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(DE-246: dp. 1.200; 1. 306 '; b. 36'7 ", dr. 8'7", s. 21.2 k .; kpl. 216 a. 3 3 ", 2 40mm., 10 20mm. , 2 dct., 8 dcp.1 dcp. (Hh., 3 21 "tt .; cl. Edsall)
Snowden (DE-246) is op 7 Desember 1942 gelê deur Brown Shipbuilding Co., Ine., Houston, Tex.
Ek het op 19 Februarie 1943 begin, geborg deur mev. Halford R. Greenlee, en op 23 Augustus 1943 in opdrag van kommissaris Lt. A. Jackson, Jr., USNR, in bevel.
Snowden het op 3 September na New Orleans gevaar op pad na Bermuda vir haar vaart wat tot 14 Oktober geduur het. Sy is toe laat in die maand na Charleston SC beveel, sy het Almaack (AK-27) na Panama begelei, en in November Sloat (DE-245) na New York. Die skip is op 11 November daar by die konvooi UGS-24 aangewys en het dit op 1 Desember na Norfolk en Casablanca begelei. Sy tel nog een op
konvooi daar en keer op 24 Desember 1943 na New York terug.
Snowden het op 5 Januarie 1944 begin met 'n kort oefenvaart na Norfolk en daarna Arkansas (BB-33) na New York begelei. In Januarie begelei sy konvooi UGS-31 na Gibraltar, via Norfolk, en keer in Februarie terug na New York met die konvooi UGS-30 wat op 8 Maart aankom. Die begeleier verhuis daarna na Norfolk en sluit aan by Task Group (TG) 21.15, 'n jagter-moordenaarsgroep, wat op 24 Maart gevaar het.
Die aand het Snowden 'n goeie kontak gemaak, maar sy is uit die gebied beveel sodat vliegtuie van Croatan (CVE-25) sonarbuoys kon laat val, wat negatiewe resultate opgelewer het.
Op 28 April het Snowden, Frost (DE-144) en Barber (DE-161) hul siftingsposisies verlaat om 'n meetmeter aan die hoof van 'n olievlek te maak. Snowden het 'n lesing op 560 voet gemaak. Die trio het twee diepte -laaipatrone van 39 aanklagte elk laat val. Twee onderzeese ontploffings het gevolg toe U-488 dood is.
Die taakgroep was genoodsaak om op 5 Mei terug te keer na die hawe vir die hervatting van dieptekoste voordat hulle in Junie en Julie voortgaan. Op 12 Junie het Snowd en Frost en Inch (DE-146) 'n oppervlakradar kontak gemaak. Inch verlig die teiken met sterskulpe, en dit word as 'n duikboot geïdentifiseer. Ryp het begin skiet toe Snowden buite bereik was. 'N SOS is deur Frost ontvang, gevolg deur 'n harde ontploffing uit die duikboot. Die drie begeleiers het 60 oorlewendes uit die gesinkte U-490 opgetel. Op 3 Julie het Frost en Inch U-154 doodgemaak. Snowden het 'n boot in die water gesit, en dit het vuilgoed soos papier met Duitse skrif, Duitse sigarette en menslike vlees opgevang. Die duikboot is beslis gesink.
Op 22 Augustus het Snowden by TG 22.5 aangesluit en in die Karibiese Eilande geopereer tot 30 Desember 1944 toe dit na Norfolk teruggekeer het. Op 25 Maart 1945 vaar die taakgroep na die noord-sentrale Atlantiese Oseaan om vyandelike duikbote te jag. Geen kontak is tot 15 April gemaak nie. Snowden het die versperringspatrollie verlaat om Kroaties te ondersoek terwyl Stanton (DE 247) en Frost aangeval het. Ses minute later is albei skepe deur 'n hewige ontploffing geruk. Om 01i4 die volgende oggend was daar 'n nog groter ontploffing wat skepe 12 myl daarvandaan geskud het, gevolg deur verskeie klein. Dit was die einde van U 1285.
Die jagter-moordenaar-groep het op 25 April drie dae lank Argentia, Newfoundland, binnegekom en daarna nog twee weke in die see gesteek. jag. Snowden het op 14 Mei vir twee weke by die Brooklyn Navy Yard gestop en daarna na Norfolk verhuis.
Snowden het tot 4 Julie in Norfolk gebly toe sy na Pearl Harbor, via Guantanamobaai, Panama en San Diego, gevaar het. Die begeleier was van 11 Augustus tot 11 September in Pearl Harbor toe sy haar roete na Norfolk terugkeer vir opknapping en inaktivering, en arriveer op 28 September 1946. Nadat die opknapping voltooi is, vaar sy na Green Cove Springs, Fla., En in Maart 1946, is, sonder kommissie, in reserwe geplaas by die vloot van die Atlantiese Reserwe.
Op 6 Junie 1951 word Snowden weer in diens geneem. Sy hou in Julie en Augustus heropleiding in Guantanamo Bay en oefen vanaf Newport, RI, vanaf September 1951 tot Maart 1952. Na verdere opknapping by Guantanamo Bay in Junie en Julie, vaar sy na die Noord -Atlantiese Oseaan en neem deel aan haar eerste vlootoefening van die Noord -Atlantiese Verdragsorganisasie (NAVO). Nadat sy hawens in Noorweë en Skotland besoek het, keer sy terug na die Karibiese Eilande en spandeer die res van die jaar daar.
Van 1953 tot 1957 werk Snowden saam met die Atlantiese Vloot langs die ooskus, wat wissel van Labrador tot by die Karibiese Eilande. Sy neem deel aan haar tweede NAVO -oefening van 3 September tot 21 Oktober 1957 met hawe -oproepe in Frankryk. Die begeleier hervat haar normale ooskusbedrywighede tot Februarie 1960 toe sy 'n groep I, Naval Reserve Training Ship word.
Snowden is in Augustus ontmantel en in diens geneem as 'n groep II, opleidingsskip van die vlootreservaat en in Philadelphia aangelê. Sy is op 2 Oktober 1961 weer in diens geneem en na Key West, Fla., Gestuur. Sy het van daar tot April 1962 opereer toe sy beveel is om na Philadelphia terug te keer waar sy weer ontmantel is en haar vorige status as 'n Groep II Naval Reserve Opleidingsskip hervat. Sy het tot 20 Augustus 1968 in hierdie kategorie gebly toe sy beveel is om voor te berei op inaktivering en staking. Snowden is op 23 September 1968 uit die ~ Navy -lys geslaan en op 27 Junie 1969 as 'n teiken gesink.
Snowden het drie gevegsterre ontvang vir die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.
Woordeboek van Amerikaanse vlootgevegskepe
Thomas Snowden, gebore op 12 Augustus 1857 te Peekskill, N.Y., is op 25 Junie 1875 aangestel as 'n Cadet Midshipman en studeer aan die Naval Academy in 1879. Hy dien in Vandalia, Standvastig, Monongahela, Dolfyn, en Konstellasie. Snowden is aangestel by die Hydrographic Office, Naval Observatory, Naval Academy, War College en die Office of Naval Intelligence. Van 1902 tot 1905 was hy navigator van Illinois en keer dan terug na Naval Intelligence voordat hy by die Buro vir Toerusting aansluit.
Snowden keer in 1908 terug see toe en beveel Mayflower, Suid Carolina, en Wyoming. Hy word in 1917 bevorder tot agter -admiraal en het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gedien as bevelvoerder, eskader 1 en afdeling 2, Slagskepsmag, Atlantic Fleet. Admiraal Snowden is bekroon met die Navy Cross vir sy diens in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.
Nadat hy tot 1919 by die Atlantiese Vloot gedien het, is admiraal Snowden aangestel as die militêre goewerneur van Santo Domingo met bykomende diens as militêre verteenwoordiger van die Verenigde State in Haïti.
Admiraal Snowden is op 12 Augustus 1921 na die afgetrede lys oorgeplaas en is op 27 Januarie 1930 oorlede.
(DE-246: dp. 1.200 l. 306 'b. 36'7 "dr. 8'7" s. 21.2 k. Cpl. 216 a. 3 3 ", 2 40mm., 10 20mm., 2 dct., 8 dcp., 1 dcp (hh.), 3 21 "tt. Cl. Edsall)
Snowden (DE-246) is op 7 Desember 1942 neergelê deur Brown Shipbuilding Co., Inc., Houston, Tex. Wat op 19 Februarie 1943 gelanseer is, geborg deur mev. Halford R. Greelee en op 23 Augustus 1943 in diens geneem is, het lt.kom. A. Jackson, Jr., USNR, in bevel.
Snowden het op 3 September na New Orleans gevaar op pad na Bermuda vir haar vaart wat tot 14 Oktober geduur het. Sy is toe beveel om later in die maand na Charleston, SC, te gaan Almaack (AK-27) na Panama, en in November, Sloot (DE-245) na New York. Die skip is op 11 November op die konvooi UGS-24 aangewys en het dit op 1 Desember na Norfolk en Casablanca begelei. Sy het nog 'n konvooi daar opgetel en op 24 Desember 1943 na New York teruggekeer.
Snowden het op 4 Januarie 1944 begin met 'n kort oefenvaart na Norfolk en daarna die konvooi UGS-31 begelei na Gibraltar, via Norfolk, en in Februarie teruggekeer na New York met die konvooi UGS-30 wat op 8 Maart aangekom het. Die begeleier verhuis daarna na Norfolk en sluit aan by Task Group (TG) 21.15, 'n jagter-moordenaarsgroep, wat op 24 Maart gevaar het.
Die aand is 'n goeie kontak gemaak deur Snowden, maar sy is uit die gebied beveel sodat vliegtuie van Kroaties (CVE-25) kan sonboeie laat val, wat negatiewe resultate lewer.
Op 28 April, Snowden Ryp (DE-144), en Kapper (DE-161) het hul siftingsposisies verlaat om 'n meetmeter aan die hoof van 'n olievlek te maak. Snowden 'n lesing op 560 voet gemaak. Die trio het twee diepte -laaipatrone van 39 aanklagte elk laat val. Twee ontploffings onder die see het gevolg U-488 gesterf het.
Die taakgroep was genoodsaak om op 5 Mei terug te keer na die hawe vir die hervatting van dieptekoste voordat hulle in Junie en Julie voortgaan. Op 12 Junie, Snowden, Ryp, en Duim (DE-146) het 'n oppervlakradar-kontak gemaak. Duim die teiken verlig met sterskulpe, en dit is geïdentifiseer as 'n duikboot. Ryp begin skiet as Snowden was buite bereik. 'N SOS is ontvang deur Ryp wat gevolg is deur 'n harde ontploffing uit die duikboot. Die drie begeleiers het 60 oorlewendes uit die versonke opgetel U-490. Op 3 Julie, Ryp en Duim vermoor U-154. Snowden gooi 'n boot in die water, en dit versamel vuilgoed soos papier met Duitse skrif, Duitse sigarette en menslike vlees. Die duikboot is beslis gesink.
Op 22 Augustus, Snowden het by TG 22.5 aangesluit en in die Karibiese Eilande geopereer tot 30 Desember 1944 toe dit na Norfolk teruggekeer het. Op 25 Maart 1945 vaar die taakgroep na die noord-sentrale Atlantiese Oseaan om vyandelike duikbote te jag. Geen kontak is tot 15 April gemaak nie. Snowden die versperringspatrollie na die skerm gelaat Kroaties terwyl Stanton (DE-247) en Ryp aangeval. Ses minute later is albei skepe deur 'n hewige ontploffing geruk. By 0114 die volgende oggend was daar 'n nog groter ontploffing, wat skepe 12 myl daarvandaan geskud het, gevolg deur verskeie geringe. Dit was die einde van U-1235.
Die jagter-moordenaar-groep het op 25 April drie dae lank Argentia, Newfoundland, binnegekom en daarna nog twee weke se jag op die see gelê. Snowden het op 14 Mei vir twee weke by die Brooklyn Navy Yard gestop en daarna na Norfolk verhuis.
Snowden het tot 4 Julie in Norfolk gebly toe sy na Pearl Harbor gevaar het, via Guantanamo Bay, Panama en San Diego. Die begeleier was van 14 Augustus tot 11 September in Pearl Harbor toe sy haar roete na Norfolk terugkeer vir opknapping en inaktivering, en arriveer op 28 September 1945. Nadat die opknapping voltooi is, vaar sy na Green Cove Springs, Fla., En in Maart 1946 is in reserwe geplaas, buite kommissie, by die Atlantic Reserve Fleet.
Op 6 Junie 1951 Snowden is weer in aktiewe diens geplaas. Sy het in Julie en Augustus herhalingsopleiding by Guantanamo Bay gehou en daarna oefen vanaf Newport, RI, vanaf September 1951 tot Maart 1952. Na verdere opknapping by Guantanamo Bay in Junie en Julie, vaar sy na die Noord -Atlantiese Oseaan en neem deel aan haar eerste vlootoefening van die Noord -Atlantiese Verdragsorganisasie (NAVO). Nadat die hawens in Noorweë en Skotland aangeval is, [bemanningslid berig: na 'n stop in Cherbourg, keer hy terug na Newport na 'n oorlewende storm noord van die poolcirkel - red.] keer sy terug na die Karibiese Eilande en spandeer die res van die jaar daar.
Van 1953 tot 1957, Snowden saam met die Atlantiese Vloot langs die ooskus, wat wissel van Labrador tot by die Karibiese Eilande. Sy neem deel aan haar tweede NAVO -oefening van 3 September tot 21 Oktober 1957 met hawe -oproepe in Frankryk. Die begeleier hervat haar normale ooskusbedrywighede tot Februarie 1960 toe sy 'n groep I, Naval Reserve Training Ship word.
Snowden is in Augustus uit diens gestel en in diens geneem as 'n Group II, Naval Reserve Training Ship en aangelê by Philadelphia. Sy is op 2 Oktober 1961 weer in diens geneem en na Key West, Florida, gestuur. Sy het van daar tot April 1962 opgehou toe sy beveel is om na Philadelphia terug te keer, waar sy weer uit diens gestel is en haar vorige status as 'n Groep II, Naval Reserve Training Ship, hervat het. Sy het tot 20 Augustus 1968 in hierdie kategorie gebly toe sy beveel is om voor te berei op inaktivering en staking. Snowden is op 23 September 1968 uit die vlootlys geslaan en op 27 Junie 1969 as 'n teiken gesink.
Snowden het op 3 September na New Orleans, Louisiana, gevaar op pad na Bermuda vir haar vaart wat tot 14 Oktober geduur het. Sy is toe bestel na Charleston, Suid -Carolina. Laat in die maand het sy USS begeleiAlmaack (AK-27) na Panama, en, in November, USS Sloot (DE-245) na New York. Die skip is op 11 November daar by die konvooi UGS-24 aangewys en het dit op 1 Desember na Norfolk, Virginia en Casablanca begelei. Sy het nog 'n konvooi daar opgetel en op 24 Desember 1943 na New York teruggekeer.
Snowden het op 5 Januarie 1944 begin met 'n kort oefenvaart na Norfolk en daarna USS begeleiArkansas (BB-33) na New York. In Januarie begelei sy konvooi UGS-31 na Gibraltar, via Norfolk, en keer in Februarie terug na New York met die konvooi UGS-30 wat op 8 Maart aankom. Die begeleier verhuis daarna na Norfolk en sluit aan by Task Group (TG) 21.15, 'n jagter-moordenaarsgroep, wat op 24 Maart gevaar het.
Die aand is 'n goeie kontak gemaak deur Snowden, maar sy is uit die gebied beveel sodat vliegtuie van USS Kroaties (CVE-25) kan sonarboeie laat val, wat negatiewe resultate opgelewer het.
Die taakgroep was genoodsaak om op 5 Mei terug te keer na die hawe vir die hervatting van dieptekoste voordat hulle in Junie en Julie voortgaan. Op 12 Junie, Snowden, Frost en USS Duim (DE-146) het 'n oppervlakradar-kontak gemaak. Inch verlig die teiken met sterskulpe, en dit word as 'n duikboot geïdentifiseer. Ryp het begin skiet soos Snowden was buite bereik. 'N SOS is deur Frost ontvang, gevolg deur 'n harde ontploffing uit die duikboot. Die drie begeleiers het 60 oorlewendes uit die versonke opgetel U-490. Op 3 Julie is Frost en Inch dood U-154 Snowden gooi 'n boot in die water, en dit versamel vuilgoed soos papier met Duitse skrif, Duitse sigarette en menslike vlees. Die duikboot is beslis gesink.
Op 22 Augustus, Snowden het by taakgroep TG 22.5 aangesluit en tot 30 Desember 1944 in die Karibiese Eilande gewerk toe hy na Norfolk teruggekeer het. Op 25 Maart 1945 vaar die taakgroep na die noord-sentrale Atlantiese Oseaan om vyandelike duikbote te jag. Geen kontak is tot 15 April gemaak nie. Snowden het die versperringspatrollie verlaat om Kroaties te ondersoek terwyl USS Stanton (DE-247) en Frost aangeval. Ses minute later is albei skepe deur 'n hewige ontploffing geruk. Die volgende oggend by 0114 was daar 'n nog groter ontploffing wat skepe 12 myl daarvandaan geskud het, gevolg deur verskeie klein. Dit was die einde van U-1235.
Die jagter-moordenaar-groep het op 25 April drie dae lank Argentia, Newfoundland, binnegekom en daarna vir nog twee weke jag. Snowden het op 14 Mei vir twee weke by die Brooklyn Navy Yard gestop en daarna na Norfolk verhuis.
Wat Snowden familie rekords sal jy vind?
Daar is 111 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Snowden. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan Snowden-tellingsrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.
Daar is 9 000 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Snowden. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.
Daar is 12 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Snowden. Vir die veterane onder u Snowden -voorouers, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle gedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.
Daar is 111 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Snowden. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan Snowden-tellingsrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.
Daar is 9 000 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Snowden. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.
Daar is 12 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Snowden. Vir die veterane onder u Snowden -voorouers, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle diens gedoen het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.
Na 6 jaar in ballingskap verduidelik Edward Snowden homself
Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.
Snowden bly 'n soort van die eerste wysiging -absolutis. 'Dit is die prys van toegang tot 'n vrye samelewing,' sê hy. "Die beste reaksie op die ergste persoon is nie om hulle te vrees nie, maar om hulle reg te stel, nie om hulle stil te maak nie, maar om hulle uit te daag, om hulle beter te maak as wat hulle was." Foto: Baikal/Alamy
Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.
Edward Snowden, waarskynlik die beroemdste fluitjieblaser ter wêreld, is 'n man wat agter baie skuilname geleef het voordat hy sy ware naam aan sy waarheid vertel het: Toe hy die eerste keer met die joernaliste kommunikeer wat sy hoogs geheime NSA-lekkasies sou onthul, hy gebruik die name Citizenfour, Cincinnatus en Verax - Latyn vir 'waarheidsgetrou' en 'n wetende toespeling op Julian Assange se ou hackerhandvatsel Mendax, die leuenverteller.
Maar in sy pas gepubliseerde memoires en manifes, Permanente rekord, Beskryf Snowden ander handvatsels, al is dit lankal opgehou: Shrike the Knight, Corwin the Bard, Belgarion the Smith, squ33ker die voorbarige kind wat amateur-vrae vra oor chipkompatibiliteit op 'n vroeë bulletin-board-diens. Hy skryf dat hy as tiener in die negentigerjare as 'n T-hemp sou aanskaf en soos 'n T-hemp sou gaan, met die aanvaarding van nuwe identiteite, dikwels om foute of verleentheid idees agter te laat wat hy probeer het aanlyn gesprekke. Soms, merk hy op, sou hy selfs sy nuwe identiteit gebruik om sy vorige self aan te val, hoe beter om die onkunde wat hy die vorige week was, te ontken.
Daardie internet wat al lank verlore is, skryf Snowden, het sy inwoners 'n 'reset-knoppie vir u lewe' gebied wat elke dag na willekeur gedruk kon word. En hy hang nog steeds daarvan af. "Om u ervaring uit te brei, 'n meer hele mens te word deur te probeer misluk, dit is wat ons leer wie ons is en wie ons wil word," het Snowden in 'n onderhoud aan WIRED gesê voor die publikasie van sy boek. môre. 'Dit is wat die opkomende geslag ontken. Hulle word so genadeloos en streng geïdentifiseer in elke netwerk waarmee hulle kommunikeer en waarmee hulle leef. Hulle word die geleenthede ontken wat ons gehad het om vergeet te word en om hul foute te vergewe. ”
Snowden se memoires herbesoek sy jeugdige, vinnige dae op die internet. Koop op Amazon
Niemand het meer as Snowden onthul hoe daardie individualistiese, kortstondige, anonieme internet opgehou het om te bestaan nie. Miskien was dit altyd 'n mite. (Immers, ten minste een klompie van Snowden se kletskamer dink oor alles van gewere tot seksadvies, onder die skuilnaam TheTrueHooha, het aanlyn gebly na sy opkoms tot bekendheid.)
Maar vir die voormalige NSA -kontrakteur en baie van sy generasie is die idee van die internet 'n fundamentele mite, vervat in Neal Stephenson -romans en in "The Hacker Manifesto" - waarvan Snowden lees beskryf as 'n tiener in 'n mononukleose -waas - en John Perry Barlow se "Verklaring van die onafhanklikheid van die kuberruim", wat Snowden skryf, wat hy in sy geheue hou langs die aanhef van die Grondwet. Die internet van die 90's, wat Snowden beskryf as "die aangenaamste en suksesvolste anargie wat ek nog ooit gesien het", was sy gemeenskap en sy opvoeding. Hy het selfs sy toekomstige vrou op Hotornot.com ontmoet.
Snowden sê die dokumentasie van die prehistoriese digitale wêreld en die verdwyning daarvan was deel van wat hom gedryf het om te skryf Permanente rekord, om sy eie afkeer te oorkom om besonderhede van sy persoonlike lewe te deel. En sodoende het hy die wêreld moontlik ook gehelp om hom beter te verstaan as ooit tevore. 'Dit is eintlik meer as 'n herinnering uit my perspektief,' sê hy. 'Die manier waarop ek dit reggekry het, was deur die geskiedenis van myself as persoon te vertel, maar ook die geskiedenis van 'n tyd en 'n verandering - in tegnologie, in 'n stelsel, op die internet en in Amerikaanse demokrasie.
Die outobiografie wat hieruit voortvloei, is ongeveer in derdes verdeel: Snowden se lewe voordat hy by die wêreld van spioene aangesluit het, sy stormwind sewe jaar in die intelligensiegemeenskap en sy ervaring as fluitjieblaser en internasionale vlugteling. Teen alle kanse is die eerste hiervan, 'n volle honderd bladsye wat grotendeels die minste unieke deel van Snowden se lewe beskryf-'n hiperintelligente maar relatief onopvallende uitval op hoërskool-glad nie 'n vermorsing van tyd nie.
In plaas daarvan bied hierdie portret van die fluitjieblaser as jong man miskien die mees begryplike, menslike verklaring tot nog toe vir Snowden se uiteindelike besluit om sy NSA-kollegas sy rug te keer, die ingewande van die agentskap te mors en homself tot ballingskap te veroordeel: Dit is die verhaal van 'n ambisieuse nerd wat slim genoeg is om deur die NSA se geledere op te skiet, terwyl hy ongeskonde ideale vir die internet behou het wat heeltemal teenoor die van sy werkgewer was.
In Snowden se vertelling klink dit vir die eerste keer minder na 'n biografie van 'n Black Swan as die ervaring van 'n generasie: 'n uiters aanlyn kind van die 90's wat eers na die verpletterende ervaring van 9/11 tot staatsdiens getrek word. Na 'n poging om by die spesiale magte aan te sluit - hy stort neer nadat hy albei sy bene gebreek het in basiese opleiding - trek hy na die intelligensiewêreld, waar hy ontdek dat die agentskap vir wie hy werk, die internet omskep het in die teenoorgestelde van die speelplek wat hy geïdealiseer het. In plaas daarvan is dit 'n fundamentele bedreiging vir die ongemerkte, onopgemelde anargie, 'n bedreiging wat iemand 'n enorme opoffering sal moet maak om te stop.
Behalwe die noodlottige besluit om eintlik daardie iemand te word, wys Snowden daarop dat die res van sy verhaal aan bykans enige van die duisende geeks met soortgelyke ervarings kon behoort. 'Ek is gewoon. Die ding wat ek in my eie ontleding van my verlede ontdek het, is hoe ongedaan ek was, ”sê Snowden. 'As dit nie ek was nie, was dit iemand anders. Die Edward Snowden -oomblik was onvermydelik, want jy kan net so lank die dobbelsteen op die gewete gooi totdat iemand beswaar maak. ”
Hierdie besluit het ongetwyfeld tot werklike veranderinge gelei: Die aanvaarding van die USA Freedom Act in 2015 het die versameling telefoonrekords wat voorheen die metadata van elke Amerikaner opgevee het, aansienlik beperk, miskien die duidelikste illustrasie onder die onthullings van Snowden oor die massa -toesig wat hy probeer blootlê. Die kongres oorweeg nou of hy die metadata -insamelingsprogram heeltemal moet beëindig. Maar niks hiervan het die diep tweeledige wrok van Snowden in die hoër geledere van die Amerikaanse regering verander nie: Demokratiese verteenwoordiger Adam Schiff het betwis dat Snowden selfs 'n fluitjieblaser genoem kan word, terwyl president Trump se minister van buitelandse sake, Michael Pompeo, gebel het vir die uitvoering van Snowden 's.
'Ons is gedwing om 'n generasie lank naak voor die krag te lewe.'
Alhoewel die groter wêreld die rol van Snowden as 'n held of 'n verraaier bespreek het oor die ses jaar sedert hy 'n huishoudelike naam geword het, het baie in die kuberveiligheidsgemeenskap hom eerder as 'n wonderlike IT -man afgemaak - 'n stelseladministrateur wat nooit werklik deelgeneem het aan die toesig- en inbraakbedrywighede wat hy later sou blootlê. Soos dit blyk, is dit half waar. Snowden was, selfs op die hoogtepunt van sy opkomende loopbaan, die IT-man verantwoordelik vir die bestuur van wat hy 'n 'dopey poky' Microsoft-stelsel vir die deel van dokumente noem, genaamd SharePoint, maar ook die bou van stelsels bekend as EpicShelter en Heartbeat wat inligting gedupliseer en gedeel het meer doeltreffend tussen NSA -kantore. Afgesien van 'n vroeë voorval as 'n tiener waarin hy 'n relatief eenvoudige kwesbaarheid op die webwerf van 'n kernfasiliteit vind en rapporteer, is daar nie veel bewyse van Snowden se vaardigheid as hacker nie.
Dit blyk egter dat die IT -man, in 'n instelling wie se inligting inligting het, een van die magtigste mense in die organisasiekaart is. Snowden was inderdaad een van die jong IT -elite, baie bewus van die generasie -skeiding wat hom gehelp het om hierdie rol te speel. In 'n gedeelte uit 'n tydperk wat hy by 'n CIA -datasentrum gewerk het, beskryf hy, met bewuste onbeskeidenheid, sy daaglikse wandeling verby 'n verskeidenheid IT -hulptafels wat op pad was na 'n meer geklassifiseerde afdeling geheime in die gebou. "Ek was dekades jonger as die hulptoonbank en het verby hulle gegaan in 'n kluis waartoe hulle nie toegang gehad het nie en nooit sou hê nie," skryf hy.
Later beskryf hy sy finale posisie in die NSA se Hawaii -kantoor, gebaseer in 'n massiewe tonnel van die Koue Oorlog -era onder 'n pynappelveld. 'Ek was die enigste werknemer van die Office of Information Sharing - ek was die kantoor van inligtingsdeling. My werk was dus om te weet watter deelbare inligting daar is. ”
In sy resensie van die CV met WIRED het hy gelag oor die aanvalle van 'net 'n stelseladministrateur'. 'Daar bestaan nie iets soos nie net 'n stelseladministrateur, "sê Snowden. 'Die stelseladministrateur is altyd die magtigste persoon op die hele netwerk.'
Op 'n stadium vroeg in sy NSA -loopbaan skryf Snowden dat hy gevra is om sy diep toegang te gebruik om 'n teen -intelligensie -aanbieding oor Chinese toesig en internetbeheer saam te stel - een van die eerste oomblikke toe hy begin wonder hoe presies die ekwivalente Amerikaanse stelsels van internet toesig kan vergelyk. Maar meestal lyk dit asof sy kernrol as 'n IT-sjamaan en data-verspreidingsdeskundige hom genoeg van die daaglikse toesigmissie verwyder het om die beginsel van 'n eksterne waarnemer te handhaaf-maksimum toegang tot inligting oor die NSA toesig met die minimum aan medepligtigheid wat ander stil hou.
Meer as in ander beskrywings van sy onthullings, Permanente rekord maak duideliker as ooit tevore dat Snowden se sentrale bekommernis en wat hom daartoe gelei het dat hy sy lewensveranderende besluit geneem het om sy werkgewer digitaal te ontwrig, geen spesifieke toesigmishandeling is nie. (Alhoewel hy baie gevalle van "LoveInt" in die agentskap opgemerk het, waarin personeel na romantiese belangstellings en ex-vennote gekyk het.)
In plaas daarvan skryf hy dat dit die bou van 'n potensiaal panopticon - wat hy turnkey -tirannie genoem het - met elke instrument om alles oor almal op te teken, om die geheime lewe van enige individu teen die grimering van die magtiges teen hom te keer, wat hy wou blootstel en sy lewe aan stryd gewy het. 'Die konstruksie van die stelsel was self die mishandeling, ”sê hy. 'Ons is gedwing om 'n generasie lank naak voor die krag te leef.'
Spesifieke voorbeelde van menseregteskendings, soos die toenemende gebruik van moniteringsinstrumente deur agentskappe soos Doeane en Grensbeskerming en Immigrasie en Doeane -handhawing om die wrede visie van die Trump -administrasie op immigrasiebeleid af te dwing, is volgens hom slegs 'n simptoom van die groter sistemiese verandering. 'Donald Trump is nie die probleem nie. Hy is die produk van die probleem, ”sê Snowden.
Die nostalgie van Snowden na 'n minder politiese, anonieme en anargiese internet is natuurlik nie verantwoordelik vir die trolleërs en alt-regse "vrye spraak" -brigades wat algemeen beskou word as die werklike aanlynmag agter Trump se opkoms nie. Maar op daardie punt bly Snowden 'n soort van die eerste wysiging -absolutis. 'Dit is die prys van toegang tot 'n vrye samelewing,' sê hy. "Die beste reaksie op die ergste persoon is nie om hulle te vrees nie, maar om hulle reg te stel, nie om hulle stil te maak nie, maar om hulle uit te daag, om hulle beter te maak as wat hulle was."
Afgesien van Snowden se oorsprongsverhaal en motiewe, is die laaste daad van Permanente rekord dokumente in meer besonderhede as ooit tevore oor die proses van Snowden se lekkasies, van 'rondloop' in Hawaii met sy skootrekenaar om by kwesbare Wi-Fi-netwerke in te breek as 'n manier om sy digitale spore te dek na sy ontsnapping oor die hele wêreld van Hawaii na Hong Kong tot Moskou, met vars besonderhede oor die onder -gerapporteerde rol van WikiLeaks 'Sarah Harrison as sy beskermer en gids. Die verhaal bereik 'n hoogtepunt in 'n gespanne ontmoeting tussen Snowden en 'n beampte van die FSB op die lughawe in Moskou. Die amptenaar doen kortliks sy bes om van Snowden 'n Russiese intelligensiebate te maak. Snowden skryf dat hy onderbreek het om te daal voordat die toonhoogte selfs klaar was, hoe beter om gewetenlose opnames van die vergadering te vermy.
Snowden ontken botweg dat hy sedertdien enige ander interaksie met Russiese intelligensie gehad het. Hy het immers nooit 'n enkele NSA -dokument na Rusland gebring nie. 'Al wat ek het, is wat in my kop is, en ek was nie bereid om dit vir hulle te gee nie,' sê hy. Hy bespiegel dat die Kremlin tevrede is met sy onwillekeurige rol as 'n lewende verleentheid vir die Verenigde State, 'n Amerikaanse menseregte -verdediger wat gedwing is om asiel in Poetin se Rusland te soek eerder as andersom.
Wat sy eindspel betref, sê Snowden dat hy niks het nie-dat hy eintlik nie 'n plan vir sy langtermyn-oorlewing gehad het sedert hy Hawaii verlaat het nie. Hy het herhaaldelik gesê dat hy gereed is om na die Verenigde State terug te keer om verhoor te word as hy 'n verdediging mag uitoefen op grond van die motivering vir sy fluitjieblaas-wat beteken dat hy nie gereed is om binnekort na die VSA terug te keer nie: Snowden staan tereg op aanklagte kragtens die Spioenasiewet, wat lekkasies van geklassifiseerde inligting aan 'n joernalis behandel, nie anders as om geheime aan 'n buitelandse regering te verkoop nie. Trump se vriendelikheid met Poetin het intussen vrae laat ontstaan oor die vraag of hy op 'n stadium as 'n diplomatieke geskenk aan die VSA teruggegee kan word, 'n moontlikheid wat Snowden sê dat hy uit sy kop dink as 'n onbeheerbare element van sy lot.
Aan die ander kant, as hy die res van sy lewe in Rusland moet deurbring, sê hy. Hy huur 'n woonstel saam met sy vrou, Lindsay, met wie hy in Moskou getroud is. Hy vind die meeste van dieselfde Amerikaanse kitskos in Moskou waarvoor hy hou in Hawaii en Maryland. Hy gaan voort om as president van die Freedom of the Press Foundation op te tree, en straal in sy kollegas ' -rekenaarskerms soos Max Headroom - en soms in 'n mobiele teenwoordigheidsrobot - om 'n span programmeerders en ingenieurs te lei wat gefokus is op die bou van gereedskap wat ontwerp is om joernaliste te verbeter en #x27 digitale sekuriteit.
Waarom Snowden hierdie veranderinge aangebring het
Soos Stone se vroeëre, ewe omstrede treffer Peloton, Snowden hou meestal by die feite by die hervertelling van die werklike verhaal. Dit hou 'n bietjie te naby aan die waarheid vir sommige kritici, soos die voormalige adjunk -direkteur van die NSA, Chris Inglis, wat kla dat die film Snowden 'n held maak. Natuurlik het die bron van hierdie woede moontlik minder te doen gehad met die akkuraatheid van die film en meer te doen met Stone wat die NSA se hoër persone (soos Inglis) as onbevoeg en amoreel voorstel, wat Snowden se onthulling van die NSA se spioenasieprogram nodig gehad het . Waar die film wel met die feite mors, is dit gewoonlik om Snowden self, Lindsay Mills en toekomstige fluitjieblasers te beskerm, hoewel sommige veranderings bloot om estetiese redes toegevoeg word, soos die hoogs dramatiese en hoogs onakkurate heist -volgorde.
Hier sien ons 'n ongewone skoot van 1982, nie soseer vir die onderwerp nie, maar vir die hoek, 'n onderaanzicht van 'n SH-2 Seasprite Mark 1 Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS I) helikopter wat vlieg. Let op die oppervlaktesoekradar, ASQ-81 Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) en torpedo's teen duikbote (Mk 44s?).
Die kleinste van die vloothelikopters uit die Koue Oorlog in die Koue Oorlog, wat agter die SH-3 Sea King en die vervanging daarvan, die SH/MH-60 Hawk-reeks, die Kaman Sea Sprite gekom het, het eerlik sy naam gekry. Slegs 184 vir die eerste keer bekendgestel in 1962, is slegs vir die VSA gebou, met die verwagte uitvoerverkope wat nooit werklik gerealiseer het nie.
Die kompakte Sea Sprite, met 'n lengte van 38 voet, 'n rotordiameter van 44 en 'n leë gewig van slegs 7000 pond, was klein genoeg om van te werk Knox1klas vernietiger begeleiers (later herklassifiseer as fregatte) en groter Hamilton-, Vertroue– en Beer-klas kuswagters in oorlogstyd, iets wat die SH-60 van 65 000 pond nie kon afneem nie.
They even made stops on battleships when required.
Crew members aboard the Iowa (BB-61) wait for a Helicopter Light Anti-Submarine Squadron 34 (HSL-34) SH-2F Seasprite helicopter to be secured before transporting a badly burned sailor injured during NATO exercise North Wedding 86. Official USN photo # DN-ST-87-00280, by PH1 Jeff Hilton
This meant that, even as the Sea Hawk was meeting widespread acclaim from the fleet, there was still a need for the smaller chopper. This led to the SH-2G Super Seasprite, an upgraded version of the original with the same footprint, in 1993. The Navy kept two squadrons of Super Seasprites (or Triple Ss) around in the reserve until 2001, by which time the last of the NRF Knoxes were all being put out to pasture and the Coast Guard was out of the ASW biz. A shame about the latter.
The SSS went on to serve much more extensively overseas and is still kicking with the Poles, Kiwis, Peruvians, and Egyptians.
The top aircraft, BuNo 147980, was an original Kaman HU2K-1/HU2K-1U later converted to the SH-2F standard. Used as a test helicopter at the factory from 1962-63, it eventually saw service with “every LAMPS squadron on the East Coast,” including HU-1/HC-1, HC-4/HSL-30, HSL-32, HSL-34, and HSL-36.
What does the history of insider espionage say about Edward Snowden?
He wasn’t the first and will certainly not be the last member of the U.S. intelligence community to betray the trust of his nation. But what do we really know about Edward Snowden, the former National Security Agency contractor who leaked thousands of documents detailing NSA’s domestic and global eavesdropping programs?
The truth is we know very little about Snowden beyond what the media outlets that have a vested interest in protecting him choose to report. But when viewed through the prism of the last 25 years of insider espionage, the Edward Snowden we do know seems to fit the typical profile of the trusted insider struggling to overcome personal and professional shortcomings, and suffering from a warped sense of moral superiority.
More than a decade worth of studies into the psychological profiles of malicious insiders have revealed several common characteristics that make information technology professionals — particularly system administrators, like Edward Snowden — an “at risk” population for malicious insider activity.
The most notable study was “Inside the Mind of the Insider,” conducted by Eric Shaw, a former CIA psychological profiler, and Jerrold Post, a former CIA psychologist and a noted expert on the psychology of terrorism and political violence. That study discovered that criminal insiders in the IT field share six personal characteristics with direct implications for risk, including a history of personal and social frustrations, computer dependency, ethical “flexibility,” reduced loyalty, a sense of entitlement, and a lack of empathy.
“In almost every case, the act which occurs in the information system era is the reflection of unmet personal needs that are channeled into the area of expertise,” Post said in an interview with this reporter conducted in July 2001.
Shaw declined to comment for this article because of ongoing work with the federal government. But Dr. Harley Stock, a clinical forensic psychologist who’s taught at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Va., said although many view Snowden as a whistleblower, his personal history tells a far different story.
“He’s very rare as an insider,” said Stock, pointing out most insider espionage cases have involved a desire for financial gain. “But when we look at Snowden, he has a very high need for attention and affection. This has shaped his life.”
Sick, shy & stressed
Born in 1983, Snowden grew up in North Carolina and Maryland. His father was a Coast Guard officer and his mother worked as a court administrator. They divorced in 2001, and Snowden went to live with his mother. His parents claim Snowden was ill as a teenager and failed to graduate high school. He eventually studied at a local community college to obtain a G.E.D.
Snowden was 17 when al-Qaida launched its attacks against the United States on Sept. 11, 2001. At that time, he adopted an online persona he called “The One True Hooha” at the website Ars Technica, where he participated in chat forums for gamers and hackers. His studies at a local community college would once again fall short of a degree.
In 2003, Snowden decided to join the Army Reserve, and requested a chance to undergo evaluation training for Special Forces to, in his words, “fight to help free people from oppression.”
Yet again, the young Snowden would fall short. He was dropped from the program and discharged from the Army four months later. Snowden claims to have broken both of his legs during training, but to date has provided no evidence. The Army has confirmed his service, but would not release his service record summary, known as a DD-214.
“He comes from a family that has a high need for achievement, but his experience is one disaster after another,” Stock said.
Transcripts of many of Snowden’s chat sessions, published by Ars Technica, show signs of somebody struggling to overcome a long string of personal and professional failures, and reveal a highly moralistic personality.
“Great minds do not need a university to make them any more credible: they get what they need and quietly blaze their trails into history,” he wrote.
With his dreams of becoming an Army Special Forces warrior shattered, Snowden returned to Maryland, where he landed a job as a security guard at the University of Maryland’s Center for Advanced Study of Language. The year was 2003, and NSA had just been designated as the executive agent for the center — the Defense Department first and only dedicated language research center.
“Somehow, he went from being a security guard to an IT position in the CIA,” Stock said. “That’s a pretty big jump for somebody who has no verified technical training and didn’t even graduate high school. At that point, his need for attention and affection is starting to be met.”
Snowden brags in the anonymous online forum about his hacking skills and his ability to land sensitive government work without a formal education. He joined NSA in 2009, at which time he reappears on the chat boards of Ars Technica, complaining about leaks of classified information and criticizing The New York Times for printing it. “Those people should be shot,” he wrote.
“I wonder how many hundreds of millions of dollars they just completely blew,” Snowden wrote, referring to the Times. “These are the same people who blew the whole ‘we could listen to osama’s cell phone’ thing the same people who screwed us on wiretapping over and over and over again. Thank god they’re going out of business.”
Then, something changed. According to Stock, it is a phase called cognitive dissonance — a period of mental stress that forms when one’s deeply held beliefs don’t match what’s happening in reality.
The One True Hooha disappears for a while from the Ars Technica chat forums. When he reappears in 2010, his tone is decidedly different.
“Society really seems to have developed an unquestioning obedience towards spooky types,” he wrote. “Did we get to where we are today via a slippery slope that was entirely within our control to stop, or was it an relatively instantaneous sea change that sneaked in undetected because of pervasive government secrecy?”
At NSA, the Snowden who has for years sought acceptance and attention has a self-described existential crisis.
“This guy has a fluctuating moral compass,” Stock said. “It points in a direction that is appropriate for him, regardless of how it effects others.”
According to Stock, Snowden then falls back on a justification mechanism known as hostile attribution bias. Now, he’s blaming somebody or something else for his problems.
“It allows you to justify your actions by taking revenge,” Stock said.
Jim Van Allen is the president of Behavioral Science Solutions Group Inc. and a former manager of the Criminal Profiling Unit of the Ontario Provincial Police who’s undergone behavioral sciences training at the FBI Academy. According to Van Allen, Snowden’s interview with the Guardian newspaper also reveals valuable information about his state of mind.
“To a certain extent, he fits very well into the general description of a whistleblower,” Van Allen acknowledged. “And the public largely is content with him being put into the whistleblower category.”
But from a psychological point of view, he seems to be moralistic and grandiose, Van Allen said.
“When you look through Snowden’s interview with the Guardian, there was some very emotional, concrete and absolute language used,” he said. ‘”Things were black or white, right or wrong. There’s very few areas of gray.”
Snowden also reveals paranoid thinking, according to Van Allen.
“His underlying thesis that the government could frame an innocent person by intercepting their communications and weaving it into a fraudulent storyline, that’s right out of ‘The Pelican Brief,’” said Van Allen, referring to the 1993 legal thriller by John Grisham. “Whether or not you want to call Snowden a whistleblower, when you get that type of personality coming into an organization, you are more at risk than if he wasn’t there.”
Criminal psychologists agree once people psychologically switch from intention to volition, they become dangerous. Snowden, they say, could have remained anonymous. Instead, he sought out journalists even before releasing the documents. Why did he do that?
“Because of his need for attention and affection,” Stock said. “He tries to portray himself as a Don Quixote, but it’s not true.”
Unlike the vast majority of past insider espionage cases, such former CIA officer Aldrich Ames and former FBI agent Robert Phillip Hansen, criminal psychologists say Snowden seems to have acted out for personal gain, not financial gain.
“He impresses me as a timid nobody,” Van Allen said. “I think he’s looking to make a name for himself. He sees himself as the White Knight crusader for privacy issues.”
Although Snowden has acknowledged publicly his only regret is the impact his actions may have on his family, neither Stock nor Van Allen buy that as a sign of a balanced thought process.
“He doesn’t seem to have a lot of regard for the consequences of his act,” Van Allen said. “It seems to be really reckless and impulsive.”
Impact on future hiring
The Snowden case raises important issues for federal hiring managers, especially in the intelligence community. Van Allen suggests more emphasis be placed on personality evaluations to determine if individuals are more loyal to their own judgment than they are to the organization’s goals.
Hiring managers must take extra care to consider such aspects of a person’s psychological makeup, he said, particularly when it comes to the younger generation of IT workers, who seem to be more prone to self-gratification and values-based thinking.
“The best way to keep your organization free from problems is to keep problem employees out in the first place,” he said.
The way you do that, Van Allen said, is through pre-employment screening, polygraph testing, psychological testing, and effective interviewing to see if prospective employees have ever been engaged in an activity they felt compromised personal values.
“What’s their record of protesting causes?” Van Allen said. “Pay attention to how rigid and emotional their language seems during the interview. Are they engaging in a lot of criticism of the organization’s practices? Are they suggesting that they know better than the organization? The answers to those questions could be very revealing.”
Transcript of interview recording
[start of track on reel 3, October 30, 1977]
Muriel Sophronia Sutherland Snowden, all right? I was born July 14, 1916, which makes me sixty-one, almost sixty-one and a half, all right? And I was born in Orange, New Jersey. My parents were William H. and Reiter Sutherland. My father was a dentist, graduated from Howard Dental School in 1905 he and my mother were married in 1906 and there were four children, one of whom died almost immediately after birth. My sister is the oldest and interestingly enough, her name is Reiter Lucinda Thomas, which was my mother's maiden name, that's her married name. Then there was a boy who lived only five days. He died of convulsions. My mother's mother died just before she was about to deliver—this is what I hear—and the shock was so great to her that apparently it had some kind of a negative impact. It was very traumatic and this boy didn't live. So there's a nine-year gap between my sister and me, I'm the next child. And then my brother was born. Reiter's birthday is 1908, January 23, 1908, so that makes her almost seventy, doesn't it? And my brother was the baby, born on December 24, what, he'll be fifty-eight, fifty-nine. He'll be fifty-nine in December, how's your arithmetic, whatever, he's two and a half years younger than I am, that's the family. I think I may have told you sometime before that my mother's father came to live with us.
Now what was your mother's maiden name?
My mother's maiden name was Thomas. Her father's name was John Ira Thomas, and we know a little bit about him because he lived with us, and he died when he was ninety-five. He died the day before my Gail was born. He tried to wait for her, I think I told you this, and one Sunday he said to me, "I don't think I'm going to make it," he said, "I'm trying to wait for that baby of yours, but I'm not going to make it." So that we had a sense of continuity. He used to tell us stories about being in the Indian wars and being at Fort Sill in Oklahoma, and about his own background of being born of a slave mother on a plantation in Virginia. He came to live with my family because his wife had died, and my mother was after him to come because he was still living in Washington, and he said, "Reiter, I will come only when you have a son." Shows something about his chauvinistic attitude—she had two daughters. But when my brother was born, he came to live with us in Orange, New Jersey, and he lived with us from then until the time he died. When my brother was born and was to be christened, his name officially was to be William Henry Sutherland, Jr., after my father. My grandfather said, "No, he's going to have to be named after me." So Bill's full name of record is William Henry John Sutherland, Jr., and as long as my grandfather lived, he never called Bill anything but John.
Reg. Well, I think that the thing was that my grandfather had only two children, my mother and a son. When his son was about ten or eleven years old—they lived in Ivy City in Washington—he was hopping on the back of a wagon or something and he fell and was killed. So that for my grandfather, this grandson was so important to take the place of a son who never grew up. At my grandfather's knee, my brother learned all the kinds of things that I think have been so important to him and his life. He was strongly religious, my grandfather was strongly religious, read the Bible every day. He was very, very alert, very much like Otto's father. He never lost any of his senses even though he was ninety-five, and he had rheumatism and he had asthma, but he was as straight as a ramrod. I have pictures of him, handsome gentleman and very, very warm and understanding, always reached out to the children— that's my sister and my brother-in-law. My grandfather was easier to talk with about problems than our parents. Of course it's always the business of the generations. Grandpa didn't have to discipline us, but he was there and flexible, you know, like he voted for Roosevelt. A lifelong Republican, and he decided that when Mr. Roosevelt came in, that he meant something good for black people, and whatever age it was, this was a great change for him, he voted for Roosevelt. My sister has three sons, three grandsons, and I have one granddaughter, and my one daughter, Gail. Gail was born on July 5, 1945, and Leigh is now four, she was born October 11, what is that, 1973. Well, that's the family, the immediate family.
Do you ever have family reunions?
Well, there are family reunions, but we're just getting into family reunions that we're going to be part of, because of the whole thing that Era Bell Thompson did on the family, the Nigerian family. Didn't I tell you about this? Era Bell Thompson, international editor of Ebony, did that story in February of 1975 on a "Tale of Two Continents." And it was a story of two families, the American family and the African family that had been in touch with each other over a hundred-year span. Goed? It's the Scipio Vaughan family, Carter, and we're on the American side of that family. I'm still trying to find out exactly what the relationship is. Era Bell never could get it straight.
You're also related to Jewel LaFontant.
Yes, Jewel is my cousin. I just saw her when I was in Washington at the National Urban League Conference, and when I was in Chicago the end of September, I meant to call her. Jewel and Ayo-Vaughan Richards are counterparts—she's the Nigerian who's the head of nursing, I'm not sure what her title is, in Lagos. And Jewel has been there to visit her, so there's been this kind of cross relationship that's still continuing after a hundred years. There have been gatherings of the Vaughan Carter clan and Bill, my brother, has taken part in some of them, but he is very anxious for us to get related to that total family group again. The thing that was so exciting to me was that when Era Bell was doing her research, she kept naming all of these people, and I said, "Those are people that I have called "cousin" all of my life," my father's family, and the thing that I think I'm trying. You see, my mother tended to be.. She was from Washington, D.C., and she belonged to that way of thinking about color and class, which said that you don't want to be tied in with black people in that way. So that when my father talked about his cousin from Africa, she would say that we don't want to talk about it, so we never really did. We did meet one of them, Ada Carter, and she was a Nigerian relative who came to visit the Carters in New York, with whom we were in constant touch. There is this whole business of finding out what the cousin thing is, and I've still not found out exactly. I went to Washington to the Urban League meeting, and while I was there I went to visit my eighth-year-old cousin, whose mother and father were the people that I felt must have raised my father, 'cause he seemed to be very close to them. Even from him, I cannot get out what was my father's exact relationship to Sallie Lee and Gene Dibble, his mother and father. Incidentally, Era Bell indicated that Sallie Lee is a direct descendant of Scipio Vaughan. Eugene Dibble whom she married, there's some question whether or not they were cousins, so the family gets into this overlap thing, and then there were all kinds of things going on. There were six children of the Sallie Lee-Gene Dibble union, and when my father comes into this, I don't know. But he used to take us to Camden when we were little, South Carolina, to visit with the Dibbles summer after summer after summer. And I knew Cousin Sallie and Cousin Gene, but my father never really talked about his parents. Now I was named for his mother, Sophronia. I have cussed him out many times for that name [laughter], which I have dropped, and you'll never see Sophronia in anything that I have, you know it'll be Muriel Sutherland Snowden, to hang on to the family name. But that Sophronia always bothered me, and then he told me that I was named for his mother, but I don't really know anything about it. My grandfather on my mother's side, John I. Thomas, his mother was a slave. His grandmother, as far as we're able to tell and he used to say, she was a full-blooded Cherokee Indian. So we're part of that strange mixture of white, Indian, and black which is found all over the Caribbean. When I went to Puerto Rico, I had people following me around, speaking Spanish, and my saying, you know, I don't really understand Spanish, and they looked at me askance because obviously I looked like a Puerto Rican.
But that's the immediate family.
Well, roots, roots. I just did a little monograph. Every now and then, I sit down when something strikes me and I write it up. But I wrote this piece up after I had seen "Roots" on television and there was so much talk about it. And the thing that I said was—it didn't have anything to do with my family roots as such—but I said that I felt that when I was the only black kid in the class in high school, well, there were no black children in Glen Ridge where I grew up. We were the only black family for a long time. There was another one that lived on the edge of Glen Ridge and Montclair. Incidentally, we moved from Orange, New Jersey. My father was practicing in Orange, and my mother was very unhappy because Orange was beginning to show all the symptoms of a ghetto community, and she wanted to get herself and her kids out of there. So they looked and looked and looked for a house, and she finally found one she liked in Glen Ridge. A thirteen-room house sitting smack in the middle of three-quarters of an acre of land, with an orchard and all kinds of flowers and trees. It was a very beautiful house. And my father, who loved her dearly, said, "If that's what you want, dear, that's what we'll get." And so he bought the house. And the first memory I have, conscious memory of anything, I would have been two and a half.
That would have been around World War I.
The first conscious memory I have of that, of anything really, was going to look at that house and going through it at night with my family and remembering the stairs. There were two steps on the second floor that led down to the bathroom, and there was a little closet there, and I was intrigued by this kind of an arrangement. I can remember that, I can almost see us running through that house and up the stairs. It was a very elegant house. But Glen Ridge had never had any black people living in that community and they were very resistant. We bought through a "straw" and moved in at night. I didn't know that at age two and a half, not till later. But then we found out that there had been all kinds of town meetings, what were they going to do about the black family that moved in? They were very genteel about it, this was before, they didn't burn any crosses or anything on the front lawn, but they were very distressed and didn't really know what to do about the family. And then when we moved into, my father moved his practice from Orange, but for a while he ran two offices, one in Orange and one in Bloomfield, which was the next town. But they saw that there was a family, and my father immediately started fixing up and renovating, and people were kind of hard put to keep up with the improvements that he was making on his property, which is the old story about black people always overcompensating, moving in and not providing any kind of problem. But I started to say something else and went into that, this memory. What was I saying?
You were talking about being the only one in school and relating back to roots. . .
So living in this kind of town where there were no black people, naturally my family, the children in my family, were the only black children in the schools, and they were very good schools. The high school was the seventh best high school in the United States. A very small community, Glen Ridge is a quarter of a mile wide and something like three miles long, a little bedroom community, very wealthy people living there, working in New York. The public schools were extraordinary, really good, so that when we were in high school and I had a history teacher, and I think it was probably in high school because we were studying American history, that when we came to the period of slavery, there was so much obvious discomfort in the classroom. There was a kind of a tension, the teacher felt it the students felt it I felt it. And there was a kind of looking, you know, sort of looking at me to see how I was taking it. I said that what I felt Roots was all about, is that if I had had Roots in my background, instead of them looking at me, I'd have been looking at them to see how they were handling the guilt that they should have felt about the way the white people had treated black people during the slavery and Reconstruction period. There's a little monograph that I wrote on this, because I felt so strongly about it, and why I feel that somehow the whole content of Roots needs to be adapted for inclusion in public school curriculum straight throughout the country. But I'm also very concerned that it not be done the way the television program was done, but that some black people, knowledgeable black people, good educators, can take the essence of Roots and put it into a form that'll be used for both black kids and white kids, without providing the sops to whites that the television program seemed to have to do.
Because I was glad I had read the book first before.
Oh, there were so many things in it that just drove me crazy. I spoke to Alex about it because he did do the editing and he was the consultant on it, but he was very vague, and I guess everybody recognizes that in order to do certain kinds of things, you have to make deals. He did say that he had written in the original the captain of the ship, the slave ship, but that he had taken that character out, because he was writing from the standpoint of Kunta Kinte and how did he know that this man was going through all this emotional turmoil, you know, so he took the character out, so that he said it wasn't that far afield.
I did not watch all of it on television.
I missed one segment, that was the night that Muhammad Ali did the benefit for Elma Lewis, so I was there. What else do we need from the early background?
You discussed how you happened to go to Radcliffe. I'm trying to think-.-we discussed your situation in terms of the movie theaters and going for ice cream. You mentioned that briefly in your other interview with me, do you want to expand a little on it, what your parents did to protect you.
I think we talked about that in terms of.
Your parents tried to provide opportunities for you.
The strength to cope. Well, moving was one kind of thing. Trying to move into a community where the schools were good, where the neighborhood environment was healthy, all of this, you know, just normal kinds of things. Plus I think there was an element of snobbery in it for my mother. She just was anxious to get out of Orange, it was too much for her to deal with, and she was concerned about what kinds of people her children would be associating with. I think it was just very normal for parents in that generation, that it was a kind of upward mobility and that they constantly looked towards how do we make life better for their children, and they were very much into the, you know, "white is right" kind of syndrome, and getting us far away from black people.
How did you react to those statements, did your mother ever make any direct statements to you as a child or.
Well, she always tended to talk about black people, black in color, in derogatory terms. I don't think I have any specific kind of things, I know that I was aware of it. The interesting thing to me is how we made the overleap to get away from it, and I'm not sure. I can remember, and this was part of the society in which we traveled, having, I think I told you this, this tremendous argument among my mother's friends about Paul Robeson. Paul Robeson had been to our house. I guess we had been to see him in summer theater he was doing Othello in Maplewood, which is another town close by. They had good summer theater. We went to see him, my mother knew him, and I can remember this man coming out of his dressing room because he was so big and the dressing room was so small that there was no room in it for him and for us. He stepped outside and I don't know how old I was, I have no way of remembering that, but I was just overwhelmed by this giant of a man with his magnificent voice. And when later we were talking about the play, and there was some other woman there, and I said, "I thought that Paul Robeson was just about the handsomest man I had ever seen," and they jumped all over me with both feet. How could anybody that black be handsome, how can you think of him in terms of good looks? So I must have been into an area of consciousness then about not accepting white Anglo-Saxon skin as beauty. So I probably was in high school, because this was where I think you would begin to get this sense. But in the early days, you asked about how we would cope. When we moved to Glen Ridge and we started going to school, that's when we had the first immediate exposure to prejudice and for me it was pretty much, oh, I told you this stuff, the kid that went to kindergarten with me every day. she was from Tennessee and couldn't walk to school with me anymore after the first or second grade because "she was from Tennessee." Then when my brother started school and he was two years behind me, he had a first-grade teacher who was from Virginia. That's the first-grade teacher who didn't want him to wear the tonic on his hair. The third grade for me is another kind of thing that sticks out in my mind. I was going to be in a play, and that's when after going through all the rehearsals and everything, and I was all excited about being in it, at the last minute the teacher told me I wasn't going to be in it. And that's when my mother came around to the school and blasted everybody in the school out of the place. My mother had a very fiery temper, a very short fuse and she was really the original mother hen, you know, don't touch her chicks. And if you came near, she would fly into a temper like you've never seen before, she had a wicked temper. But she scared those people around there, I don't think she even took off her apron. We didn't live far from school and she walked, flying around to the school with her apron strings in the wind to get this teacher told. "You never do this to my child." And I think I told you the questions, when I asked her what was a nigger—this little girl was talking about niggers and she lived in Tennessee. She simply said that they are very ignorant people and you need to feel sorry for people who use words like this. All right, I think that this was probably one of the classic, the standard ways for black parents to help their kids with their own identity and not to get overwhelmed with the inferiority piece. But going to school from then on in, we got special attention, the Sutherland kids were special, they were "exceptions." Their father was a professional man, we were obviously well off, we had two cars, all the children were extraordinarily well dressed. We had books in my household, we had good music in my household. Therefore, from the standpoint of the people in the community, it wasn't really that difficult to become accepting, at least superficially. Plus the fact that I was fairly quick and could learn fast and so there was a big push. My brother kept saying he felt, he said, "I used to feel sorry for you because I thought you were being pushed," and I said to him—this was just recently—I said, "I don't remember being pushed. I really enjoyed school." I enjoyed the competition, and I enjoyed being number one. I stayed number one all the way through until I graduated from high school as valedictorian. The blow came when the boy who was salutatorian met a friend of mine who was very fair, at college. And not knowing that this boy was black, they got into a conversation about where the salutatorian had come from. He said he came from Glen Ridge, and this boy said to him, "Oh, you must know Muriel Sutherland," and he said, "Yes, I knew her." "Well, what was she like?" And he said, "Just another nigger wench." And I think about that boy, I boil now because all through school, we were in the same classroom from kindergarten through graduation from high school. We had studied together, on the phone together and I always felt involved with him. I really wasn't thinking race, I was thinking a friend. We were in competition, and maybe it was because he lost out on the valedictorian, that his attitude was such that he had to downgrade me in some way when he was talking about it later. But I still remember that, that really got under my skin. But I did enjoy that competition and my father and mother were both, as I say, very protective. Whether it was around that whole business of not being able to sit where you wanted to, the theater in Bloomfield, being shunted over to the side where they sent all black people. Well, when we, came in, we were never shunted aside after my father went in there and blew up. Getting the ice cream, we just didn't go back to that place even though. we blasted them again because, as I told you, when we were all dressed up on Sunday, we'd go to this little place, Delcrest or whatever it was called, to get ice cream and to be told you can't eat it here. These little snips who looked at you and told you you couldn't eat the ice cream, so we went back home and told our parents and they were always there. Particularly my mother. Mama had a lot more fire than my father. My father was very easygoing, very warm. I did the eulogy for him and my brother did it for my mother. My mother died in 1950 and my father died in 1951. Although people today tend to do this kind of thing, it was kind of unheard of then. But the Sutherlands are a very strong-minded people, as my husband will tell you, and we decided that we didn't want people talking about our parents, who didn't know them.
So that when Bill did it for Mama, he talked about Mama in terms of being fire and thunder and lightning and how her temper flared, but also what she meant to us. And then when I did it for my father, I talked about my father as a community person who had led a drive for the YMCA building, and he went to meetings all the time on Sundays and sometimes he took us back to Orange. By the way, he was the one that kept the bridge going between the old community and the new. I don't think he felt as comfortable in Glen Ridge as my mother did. My mother made this leap from Glen Ridge then to New York and Brooklyn, to the immigrants from Washington as the contact for her children. You talk about how you establish a. she knew that we could not make it in a white world that had these social barriers. She wasn't really concerned so much about that she was concerned about our going to school, getting a good education. She graduated from high school and went to Hampton and took millinery. My father, of course, had gone to professional school, but you didn't go to college then, remember, you went straight into dental school. So that this whole business of a drive for a good educational background and college was of tremendous concern to her. So that's what she wanted out of Glen Ridge, and a beautiful home which she could show off to her friends. But then, for social life she began calling her friends in Brooklyn and New York and those that had children our age, these were the people with whom I first began, when I got to dating age and stuff. This is where I began to make my contacts. Like I told you. Well, I had a friend in Orange, a girl in Orange that was a friend of mine when I was thirteen, fourteen, but in terms of getting involved in that social group, the first contact that I had in that direction was in my home. Lena's grandmother and my mother were very good friends, so Mama kept talking about, "Well, you know, Muriel doesn't know very many girls," and Mrs. Home said, "Well, you know, Lena is a part of the Junior Debs of Brooklyn." So Lena came over and visited and I can see her now, lying across my bed, giving me a run-down on all the members of the Junior Debs. Her descriptions were very accurate. She was wonderful she proposed my name, and I became a member of this social group. If whatever there is in black society that's the 400s, this is it and this is where I started out.
Who else do you remember as being in that group?
Well, there was Theresa Birnie, Dr. Birnie's daughter in Brooklyn Catherine Chestnut, Catherine and Laurie Chestnut, they were from Washington. I think most of these people came from Washington, I don't know about the Birnies. They tended to be fair, if you noticed, the coloring of the Junior Debs was generally pretty fair. I would guess that maybe Lena and I were the darkest ones in the room. Oh no, there were a couple of girls who were brown, but they were all professional people's children, primarily lawyers, doctors. They had status and they were economically comfortable, so it was an interesting group of people. But my friend, Ellen Craft, was not in that group, 'cause she lived in New York. But there was a kind of relationship between the New York society and the Brooklyn society and once in a while they would cross. I don't know if I told you, I met Ellen because some of the Brooklyn kids decided they'd go to Ellen's house. They heard there was a party going on, and they crashed the party, and that's when I met her, at her house. And somehow or other, I really don't know what the progression was, but we gravitated towards one another and we've been friends over all these years.
Chestnut is a name that stands out in my mind.
[End of track on reel 3, October 30, 1977]
This audio recording is part of The Black Women Oral History Project, interviews of 72 African American women recorded between 1976 and 1981. With support from the Schlesinger Library, the project recorded a cross section of women who had made significant contributions to American society during the first half of the 20th century. The interviews discuss family background, marriages, childhood, education, and training significant influences affecting narrators’ choice of primary career or activity professional and voluntary accomplishments union activities and the ways in which being Black and a woman affected narrators’ options and the choices made. Interview transcripts and audio files are fully digitized.