Artikels

Brandnetel II SwStr - Geskiedenis

Brandnetel II SwStr - Geskiedenis


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Brandnetel II
(SwStr: t. 50)

Wonder, 'n sywiel-stoomboot, wat vroeg in die burgeroorlog deur die weermag gekoop is vir diens in die Westelike Flotilla, is op 30 September 1862 na die vloot oorgeplaas en herdoop na Nettle op 19 Oktober 1862. Brandnetel, onder bevel van Aeting Ens Perry C. Wright, dien as 'n sleepboot op die Mississippi bo Vieksburg tot nadat die Konfederale riviervesting op 4 Julie 1863 geval het. Daarna het sy, gebaseer op Vieksburg, voortgegaan met die ondersteuning van die Mississippi -eskader wat die toevoerlyne en kommunikasie van die Unie langs die binnelandse waters van die Mississippi handhaaf. sytakke. Sy is op 20 Oktober 1865 in 'n eollision gesink met 'n ysterkleed.


Brandnetel

Brandnetel (Urtica dioica en die naverwante Urtica urens) het 'n lang medisinale geskiedenis. In die Middeleeuse Europa is dit gebruik as 'n diuretikum (om die liggaam van oortollige water te verwyder) en om gewrigspyn te behandel.

Brandnetel het fyn hare op die blare en stingels wat irriterende chemikalieë bevat, wat vrygestel word wanneer die plant met die vel in aanraking kom. Die hare of stekels van die brandnetel is gewoonlik baie pynlik om aan te raak. As hulle egter in aanraking kom met 'n pynlike deel van die liggaam, kan hulle die oorspronklike pyn eintlik verminder. Wetenskaplikes dink dat brandnetel dit doen deur die vlakke van inflammatoriese chemikalieë in die liggaam te verminder en deur die manier waarop die liggaam pyn seine oordra, in te meng.

Algemene gebruike

Brandnetel word al honderde jare gebruik om pynlike spiere en gewrigte, ekseem, artritis, jig en bloedarmoede te behandel. Tans gebruik baie mense dit om urinêre probleme te behandel tydens die vroeë stadiums van 'n vergrote prostaat (genaamd benigne prostatiese hiperplasie of BPH). Dit word ook gebruik vir urienweginfeksies, hooikoors (allergiese rinitis), of in kompresse of ys vir die behandeling van gewrigspyn, verstuikings en stamme, tendonitis en insekbyte.

Goedaardige prostatiese hiperplasie (BPH)

Brandnetelwortel word wyd in Europa gebruik om BPH te behandel. Studies by mense dui daarop dat brandnetel, in kombinasie met ander kruie (veral palmbome), effektief kan wees om simptome te verlig, soos verminderde urinestroom, onvolledige leegmaak van die blaas, drup na urinering en konstante drang om te urineer. Hierdie simptome word veroorsaak deur die vergrote prostaatklier wat op die uretra druk (die buis wat urine uit die blaas leegmaak). Sommige studies dui daarop dat brandnetel vergelykbaar is met finasteried ('n medisyne wat gereeld vir BPH voorgeskryf word) om die groei van sekere prostaatselle te vertraag. Anders as finasteried, verminder die kruie egter nie die prostaatgrootte nie. Wetenskaplikes is nie seker waarom brandnetelwortel simptome verminder nie. Dit kan wees omdat dit chemikalieë bevat wat hormone beïnvloed (insluitend testosteroon en estrogeen), of omdat dit direk op prostaat selle inwerk. Dit is belangrik om met 'n dokter te werk om BPH te behandel, en om seker te maak dat u 'n behoorlike diagnose het om prostaatkanker uit te skakel.

Osteoartritis

Die blare en stingels van brandnetel is histories gebruik om artritis te behandel en seer spiere te verlig. Alhoewel studies klein was, dui dit aan dat sommige mense verligting kry van gewrigspyn deur brandnetelblaar plaaslik op die pynlike gebied aan te bring. Ander studies toon dat die gebruik van 'n mondelinge uittreksel van brandnetel, saam met nie-steroïdale anti-inflammatoriese middels (NSAID's), mense help om hul NSAID-dosis te verminder.

Hooikoors

Een voorlopige menslike studie het voorgestel dat brandnetelkapsules gehelp het om nies en jeuk by mense met hooikoors te verminder. In 'n ander studie het 57% van die pasiënte brandnetels as effektief beskou om allergieë te verlig, en 48% het gesê dat brandnetels meer effektief is as allergiemedisyne wat hulle voorheen gebruik het. Navorsers dink dat dit te wyte is aan die brandnetel se vermoë om die hoeveelheid histamien wat die liggaam produseer te verminder in reaksie op 'n allergeen. Meer studies is nodig om brandhout se antihistamien eienskappe te bevestig. Sommige dokters beveel aan om 'n gevriesdroogde brandnetel te neem voordat die hooikoorsseisoen begin.

Ander

Voorlopige dierstudies dui aan dat brandnetel die bloedsuiker en bloeddruk kan verlaag. Meer navorsing is egter nodig om vas te stel of dit ook waar is by mense.


Brandnetel II SwStr - Geskiedenis

Die derde Water Witch & mdasha-houtboompaneelboot met sywiele en sywiele is in 1851 deur die Washington Navy Yard gelanseer en in die winter van 1852 en 1863 in diens geneem, het luitenant Thomas Jefferson Page in bevel gekom.

Op 8 Februarie 1863 vaar die kanonboot van Norfolk, Va., Vir 'n uitgebreide verkennings- en opsporingsreis langs die Atlantiese kus van die suidelike deel van Suid -Amerika en van die riviere wat die deel van die kontinent dreineer. Gedurende die volgende paar jaar het sy opnames gedoen van die riviere in Paraguay, Argentinië en Uruguay. In Februarie 1855, terwyl die stoomboot besig was om die La Plata -rivier op te spoor, is 'n paraguayaanse fort op haar afgevuur. Die bombardement het een lid van haar bemanning doodgemaak en haar opmetingsending op die rivier beëindig. Die geweerboot het haar missie egter in ander gebiede van die suidoostelike kus van Suid -Amerika tot 1866 voortgesit. Op 8 Mei 1866 keer sy terug na die Washington Navy Yard vir herstelwerk en het op 12de uit diens gegaan.

Die skip het kortliks in die somer van 1868 weer in gebruik geneem, maar haar volgende werklike aktiewe diens kom ná nog 'n herbediening op 17 September van dieselfde jaar. Sy is op pad na die kus van Suid -Amerika met 'n mag oorlogskepe onder vlagoffisier WB Shubrick om 'n verskoning en 'n vrywaring van Paraguay te eis oor die voorval wat in 1866 plaasgevind het. In Januarie 1869 arriveer Water Witch en Fulton in Asuncion, die hoofstad van Paraguay, en, ondersteun deur die oorlogskepe, het 'n Amerikaanse kommissaris, mnr Bowlin, met onderhandelinge met die Paraguayane begin. As gevolg van die ekspedisie het Paraguay 'n bevredigende verskoning aan die

Verenigde State, vrygespreek die familie van die vermoorde Water Witch -bemanning en het die Verenigde State 'n nuwe en baie voordelige handelsverdrag toegestaan.

Na die oplossing van die probleme met Paraguay, hervat Water Witch haar opname -missies in die wêreld. Die indiensneming, gekenmerk deur tydperke buite diens in die Verenigde State, duur tot die val voor die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog. Sy is weer op 1 November 1860 in Philadelphia uit diens geneem vir herstelwerk. Sy het op 10 April 1861 teruggekeer na aktiewe diens, twee dae voordat generaal Beauregard se bombardement op Fort Sumter vyandelikhede tussen die Noorde en die Suide geopen het. Stoomend via Key West, Florida, het sy op 2 Mei by die Gulf Blockading Squadron by Pensacola, Florida, aangesluit. Daar het haar aanvanklike plig bestaan ​​uit versendingsdiens en die stuur van pos tussen die blokkades en hul basis in Key West. Sy het ook pos na Havana, Kuba, vervoer.

Later die somer is haar diensstasie egter verander na die gebied rondom die monding van die Mississippirivier. Die plig duur tot aan die begin van 1862. Gedurende die tussenliggende maande het sy verskeie verkenningsondersoeke in die mond van die Mississippi gemaak, waarvoor haar vlak diepgang haar 'n ideale skip gemaak het. Tydens so 'n inval is skepe van die Federale Vloot aangeval deur die Konfederale ram Manassas en die bekeerde kanonboot /Ivy. Waterheks het vlugtig ingeskakel, maar het nooit die ram teëgekom wat Richmond opgeëis en beskadig het nie. Die skepe van die Unie het die kroeg oorgesteek en die Konfederate het teen die rivier afgetree, terwyl Manassas haar ram beskadig het.

Op 20 Januarie 1862 is die Gulf Blockading Squadron in twee verdeel om die West Gulf Blockading Squadron en die East Gulf Blockading Squadron te skep. Water Witch is aan laasgenoemde organisasie toegewys, en haar werksgebied het die golfkus van Alabama en Florida geword. Sy het die meeste diens gedoen by Mobile en Pensacola, maar het ook die bekende diens van die versending van vaartuie en pospakkies uitgevoer. Op 6 Maart 1862 agtervolg die geweerboot die Konfederale Schooner, William Mallory, vir vyf uur voordat hy uiteindelik die blokkade -hardloper laat vang het. In April begin sy met nog 'n herstelperiode wat tot September geduur het. Op 6 September is sy weer in diens geneem en beveel om aan te sluit by agteradmiraal Samuel F. Du Pont se South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Sy het op 18 September by Port Royal, SC, aangekom en was teen die einde van die maand op 'n blokstasie in die St. John's River in die noordooste van Florida.

Op 1 Oktober het Water Witch, Cimarron en Uncas met die rivier tot by St. John's Bluff beweeg om die Konfederale batterye op die hoogtes te herken. Hulle het 'n paar skote met die battery van 'n swaar kaliber verruil, maar het gou uitgetree weens die goed gerigte vuur van die Suidlanders. Die volgende dag het federale troepe geland en na die binneland beweeg om die Konfederate te isoleer wat die batterye op die bluff beman. Daarna het die Suidlanders haastig hul gewere laat vaar, en Water Heks het laat op die 3de deelgeneem aan die onbesproke besetting van die voormalige Konfederale posisies. Oor die volgende paar dae het die oorlogskip deelgeneem aan 'n uitstappie verder teen die rivier om skeepvaart en rivierbakke te vernietig.

Op 17 Oktober keer sy terug na Port Royal om haar rol as 'n versendingsvaartuig weer te hervat. Sy het aangehou om saam met die South Atlantic Blockading Squadron te dien tot Februarie 1863 toe sy breek en na die noorde gesleep moes word vir herstelwerk.

Sy het die lente laat herstel en is op 14 Junie terug na Port Royal. Sy het op verskeie punte langs die kus van Suid -Carolina, Georgië en Noord -Florida blokkade uitgevoer, maar meestal by Ossabaw Sound tussen Ossabaw -eiland en die vasteland van Georgia, ongeveer 25 kilometer suid van Savannah. Dit bly tot in 1864 haar primêre diens. Op die nag van 3 Junie van daardie jaar het 'n Konfederale bootmag onder bevel van Eerste Luitenant Thomas P. Pelot, CSN, daarin geslaag om na 'n kort tydjie Water Witch in Ossabaw Sound aan boord te neem en vas te vang. twis wat die skip van die Unie twee gedood en 12 gewondes gekos het.


Silymarin, Olibanum en Brandnetel, 'n gemengde kruieformulering in die behandeling van tipe II-diabetes: 'n ewekansige, dubbelblinde, placebo-beheerde, kliniese proef

Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn (melkdistel) sade, Urtica dioica L (brandnetel) blare en Boswellia serrata (olibanum gom) hars word tradisioneel deur Iraanse pasiënte met diabetes gebruik. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die anti -hiperglykemiese effekte van hierdie kruie in 'n kruieformulering by pasiënte met tipe II -diabetes te evalueer. Sestig pasiënte wat gediagnoseer is as tipe II -diabetes mellitus met 'n vasende bloedglukosevlak van 150 tot 180 mg/dL, glikosileerde hemoglobienvlak van 7,5% tot 8,5%, en op orale antihyperglykemiese middels, is toegeken om die mengsel kruieformule of placebo vir 90 dae te ontvang in 'n dubbelblinde gerandomiseerde placebo-beheerde kliniese proef. Die gemiddelde bloedglukose in die bloed, glikosileerde hemoglobien en trigliseriede in die kruiegroep was beduidend laer as die placebo -groep se waardes na 3 maande van die ingryping. Die studie het 'n moontlike anti -hiperglikemiese en trigliseriedverlagende effek van die kruieformulering getoon, terwyl dit geen beduidende cholesterol- of bloeddrukverlagende effek gehad het nie.

Sleutelwoorde: Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn Urtica dioica L diabetes mellitus olibanum gum tradisionele Persiese medisyne.

Verklaring van belangebotsing

Verklaring van botsende belange: Die skrywers verklaar geen moontlike belangebotsings ten opsigte van die navorsing, outeurskap en/of publikasie van hierdie artikel nie.


Deel II: 'n verhaal van twee seisoene – Seattle Mariners Hot Start

Die Mariners het die buiteseisoen ernstig opgeneem en die span heeltemal opgeknap in hul pogings om in 2020 of 2021 die stryd aan te gaan. GM Jerry Dipoto gestand gedoen het by sy “Trader Jerry ” naam, het 'n verskeidenheid bewegings afgehandel wat meer as die helfte van hul 40 man -rooster van die einde van 2018 verruil het. Hulle was ook aktief in vrye agentskap, het 'n groot naam en verskeie ander spelers gekry op kleiner eenjarige transaksies. Kyk of u kan byhou.

CF Mallex Smith (verkry van die Tampa Bay Rays)
CF Jake Fraley (verkry van die Tampa Bay Rays)
SP Justus Sheffield (verkry van die New York Yankees)
SP Erik Swanson (verkry van die New York Yankees)
CF Dom Thompson-Williams (verkry van die New York Yankees)
C Omar Narvaez (verkry van die Chicago White Sox)
SS JP Crawford (verkry van die Philadelphia Phillies)
1B/OF Jay Bruce (verkry van die New York Mets)
OF Jarred Kelenic (verkry van die New York Mets)
RP Anthony Swarzak (verkry van die New York Mets)
SP Justin Dunn (verkry van die New York Mets)
1B/DH Edwin Encarnacion (verkry van die Cleveland Indiane)
VAN Domingo Santana (verkry van die Milwaukee Brewers)
SP Yusei Kikuchi (teken op 'n 3-jarige ooreenkoms van $ 43 miljoen)
SS Tim Beckham (teken 'n ooreenkoms van $ 1,75 miljoen vir een jaar)
RP Hunter Strickland (teken 'n ooreenkoms van $ 1,3 miljoen vir een jaar)

Aftrekkings:

C Mike Zunino (verhandel na die Tampa Bay Rays)
LF Guillermo Heredia (verhandel na die Tampa Bay Rays)
SP James Paxton (verhandel na die New York Yankees)
RP Alex Colome (verhandel na die Chicago White Sox)
SS Jean Segura (verhandel na die Philadelphia Phillies)
RP James Pazos (verhandel na die Philadelphia Phillies)
RP Juan Nicasio (verhandel na die Philadelphia Phillies)
2B Robinson Cano (verhandel na die New York Mets)
RP Edwin Diaz (verhandel na die New York Mets)
RF Ben Gamel (verhandel aan die Milwaukie Brewers)
DH Nelson Cruz (geteken met die Minnesota Twins)
OF Denard Span (tans ongetekend)
RP Adam Warren (onderteken met die San Diego Padres)

Buiteseisoen-oorsig:

Moeg? Nadat hy besluit het om in 2019 'n bietjie terug te tree om twee vooruit te neem … ” in 2020 of 2021, fokus Dipoto op drie hoofbenaderings met sy skuif buite die seisoen. Die eerste was om jong, atletiese en beheerbare MLB-bates aan te skaf in ruil vir verskeie van hul veterane wat duurder was.

'N Goeie voorbeeld hiervan is die Mike Zunino -handel wat die Mariners Mallex Smith behaal het. The Rays besit die regte van Zunino tot en met 2020, terwyl Seattle Smith beheer oor 2022. Die verkryging van SS J.P. Crawford (vier jaar spanbeheer oor) en C Omar Narvaez (drie jaar spanbeheer) pas ook by hierdie strategie.

Die tweede benadering van Dipoto was om 'n onvrugbare boerderystelsel te verbeter, selfs al beteken dit om sommige van hul meer produktiewe bates te hanteer. Verder gaan die pa James Paxton, die elite -nader Edwin Diaz en Robinson Cano aan die Mariners verskeie jong spelers om op te droom, waaronder drie Top 100 -vooruitsigte (per MLB -pyplyn) in SP Justus Sheffield, OF Jarred Kelenic en SP Justin Dunn.

Laastens, gegewe hul begeerte om 'n volledige afbraak te vermy, het die Mariners gekies om hul span met 'n paar veterane teikens vir vrye agente te vergroot. Yusei Kikuchi was die bekendste toevoeging in hierdie benadering, alhoewel hulle ook kussingkontrakte aan SS Tim Beckham en RP Hunter Strickland aangebied het.

Wat agter die rekord?

Die Mariners het hul weg gebaan na 'n afdeling met 8-2 en het 73 lopies in hul eerste 10 wedstryde aangeteken, meestal op die kolwe van die nuwelinge Beckham en Domingo Santana. Hulle lei MLB in TB en HR gedurende daardie tydperk en stel 'n franchise -rekord in die kragafdeling deur in tien opeenvolgende wedstryde 'n seisoen te begin. Behalwe dat die werf teen 'n rekordkoers verlaat het, het die Mariners -oortreding ook op die basispaadjies verwoes. Tydens 10 wedstryde het die span 11 gesteelde basisse (eerste in MLB) en was hulle doeltreffende diewe, met 'n slaagsyfer van 91,67%.

Gemiddeld 7,3 lopies per wedstryd gee 'n groot foutmarge aan die werfpersoneel, alhoewel Mariners se skarrelaars ook hul deel gelewer het. Hul 3.72 ERA was negende in die AL (algeheel 14de), en in teenstelling met hul eweknieë in Boston, is hulle meer konsekwent as u dit deur voorgereg en verligter opdeel:

Span ERA SIERA SLAAP K% BB% AVG HR/9
Voorgeregte 3.55 4.26 1.29 16.10% 3.90% 0.267 1.08
Verligters 4.01 4.55 1.31 22.50% 15.00% 0.179 1.34

Deur 10 wedstryde het Seattle-aanvangers die tweede beurt (58,1) van enige eenheid ingegooi en was hulle suinig en het hulle slegs 10 kolwers geloop (gelykop vir die tweede plek in MLB). Hulle het in daardie tyd die tweede meeste treffers (agter Boston) toegelaat en was die 29ste plek in K% (16,1%) vir MLB-rotasies.

Seattle -verligters was effens beter daarin om kolwers (22,5% K%) uit te steek as hul aanvanklike eweknieë, maar het 15% van alle kolwers in die gesig gestaar. Hulle het ook die liga gelei met 'n blaaskans en kon nie op 'n meer konsekwente opsie besluit nie.

Sleutel begin deur tien speletjies volg

Tim Beckham: .410/.477/.846, 4 uur
Domingo Santana: .286/.388/.619, 4 HR, 2 SB
Ryon Healy: .289/.349/.711, 3 HR
Dee Gordon: .281/.306/.313, 5 SB

Begin stoot:

Marco Gonzales: 3-0, 3,20 ERA (4,64 SIERA), 3,7% BB%
Yusei Kikuchi: 4.02 ERA (3.73 SIERA), 18.5% K%, 1.09 WHIP
Mike Leake: 2.92 ERA (3.42 SIERA), 23.6% K%, 1.46 WHIP

Brandon Brennan: 0.00 ERA (1.22 SIERA), 30.4% K%, 4.4% BB%
Zac Rosscup: 2,45 ERA (7,28 SIERA), 29,2% BB%, 3,00 WHIP
Roenis Elias: 3.18 ERA (3.85 SIERA), 0.706 WHIP

Sal dit aanhou?

Een ding is seker die Mariners -vlermuise gaan afkoel. In die afgelope vyf seisoene was die naaste wat 'n span daaraan gekom het om Seattle se lopies per wedstryd (7,3 per wedstryd) te pas, verlede jaar se Red Sox -oortreding (5,41 per wedstryd). Selfs die New York Yankees uit 1930 (1 067 lopies in 154 wedstryde) het onder Seattle se huidige tempo in lopies per wedstryd (6.92 lopies per wedstryd) ingekom.

Warm vlermuise soos Santana, Beckham en Healy sal uiteindelik afkoel, maar dit beteken nie dat die span aanvallend sal krater nie. Die teenwoordigheid van veteraanvlermuise soos Encarnacion, Bruce en 2018 All-Star Mitch Haniger sal dit nie laat gebeur nie. Dee Gordon, wat negende kolf, is nog 'n interessante aspek van hul span wat dit suksesvol moet hou.

Die belangrikste faktor wat hulle sal weerhou om op so 'n hoë vlak te bly speel, is hul speelveld. Dit is problematies om die liga in toegelate treffers te lei, gegewe die verdedigingsstryd van die span tot dusver (-13 DRS, die ergste in MLB). Hul aanvangsrotasie sukkel ook om slagoffers weg te sit en het nie die hoë snelheid wat in die liga gesien word nie, en is 28ste in SwStr% (8,4%) en 22ste in vinnige bal.

Hulle presteer uitstekend daarin om voorsprong te behaal (66,4% F-Strike%, tweede in MLB) en om stappies te beperk, soos voorheen genoem. Hul gebrek aan snelheid beteken nie dat hulle nie suksesvol kan wees met hul benadering nie, maar 'n kontak-swaar styl maak kommer in die lig van SIERA se siening van hul prestasie (4.26 SIERA) en hoe hulle ook die van die bullpen beoordeel (4.55 SIERA).

Uitspraak

Weereens, dit is baie vroeg om te veel te neem uit 'n span se begin as daar meer as 150 wedstryde is. Die Mariners het genoeg aanstoot om mededingend te wees, maar verwag nie dat hulle hierdie seisoen sal aanspraak maak op 'n uitspeelplek nie, gegewe die onsekerheid rondom hul wedstryd. Dit is egter lekker om na die verskil van 22 in hierdie speletjies te kyk. Hulle oortreding sal hulle 'n aangename span maak om na te kyk, veral as sommige van die jonger spelers uit die plaasstelsel kom om by te dra.


5 Voordele van brandnetel

Ondanks sy reputasie as pyn, word brandnetel gebruik om 'n aantal siektes te help. Studies het getoon dat dit antioksidante, antimikrobiese, ulkus-, samentrekkende en pynstillende vermoëns het. (3)

Volgens die University of Maryland Medical Center is die plant deur die geskiedenis die algemeenste gebruik as 'n diuretikum en vir die behandeling van pynlike spiere en gewrigte, ekseem, artritis, jig en bloedarmoede. Vandag word dit hoofsaaklik gebruik vir die behandeling van urinêre probleme, asook allergieë en gewrigspyn.

Die mees bewese gesondheidsvoordele van die gebruik van brandnetel help met die volgende:

1. Goedaardige prostatiese hiperplasie (BPH) en urinêre probleme

BPH simptome word veroorsaak deur 'n vergrote prostaatklier wat op die uretra druk. BPH -lyers ervaar verskillende vlakke van verhoogde drang om te urineer, onvolledige leegmaak van die blaas, pynlike urinering, drup na urinering en verminderde urinestroom. 'N Testosteroon-geïnduseerde BPH-studie oor rotte het getoon dat brandnetel net so effektief kan wees om hierdie toestand te behandel as finasteried, die medisyne wat algemeen gebruik word om BPH te behandel. (4)

Dokters is nog nie heeltemal seker waarom brandnetel sommige van hierdie simptome verlig nie, maar baie kliniese studies dui daarop dat dit chemikalieë bevat wat die hormone wat BPH veroorsaak, beïnvloed. As dit geneem word, beïnvloed dit ook prostaatselle direk. Dit is ook bewys dat die brandnetel -uittreksel die verspreiding van prostaatkanker selle vertraag of stop. (5) Dit word gewoonlik gebruik in kombinasie met saag palmetto en ander kruie. Die wortel van die plant word hoofsaaklik gebruik in verband met urinêre probleme, insluitend laer urienweginfeksies.

Brandnetel word gebruik as 'n suksesvolle algemene diuretikum en kan ook help om urine te vloei. Dit word ook gebruik in tuisremiddels vir blaasinfeksies .

2. Artrose en gewrigspyn

Artritis -lyers ervaar dikwels gewrigspyn, gewoonlik in die hande, knieë, heupe en ruggraat. Brandnetel werk saam met nie-steroïdale anti-inflammatoriese middels (NSAIDs) sodat pasiënte hul NSAID-gebruik kan verminder. Omdat langdurige gebruik van NSAID's 'n aantal ernstige newe -effekte kan veroorsaak, is dit 'n ideale kombinasie.

Studies toon ook aan dat die toepassing van brandnetelblaar plaaslik op die plek van pyn gewrigspyn en blik verminder artritis behandel. As brandnetel mondelings ingeneem word, help dit verligting. Nog 'n studie gepubliseer in die Tydskrif vir rumatologie toon brandnetel se ontstekingskrag teen ander outo-immuun siektes soos rumatoïede artritis. (6)

3. Hooikoors

Histamienproduksie in die liggaam veroorsaak die newe -reaksies wat verband hou met allergieë. Allergieë veroorsaak ongemaklike opeenhoping, nies, jeuk en meer.

Die anti-inflammatoriese eienskappe van brandnetel beïnvloed 'n aantal belangrike reseptore en ensieme in allergiese reaksies, wat hooikoors simptome voorkom as dit geneem word wanneer dit die eerste keer verskyn. (7) Die blare van die plant bevat histamien, wat in die behandeling van allergieë teenproduktief kan lyk, maar histamiene word gebruik om ernstige allergiese reaksies te behandel. (8)

Daar is ook bewyse dat by ernstige reaksies lae plasma histamienvlakke (in teenstelling met hoë vlakke) teenwoordig is. 'N Ander wêreldwye studie van die National College of Naturopathic Medicine het bevind dat die gebruik van brandnetel vir allergieverligting hoër was as placebo's in 'n 98-persoon, gerandomiseerde, dubbelblinde studie. (9)

4. Bloeding

Sekere produkte wat brandnetel bevat, het getoon dat dit bloeding tydens chirurgie kan verminder wanneer dit op die vel aangebring word. Die produk, wat Ankaferd -bloedstopper genoem word, bestaan ​​uit alpinia, drop, tiemie , gewone druiwestok en brandnetel, en het ook bewyse getoon van bloeding na tandheelkundige chirurgie. (10)

5. Ekseem

Ekseem is 'n droë, jeukerige uitslag wat baie lank by pasiënte kan voorkom. As gevolg van die brandhout se antihistamien en anti-inflammatoriese eienskappe, kan dit 'n natuurlike behandeling vir ekseem , soos die Penn State University College of Medicine -studie hierbo genoem het. Lyers kan 'n kombinasie van brandnetel gebruik wat oraal geneem word om die ekseem intern aan te pak, sowel as 'n room om die jeuk en rooiheid van die uitslag te verlig.

Meer navorsing is nodig, maar brandnetel word ook gesê:

  • Bevorder laktasie
  • Stimuleer haargroei
  • Help om bloedsuiker by pasiënte met diabetes te beheer
  • Verminder bloeding wat verband hou met gingivitis
  • Behandel siektes van die niere en urienweg
  • Bied verligting van waterretensie
  • Voorkom of diarree behandel
  • Verminder menstruele vloei
  • Gee asma -verligting
  • Genees wonde
  • Behandel aambeie
  • Stimuleer kontraksies by swanger vroue
  • Behandel insekbyte
  • Behandel tendonitis
  • Behandel bloedarmoede

Hoe om brandnetel te gebruik

Brandnetel kan geoes word of produkte kan by 'n plaaslike gesondheidswinkel gekoop word. Voordat u 'n brandnetelproduk koop of maak, is dit belangrik om vas te stel of u siekte die bogrondse dele of die wortels benodig, aangesien dit verskillende farmakologiese eienskappe het.

Brandnetelprodukte kom in gedroogde of gevriesdroogde blaarvorm, uittreksel, kapsules, tablette, sowel as 'n worteltinktuur (suspensie van die kruie in alkohol), sap of tee. Daar is tans geen aanbevole dosis nie, want soveel brandnetelprodukte bevat verskillende hoeveelhede aktiewe bestanddele. Werk saam met u dokter om die regte dosis te bepaal.

Sommige van die meer algemene brandernetelgebruik sluit in:

1. Brandnetel Tee

Brandnetelblare en blomme kan gedroog word, en gedroogde blare kan deurdring word en tot tee gemaak word. Daar is baie variasies van brandnetel -resepte wat 'n aantal ander kruie bevat, soos framboosblaar, echinacea of goudkleurig.

Brandnetel kan ook in ander drankies gebruik word, insluitend brandnetelbier!

2. Gaar brandnetel

Die wortels, stingels en blare van brandnetel is eetbaar. Die blare kan baie soos spinasie gestoom en gekook word. Dit is die beste om jong blare te gebruik. Dit kan in brandnetelsop gebruik word of by ander sop en bredies gevoeg word. Brandnetel kan ook gepureer word en gebruik word in resepte soos polenta, groen smoothies, slaaie en pesto. Moenie die blare rou eet nie, want dit sal nog steeds die hare hê totdat dit gedroog of gaar is.

As dit brand, het die brandnetel 'n soortgelyke geur soos spinasie gemeng met komkommer. Gekookte brandnetel is 'n uitstekende bron van vitamiene A. , C, proteïen en yster. (11)

3. Aktuele Brandnetel

Brandnetelekstrakte en worteltinkture kan direk op gewrigte en pynlike dele van die liggaam toegedien word. Dit is ook beskikbaar in roomvorm.

4. Brandnetelkapsules en -tablette

Brandnetelkapsules en tablette kan oraal geneem word. Daar is onteenseglike bewyse dat die brandnetelkapsules of tablette vir allergieverligting beter op 'n leë maag ingeneem kan word of nie. As daar kommer is oor maagpyn en ander newe -effekte, neem dit saam met kos.

Hoe om 'n brandnetelsteek te behandel

As dit deur die brandnetelplant gesteek word, is dit belangrik om nie aan die gebied te raak of te krap nie. Die chemiese irritasie kan op die vel droog word en met seep en water verwyder word. (12) Deur aan te raak en te krap, kan die chemikalieë verder in die vel ingedruk word, wat die irritasie tyd vir dae verleng. Die gebruik van kleeflint of 'n wasverwyderingsproduk kan help om enige ekstra vesel te verwyder.

Daar is baie mense wat dokplant kies om brandnetelsteke te verlig, ondanks studies wat toon dat dit geen medisinale voordele bied nie, behalwe om die geïrriteerde gebied koel te laat voel. Gebreekte blare van ander plante soos juweel, salie sowel as die brandnetels laat hulself sappe vrylaat wat die angel kan verlig. Ander tradisionele behandelings teen jeuk soos aloe vera , calamine lotion en koue kompresse kan ook gebruik word.

Sodra brandnetel geweek of in water gaargemaak of gedroog is, word die brandende kwaliteit verwyder.

Geskiedenis en interessante feite oor brandnetel

Folklore bevat brandnetels in baie kulture en oortuigings. Baie van die leerstellings behels dat u in stilte aan 'n angel steek, of sonder om te jeuk of om die brandende gebied te krap.

In antieke Griekeland is brandnetels deur dokters Galen en Dioscorides as 'n diuretikum en 'n lakseermiddel gebruik. In Middeleeuse Europa is dit gebruik om te behandel en verminder natuurlik gewrigspyn en ook as 'n diuretikum. Mense het vroeër geglo dat as u dit aan die wortels trek en die naam van 'n siek persoon skree, dit ook koors sal uitskakel.

Brandnetel word sedert die Neolitiese tyd gebruik om tekstiele soos lap en papier te maak. Met vesels soortgelyk aan hennep en vlas, is dit 'n uitstekende alternatiewe, volhoubare vesel. Omdat die vesel hol is, bied dit natuurlike isolasie. Die Duitse leër het brandnetel gebruik vir hul uniforms in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die blare daarvan gebruik om uniforms in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te kleur.

Brandnetels is ook gebruik om sekere siektes deur urtikasie te behandel, wat die proses is om die vel met brandnetels te slaan om die bloedsomloop te stimuleer.

Voorsorgmaatreëls by die gebruik van brandnetel

Brandnetel is 'n baie veilige kruid wanneer dit korrek gebruik word, maar daar is 'n paar voorsorgmaatreëls wat geneem moet word wanneer u dit begin gebruik.

By die oes: Brandnetel oes altyd met dik tuinhandskoene om te voorkom dat dit gesteek word. Dit is ook die beste om jong plantdele te oes, verkieslik in die lente. Hulle word bitterder as hulle blom en as hulle ouer word.

As u dit met ander kruie en aanvullings gebruik: Soos met enige kruie of aanvulling, is dit belangrik om versigtig te wees wanneer dit gemeng word om nadelige newe -effekte te vermy. U moet altyd 'n plan met kruie -aanvullings begin onder die sorg van u gesondheidsorgverskaffer. Pasiënte moet moontlik hul dosis ander aanvullings verander as hulle kies om brandnetel te neem.

Wanneer swanger : Daar word gedebatteer of swanger vroue brandnetel moet gebruik of nie. Omdat brandnetel die menstruele siklus beïnvloed en baarmoederkontraksies kan stimuleer, kan dit moontlik tot miskraam lei. Daarom moet swanger vroue dit nie gebruik nie.

As u 'n diabeet is: Daar is bewyse wat die brandnetel se vermoë toon om bloedsuiker te beïnvloed en die beheer van diabetes te beïnvloed. Dit kan ook die sterkte van diabetesmedisyne beïnvloed en die risiko verhoog hipoglukemie . Diabete wat brandnetel wil gebruik, moet dit slegs onder toesig van hul gesondheidsorgverskaffers doen. Pasiënte moet moontlik hul dosis medisyne verander as hulle kies om brandnetel te neem.

As u eers begin : Sommige mense het maagpyn, diarree of ander ligte reaksies wanneer hulle die brandnetel vir die eerste keer neem. Dit is die beste om die gebruik te vergemaklik, begin met 'n klein dosis.

Brandnetel kan interaksie hê met die volgende medisyne: (4, 13)

  • Bloedverdunners soos warfarien, clopidogrel en aspirien omdat brandnetel groot hoeveelhede vitamien K bevat, wat die bloed se stolvermoë kan help. Die gebruik van brandnetel kan die effek van hierdie middels verminder.
  • Geneesmiddels vir hoë bloeddruk soos ACE-remmers, beta-blokkers en kalsiumkanaalblokkers omdat brandnetel die bloeddruk kan verlaag en die effek van hierdie middels kan versterk.
  • Diuretika en waterpille omdat brandnetel ook 'n diuretikum is en as dit saam gebruik word, dehidrasie kan veroorsaak.
  • Litium as gevolg van brandnetel se diuretiese eienskappe. Dit kan die liggaam se vermoë om hierdie geneesmiddel te verwyder, verminder, wat lei tot hoër as die aanbevole litiumvlakke.
  • NSAIDs omdat brandnetel die anti-inflammatoriese effek van sommige daarvan kan verbeter. Ten spyte van die bewyse dat die kombinasie van brandnetel en NSAIDs lei tot meer pynverligting, dit moet onder toesig geneem word.
  • Kalmeermiddels (SSS -depressante) soos clonazepam, lorazepam, fenobarbital en zolpidem, want as daar groot hoeveelhede bogrondse dele van brandnetel geneem word, kan slaperigheid en lomerigheid voorkom. As kalmeermiddels saam met brandnetel geneem word, kan dit te veel slaperigheid veroorsaak.


Wat is brandnetels? (Sal hulle my nie seermaak nie?)

As u aan brandnetels dink, dink u waarskynlik net negatief daaraan. In teenstelling met die algemene opvatting dat brandnetels net 'n lastige onkruid is, is hierdie plant eintlik 'n belangrike komponent van gesondheidsmiddels en selfs farmaseutiese produkte.

Brandnetels is tipies heldergroen tot grys van kleur en kom gewoonlik in die Verenigde State en Kanada voor. Die plant versprei deur saad en kruipende wortels en kan selfs tot sewe voet lank word. Die wortel sowel as die bogrondse plantdele word gebruik vir die maak van medisyne en kruiebehandelings.


The Alluvial Gold Co Ltd purchased the Battle Creek and Nettle Creek alluvial dredging leases from The Broken Hill Proprietary Co Ltd in August 1949. The leases were situated between Ravenshoe and Mount Garnet, North Queensland, and comprised tin bearing deposits which followed the courses of Battle and Nettle Creeks with both areas crossing the Kennedy Highway between Ravenshoe and Mount Garnet. The Nettle Creek area was divided into two sections, the upper section was shallow and crossed by several granite bars, but was rich in tin. [1]

Alluvial cassiterite (SnO2 tin oxide) has been mined in the Mount Garnet area since 1881. In the area, the four creeks (Smiths, Return, Battle and Nettle Creeks) have provided the majority of the concentrates. Bucket line dredging was begun on Return Creek by Tableland Tin Dredging Co Ltd in the early to mid 1930s, and on Battle Creek by Ravenshoe Tin Dredging Co Ltd in 1957. [1]

The Nettle Creek Tin Dredge was originally designed by FW Payne & Sons, England, and built c.1937 (according to photographs of the dredge under construction) in New Zealand by the Oak Ridge Co Ltd for Gold Mines Of New Zealand Co Ltd. The dredge was named the FW Payne and was operated as a gold dredge for Barrytown Gold Dredging Co Ltd in Barrytown, located on the West Coast of the South Island. All the original equipment was British, including the two surviving Richardson electric motors and bucket drive cog wheels, and a Vaughan 15 long tons (15 t) gantry crane. The dredge originally had approximately sixty 12 cubic feet (0.34 m 3 ) buckets, and the Richardson RGP motors were supplied by cable with power from a land-based generator plant. [1]

Alluvial Gold Co Ltd had the FW Payne dismantled in New Zealand, and the Ravenshoe Tin Dredging Co Ltd, which was established in 1953, purchased the dredge which arrived in Queensland in 1954. The dredge was landed in Cairns, railed to Mt. Garnet where a new pontoon was constructed at Battle Creek and it was rebuilt. The dredge was considerably modified by the Alluvial Mining Equipment Co Ltd to make it suitable to dredge the above leases, as conditions of the lease to rehabilitate the tailings required a by-pass conveyor to be installed. The dredge was required to excavate a 20 feet (6.1 m) depth of overburden which by-passed the treatment plant and was deposited over the tailings at the stern, and to dig 40 feet (12 m) below water level into the ore bearing sand and gravel. [1]

The re-erection of the dredge was completed on the Battle Creek area in November 1957 and commenced working upstream, until 1962 when it worked south across the highway. The dredge as modified was considered a most successful unit, having given good running time with reasonable maintenance, considering the most difficult and hard dredging conditions it has passed through. The dredge operated 7 days per week, 24 hours per day with a staff of 70 working 4 shifts. [1]

The dredging of Battle Creek finished in February 1965, and the dredge was dismantled and a new pontoon was constructed on Nettle Creek north of the highway. From 1965 to 1992 the dredge worked down Nettle Creek, across the highway, to its present location. It had completed the original area by 1976, after which time the dredge worked the lower reaches of Nettle Creek. [1]

The development of the bucket line dredge began in 1877 in the gold fields along the Clutha River in Otago, New Zealand. The second stage of dredge development is credited to the Californian gold fields, and higher capacity units were engineered. From gold the use of bucket line dredges spread to tin mining in Malaysia and Indonesia. The first reported unit in this area was off Phuket, Thailand in 1907. [1]

Bucket line dredges are more capable of handling boulders and timber than other forms of dredges such as suction cutters. A dredge may be designed to handle the particular conditions of the area to be mined, including the presence of boulders, timber, gravel, sands, hard bands and clays. [1]

Ore Tin ore occurs naturally as brown or black grains of free cassiterite (SnO2) and it is frequently found with the gravel in ancient or present creek beds where it was deposited by the alluvial action of running water after weathering from the original lode. Cassiterite contains almost 80% tin and after concentration is dried, bagged and shipped to smelters where it is cast into metal ingots. Its main use is for coating metal cans, but it is also an important constituent of alloys and solder. [1]

Because of the low concentration of cassiterite in an alluvial deposit, large quantities of material must be handled in recovering it. The alluvial deposits generally occur at relatively shallow depths and it is possible, by test boring, to ascertain fairly accurately the extent of the area to be mined and the amount of tin ore likely to be recovered. Where sufficient water is available the most economical method of mining the deposit is by dredging. [1]

Operation of a Bucket Line Dredge Edit

A mining dredge comprises a mechanical excavator and a screening, washing and concentrating plant, all mounted on a pontoon. The dredge performs four functions: [1]

  • Excavates the alluvial material
  • Screens the material into two or more sizes, usually with a revolving screen
  • Treats the fines to recover their metallic or heavy components, usually on tables or jigs
  • Deposits the fines from the treatment plant and the coarse rejects from the screen to the rear of the dredge

The dredge floats in an artificial pond often supplied with water from an outside source. It digs at the bow and deposits washed tailings at the stern, thus carrying the pond with it as it advances. The digging end comprises an endless chain of cast manganese steel buckets carried on a fabricated steel ladder at an angle of approximately 45 degrees when operating at maximum depth. The ladder carries a circular tumbler at its lower end and a series of rollers on its upper side to support the loaded buckets. The top, or driving, tumbler is normally hexagonal in shape and is driven by electric motors mounted on either side of the ladder. The size of a dredge is designated by the capacity of its individual bucket which can be up to 20 cubic feet but, in the case of the Nettle Creek dredge is 12 cubic feet. [1]

As the buckets pass over the top tumbler they discharge into a hopper from where a chute directs the dredged material into a revolving (or trommel) screen. Here it is washed by high pressure water jets, the fine ore-bearing material passing through the perforations (normally about 10 millimetres (0.39 in) in size) and proceeding to the treatment plant and the oversize material continuing over the screen. The undersize from the screen is passed to ore concentrating and recovery equipment, consisting at Nettle Creek of a series of pulsating jigs. The concentrate is removed for further treatment while the tailings are discharged down a sluice at the stern of the dredge. [1]

The oversize from the trommel screen is passed to a conveyor mounted on a moveable arm at the stern of the dredge (normally called a stacker) and deposited behind the dredge. Traditionally, it is not rehabilitated but at Nettle Creek it is a requirement that the tailings be levelled and covered with topsoil, thereby restoring the dredged area to near its original state. This is accomplished by digging the topsoil ahead of the normal cut and passing it direct to the stacker on a by-pass conveyor for deposition on top of the tailings. The area is subsequently levelled by a bulldozer ready for normal agricultural use. [1]

The Nettle Creek Tin Dredge is located in Nettle Creek, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) east of Mount Garnet and 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south of Innot Hot Springs. Permission is needed from Woodleigh Station to access a track, south from the Kennedy Highway along the west bank of Nettle Creek. [1]

The dredge is 47 metres (154 ft) long, 23 metres (75 ft) wide and 20 metres (66 ft) high above the pontoon deck, which in 1.9 metres (6 ft 3 in) deep. The dredge consists of a steel structure with three main levels supported by a pontoon located beached within the dredge pond. Most of the corrugated iron cladding has been removed, except for half a wall on the upper level. [1]

All of the electrics have been removed, and only four jigs of the original eleven remain. A Vaughan gantry crane is located on the top level and two Richardson engines are on the base level. All of the buckets have been removed. [1]

The dredge is located at its final point of operation in a pond contained by a partly breached earth dam. The course of Nettle Creek to the north is evidence of the dredge's operation and comprises a wide swathe of sandy, unrehabilitated watercourse largely devoid of trees or scrub. [1]

Nettle Creek Tin Dredge was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 22 September 1995 having satisfied the following criteria. [1]

The place is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Queensland's history.

The Mt Garnet area is one of the earliest locations associated with tin mining in Far North Queensland, which gave significant impetus to the economic development of the region. [1]

The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places.

As a relic, the Nettle Creek Tin Dredge still demonstrates bucket line dredging, a once common mining process, which was employed to extract tin ore from alluvial deposits. The Nettle Creek Tin Dredge and dredge pond are the most complete evidence of this form of tin mining in Queensland. The dredge is a good example of the adaptability of some items of mining equipment, in this case from dredging gold in New Zealand to tin in Far North Queensland. The site provides tangible evidence of the often mercurial nature of an industry susceptible to fluctuations in base metal prices. [1]

Toekenning wysig

This Wikipedia article was originally based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence (accessed on 7 July 2014, archived on 8 October 2014). The geo-coordinates were originally computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence (accessed on 5 September 2014, archived on 15 October 2014).


Practically Perfect Porterweed

Stachytarpheta is a large genus of predominantly Neotropical herbs and shrubs in the vervain family (Verbenaceae). Collectively referred to as porterweeds, the genus name derives from the Greek ‘stachys’, meaning spike and ‘tarphys,’ meaning thick and alludes to the thick, often elongate inflorescence upon which the flowers are borne.

Blue Porterweed growing in Hammock Hollow

Depending upon the species, flowers vary from blue to purple, or occasionally red (rarely white), and produce copious nectar that attracts hummingbirds and numerous butterfly species. Combined with their ornamental appeal and relatively carefree culture, Stachytarpheta have become popular landscape plants in many warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. Bok Tower Gardens features three species of porterweed: blue porterweed (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis), nettle-leaf porterweed (Stachytarpheta cayennensis) and coral porterweed (Stachytarpheta mutabilis).

Blue Porterweed (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)
Blue Porterweed

Blue porterweed is a short-lived, herbaceous perennial found throughout the Caribbean, Mesoamerica, and northern South America. It is also the only species of Stachytarpheta native to the United States, where it occurs only in the southern half of the Florida peninsula. At home in coastal environments, particularly on dunes or over shell middens, the species is also found further inland along roadsides or in sandy pastures or other disturbed environments.

Blue Porterweed

Blue porterweed is a low-growing species reaching 1-2 feet in height, with a 3-4 foot spread. This low, spreading growth habit makes for a beautiful groundcover or colorful addition to a sunny, perennial border. In cultivation, the species grows on a variety of soil types but performs best on well-drained soils where it may benefit from supplemental irrigation during prolonged periods of drought. The blue to purple or lilac flowers and are borne in succession along prominent one-two foot spikes that extend above the foliage. Flowering typically occurs in summer but can occur year-round in warmer climates. Plants take full sun or part shade and grow reliably in USDA zone 9 or above. This beautiful, little native species deserves to be more widely planted, but unfortunately, many nurseries mistakenly sell the exotic nettle-leaf porterweed in its place.

Nettle-leaf Porterweed (Stachytarpheta cayennensis)
Nettle-leaf Porterweed

Nettle-leaf porterweed (Stachytarpheta cayennensis) is native to Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, south to Argentina and Paraguay where it grows in grasslands, savannas and a variety of forested situations. The species is an upright, suffrutescent (i.e., with a woody base) herb or subshrub reaching ca. 6 feet in height and features small, dark purple flowers borne on numerous, slender flower spikes. A prolific bloomer, nettle-leaf porterweed is popular in cultivation and is now naturalized in tropical regions throughout the world, including Africa, Melanesia and Australia. In Florida, it is listed by the Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council as a category II invasive species for the southern portion of the state. The species is occasionally sold under the synonymous name Stachytarpheta urticifolia, and can be distinguished from our native blue porterweed by its upright habit and larger overall size.

Nettle-leaf Porterweed

Cultural requirements are similar to those of our native porterweed and plants benefit from well-drained soils and full sun, but will also tolerate a variety of soil types and moisture regimes including moderate drought. Although useful as a hedge or foundation planting, we cannot recommend this species for central and southern Florida as it hybridizes readily with our native blue porterweed, and can aggressively self-seed under ideal garden conditions. Although we have not observed this species exhibiting invasive behavior at Bok Tower Gardens, we closely monitor our plantings and have been removing many of them recently in favor of our native blue porterweed. For those interested in a larger, but more well-behaved species, we suggest coral porterweed.

Coral Porterweed (Stachytarpheta mutabilis) Coral Porterweed

Coral porterweed (Stachytarpheta mutabilis) is a neotropical species found in humid forests, woodlands and ruderal areas from southern Mexico to Colombia and into parts of the Caribbean. This suffrutescent herb or subshrub can reach 6 feet (or more) in height with a similar spread and possesses a slightly more coarse texture than its nettle-leaved cousin. Coral porterweed is also widely cultivated and naturalized in parts of the old world tropics but has not yet demonstrated any significant invasive tendencies in Florida.

Coral Porterweed

Coral Porterweed prefers moist, well-drained soils and full sun, but is widely adaptable to a variety of soil types and moderately drought tolerant once established. In tropical climates, plants bear pinkish-red or coral flowers on 1-2 foot spikes year-round however, in more temperate locations (including central Florida), expect flowering in mid-summer through fall and into early winter. Plants are Ideal for pollinator gardens and make excellent natural screens or hedges. Hardy to USDA zone 9a, coral porterweed is a dieback shrub in north Florida however, in the southern half of the state where plants survive year-round, pruning in late winter will help maintain a shapely appearance.

Nettle-leaf Porterweed with pollinator

Blog was written by Patrick Lynch, Plant Records Curator, and photographed by Cassidy Jones, Social Media Coordinator.


Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·

). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

1. Introduction

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history as one among plants foraged from the wild and eaten as a vegetable [1, 2]. Although not fully domesticated, the species remains popular even in the current era for food and medicine as reported, for example, in Nepal [2] and Poland [3].

Despite U. dioica being recognized as an edible and highly nutritious vegetable, research attention has focused more on its value as a source of alternative medicine and fiber. Clinical trials have confirmed the effectiveness of nettle root and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bart.) Small) fruit extracts in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia [4]. Dried nettle leaf preparations are also known to alleviate symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis [5], and a technology for granulating lipophilic leaf extracts for medicine has been developed [6]. A recent report from ongoing work in Italy confirms the potential of U. dioica as a sustainable source of textile fiber [7].

There are a number of reports that address the role of U. dioica in human nutrition. Fatty acid and carotenoid content in leaf, stem, root, and seed samples have been measured [8], and the properties of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and fibers have been reported [9]. Furthermore, the quality and safety [10] and microbiological properties [11] of sucuk, a Turkish dry-fermented sausage, incorporating dried U. dioica leaf have been studied, and the capacity of nettle extracts to improve oxidative stability in brined anchovies has been reported [12]. In the Basque region of Spain, young shoots are reportedly eaten raw or included in omelets [13]. In terms of postharvest processing for long-term storage, microwave drying at 850 W was found to be the best method for preservation of leaf color, energy consumption, and processing time [14]. Mineral content [15] and trace metal concentrations [16] in nettle leaf tea made by infusion or decoction have also been determined.

However, nettle is consumed primarily as a fresh vegetable whereby it is added to soups, cooked as a pot herb, or used as a vegetable complement in dishes. In this sense, more work needs to be done on nutritive value of fresh nettle, and the fate of minerals and bioactive compounds in processed products. This information is essential because the capacity of fresh nettle to irritate bare skin may discourage potential consumers and postharvest processing methods that make it safe to handle, while maintaining nutritive value will benefit the development of U. dioica as a specialty vegetable.

In this study, we report dietary values, mineral properties, and other quality attributes of raw, blanched, and cooked stinging nettle.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Plant Materials

Plant samples were obtained from field plots planted as a part of an ongoing agronomic study on U. dioica at Randolph Farm (37.1°N 77.3°W), Virginia State University (VSU). Samples from fall and spring growth were collected in October 2011 and May 2012, respectively, by harvesting actively growing shoots (

cm) before the onset of flowering. Individual shoots were clipped with a pair of shears and consolidated in vented plastic bags before transfer to a demonstration kitchen located at the VSU Farm Pavilion for further processing.

2.2. Sample Processing

In the kitchen, the shoots were washed, and twelve

g units were weighed before separating leaves and tender shoot tips from the woody stem. The edible portion (leaves and tender shoot tips) was weighed, and mean yield was determined by presenting the weight of edible portion as a percentage of total unit mass. Treatments, each replicated three times, were applied as follows: raw samples were packaged and frozen without further processing, blanched samples were immersed in boiling water (98-99°C) for 1 min, and cooked samples were boiled (98–100°C) with or without salt (5 g·L −1 H2O) for 7 min. Both blanched and cooked samples were cooled to 0°C with shaved ice immediately after treatment. All samples were kept in frozen storage (−4°C) before analysis. Samples for proximate composition analysis were submitted frozen, while those for fatty and amino acid analysis were freeze-dried and ground to a fine powder before analysis.

2.3. Proximate Analysis

All analysis was done according to the Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods (AOAC, 2000). Moisture content was determined by drying samples to constant weight using a convection oven. Nitrogen (N) content was measured using a CN analyzer (LECO 528, LECO Corp., St. Joseph, MI), and protein content was derived by multiplying N values with 6.25. Total fat was determined by gas chromatography (Agilent 5890, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) after extraction of saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions, and ash content was measured by ignition at 550°C to constant weight. Carbohydrate content and calorie values were calculated by difference. Total dietary fiber was determined following methods described by the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACCI method 32-07.01).

2.4. Vitamin and Mineral Analysis

Total vitamin A and vitamin A as β-carotene were determined by colorimetry after alkaline digestion followed by extraction with hexane. Vitamin C was extracted in acid and sample content determined by titration. For mineral analysis, samples were subjected to wet digestion before calcium, iron, and sodium content was determined using an ICP spectrometer (AOAC, 2000).

2.5. Amino Acid Analysis

For amino acid analysis, a ground subsample of nettle tissue was hydrolyzed with 6 M HCl at 100°C for 24 hr as previously described [17]. Acid hydrolyzed amino acids were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate (Acros Organics, Geel, Belgium) and separated using a 2695 Alliance HPLC equipped with a 15-cm Pico-Tag column, 2487 UV/Vis detector, and Empower software (all from Waters Corp., Milford, MA) using previously described conditions [18]. Amino acid concentrations are expressed in g/100 g of nettle leaf.

2.6. Fatty Acid Analysis

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were prepared by treating raw and processed samples with ethyl chloride and absolute methanol as described [19]. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography using an Agilent 6890 N GC system (Agilent Technologies), equipped with a HP-INNOWax column (30 m × 0.32 mm I.D. × 0.5 μm film thickness) and flame ionization detector. Peaks were identified against retention times for a known FAME and quantified by the aid of heptadecanoic acid (17:0) included as an internal standard. The concentration of each fatty acid is presented as a percentage of total saponifiable oil in sample.

2.7. Statistical Analysis

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the Analyst function in SAS (version 9.2 for Windows, SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was performed to compare the effects of blanching and cooking on stinging nettle quality and nutritive value. Treatments were treated as independent variables, and data for fall 2011 and spring 2012 were analyzed separately. Tukey’s HSD (

) was used to separate treatment means within season.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Yield of Edible Portion in U. dioica

Actively growing stinging nettle shoots are ideally harvested before flowering for consumption as a potherb or spinach alternative. Leaves on stems were found to be tender enough for use as a vegetable up to 25 cm from the growing point, but stems become woody about 4 cm away from the growing point necessitating destemming after harvest to separate the tender tip (approx. 4 cm and leaves) from the woody stem. Our results show that the woody stem portion accounts for 23%–30% of total biomass with edible portion comprising of 70% or more of harvested material (Table 1). Yield (edible portion) was higher in fall than in spring samples because of seasonal differences in U. dioica growth characteristics. Consistent with published observations [20], U. dioica displays two distinct phenological stages when grown in south-central Virginia: reproductive growth up to late spring, limited development during summer, and mostly vegetative growth in the fall.

3.2. Effect of Blanching and Boiling on Proximate Composition, Vitamin, and Mineral Content in U. dioica

After draining, there was not much difference in moisture content between raw and processed samples in the fall of 2011, while there was slightly more moisture in processed samples in the spring of 2012, likely due to differences in draining time. There was a slight reduction in crude protein, ash, and fat after blanching or cooking in both fall and spring samples. In both cases, the most significant reductions were observed with longer exposure to heat and also to salt. The same applies to dietary fiber, carbohydrate content, and calorie value. Samples harvested in the spring contained significantly higher values for all parameters measured and showed higher decline after processing (Table 2). Preparation and cooking generally result in deterioration of vegetable quality. For example, cooking significantly reduces ash, carbohydrate content, and calorific value in Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) leaves [21], while chopping amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) leaves before cooking can result in increased loss of vitamins and minerals [22]. Our results show that vitamin A, calcium, and iron contents in U. dioica leaf are similarly affected by cooking. Sodium content was low and was not affected by cooking, but the salt added to cooking water in one of the treatments significantly ( ) increased sodium content in drained samples (Table 2). Salt addition for seasoning or preservation has been reported to affect vegetable quality through dilution of minerals and other chemical changes [23]. Cooking led to changes in the fatty acid profile of U. dioica with more saturated fat being converted into mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated forms (Table 3) or lost into solution. Saponifiable oil content in raw and processed U. dioica samples (3.2%–4.7% in the spring 3.2%–4.1% in the spring) was comparable to that in wild asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius) and black bryony (Tamus communis), edible wild greens common to Mediterranean diets [24].



Kommentaar:

  1. Garbhan

    In my opinion this is not logical

  2. Vorisar

    Hierdie briljante idee is net gegraveer

  3. Antranig

    Ek dink ek maak foute. Ons moet bespreek. Skryf vir my in PM, praat.

  4. Kody

    Wat het jy in my plek gedoen?

  5. Zolocage

    mdaaaaaaaa

  6. Eadwyn

    Ek verstaan ​​nie wat jy bedoel nie?

  7. Vukasa

    Watter woorde ... super, briljante idee



Skryf 'n boodskap