on this website regarding the shutdown of Father Knows Best.)

In 1977, Robert Young entered the Anderson household again after his successful series, Marcus Welby, M.D., concluded. Two movies were made reuniting the cast, one shown in May and the other in December of that year.

Robert Young passed away July 22, 1998. Jane Wyatt passed away October 20, 2006. Today, Elinor Donahue and Bill Gray live in California, and Lauren Chapin lives in Florida.


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