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Kapel uit die graf by Ur

Kapel uit die graf by Ur


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Lêer: Graf van Meskalamdug (PG 755, B) by Ur, langs koninklike graf PG 779 (A) en koninklike graf PG 777 (C) .jpg

Voeg ekstra kopieregmerkers by hierdie prent as meer spesifieke inligting oor outeursregstatus bepaal kan word. Sien Commons: Licensing vir meer inligting.


Koninklike grafte van Ur

Leonard Woolley se opgrawings in die ou Sumeriese stad Ur in die suide van Irak - oftewel Mesopotomië, 'die land tussen die twee riviere', soos dit destyds bekend was - duur van 1922 tot 1934. Aan die einde van die 1926 -seisoen het 'n begraafplaas gewerk. Op 'n terrein met ongeveer 2500 begrafnisse het die graafmachines 'n diep skag ontbloot, aan die voet waarvan 'n goue dolk met 'n lap lapis lazuli lê, en 'n goue skede, saam met 'n hoop koperwapens en 'n stel klein toiletinstrumente. Niks van hierdie kwaliteit en datum was nog ooit gevind in Mesopotamiese argeologie nie.

Werk in die daaropvolgende seisoene onthul 16 begrafnisse van buitengewone rykdom. Hierdie 'koninklike grafkelders' bestaan ​​uit gesinkte klipkamers met gewelfde dakke en kom af teen steil opritte wat in die aarde gesny is. Die meeste is beroof, maar selfs hierdie bevat nog steeds buitengewone skatte, soos die 'Standard of Ur' wat bestaan ​​uit mosaïekpanele van lapis lazuli en pêrelmoer, dit het eens die kante van die klankkas van 'n lier gevorm . Een ryk graf, die van koningin Puabi (bekend van 'n seël wat saam met haar begrawe is), is ongeskonde gevind. Die bewyse hiervan en sommige van die ander grafkelders onthul 'n uitgebreide begrafnisritueel wat op groot skaal menslike offerande behels. Woolley het gepraat van 'die sterfgate van Ur'.

Die Royal Tombs of Ur beskryf
Die grafgoed van die vroeë dinastiese heersers van Ur was van twee soorte. 'N Oorvloed ryk artefakte het hul status aangedui en toegerus vir die hiernamaals: sowel as die goue dolk en die klankboks-mosaïek, was daar twee beeldjies van 'n bokbok met sy voorpote op 'n boom, uitgevoer in goud en lapis lazuli 'n lier versier met 'n goue stierkop, goue en silwer vate, juweliersware van edelmetale en halfedelstene, 'n diadeem van goue blare en rosette en minder items soos helms, wapens en ander oorlogsuitrusting.

Meer skokkend was die teenwoordigheid van bywoners. 'Die begrafnis van die konings', verduidelik Woolley, 'het gepaard gegaan met menslike offerandes op 'n weelderige skaal, en die bodem van die grafput was vol lyke van mans en vroue wat blykbaar hier neergebring en geslag is waar hulle gestaan. In een graf lê die soldate van die wag, wat koperhelms dra en spiese dra, aan die voet van die steil oprit wat in die graf afloop teen die einde van die grafkamer, nege dames van die hof met uitgebreide goue hoofrokke voor die ingang word twee swaar vierwielkarre opgestel met drie bulle wat aan mekaar vasgemaak is, en die bestuurder se bene lê in die karre en bruidegom is by die koppe van die diere. '

Die Royal Tombs of Ur beoordeel
Die rykdom van die grafte en die groteske begrafnisritueel wat deur hulle verteenwoordig word, werp 'n skerp nuwe lig op die oorsprong van die beskawing in Antieke Mesopotamië. Die implikasie was 'n komplekse en hoogs gestratifiseerde samelewing waarin 'n buitengewoon ryk en magtige elite bo die samelewing tot byna godagtige status verhef is. Die omvang van materiaal wat gebruik word vir die vorming van artefakte, impliseer wye handelskontakte, en die vakmanskap wat in die voorwerpe vervat is, getuig van 'n tot dusver onverwagte vlak van vaardigheid en kunstenaarskap. Dit was egter ook 'n brutale en militaristiese samelewing. Oorlogsgereedskap was prominent onder die grafartikels, maar die opvallendste in hierdie opsig was die beelde wat op die Standard of Ur uitgebeeld word, waarop Sumeriese strydwaens vlugtende vyande afry, Sumeriese spiesmanne wat naakte gevangenes voor hulle lei, en die Sumeriese koning wat hierdie ontvang ongelukkige slagoffers van sy leër se bekwaamheid. Uit die ondergrondse kamers van die koninklike grafte het 'n beeld verskyn van 'n beskawing wat tegelyk skitterend en sinister was.

Hierdie artikel is 'n uittreksel uit die volledige artikel wat in World Archaeology Issue 49 gepubliseer is. Klik hier om in te skryf


Kapel uit die graf by Ur - Geskiedenis

DIE KAPEL VAN DIE
SEWE KLEURE VAN ONS DAME

Hoe om die Chaplet of the Seven Dolors of Our Lady te bid

Die Chaplet of the Seven Dolors of Our Lady het 'n totaal van 58 krale en 'n medalje van die eerste dolor. Daar is 'n totaal van 7 stelle van 7 krale, met 3 ekstra krale en 'n kruis. Op elke van die sewe krale as gebid die "Groet Maria.".

Op die skeidende krale word die 'Onse Vader' gebid.

Op die drie ekstra krale word die "Gegroet Maria" gebid ter herinnering aan die trane van Maria wat gestort is weens die lyding van haar Goddelike Seun. Dit word gesê dat dit ware smart vir ons sondes verkry.

Die 7 groepe van 7 Hail Mary's word voorgehou ter herinnering aan die sewe smarte van Maria, naamlik:

1. Die profesie van Simeon.
2. Die vlug na Egipte.
3. Die verlies van die kind Jesus.
4. Maria ontmoet Jesus wat sy kruis dra.
5. Die kruisiging.
6. Maria ontvang die liggaam van Jesus van die Kruis.
7. Die liggaam van Jesus word in die graf geplaas.

Na elke stel sewe krale word die volgende gebed gesê:

V. Bid vir ons, o bedroefste Maagd.
R. Dat ons die beloftes van Christus waardig gemaak kan word.

Here Jesus, ons smeek nou,
beide vir die hede
en vir die uur van ons dood,
die voorbidding van die allerheiligste Maagd Maria, u Moeder,
wie se heilige siel deurboor is
ten tye van u hartstog deur 'n swaard van verdriet.
Gun ons hierdie guns,
O Verlosser van die wêreld,
Wie leef en regeer
met die Vader en die Heilige Gees
vir ewig en altyd.

Volgens St. Bridget van Swede (1303-1373) is sewe beloftes gemaak aan diegene wat mediteer oor Our Lady's Tears en Dolors. Die Heilige Maagd verleen sewe genade aan die siele wat haar daagliks eer deur sewe groete Maria te sê terwyl sy mediteer oor haar trane en dolors. Hierdie is:

1. "Ek sal vrede aan hulle gesinne gee."

2. "Hulle sal ingelig word oor die Goddelike Geheimenisse."

3. "Ek sal hulle vertroos in hulle pyn en ek sal hulle vergesel in hulle werk."

4. "Ek sal hulle soveel gee as wat hulle vra, solank dit nie die aanbiddelike wil van my Goddelike Seun of die heiligmaking van hulle siele weerstaan ​​nie."

5. "Ek sal hulle verdedig in hul geestelike gevegte met die helse vyand en ek sal hulle op elke oomblik van hul lewens beskerm."

6. "Ek sal hulle op die oomblik van hul dood sigbaar help - hulle sal die gesig van hul moeder sien."

7. "Ek het hierdie genade verkry van my Goddelike Seun, dat diegene wat hierdie toewyding aan my trane en dors dra, direk uit hierdie aardse lewe na ewige geluk geneem sal word, omdat al hulle sondes vergewe sal word en my Seun hulle ewige sal wees troos en vreugde. ”

Benedictus XIII., 26 September 1724, het 'n toegewydheid van tweehonderd dae aan elke Onse Vader en elke Gegroet Maria toegestaan ​​aan diegene wat met opregte berou en belydenis of met vaste voorneme om hulle sondes te bely, hierdie Kapel oor enige Vrydag, of op enige vastydag, op die fees van die Sewe Dolors, of binne die Octave en honderd dae op enige ander dag van die jaar.

Clement XII., 12 Desember 1734, bevestig hierdie aflate en verleen verder:

1. 'n Plenum -toegeeflikheid aan diegene wat elke dag hierdie Chaplet 'n maand lank voorgelees het - belydenis, nagmaal en gebede vir die kerk, soos gewoonlik vereis.

2. 'n Toegee van honderd jaar aan almal wat dit op enige dag moet opsê, nadat hulle hul sondes bely het, met opregte hartseer, of ten minste vasbeslote om dit te doen.

3. Honderd en vyftig jaar aan diegene wat dit op Maandae, Woensdae en Vrydae en vakansiedae moet opsê, met belydenis en nagmaal.

4. Een plenaire toegewing een keer per jaar, op enige dag, aan diegene wat die vierde keer per week gewoond is, op voorwaarde van belydenis, nagmaal en die voordrag van die kapel op die nagmaal.

5. Tweehonderd jaar toegeeflikheid vir almal wat dit vroom na die belydenis voordra en aan almal wat dit om hulle dra, en dit gereeld herhaal, tien jaar se toegewing elke keer as hulle die mis hoor, 'n preek hoor of ons Vader voordra, en Seven Hail Mary's, sal enige geestelike of liggaamlike barmhartigheidswerk verrig ter ere van ons Salige Verlosser, die Heilige Maagd Maria, of enige Heilige, hul advokaat.

Al hierdie aflate is bevestig deur 'n dekreet van 17 Januarie 1747 en van toepassing op die siele in die vagevuur.

Om 'n vraag in te dien, voltooi die
E -POSVORM



Standaard van Ur en ander voorwerpe uit die koninklike grafte

Hierdie sierlike voorwerp, wat doelbewus begrawe is as deel van 'n uitgebreide ritueel, vertel ons soveel, maar ook te min.

Standaard van Ur, c. 2600-2400 v.G.J., 21,59 x 49,5 x 12 cm (British Museum)

Die stad Ur

Postkaartgedrukte foto met argeologiese opgrawings in Ur, met Arabiese werkers wat op skaal staan ​​in die opgegrawe straat van 'n vroeë tweede millennium v.G.J. woonbuurt © Trustees van die British Museum

Vandag bekend as Tell el-Muqayyar, die “Mound of Pitch, ” was die webwerf beset vanaf ongeveer 5000 v.G.J. tot 300 v.G.J. Alhoewel Ur bekend is as die tuiste van die Ou-Testamentiese aartsvader Abraham (Genesis 11: 29-32), is daar geen werklike bewys dat Tell el-Muqayyar identies was aan “Ur van die Chaldeërs nie. ” In die oudheid was die stad bekend as Urim.

Die belangrikste opgrawings by Ur is vanaf 1922-34 onderneem deur 'n gesamentlike ekspedisie van The British Museum en die University Museum, Pennsylvania, onder leiding van Leonard Woolley. In die middel van die nedersetting was modderstene tempels uit die vierde millennium v.G.J. Aan die rand van die heilige gebied het 'n begraafplaas grootgeword met begrafnisse wat vandag bekend staan ​​as die koninklike grafte. 'N Gebied met gewone mense se huise is opgegrawe waarin 'n aantal straathoeke klein heiligdomme het. Maar die grootste oorlewende godsdienstige geboue, wat aan die maangod Nanna gewy is, bevat ook een van die bes bewaarde ziggurate en is gestig in die tydperk 2100-1800 v.G.J. Gedurende hierdie tyd was Ur die hoofstad van 'n ryk wat oor die suide van Mesopotamië strek. Heersers van die latere Kassitiese en Neo-Babiloniese ryke het by Ur voortgegaan om te bou en te herbou. Veranderinge in die vloei van die Eufraatrivier (nou ongeveer tien kilometer oos) en handelsroetes het daartoe gelei dat die terrein uiteindelik gestaak is.

Die koninklike grafte van Ur

Naby tempelgeboue in die middel van die stad Ur, het 'n vullishoop oor eeue opgebou. Die mense van Ur kon nie die gebied vir die bou gebruik nie, en het hul dooies daar begin begrawe. Die begraafplaas is tussen ongeveer 2600-2000 v.G.J. en honderde begrafnisse is in kuipe gemaak. Baie hiervan bevat baie ryk materiale.

Silinder seël van Pu-abi, c. 2600 v.G.J., lapis lazuli, 4,9 x 2,6 cm, van Ur © Trustees van die British Museum

In een gebied van die begraafplaas is 'n groep van sestien grafte uit die middel van die derde millennium gedateer. Hierdie groot skaggrafte was anders as die omliggende begrafnisse en het bestaan ​​uit 'n graf, gemaak van klip, puin en bakstene, wat aan die onderkant van 'n put gebou is. Die uitleg van die grafte was uiteenlopend, sommige het die hele vloer van die put beset en het verskeie kamers. Die mees volledige graf wat ontdek is, behoort aan 'n dame wat as Pu-abi geïdentifiseer is, van die naam wat op 'n silinder seël uitgekerf is wat by die begrafnis gevind is.

Die meerderheid van die grafte is in die oudheid beroof, maar waar bewyse oorleef het, was die belangrikste begrafnis omring deur baie menslike liggame. Een graf het tot vier en sewentig sulke offeroffers. Dit is duidelik dat uitgebreide seremonies plaasgevind het toe die putte ingevul is, wat meer menslike begrafnisse en aanbiedings van voedsel en voorwerpe insluit. Die graafmachine, Leonard Woolley, het gedink die grafte behoort aan konings en koninginne. 'N Ander suggestie is dat hulle aan die hoëpriesteresse van Ur behoort.

Die Standaard van Ur

Vrede (detail), The Standard of Ur, 2600-2400 BCE, skulp, rooi kalksteen, lapis lazuli en bitumen (oorspronklike hout bestaan ​​nie meer nie), 21,59 x 49,53 x 12 cm (British Museum-foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY- NC-SA 2.0)

Hierdie voorwerp is gevind in een van die grootste grafte in die Royal Cemetery in Ur, in die hoek van 'n kamer bo die regterskouer van 'n man. Die oorspronklike funksie daarvan word nog nie verstaan ​​nie.

Leonard Woolley, die graafmachine in Ur, het hom verbeel dat dit as standaard op 'n paal gedra word, vandaar sy algemene naam. 'N Ander teorie dui daarop dat dit die klankkas van 'n musiekinstrument gevorm het.

Toe dit gevind is, het die oorspronklike houtraamwerk vir die mosaïek van skulp, rooi kalksteen en lapis lazuli verval, en die twee hoofpanele is deur die gewig van die grond saamgebreek. Die bitumen wat as gom optree, het verbrokkel en die eindpanele is gebreek. Gevolglik is die huidige herstel slegs 'n goeie raaiskoot oor hoe dit oorspronklik verskyn het.

Oorlog (detail), The Standard of Ur, 2600-2400 BCE, skulp, rooi kalksteen, lapis lazuli en bitumen (oorspronklike hout bestaan ​​nie meer nie), 21,59 x 49,53 x 12 cm (British Museum-foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY- NC-SA 2.0)

Die hoofpanele staan ​​bekend as “War ” en “Peace. ” “War ” toon een van die vroegste voorstellings van 'n Sumeriese leër. Strydwaens, elk getrek deur vier donkies, trap vyande in infanterie met mantels en dra spiese vyandelike soldate word met byle doodgemaak, ander word naak geparadeer en aan die koning wat 'n spies hou, voorgehou.

Die paneel “Peace ” beeld diere, visse en ander goedere uit wat na 'n banket gebring word. Sittende figure, gedra met wolvleis of rande met rande, drink onder begeleiding van 'n musikant wat 'n lier speel. Bankettonele soos hierdie kom gereeld voor op silinder seëls van die tydperk, soos op die seël van die “Queen ” Pu-abi, ook in die British Museum (sien prent hierbo).

Queen's Lyre

Leonard Woolley ontdek verskeie liere in die grafte in die Royal Cemetery in Ur. Dit was een van twee wat hy gevind het in die graf van “Queen ” Pu-abi. Saam met die lier, wat teen die putmuur gestaan ​​het, was die lyke van tien vroue met fyn juwele, vermoedelik offeroffers, en talle klip- en metaalvoorwerpe. Een vrou lê reg teen die lier en volgens Woolley is die bene van haar hande geplaas waar die snare sou wees.

Queen's Lyre (rekonstruksie), 2600 v.G.J., houtonderdele, penne en toue is moderne lapis lazuli-, skulp- en rooi kalksteenmosaïekversiering, in bitumen geset en die kop (maar nie die horings) van die bul is oud, die kop van die bul voor die klankboks is bedek met goud, die oë is lapis lazuli en skulp, en die hare en baard is 'n lapis lazuli-paneel aan die voorkant wat 'n leeukop-arend tussen gaselle, bulle met plante op heuwels, 'n bulman tussen luiperds en 'n leeu wat 'n aanval aanval, uitbeeld. die rande van die klankkas is versier met inlegbande, elf goue penne vir die snare, 112,5 x 73 x 7 cm (liggaam), Ur © Trustees van die British Museum

Die houtdele van die lier het in die grond verval, maar Woolley gooi gips van Parys in die verdieping wat deur die verdwene hout gelaat is, en behou die versiering op sy plek. Die voorpanele is gemaak van lapis lazuli, skulp en rooi kalksteen wat oorspronklik in bitumen geset is. Die goue masker van die bul wat die voorkant van die klankboks versier, is vergruis en moes herstel word. Terwyl die horings modern is, is die baard, hare en oë oorspronklik en gemaak van lapis lazuli.

Hierdie musiekinstrument is oorspronklik gerekonstrueer as deel van 'n unieke “harp-lier, ” saam met 'n harp uit die begrafnis, nou ook in The British Museum. Later navorsing het getoon dat dit 'n fout was. 'N Nuwe rekonstruksie, gebaseer op opgrawingsfoto's, is in 1971-72 gemaak.

Voorgestelde lesings:

J. Aruz, Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. van die Middellandse See tot by die Indus (New York, 2003).

D. Collon, Antieke Nabye Oosterse kuns (Londen, 1995).

H. Crawford, Sumer en Sumeriërs (Cambridge, 2004).

N. Postgate, Vroeë Mesopotamië: Samelewing en ekonomie aan die begin van die geskiedenis (Londen, 1994).

M. Roaf, Kulturele atlas van Mesopotamië (New York, 1990).

C.L. Woolley en P.R.S. Moorey, Ur of the Chaldees, hersiene uitgawe (Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1982).

N. Yoffee, Mites van die argaïese staat: evolusie van die vroegste stede, state en beskawing (Cambridge, 2005).

R. Zettler en L. Horne, (reds.) Skatte uit die koninklike graf by Ur (Philadelphia, 1998).


The Legend of Sargon vertaling. (onvolledig)

1. Sargon, die magtige koning, koning van Akkad en ek,

2. My ma was nederig my pa wat ek nie geken het nie

3. Die broer van my vader het op die berg gewoon.

4. My stad is Azupiranu, aan die oewer van die Purattu [Eufraat],

5. My nederige ma het my verwek, in die geheim het sy my voortgebring.

6. Sy sit my in 'n mandjie riete, sy sluit my ingang met bitumen,

7. Sy het my op die riviere gewerp wat my nie oorstroom het nie.

8. Die rivier het my gedra, dit het my na Akki, die besproeier, gebring.

9. Akki, die besproeier, het my in die hart van sy hart uitgehef,

10. Akki, die besproeier, toe sy eie seun my grootgemaak het

11. Akki, die besproeier, soos sy tuinier my aangestel het.

12. Toe ek 'n tuinier was, was die godin Ishtar lief vir my,

13. En vier jaar lank het ek oor die koninkryk geheers.

14. Ek het die swartkoppige mense beheer wat ek regeer het

15. Magtige berge met byle van brons het ek vernietig (?). ens. ens. ens.

Sargon was 'n ambisieuse koning, en was nie tevrede met die oorheersing van Sumer nie. Hy het voortgegaan om stede langs die middelste Eufraat en in die noorde van Sirië en die silwerryke berge in die suide van Anatolië te verslaan. Hy oorheers ook Susa, 'n stadstaat in Elam, wat die Zagrosberge van Wes-Iran omvat. Elam is ook waar die enigste werklik kontemporêre rekord van sy regering ontbloot is.

Daar word gesê dat dit sy roem was dat sommige handelaars in 'n sentrale Anatoliese stad, (sentraal -moderne Turkye), hom gesmeek het om in te gryp in 'n plaaslike rusie, en volgens die legende: Sargon met 'n groep krygers het 'n wonderlike reis na die stad Burushanda (Purshahanda) wat nog steeds nie geleë is nie, en aan die einde daarvan was weinig meer as sy voorkoms nodig om die geskil te besleg.

Tydens die regering van Sargons floreer kommersiële verbindings met die Indusvallei, die kus van Oman, die eilande en die oewers van die Persiese Golf, die lapis lazuli-myne van Badakhshan, sederhout kom uit Kanaän (moderne Libanon), handel ook met die silwerryke Stierberge, Kappadokië, Kreta en miskien Griekeland. Dit was tydens Sargon se bewind dat die Akkadies aangepas is by die skrif van die Sumeriese taal.

Omdat hedendaagse rekord ontbreek, kan geen volgorde gegee word vir die gebeure tydens sy bewind nie. Nie die aantal jare waartydens hy geleef het of die tydstip waarop hy regeer het, kan presies 2334 v.C. word nou gegee as 'n datum waarop die begin van die dinastie van Agade gehang kan word, en volgens die Soemeriese koninglys was hy 56 jaar lank koning. As bewys van sy nalatenskap is twee latere Assiriese konings ter ere van hom genoem.

By die dood van Sargons het Rimush (2315-2306 v.C.), die seun van Sargon, koning geword. By hemelvaart het hy opstand in Ur, Umma, Adab, Der, Lagash en Kazallu in Sumer neergelê. Ook Elam en Barakhshi in Iran, maar hy het waarskynlik Sirië verloor. Die intrige van die paleis het tot sy moord gelei, moontlik deur ondersteuners van sy broer Manishtusu. Hy is vermoor deur sy kop met 'n kleitafel in te steek.

Manishtusu (2306-2291 v.C.) - Of Rimush se ouer broer of sy tweeling. Die mag van die Ryk het steeds kwyn; Manishtusu moes 'n koalisie van 32 rebellekonings neerlê. Alhoewel hy 'n bietjie veld verloor het, het hy die beheer oor Assirië en Sumer behou. Daarna val hy die Oman -streek binne en verslaan die plaaslike konings daar. Hofdokumente toon aan dat hy grond van private burgers gekoop het, wat daarop dui dat die konings daar nie absoluut was nie en dat hulle nie die hele grond beheer het nie. 'N Inskripsie is gevind uit die bewind van die Assiriese koning Shamshi-Adad I, wat verklaar dat Manishtushu die beroemde tempel van Ishtar in Nineve gestig het. Manishtusu sterf in 'n paleisopstand.

Naram-Sin (2291 2254 v.C.), Seun van Manishtushu het koning geword. Hy verslaan 'n rebelle-koalisie in Sumer en herstel die Akkadiese mag. Naram-Sin het die grense van die Ryk na die Zagrosberge gestoot. Hy het Sirië weer verower, die gebied wat nou Libanon en die Taurusberge genoem word, en Aleppo en Mari in die proses vernietig. Die Oman-gebied het in opstand gekom, en Naram-Sin moes hul koning Mandannu binnedring en verslaan. Hy het ook Anatolië binnegeval tot by Dierbakir. Hy noem homself die "koning van die vier kwartiere" en die "God van Agade", en maak homself sodoende die eerste Mesopotamiese koning wat homself verklaar goddelik.

Naram-Sin stel sy dogters aan as priesteres en seuns as goewerneurs. Selfs met al hierdie militêre uitbreiding, moes hy steeds rebellies onderdruk. Trouens, die Lullubi, 'n volk van die Sherizor-vlakte in die Zagrosberge in Wes-Iran, het die Akkadiërs suksesvol onder hul koning Annubanin uitgestoot, net 'n kort tydjie nadat Naram-Sin hulle onderwerp het.

Koning Anubanini van die Lullubi

Die Gutians - 'n bevolking uit die berge noordoos van Sumer (moderne Iran) - het aan die einde van Naram -Sin se bewind binnegeval, wat groot verwoesting en kommunikasie veroorsaak het. Volgens die Sumeriërs was die Gutiaanse inval 'n goddelike oordeel vir die vernietiging van die tempel van Enlil by Nippur deur Naram-Sin. 'N Sumeriese gedig "Die vloek van Agade" is in testament saamgestel. Klik hier vir die gedig & lt & ltKlik op & gt & gt

Een van die eerste stede wat die Gutians inneem, is Umma, 'n stad in die oostelike deel van Sumer. Umma, wat tydens die rebellie teen Agade 'n herlewing in sy mag beleef het, het weer op moeilike tye geval. Eers toe Umma hom aan die Gutiaanse heerskappy onderwerp het, het hulle begin herstel.

Die 'goedaardige' onderwerping van Umma het waarskynlik veroorsaak dat Ur-Bau, Ensi van Lagash ('n nabygeleë stad wat ook die ou hoofstad van Ur beheer het-foto links), ook 'n pro-Gutiaanse regering moes stig. Met hierdie stap kon Lagash onaangeraak deur die Gutians bly en voorspoedig wees.

By die dood van Naram-Sin het sy seun Shar-Kali-Sharri (2254-2230 v.C.) koning geword. Hy het die Ryk probeer versterk en die skade wat sy pa se polis veroorsaak, ongedaan gemaak. Shar-Kali-Sharri het goed geveg om die koninkryk te behou en hy het talle gevegte gewen, waaronder een teen die Amoriete in Sirië, maar Elam het onafhanklikheid verklaar en die Akkadiese taal verwerp.

Shar-Kali-Sharri moes voortdurend veg teen die Lullubi, Amoriete en Gutians. Die Hurriërs betwis ook met hom vir Assirië en Noord -Sirië, en Sumer ontplof toe in opstand. Die Ryk het verbrokkel onder opstand en inval, maar uiteindelik het hy die stad Agade beheer. Hy word die koning van Agade genoem, in plaas van vroeër grandiose aansprake. Hy is dood in 'n paleisopstand, sy bewind dui op die einde van die Ryk.

Van die Akkadiese konings na Shar-kali-sharri het slegs die name en 'n paar kort inskripsies oorleef. Oor die opvolging het rusies ontstaan, en die dinastie het ondergegaan. Twee faktore het bygedra tot die ondergang daarvan: die inval van die nomadiese Amurrus (Amoriete), wat deur die Sumeriërs "Martu" genoem word en die infiltrasie van die Gutiane. Volgens die Sumeriese koningslys het die Sargons -dinastie 157 jaar geduur. Die laaste koning van sy dinastie was Car-kali-carri. Dan was daar 'n reeks van 11 ander Akkadiese konings wat nog 181 jaar lank regeer het.

Toe is die laaste Akkadiese koning, & quotIlulu & quot, verslaan deur die Sumeriese koning Ur-nijin van Unug. In Unug het 3 konings 47 jaar lank regeer, toe is Unug ook deur die Gutium verslaan. Die Sumeriërs het nie te veel aan die Gutiërs gedink nie: hier is wat hulle oor hulle te sê het.

Hulle word nie onder mense ingedeel nie, word nie as deel van die land beskou nie, Gutiaanse mense wat geen hindernisse ken nie, met menslike intelligensie, maar honde -instink en aap se kenmerke & quot.

Wêrelderfenis ensiklopedie:

Uittreksel: Byna niks is bekend oor hul oorsprong nie, as geen "Gutiaanse" artefakte het van daardie tyd af opgeduik (standbeelde wat beweer dat hulle van Gutians is, is vals of verkeerd geïdentifiseer) min inligting word uit die hedendaagse bronne verkry. Niks is ook bekend oor hul taal nie, afgesien van die Sumeriese koningname, en dat dit verskil van ander bekende tale in die streek (soos Sumeries, Akkadies, Hurrian, Hetiet en Elamiet). (Boonop word bewerings dat die Gutians blouoogblondes was nie ernstig opgeneem deur kenners nie).


Antieke Sowjetunie?

In hierdie tydperk is die oudste wetskode, die kode van Ur-Nammu, sowel as een van die wêreld se mees burokratiese state geskep. Gelukkig vir geleerdes van vandag, was sy heersers versot daarop om die kleinste transaksies op kleitablette op te neem, gewoonlik met 'n pen van 'n riet. Die afneembare einde van die bietjie ebbehout, het Stone gesê, dui daarop dat dit die styl van 'n hooggeplaaste skriba was.

'Dit was die eerste beplande ekonomie', het Dominique Charpin, 'n spesialis in spykerskrif aan die College de France, gesê tydens 'n onderbreking van die ondersoek van tablette wat onlangs opgegrawe is. 'Dit was soos die Sowjetunie.'

Die meeste van die 28 tablette wat tydens die opgrawing gevind is, voeg by, handel oor verkoop en rantsoene van graan, wol en brons, sowel as slawe en grondregister. Die groottes van die tablette verskil, maar almal is propvol klein simbole wat 'n aangelegde vergrootglas benodig om te ontsyfer.

Argeoloë het in die verlede aangeneem dat Ur in sy bloeitydperk op 'n ander manier soos die voormalige Sowjetunie was: 'n Klein bevoorregte elite beheer 'n groot bevolking van werkers, wat dikwels aangewys is vir grimmige werkeenhede om klere, potte en ander verbruikersgoedere te vervaardig. Stone daag die teorie uit.

'Daar is hierdie aanname van ongelykheid,' het sy gesê. 'Maar meer onlangse navorsing dui op sosiale mobiliteit in stadstate soos Ur. Mense kan op die ekonomiese leer klim - daarom wil hulle in die eerste plek in die stad woon. ”

Die meeste grawe in die verlede, insluitend Woolley's, het gefokus op die tempels, grafte en paleise. Maar tydens die onlangse opgrawing het die span 'n beskeie gebou ontdek wat 'n paar eeue na Ur se hoogtepunt dateer.

'Dit is 'n tipiese Irakse huis,' sê Abdul-Amir Hamdani, die senior Irakse argeoloog oor die projek, wat in die omgewing grootgeword het. Hy beduie na die modderstene. 'Daar is trappe na die dak en kamers rondom 'n binnehof. Ek het net so in 'n huis gewoon. Daar is 'n kontinuïteit in die manier waarop mense hier woon. ”

Dit dui op 'n samelewing wat nie onder die beheer van 'n klein tiranniese minderheid was nie, het Stone en Hamdani gesê.

Saam met die ebbehout en die kleitablette, ontdek die span 'n klein kleimasker van Humbaba, 'n reus wat die seders van die verre Libanon beskerm. Die graafmachines het ook gedroogde dadels in die graf van 'n kind gevind, die eerste plantreste wat op die terrein gevind is. Ander botaniese vondste word nou ontleed om te verstaan ​​hoe die dieet van burgers mettertyd verander het.


Alles oor Mary

Daar bestaan ​​'n hernieude belangstelling in verskillende vorme van die Rozenkrans wat eintlik min te doen het met die klassieke rozenkransgebed self. Die term wat algemeen gebruik word om hierdie gebedsvorme aan te dui, is chaplet, waarskynlik as gevolg van die gebruik van die krale. Sommige van hierdie kapelle het 'n sterk Mariese konnotasie, ander is meer direk verwant aan sommige heiliges. Nie al hierdie variante van die outentieke rozenkrans is gebaseer op vaste teologie en toegewyde praktyk nie. Die volgende is voorbeelde van kapelle. Daar word nie ondersoek ingestel na historiese akkuraatheid en teologiese ortodoksie nie.

KAPLETTE VAN ONS HERE

Geseënde sakramentskrale

Dit bestaan ​​uit 'n medalje van die Heilige Sakrament en drie-en-dertig krale, wat die drie-en-dertig jaar van Christus se lewe op aarde herinner.

Op die medalje maak 'n mens 'n geestelike nagmaal soos volg: Aangesien ek U nie nou kan ontvang nie, kom my Jesus in die Nagmaal, geestelik in my hart, en maak dit vir ewig u eie. Sê op elke kraal: Jesus in die Heilige Sakrament, wees ons genadig!

Chaplet of Divine Mercy

Die Chaplet of Mercy word voorgedra met behulp van gewone kranskrale van vyf dekades. By die National Shrine of Divine Mercy in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, word die Chaplet voorafgegaan deur twee openingsgebede uit die Diary of Blessed Faustina en gevolg deur 'n slotgebed.

U het verval, Jesus, maar die bron van lewe het na siele gestroom, en die oseaan van barmhartigheid het vir die hele wêreld oopgegaan. O Fount of Life, onpeilbare goddelike barmhartigheid, omhul die hele wêreld en maak uself leeg.

O Bloed en water, wat uit die hart van Jesus uitgestroom het as 'n fontein van barmhartigheid vir ons, ek vertrou op U!

Begin die Chaplet met die Onse Vader, die Heil Maria en die Apostoliese Geloofsbelydenis. Bid dan op die groot kraal voor elke dekade:

Ewige Vader,
Ek bied jou die liggaam en bloed,
Die siel en goddelikheid van u geliefde Seun,
Onse Here Jesus Christus,
in versoening vir ons sondes
en dié van die hele wêreld.

Sê op die tien krale van elke dekade:

Ter wille van Hom
hartseer passie,
wees ons genadig
en oor die hele wêreld.
Sluit af met:

Heilige God,
Heilige Magtige,
Heilige Onsterflike,
wees ons genadig
en oor die hele wêreld. (herhaal drie keer)

Ewige God, in wie barmhartigheid eindeloos is en die skatkamer van medelye onuitputlik, kyk vriendelik op ons en verhoog u barmhartigheid in ons, dat ons in moeilijke oomblikke niet wanhoop of moedeloos kan worden, maar met groot vertrouwen ons aan uw heilige wil kan onderwerpen, wat liefde en genade self is.

* Gevier op die Sondag na Paasfees.

Kapel van die baba Jesus

Daar is drie en twaalf vir hierdie kapel.

Hierdie kapel aan die Heilige Kind het sy oorsprong te danke aan die ywer van eerbiedwaardige Marguerite van die Heilige Sakrament van Beaune (Frankryk) wat in 1648 op 27 -jarige ouderdom gesterf het.

Ons Vader (3x) ter ere van die Heilige Familie (3 krale)
Sê voor elke Onse Vader: En die woord het vlees geword en het onder ons gewoon.

Wees gegroet Maria (12x) ter ere van die twaalf jaar van Jesus se kinderskoene
Voor die eerste Groet sê Mary:  En die woord het vlees geword en het onder ons gewoon.

Aan die einde van die kapsel sê: Heilige Kind Jesus, seën en beskerm ons.

Hierdie kapel (3 en 12 krale) het 'n medalje met die beeld van die Heilige Baba. Dit dra die volgende oproep op sy rug:

Goddelike baba Jesus, ek is mal oor U Kruis, en ek aanvaar al die kruise wat U vir my sal stuur.
Aanbiddelike Drie -eenheid, ek bied U vir die eer van die Heilige Naam van God al die aanbiddings van die Heilige Hart van die Heilige Kind Jesus aan.

Chaplet van die Heilige Hart

Die Chaplet bestaan ​​uit drie en dertig klein krale, ses groot krale, 'n middelpunt, 'n kruisbeeld en 'n heilige hartmedalje.

Bid aan die kruis: Siel van Christus, heilig my.

Op die groot krale: O liefste hart van Jesus, ek smeek dat ek U ooit meer en meer sal liefhê.

Op die klein krale: Sweet Heart of Jesus, wees my liefde.

Aan die einde van elke dekade: Sweet Heart of Mary, wees my heil.

Ter afsluiting: Mag die hart van Jesus in die mees geseënde sakrament geprys en aanbid en liefgehad word met dankbare liefde op elke oomblik, in al die tabernakels van die wêreld, selfs tot aan die einde van die tyd.

Die kapel van die Heilige Gesig

The purpose of the Crown or Chaplet of the Holy face is to honor the Five Wounds of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and to ask of God the Triumph of His Holy Church. This chaplet is composed of a cross and thirty-nine beads of these six are large beads and thirty-three are small. To this chaplet is attached a medal of the holy Face. The thirty-three beads represent the years of Jesus' mortal life. The first thirty beads recall Our Lord's hidden life and are divided into five parts of six beads each, in honor of the senses of touch, hearing, smell, and taste of Jesus.

Chaplet of the Precious Blood

This devotion consists of seven mysteries in which we meditate on the seven principal sheddings of the Most precious Blood of Jesus

The Our Father without the Hail Mary is said five times after each mystery except the last, when it is said three times, thirty-three times total, in honor of the thirty-three years of Our Lord’s life on earth.

1. mystery: Jesus shed his blood in the circumcision – Let us ask for chastity in body and soul.
2. mystery: Jesus shed his blood in the agony while praying in the Garden of Olives. – Let us ask for the spirit of prayer.
3. mystery: Jesus shed his blood in the scourging at the pillar. – Let us ask for patience and self-control.
4. mystery: Jesus shed his blood in the crowning with thorns. – Let us ask for humility to atone from pride.
5. mystery: Jesus shed his blood while carrying His cross to Calvary. – Let us ask for acceptance of our daily crosses.
6. mystery: Jesus shed his blood in the terrible crucifixion. – Let us ask for contrition.
7. mystery: Jesus shed blood and water from His side pierced by the lance. – Let us ask for perseverance.

 CHAPLETS OF OUR LADY

Chaplet of Our Lady of Czestochowa

Nine beads with at one end of the string a crucifix and at the other a medal of Our Lady of Czestochowa

The nine beads correspond to three Our Fathers, three Hail Marys and three Glorias. The chaplet begins (or ends) with the following prayer addressed to Our Lady of Czestochowa:

O Almighty and merciful God! You gave the Polish Nation a wondrous help and defense in the most holy Virgin Mary and You honored Her sacred image at Jasna Gora with remarkable veneration of the faithful. Grant in Your mercy that, under Her protection, we may struggle confidently throughout our lives and at the moment of death be victorious over our enemy. We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Lady of Jasna Gora, our Mother, Queen of the Polish Nation! Trusting in Your maternal goodness and powerful intercession with Your Son, we place before You our humble prayers and petitions. To You we commend all our needs, in particular . and all children of the Polish Nation whether in their native land or elsewhere in the world.

Chaplet of Our Lady, Star of the Sea

The chaplet of Our Lady Star of the Sea has a medal of Our Lady of Carmel, three separate beads, and twelve additional beads.

Our Lady Star of the Sea is the patroness of those who sail the seas. According to Saint Bonaventure she is also the one who guides to a landfall in heaven those who navigate the sea of this world in the "ship of innocence or penance." Our Lady aids not only sailors, but also those who sail the stormy seas of life.

The prayer begins with the medal. Holding the medal of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, you say this prayer:

Most beautiful Flower of Mount Carmel, Fruitful Vine, Splendor of Heaven, Blessed Mother of the Son of God, Immaculate Virgin, assist me in this my necessity. O Star of the Sea, help me and show me herein that you are my Mother.

Holy Mary, Mother of God, Queen of Heaven and Earth, I humbly beseech you from the bottom of my heart, to succor me in this necessity there are none that can withstand your power.

The first three beads are for one Our Father, one Hail Mary, and one Glory Be. These three beads are for John Paul II, Bishop Warren Boudreaux and John Paul Finke (The Confraternity of Our Lady Star of the Sea, Morgan City, Louisiana, was established in 1979 by Bishop Boudreaux). I suppose it would not be sacrilegious to say these three prayers for those who minister in the church at all levels.

On each of the twelve beads representing the twelve stars on Our Lady's crown say one Hail Mary followed by the invocation:

Our Lady, Star of the Sea, help and protect us!

Sweet Mother, I place this cause in your hand.

Chaplet of the Immaculate Conception

The Chaplet consists of three groups of four beads, with a medal of the Immaculate Conception attached to the end. It was composed by Saint John Berchmanns, S.J. and recited by him daily to obtain, through the intercession of Mary, the grace never to commit any sin against the virtue of purity.

There are other chaplets in honor of the Immaculate Conception. One of them uses an ordinary rosary (five decades), with the following exception. Instead of the crucifix, this chaplet has a medal of the image known as the "Miraculous Medal" (1830) framed by the prayer "O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee." The two beads (not three) immediately preceding the medal invite to say two Hail Marys. Before saying each one of them, it is said: "Praise be to the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary."

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

O God, come to my aid O Lord make haste to help me in my time of need.

1st - I thank Thee, O Eternal Father! for having by Thy Almighty power preserved Mary, most holy, Thy blessed daughter from the stain of original sin.

Then on the large bead say: Our Father: and on the four small beads: Hail Mary, adding each time: Blessed be the pure, most holy and Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

2nd - I thank Thee, O Eternal Son, for having by Thy wisdom preserved Mary, most holy, Thy blessed mother from the stain of original sin.

Then on the large bead say: Our Father: and on the Four small beads: Hail Mary, adding each time: Blessed be the pure, most holy and Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

3rd - I thank Thee, O Holy Ghost Eternal, for having by Thy love preserved Mary, most holy, Thy Blessed Spouse, from the stain of original sin.

Then on the large bead say: Our Father: and on the four small beads: Hail Mary, adding each time: Blessed be the pure, most holy and Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Conclude with: Glory be to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, as it was in the beginning, is now and will be forever. Amen

Chaplet of the Immaculate Heart of Mary

The Rosary of Mary's Immaculate Heart is said with an ordinary rosary.

The Sign of the Cross is made five times in veneration of the Savior's five Holy Wounds.

On the large beads is said: Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary, Pray for those who seek refuge in you.

On the small beads is said: Holy Mother, save us through your Immaculate Heart's flame of love.

At the end, the Glory Be to the Father is repeated three times.

Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows

The chaplet or rosary of the Seven Sorrows uses special beads. There are seven groups of seven beads.

The seven groups of seven Hail Marys remember the seven sorrows of Our Lady, which are:

1. The prophecy of Simeon.
2. The flight into Egypt.
3. The loss of the Child Jesus in the Temple.
4. Mary meets Jesus carrying His Cross.
5. The Crucifixion.
6. Mary receives the body of Jesus from the Cross.
7. The body of Jesus is placed in the tomb.

The concluding prayer is as follows:

V. Pray for us, O most sorrowful Virgin.

R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Lord Jesus, we now implore, both for the present and for the hour of our death, the intercession of the most Blessed Virgin Mary, Thy Mother, whose holy soul was pierced at the time of Thy passion by a sword of grief. Grant us this favor, O Savior of the world, Who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Spirit forever and ever. Amen.

The Brigittine Rosary

It consists of six decades of ten beads each. There are three additional beads at the end. The sixty-three Hail Marys are in remembrance of the sixty-three years of Mary's earthly life according to one traditional account. The seven Our Fathers, said on the large beads between each decade, are in remembrance of the seven sorrows and joys of the Blessed Virgin.

Each decade consists of one Our Father and ten Hail Marys. The Apostles' Creed is said on the crucifix.

The Chaplet of the Ten Evangelical Virtues of the Blessed Virgin Mary

This prayer has been passed on by tradition in the Marian Order. It is meant for private recitation on the rosary.

After the Sign of the Cross, recite one Our Father followed by ten Hail Marys. After the words, "Holy Mary, Mother of God" mention one virtue in this order:

most pure
most prudent
most humble
most faithful
most devout
most obedient
most poor
most patient
most merciful
most sorrowful.

The Little Crown of the Blessed Virgin Mary

St. Louis de Montfort, universally known for his True Devotion to Mary, embellished the Chaplet of the Immaculate Conception by adding to each Hail Mary a distinctive invocation in praise of the Blessed Virgin's excellence, power and goodness, ending with the joyful strain: Rejoice, O Virgin Mary! Rejoice a thousand times.

1. The Crown of Excellence
2. The Crown of Power
3. The Crown of Goodness.

The Little Crown of Twelve Stars

An ancient devotion of the Order of Our Lady of Mercy based on the Book of Revelation 12:1. The chaplet consists in a medal, five Our Father beads and three sets of four beads each where the Hail Mary is prayed. The Our Father and four Hail Marys are recited in honor of Our Lady's Crown of Excellence. The chaplet ends with a Glory be.

The Little Rosary of Our Lady of Consolation

Belongs to the Arch confraternity of Saints Augustine and Monica and is composed of thirteen couplets of beads. The essential prayers to be said are Our Father and Hail Mary repeated thirteen times after which is recited the Hail Holy Queen.

The Tears of Our Lady Chaplet

The Blessed Virgin Mary grants seven graces to the souls who honor her daily by saying seven Hail Marys and meditating on her tears and dolors. The devotion was passed on by St. Bridget. These are the seven graces:

1. I will grant peace to their families
2. They will be enlightened about the divine mysteries
3. I will console them in their pains and I will accompany them in their work.
4. I will give them as much as they ask for as long as it does not oppose the adorable will of my divine Son or the sanctification of their souls.
5. I will defend them in their spiritual battles with the infernal enemy and I will protect them at every instant of their lives.
6. I will visibly help them at the moment of their death they shall see the face of their mother.
7. I have obtained (this grace) from my divine Son, that those who propagate this devotion to my tears and dolors, will be taken directly from this earthly life to eternal happiness since all their sins will be forgiven and my Son and I will be their eternal consolation and joy.

Our Lady of Medjugorje Chaplet

Composed of twenty-four beads in honor of Our Lady. Each part consists of a single bead and a group of three beads. The single beads signify the Miraculous Vision of Our Lady.

Make the sign of the Cross and say the Apostles' Creed.

On the first bead say the Our Father.

On the next three beads say three Hail Marys.

On the single bead say: Glory Be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit. Amen. Then, announce the First Mystery of the Rosary and say one Our Father and the three Hail Marys on the next three beads.

Repeat the above saying the different mysteries of the rosary as you proceed around the chaplet.

At the end of the chaplet say: Praised be the name of Jesus. May his blessed Mother guide us in righteous paths and protect us from all evil.

Prayer to the Mother of Goodness, Love and Mercy:

O Mother mine,
Mother of goodness, love and mercy,
I love you infinitely
and I offer myself to you.
By means of your goodness, your love
and your grace, save me.
I desire to be yours.
I love you infinitely,
and desire you to protect me.
From the depth of my heart I pray you, Mother of goodness,
give me your goodness.
Let me gain Heaven by means of it.
I pray you, by your infinite love,
to give me the grace,
so that I may love every person,
as you have loved Jesus Christ.
I pray you to give me the grace
to be merciful towards you.
I offer myself to you completely and desire
that you follow my every step.
Because you are full of grace.
And I desire that I will never forget this.
And if, by chance, I should lose grace
I pray you to restore it to me once more.
Amen

Listing of other Chaplets for Our Lady:

The Franciscan Crown
Little Rosary of the Seven Dolors of Mary
Rosary of the Tears of Blood
Rosary in Praise of the Most Blessed Virgin
Chaplet of Our Lady of Guadalupe
The Dominican Chaplet
Our Lady of Perpetual Help Rosary

CHAPLETS OF ANGELS

Little Rosary of Saint Raphael

It consists of a medal of the Archangel Raphael connected with a prayer to him.

Pray three Hail Marys on the small beads. On the nine beads say a special prayer in honor of the nine choirs of Angels. End the rosary with an aspiration: St. Raphael, Angel of Health, of love, of joy, of light, pray for us.

The Chaplet of Saint Michael, the Archangel

The history of this chaplet goes back to a devout Servant of God, Antonia d'Astonac, who had a vision of Saint Michael. He told Antonia to honor him by nine salutations to the nine Choirs of Angels. Saint Michael allegedly promised that whoever would practice this devotion in his honor would have, when approaching Holy Communion, an escort of nine angels chosen from each of the nine Choirs. In addition, for those who would recite the chaplet daily, he promised his continual assistance and the assistance of all holy angels during one's life.

O God, come to my assistance, O Lord, make haste to help me. Glory be to the Father, etc. (Say one Our Father and three Hail Marys after each of the following nine salutations in honor of the nine Choirs of Angels)

1. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial Choir of Seraphim may the Lord make us worthy to burn with the fire of perfect charity. Amen.
2. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Cherubim may the Lord grant us the grace to leave the ways of sin and run in the paths of Christian perfection. Amen.
3. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Thrones may the Lord infuse into our hearts a true and sincere spirit of humility. Amen.
4. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Dominions may the Lord gives us grace to govern our senses and overcome any unruly passions. Amen.
5. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Powers may the Lord protect our souls against the snares and temptations of the devil. Amen.
6. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Virtues may the Lord preserve us from evil and falling into temptation. Amen.
7. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Principalities may God fill our souls with a true spirit of obedience. Amen.
8. By the intercession of Sant Michael and the celestial choir of Archangels may the Lord give us perseverance in faith and in all good works in order that we may attain the glory of Heaven. Amen.
9. By the intercession of Saint Michael and the celestial choir of Angels may the Lord grant us to be protected by them in this mortal life and conducted in the life to come in Heaven. Amen.

Say one Our Father in honor of each of the following leading Angels: St. Michael, St Gabriel, St. Raphael, and Our Guardian Angel.

O glorious prince St. Michael, chief and commander of the heavenly hosts, guardian of souls, vanquisher of rebel spirits, servant in the house of the Divine King and our admirable conductor, you who shine with excellence and superhuman virtue, deliver us from all evil, who turn to you with confidence and enable us by your gracious protection to serve God more and more faithfully every day. Pray for us, O glorious St. Michael, Prince of the Church of Jesus Christ, that we may be made worthy of His promises. Almighty and Everlasting God, Who, by a prodigy of goodness and a merciful desire for the salvation of all men, has appointed the most glorious Archangel St. Michael Prince of Your Church, make us worthy, we ask You, to be delivered from all our enemies, that none of them may harass us at the hour of death, but that we may be conducted by him into Your Presence. This we ask through the merits of Jesus Christ Our Lord. Amen.

Chaplet of the Holy Angels

O my Jesus, I offer this chaplet to Your Divine Heart, that You may render it perfect, thus giving joy to Your Holy Angels, and so they may keep me under their holy protection, above all at the hour of my death to which I invite them with all my heart. Strengthened by their presence, I will await death with joy and be preserved from the assaults of hell. I beseech you also, dear Angels, to visit immediately the souls in Purgatory, especially my parents, my friends, my benefactors help them so that they will soon be delivered. Do not forget me either after my death. This I beg you with all my heart, through the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Amen.

1. St. Michael, I recommend the hour of my death to you! Hold the Evil One prisoner, so that he may not battle against me and do no harm to my soul.

2. St. Gabriel, obtain for me from God lively faith, strong hope, ardent charity and great devotion to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar.

3. St. Raphael, lead me constantly on the road of virtue and perfection.

4. My Holy Guardian Angel, obtain for me divine inspiration and the special grace to be faithful.

I. O ardent Seraphim, obtain for me a burning love for God-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

II. O Cherubim brilliant with light, obtain for me true knowledge of the science of the saints-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

III. O admirable Thrones, obtain for me peace and tranquility of heart-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

IV. O exulted Dominions, obtain for me victory over all evil thoughts-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

V. O invincible Powers, obtain for me strength against all evil spirits-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

VI. O most serene Virtues, obtain for me obedience and perfect justice-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

VII. O Principalities, who accomplish prodigies, obtain for me plenitude of all virtues and perfection-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

VIII. O holy Archangels, obtain for me conformity to the Will of God-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

IX. O holy Angels, O faithful Guardian Angels, obtain for me true humility and great confidence in the divine mercy-one Our Father, three Hail Marys.

 CHAPLETS OF THE SAINTS

Chaplet of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha

Consists of eight brown, eight red and eight crystal beads.

Recite an Our Father on each of the eight brown beads, a Hail Mary on each of the eight red beads and a Glory be on each of the eight crystal beads.

Conclude praying: May the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, through Kateri's prayers restore the beauty of our waters, skies, forests and air, the ecology of our entire world.

Chaplet of Juan Diego

It consists of a medal with the image of Juan Diego, three large and twelve small beads.

Chaplet of Padre Pio

Recite three Our Fathers, three Hail Marys and three Glory Bes and a prayer to Saint Pio of Pietrelcina

Chaplet of Saint Anthony

This chaplet is composed of thirteen decades of three beads per decade.

This chaplet's prayer is believed to have been written by Saint Bonaventure.

On the first bead of each decade is said the Our Father, on the second the Hail Mary, and on the third the Glory be to the Father. At the end of this sequence, the following poem-prayer is recited.

If miracles thou vain would see
Lo, error, death, calamity.
The leprous stain, the demon flies,
From beds of pain the sick arise.
The hungry seas forgo their prey.

The prisoner's cruel chains give way
While palsied limbs and chattels lost
Both young and old recovered boast.
And perils perish, plenty's hoard,
Is heaped on hunger's famished board
Let those relate who know it well,
Let Padua of her patron tell.

The hungry seas forgo their prey.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.

The hungry seas forgo their prey.

V. Pray for us, blessed Anthony,
R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

O God, let the votive commemoration of
Blessed Anthony, Thy confessor, be a source
of joy in Thy Church, that she may always be
fortified with spiritual assistance, and may
deserve to possess eternal joy. Through Christ
our Lord. Amen.

Chaplet of Saint Anne

The little chaplet supposedly dates back to 1875. The author is unknown. The chaplet is the source of a great number of favors both spiritual and temporal.

The Chaplet consist of the recitation of the following prayers:

1. In honor of Jesus, one Our Father and five Hail Marys. After each Hail Mary say: Jesus, Mary and Saint Anne, grant the favor I ask.
2. In honor of Mary, one Our Father and five Hail Marys. After each Hail Mary say: Jesus, Mary and Saint Anne, grant the favor I ask.
3. In honor of Saint Anne, one Our Father and five Hail Marys. After each Hail Mary say: Jesus, Mary, and Saint Anne, grant the favor I ask.

The Chaplet of Saint Joseph

The chaplet is divided into fifteen groups of four beads consisting of one white and three purple beads. The white beads symbolize Saint Joseph's purity, and the purple his saintly piety.

A mystery of the rosary is considered on each white bead and two Hail Marys are said. On the purple beads say: Praised and blessed be Jesus, Mary and Joseph.

Chaplet of Saint Patrick

There are twelve beads for this chaplet.

Prayer on the Medal: The Apostle's Creed

On each of the twelve green beads recite: Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Intention: Through the intercession of St. Patrick, may God Almighty strengthen one's faith, and grant the grace of faith for others.

Breastplate of Saint Patrick

Christ as a light,
Illumine and guide me!
Christ as a shield, o'ershadow and cover me!
Christ be under me! Christ be over me!
Christ be beside me, on the left hand and right!
Christ be before me, behind me, about me
Christ this day, be within and without me!
(From "Hymn Before Tara")

Chaplet of Saint Philomena

This chaplet consists of three white beads and thirteen red beads.

On the medal say the Apostles' Creed to ask for the grace of faith. On each of the white beads say an Our Father in honor of the three Divine Persons of the Blessed Trinity in thanksgiving for all favors obtained through her intercession. On each of the red beads (which are thirteen in number to commemorate the thirteen years that St. Philomena spent on earth) say the following prayer:

Hail, O holy St. Philomena, whom I
acknowledge, after Mary, as my advocate with
the Divine Spouse, intercede for me now and
at the hour of my death.
St. Philomena, beloved daughter of Jesus
and Mary, pray for us who have recourse to
thee. Amen.

Hail, O illustrious St. Philomena, who shed
so courageously your blood for Christ! I bless
the Lord for all the graces He has bestowed
upon thee during thy life, and especially at
thy death. I praise and glorify Him for the
honor and power with which He has crowned
thee, and I beg thee to obtain for me from God
the graces I ask through thy intercession.

The Little Flower of the Rosary

There are twenty-five beads for this chaplet. Many persons have received special graces by reciting this chaplet during a period of nine to twenty-four days. Some even speak of a rose granted by Saint Therese.

To pray this rosary, bless yourself and say on the first bead: Saint Therese of the Infant Jesus, Patroness of Missions, pray for us!

On each of the remaining twenty-four beads say the Glory be to the Father in honor of the Blessed Trinity, in thanksgiving for giving the world the Little Saint who lived only twenty-four years.

On successive days before 11:00 a.m., say the prayer to Saint Therese, five Our Fathers, five Hail Marys, and five Glory Bes.

On the fifth day, offer one more set containing five Our Fathers, five Hail Marys, and five Glory Bes.

Saint Therese, the Little Flower, please pick me a rose from the heavenly garden and send it to me with a message of love. Ask God to grant me the favor I implore and tell Him I will love Him each day more and more.

Rosary in Honor of Saint Joseph

This can be said with a regular rosary. Instead of the Hail Mary say the Hail Holy Joseph:

Hail, Holy Joseph, spouse of the ever virgin Mary, foster father of God the Son, whom our Father in Heaven chose to be head of the Holy Family, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death, Amen.

1. The Annunciation of Joseph
2. The birth of Jesus
3. The Circumcision and Naming of Jesus
4. The Presentation of the baby Jesus in the Temple
5. The finding of the boy Jesus in the Temple

1. Joseph's spouse Mary is found to be with child
2. The journey to Bethlehem
3. Joseph flees to Egypt with Mary and Jesus
4. Jesus is lost in Jerusalem
5. The death of Joseph

1. The Glorification of St. Joseph
2. St. Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church
3. St. Joseph, protector of Families
4. St. Joseph, Patron of the Sick and Suffering
5. St. Joseph, Patron of a Holy Death

 CHAPLETS FOR SPECIAL NEEDS AND/OR THEMES

All Souls Rosary

This chaplet is said on an ordinary rosary. On the Crucifix say the psalm "Out of the Depths." Say the Our Father on the large beads. Offer each decade for a particular intention.

Chaplet for Priests

There are fourteen beads. First the creed on the cross, one Our Father, one Glory Be. On the loop: one Glory Be, four Hail Marys, two Glory Bes, four Hail Marys and one Our Father.

Lord Jesus, you have chosen your priests from among us and sent them out to proclaim your word and to act in your name. For so great a gift to your Church, we give you praise and thanksgiving. We ask you to fill them with the fire of your love, that their ministry may reveal your presence in the Church. Since they are earthen vessels, we pray that your power shine through their weakness. In their affections let them never be crushed in their doubts never despair in temptation never be destroyed and in persecution never abandoned. Inspire them through prayer to live each day the mystery of your dying and rising. In times of weakness send them your Spirit, and help them to praise your heavenly Father and pray for poor sinners. By the same Holy Spirit put your word on their lips and your love in their hearts, to bring good news to the poor and healing to the broken-hearted. And may the gift of Mary your mother to the disciple whom you loved be your gift to every priest. Grant that she who formed you within her in human image, may form them in your divine image, by the power of your Spirit, to the glory of God the Father, Amen.

Chaplet of the Virtues

The chaplet consists of seven sets of three beads divided by seven single beads for the virtues.

On the cross start with the Apostles' Creed.

On the first bead pray the consecration to Mary: My Queen, my Mother, I give myself entirely to you and to show my devotion to you I consecrate to you this day, my eyes, my ears, my mouth, my heart, my whole being without reserve. As I am you own, my good Mother, guard me and defend me as your property and possession. Amen.

On the next bead say the Angelus.

Naming each virtue on the black beads say The Lord’s Prayer, the Glory be and a prayer to the Holy Spirit on the set of three beads.

The virtues are: faith, hope, charity, humility, patience, perseverance, obedience.

Electronic Rosary
From Shrine of Divine Love, Rome, Italy

Irish Penal Rosary

This rosary was used during times of religious oppression in Ireland. The symbols are as follows:

Hammer: nails of the cross
Nails: crucifixion
Spear: wound
Halo: crown of thorns
Cords: scourging
Chalice: Last Supper
Rooster: crowing/resurrection

Missionary Rosary

The Mission Rosary links two major concerns of our church: prayer and apostolate. The rosary is a traditional form of prayer which combines remembrance, praise and petition. It remembers the events of Salvation History, and is in fact the memorial of Christ's mission. The Hail Mary as essential part of the Rosary combines praise and intercession. It praises God for the wonderful things he has done for Mary and through her. But its second half also reminds us that we are in need of God’s help and protection which we seek with Mary as intercessor. If the rosary already by itself points to apostolate and mission, this idea has been reinforced by Mary's urging to convert and evangelize expressed in numerous apparitions. The missionaries of the Society of the Divine Word consider themselves mandated to bring this message to the whole world, especially in view of promoting peace. One of the tools they use is the mission rosary. It encourages prayers for their mission.

The colored beads symbolize the missionary efforts of the Society of the Divine Word (SVD) in each of the five continents. The beads of each decade of the rosary then has a distinct color:

Red for the Americas (North and South)
Green for Africa
White for Europe
Blue for Oceania
Yellow for Asia

The missionary rosary follows the normal pattern of Creed, Our Father, three Hail Marys, Glory Be and the five decades (each for the Joyful, Luminous, Sorrowful and Glorious Mysteries). For each of these decades the ten Hail Marys are preceded by the Our Father and conclude with the Glory Be.

Peace Chaplet

This chaplet consists of seven Our Fathers, seven Hail Marys, seven Glory Bes and the Apostles' Creed followed by the whole rosary.

Rosary Made of Rose Petals

Made by Carmelite monasteries. It is symbolic of the bouquets given to queens and mothers, since the rosary is itself a bouquet of prayers.

Rosary of the Unborn

The intent of this rosary is to be prayed to end abortion and to forgive the sin of abortion.

The Contemporary Rosary

Equipped with three rows of four, five, and ten beads to manually move while praying the rosary.

The Ladder Rosary

According to popular belief, in Old Mexico the Ladder Rosary has an interesting history. Some trace the first ladder rosary to the vision of Saint Dominic in which he saw souls climbing to heaven on the rosary. Others point to the vision of Saint Francis De Sales who saw two ladders to heaven: a rather steep one leading directly to Jesus, and another far less steep one leading toward Mary. Jesus told Saint Francis: "Tell your sons to come by the other ladder," meaning the easiest way to Jesus is through Mary!

In other popular legends, Saint Dominic, in his visions saw souls climbing the ladder to heaven, and Jacob dreamt about a ladder between heaven and earth on which angels ascended and descended. The ladder even appears in Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling painting, showing souls being pulled from Purgatory by a rosary.

Wedding (Lasso) Rosary

During a Mexican wedding ceremony, a lazo (lasso), a large rosary, is draped around the bride and groom while they are kneeling at the altar.

The Fatima Chaplet

Step 1: Begin with the Sign of the Cross. While holding the Cross pray The Sacrifice Prayer:

Oh Jesus, it is for love of You, for the conversion of sinners, and in reparation for the sins committed against the Immaculate Heart of Mary that I pray n.

Step 2: On the next large bead pray The Pardon Prayer:

My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love You! I beg pardon for all those that do not believe, do not adore, do not trust and do not love You.

Step 3: On the first small bead pray The Eucharistic Adoration Prayer:

Oh Most Holy Trinity, I adore You! My God, my God, I love You in the Most Blessed Sacrament!

Step 4: On the second small bead pray The Conversion Prayer:

By your pure and Immaculate Conception, oh Mary, obtain the conversion of Russia, Spain, Portugal, Europe and the entire world.

Step 5: On the third small bead pray The Salvation Prayer:

Sweet Heart of Mary, be the salvation of Russia, Spain, Portugal, Europe and the entire world.

Step 6: On the next large bead pray The Pardon Prayer:

My God, I believe, I adore, I trust and I love You! I beg pardon for all those that do not believe, do not adore, do not trust and do not love You.

Step 7: On each of the next ten small beads pray The Eucharistic Adoration Prayer:

Oh Most Holy Trinity, I adore You! My God, my God, I love You in the Most Blessed Sacrament!

Step 8: On the chain link pray The Decade Prayer:

Oh my Jesus, forgive us our sins, save us from the fires of hell. Lead all souls to Heaven, and help especially those most in need of Thy Mercy.

Step 9: On the clasp pray The Angel's Prayer:

Oh Most Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, I adore You profoundly. I offer You the most precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ present in all the tabernacles of the world, in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifferences by which He is offended. By the infinite merits of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, I beg the conversion of poor sinners. Amen.

Chaplet of the Holy Spirit

This chaplet has seven sections of seven beads each group preceded by a bead to petition one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. These are the seven gifts:

Spirit of Wisdom
Spirit of Intelligence
Spirit of Counsel
Spirit of Life
Spirit of Science
Spirit of Piety
Spirit of Fear of God

The seven beads of each group correspond to the following prayers: Send your Spirit and he will renew the face of the earth – to be repeated seven times.

The Franciscan Family Chaplet Prayer

Beginning:
Make the sign of the cross and recite The Apostles' Creed on the San Damiano Cross. Then recite the Hail Mary three times.

First Decade – 
Begin by saying: Saint Francis of Assisi, through your intercession, I pray that the First Order increases in vocations and that its members continue to grow in holiness. Then recite the Our Father and recite ten times the following: My God and my all!

Second Decade – 
Begin by saying: Saint Francis of Assisi, through your intercession, I pray that the Second Order increases in vocations and that its members continue to grow in holiness. Then recite the Our Father and recite ten times the following: My God and my all!

Third Decade – 
Begin by saying: Saint Francis of Assisi, through your intercession, I pray that the Third Order, both Regular and Secular, increases in vocations and that its members continue to grow in holiness. Then recite the Our Father and recite ten times the following: My God and my all!

Conclusion – 
End by reciting once time: We adore You, O Lord Jesus Christ, because by Your holy Cross, You have redeemed the world. Say the Glory Be 3 times for the intentions of the Pope and his continued holiness. Make the sign of the cross.

Note: This chaplet can be said as a Novena in preparation for the feast of Saint Francis on October 4.

Chaplet of Adoration

On the cross say:
In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

On the medal say:
Lord, remember me in Thy Kingdom.

On the clear beads say (3):
Living Bread, nourish my soul.

On the red beads say (7):
Sweet Jesus in the Holy Eucharist, I adore You.


Succeeding dynasties, 21st–6th century bce

The great brick mausoleums of the 3rd-dynasty kings and the temples they built were sacked and destroyed by the Elamites, but the temples at least were restored by the kings of the succeeding dynasties of Isin and Larsa, and, though it ceased to be the capital, Ur retained its religious and commercial importance. Having access by river and canal to the Persian Gulf, it was the natural headquarters of foreign trade. As early as the reign of Sargon of Akkad, it had been in touch with India, at least indirectly. Personal seals of the Indus valley type from the 3rd dynasty and the Larsa period have been found at Ur, while many hundreds of clay tablets show how the foreign trade was organized. The “sea kings” of Ur carried goods for export to the entrepôt at Dilmun (Bahrain) and there picked up the copper and ivory that came from the east.

The clay tablets were found in the residential quarter of the city, of which a considerable area was excavated. The houses of private citizens in the Larsa period and under Hammurabi of Babylon (c. 18th century bce , in which period Abraham is supposed to have lived at Ur) were comfortable and well-built two-story houses with ample accommodation for the family, for servants, and for guests, of a type that ensured privacy and was suited to the climate. In some houses was a kind of chapel in which the family god was worshipped and under the pavement of which members of the family were buried. Many large state temples were excavated, as were some small wayside shrines dedicated by private persons to minor deities, the latter throwing a new light upon Babylonian religious practices but the domestic chapels, with their provision for the worship of the nameless family gods, are yet more interesting and have a possible relation to the religion of the Hebrew patriarchs.

After a long period of relative neglect, Ur experienced a revival in the Neo-Babylonian period, under Nebuchadrezzar II (605–562 bce ), who practically rebuilt the city. Scarcely less active was Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon (556–539 bce ), whose great work was the remodelling of the ziggurat, increasing its height to seven stages.


Chaplet from Tomb at Ur - History

Genesis 11:31 - "They went from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan. & quot

Map of Ur of the Chaldees (2,000 BC)

Ur of the Chaldees. The Bible mentions that Abraham, the first Hebrew, was called by God to leave Ur of the Chaldees and to journey to a land that God would show him. Archaeologists have determined exactly where the city of Ur was located in ancient times. The southernmost portion of ancient Sumer was called Chaldea, and the most important Sumerian city was located on the western portion of the Euphrates River and it was called Ur. The land of Chaldea contain riches beyond imagination, and Ur was the wealthiest city. The history in this region exceeds that of the land of Egypt and its pyramids.

Mesopotamia. The word Mesopotamia means the land "between the rivers" which were the Tigris and Euphrates. Although the courses have changed dramatically since ancient times we know the area was nearly 700 - 1000 miles long and nearly 300 miles across. The rivers were so large that the land was considered an "island" that was between them. But the heart of ancient Mesopotamia was in the northwest where the Euphrates made a huge bend at the northern portion of the Tigris as shown in the map above. The Bible records Mesopotamia as the city of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Genesis 24:10).

Genesis 24:10 - "The servant took ten camels, of his master's camels, and departed, having a variety of good things of his master's with him. He arose, and went to Mesopotamia, to the city of Nahor."


[Maps are free to use for personal, classroom, or church use]


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