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Ben Shahn

Ben Shahn


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Ben Shahn is gebore in Kaunas, Litaue in 1898. Sy gesin het in 1904 na Amerika geëmigreer en nadat hy sy skoolopleiding voltooi het, het Shahn 'n leerling van 'n litograaf geword. Shahn het sy studies aan die nagskool voortgesit en uiteindelik die Universiteit van New York en die National Academy of Design (1917-21) bygewoon.

In die 1920's het Shahn 'n sosiale realis geword en sy werk is dikwels geïnspireer deur nuusberigte. Teks en letters was 'n integrale deel van sy ontwerpe.

Shahn was sterk sosialisties en sy kuns verwys dikwels na gevalle van sosiale onreg. 'N Goeie voorbeeld hiervan is die tekeninge oor die voorgestelde uitvoering van Nicola Sacco en Bartolomeo Vanzetti. Hy het ook 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die veldtog teen die gevangenisstraf van die vakbondleier, Tom Mooney.

Shan se grafiese werk verskyn in die Kunsfront, Fortune Tydskrif en Harper's Bazaar. In 1934 sluit hy aan by die Public Works of Art Project en voltooi hy verskeie openbare muurskilderye wat handel oor kwessies soos antisemitisme en swak werksomstandighede.

Shahn het ook as fotograaf gewerk en in 1935 is hy deur Roy Stryker uitgenooi om by die federaal geborgde plaasbeveiligingsadministrasie aan te sluit. Hierdie klein groepie fotograwe, waaronder Arthur Rothstein, Carl Mydans, Russell Lee, Walker Evans en Dorothy Lange, is aangestel om die toestand van die armes in die platteland in Amerika bekend te maak. Oor die volgende paar jaar het Lange verskeie opvallende foto's gemaak, soos Trekkende Moeder (1936).

Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het Shahn plakkate vir die Office of War Information en die Congress of Industrial Organisations (CIO) gemaak. Sy belangstelling in politieke kuns het voortgegaan en sy Lucky Dragon reeks (1960-62) handel oor die verhaal van 'n Japannese vissersvaartuig wat na 'n atoomtoetsgebied gevaar het.

Ben Shahn is in 1969 oorlede.


Ben Shahn

Die begeerte van Ben Shahn om narratiewe kuns te skep wat fokus op sosiale en politieke geregtigheid, toon 'n voorbeeld van Sosiale Realisme en die kuns van sosiale bewussyn. Sedert sy bevraagtekening van godsdienstige leerstellings as 'n jeug in Litouwen en tot aan die einde van sy lewe, het Shahn getrou gebly aan sy visie. Hy het nooit versuim om kunswerke te skep om die aandag te vestig op diegene vir wie die lewe 'n stryd was nie, en het dit met waardigheid gedoen eerder as met patos of sentimentaliteit.


BIBLIOGRAFIE

Chevlowe, Susan. Gewone mens, mitiese visie: DieSkilderye van Ben Shahn. 1998.

Greenfield, Howard. Ben Shahn: 'n kunstenaarslewe. 1998.

Pohl, Frances. Ben Shahn. 1993.

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Ben Shahn


Ben Shahn, 'N Mens moet die diere ken van & ldquo For the Sake of a Single Verse, & rdquo 1968

Die Ben Shahn-sentrum vir visuele kunste is vernoem ter nagedagtenis aan die vooraanstaande kunstenaar in New Jersey wat gesterf het dieselfde jaar as wat die gebou gebou is. Daar is verskeie verslae oor hoe Ben Shahn die naam van die gebou geword het. Hierdie toeskrywing was waarskynlik die voorstel van Rabbi Martin Freeman, wat in die Raad van Trustees van die Universiteit gedien het van 1968-1973.

Ben Shahn (1898-1969) was miskien die belangrikste sosiaal-realistiese kunstenaar wat in die vroeë 1930's in die Verenigde State ontstaan ​​het. Hy was 'n skilder, fotograaf, drukmaker en muurskilder, wat ook 'n baie aktiewe loopbaan as illustrator en grafiese ontwerper gehad het. Hy is gebore in Kovno, Litaue, en het saam met sy ouers en jonger broer na die Verenigde State gekom en hom in 1906 in Brooklyn gevestig. Tussen 1913 en 1917 het hy 'n vakleerlingskap by 'n litografie -winkel geleer, waar hy tipografie geleer het. Hy woon die National Academy of Design van 1919 tot 1922 by. Hy is in 1924 na Europa, woon in Frankryk en Italië en reis in Noord -Afrika. Na 'n kort terugkeer na New York keer hy in 1927 terug na Frankryk en bly tot 1929. Sy vroegste werk weerspieël die invloed van C & eacutezanne en die skilders verbonde aan die School of Paris.

Nadat hy in 1929 na die Verenigde State teruggekeer het, neem hy sosiale temas aan en konsentreer op 'n reeks wat fokus op die slagoffers van sosiale mishandeling en arbeidstryd, soos duidelik blyk uit Die passie van Sacco en Vanzetti (1931-32), en die Tom Mooney reeks (1932-33). Sy styl vir hierdie werke het bestaan ​​uit 'n nadruklike, treurige lyn en uitdrukkingsvolle kleure, toegepas met vodde kwaswerk. Vanaf 1932 is sy werk uitgestal in die Downtown Gallery en verteenwoordig deur Edith Halpert. Die volgende jaar het Shahn Diego Rivera bygestaan ​​in sy noodlottige muurskildery van die Rockefeller Center, sowel as met die draagbare muurskilderye by die New Workers School op 14. Met Rivera & rsquos se mentorskap het Shahn die fresco -tegniek geleer wat hy sou gebruik in die muurskilderye wat hy vir die WPA geskilder het. Tussen 1935 en 1938 was Shahn 'n fotograaf van die Farm Security Administration en het die plattelandse lewe in Ohio en in die hele Midde -Weste en die Suide gedokumenteer. Jare later het hy 'n aantal van sy skilderye gebaseer op foto's uit hierdie tydperk.

As muurskilder het Shahn gedurende die WPA -tydperk groot fresko's voltooi by die skool in Roosevelt, New Jersey, die poskantoor in die Bronx en die gebou van die Social Security Administration in Washington, DC. In 1968 is sy buitemosaïekskildery oor die onderwerp Sacco en Vanzetti op die kampus van die Universiteit van Syracuse geïnstalleer. Sy muurskilderye het almal die vermoë om komplekse sosio-politieke vertellings op 'n eenvoudige, formeel elegante manier te vertel, vergelykbaar met die werk van ander groot muraliste uit die verlede, soos Giotto, Masaccio en Diego Rivera.

Gedurende die onmiddellike na-Tweede Wêreldoorlog was Shahn 'n grafiese ontwerper van die vakbond CIO, wat 'n aansienlike aantal plakkate en grafiese advertensieveldtogte vervaardig wat belangrike arbeidskwessies soos lewende loon, veiligheid op die werkplek en ondersteuning van arbeidskandidate vir openbare ampte. Gedurende die 1950's en in die 1960's was Shahn 'n vryskut grafiese ontwerper vir CBS, en het hy ook illustrasies vir Playboy, The Nation, American Heritage Magazine en Vintage paperbacks vervaardig. Saam met sy goeie vriend, die skilder Stuart Davis, was hy aan die fakulteit van die Famous Artists Correspondence School in Westport, Connecticut. Gedurende sy hele lewe het hy as besoekende professor onderwys gegee aan die Harvard Universiteit, Washington Universiteit in St. Louis en by Skowhegan in Maine.

Polities ontwikkel Shahn vanaf die dertigerjare van 'n medereisiger (naby, maar nooit lid van die Kommunistiese Party nie) tot 'n entoesiastiese New Deal -liberalis wat president Roosevelt ondersteun het. In 1948 ondersteun hy Henry Wallace as president, en lewer 'n groot plakkaat waarin president Truman en goewerneur Dewey bespot word. Teen die vyftigerjare was hy terug in die Demokratiese Party wat Adlai Stevenson ondersteun en plakkate teen Eisenhower teken. In 1965 ondersteun hy president Johnson en skep 'n aantal satiriese grafika wat die radikalisme van senator Goldwater, die Republikeinse kandidaat, bespot. In 1968, ontnugter oor die Viëtnam -oorlog, het hy tydens die Demokratiese voorverkiesing vrywilliglik deelgeneem aan die senator Eugene McCarthy & rsquos -veldtog, en hy het twee groot plakkate gemaak met die duif as vredesimbool.

Vanaf die middel van die dertigerjare woon en werk Shahn in die opstal van Roosevelt, New Jersey, 'n halfuur van Princeton af. Hy het verskeie geslagte jonger kunstenaars begelei, soos Jacob Lawrence, Leonard Baskin, Bernard Petlin, Peter Paone en James Kearns. Shahn sterf aan hartversaking in 'n hospitaal in New York in 1969. Sy tweede vrou, die skilder en illustreerder Bernarda Bryson Shahn, het hom tot in die 21ste eeu geleef, tot byna 100 jaar oud.

Sy nalatenskap as die voorste kunstenaar van sosiale protes binne die Amerikaanse kuns van die 20ste eeu bly onbetwis.


Ben Shahn: 'n Heroorweging

Ter voorbereiding op die skryf van hierdie inskrywing, het ek begin nadink toe ek die eerste keer bewus geword het van die werk van Ben Shahn (1898-1969). Dit was beslis in die vroeë tagtigerjare in die kunskunsgeskiedenis van die kollege. Dus, ek het my notaboeke uit daardie tyd uitgetrek en daardeur gesoek om te sien watter jeugdige idees ek het van Shahn se werk. Tot my verbasing was daar geen sprake van Shahn of sosiale realisme nie. Miskien het ek daardie lesing gemis, en ek het my kopie van H.W. Janson's History of Art (tweede uitgawe, 1981). Geen verwysing nie! Ek het wel 'n verwysing van drie reëls na Shahn gevind in H.H. Arnason's Modern Art (tweede uitgawe, 1983), maar niks in my aantekeninge dui aan dat die Amerikaanse sosiale realiste ooit in daardie klas bespreek is nie. Min melding van Shahn! Hoe is dit moontlik? Hoe kan so 'n belangrike figuur in Amerikaanse kuns byna heeltemal oor die hoof gesien word deur twee primêre kunsgeskiedenistekste?

Met vergunning van die Library of Congress, LC-USF34- 026327D.

Ek glo die antwoord lê in die idee dat Shahn 'n illustreerder was en nie 'n goeie kunstenaar nie. Hy was natuurlik 'n suksesvolle grafiese kunstenaar, maar die geheel van sy werk oortref die suiwer illustratiewe. Sy sosiaal -realistiese kuns, sowel as die werk van onder meer sy eweknieë Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, en Raphael en Moses Soyer, is net so belangrik vir Amerikaanse kuns as die werk van die groot muurskilderye Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco en David Alfaro Siqueiros was na Mexiko.

Gebore in Kovno, Litaue, verhuis Shahn met sy gesin in 1906 na die Verenigde State waar hulle hulle in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, vestig. As 'n jong man het hy litografie studeer, en in die 1920's het hy belanggestel in politieke en sosiale kwessies. In 'n onderhoud van 1968 het die kunshistorikus Forrest Selvig Shahn gevra of hy 'altyd 'n gevoel van onreg gehad het of dat u bewus was van ongeregtighede'. Sou dit uit enige gesinsagtergrond kom? Was u pa ook hiervan bewus? ” Die antwoord van Shahn het betrekking op die moontlike oorsaak van sy belangstelling in sosiale kwessies:

'My pa was baie bewus daarvan ... My pa is - dit was terwyl ons nog in Rusland was - in hegtenis geneem. My ma beweer daar was geen rede hiervoor dat hulle pamflette op hom geplant het of iets nie. Hy is in Siberië gevonnis. Maar hy het dadelik ontsnap. Die ent is so volop daar. En hy het Swede binnegekom. En ons het hom drie jaar lank nie gesien nie. Hy is na Suid -Afrika. Het baie goed gedoen daar. Dit was nie te lank na die Boereoorlog nie en dit was 'n bloeiende land. En toe kom hy hierheen en ons sluit by hom aan. ” 1

Shahn se vroeë werke bevat plakkate en posbriewe vir vakbonde, politieke oorsake en kandidate, asook illustrasies vir boeke, tydskrifte, album (rekord) omslag, onder andere projekte waaraan hy gewerk het. Dit was egter die Sacco & amp Vanzetti -saak wat Shahn diep geraak het en die beeld geword het waarvoor hy die bekendste is.

Vroeg in die loopbaan van Shahn het twee Italiaans-gebore Amerikaners, Nicola Sacco en Bartolomeo Vanzetti, aandag getrek deur hul 'radikale' stakingsaktiwiteite en hul vlug na Mexiko in 1917 om die trek te vermy. In 1920 is hulle gearresteer en aangekla van die moord op 'n betaalmeester in Massachusetts. Hoewel getuies beweer het dat die twee destyds kilometers ver was, en daar was ander swakhede in die saak, is Sacco en Vanzetti skuldig bevind en ter dood veroordeel. Hulle prokureurs het aangekla dat die hof benadeel is, maar 'n uitstel van die teregstelling is geweier en die twee is op 23 Augustus 1927 oorlede. Bekende skrywers soos HGWells, Edna St. Vincent Millay en Sinclair Lewis, benewens die fisikus Albert Einstein, protesteer dat die paar nie tereggestel is nie omdat hulle skuldig was, maar vanweë hul etniese oorsprong, radikale oortuigings en konsep. ontduiking. In 1930, met inagneming van hierdie tragedie, begin Shahn met 'n reeks van 23 skilderye gebaseer op die verhoor. Drie serigrawe, wat in 1958 vervaardig is en wat verband hou met 'n tekening uit 1952, getuig van die deurlopende belangstelling van Shahn in hierdie uitgawe. In een weergawe van die serigrawe, wat sy ervaring as grafiese kunstenaar kombineer met sy skilderkuns, bevat Shahn teks wat gebaseer is op 'n verslaggewer se transkripsie wat tydens die verhoor gemaak is. Die spelling, grammatika en die volksalfabet is gekombineer om die woorde van Vanzetti te verewig. Een van hierdie serigrawe is tans in die New Jersey State Museum te sien.

In 1936 nooi Alfred Kastner Ben Shahn om 'n muurskildery op die muur van die Jersey Homesteads -laerskool te skilder wat die stigting van die beplande gemeenskap uitbeeld. Shahn en sy vrou, Bernarda Bryson, vestig hulle permanent in die klein dorpie buite Hightstown in 1939 en ander kunstenaars volg. Jersey Homesteads is in November 1945 herdoop tot Roosevelt ter ere van president Franklin Delano Roosevelt wat vroeër dieselfde jaar gesterf het. Ben Shahn het tot in sy dood in 1969 in Roosevelt gewoon.

Shahn het bekend geword vir baie ander werke wat kommentaar gelewer het oor die menslike toestand en omstandighede. Belangrike skilderye sluit in Handbal, 1939 (Museum of Modern Art), The Clinic, 1944 (Georgia Museum of Art) en Beatitude, 1952 (Private Collection). Teen die laat veertigerjare was Shahn een van 'n handjievol Amerikaanse kunstenaars wat heeltemal uit die skildery bestaan ​​gemaak het. In 1947 het die Museum of Modern Art (New York) aan Ben Shahn sy eerste retrospektiewe uitstalling gegee, wat sy reputasie as 'n belangrike figuur in Amerikaanse kuns bevestig het. Sedertdien was Shahn se werk die onderwerp van ontelbare uitstallings en publikasies regoor die wêreld.

Die New Jersey State Museum bevat meer as 350 werke van Ben Shahn, insluitend skilderye, tekeninge, plakkate, foto's, boeke, groetekaartjies, albumomslag en meer. 'N Klein seleksie van hierdie werke is te sien in die uitstalling, "Artists of Roosevelt," tot en met 25 Mei 2014 in die New Jersey State Museum, en ses bykomende werke is ingesluit in die langtermyn-uitstalling, "American Perspectives: The Fine Kunsversameling. ”

1. Afskrif van onderhoud met Ben Shahn wat deur Forrest Selvig uitgevoer is vir die Archives of American Art op 27 September 1968 in Roosevelt, NJ.

Margaret O'Reilly is die uitvoerende direkteur van die New Jersey State Museum, Trenton. In die Staatsmuseum het sy meer as 85 uitstallings as kurator vir beeldende kunste gereël, waaronder 'n volledige herinstallasie van die museum se kunsversameling-"American Perspectives: The Fine Art Collection." Me. O'Reilly het haar MA in skilderkuns aan die Kean Universiteit ontvang. Haar navorsings- en uitstallingsbelange weerspieël dié wat in haar eie kreatiewe produksie gevind word, en bevat onder meer kwessies van toeval, identiteit en sterflikheid, terwyl die formele eienskappe van besondere belang vir haar digtheid, herhaling en reeksstruktuur is.


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Maak nie saak wat u wil fotografeer nie, u vind dit in Arkansas. In die Natural State vind u talle bekoorlike dorpe, uitsigte op die berge, watervalle en grotte, wat 'n buitelug -ontdekkingsreisiger na hul kamera kan bring om die oomblik vas te vang. Die roetes in die Petit Jean State Park lei u na 'n asemrowende natuurskoon, terwyl dorpe soos Eureka Springs, Jasper of El Dorado almal 'n pragtige uitsig bied met 'n fassinerende geskiedenis en ongelooflike argitektuur, ideaal vir diegene wat op soek is na stedelike skote.


Aahil Zavala

Social Security Administration 1930S / Verenigde State in die 1930's en 1940's | Ben Shahn, Afro -Amerikaanse geskiedenis, geskiedenis / Gedurende die dertigerjare het 'n groot politieke beweging ontwikkel om 'n vorm van sosiale versekering te bied teen bedreigings vir die ekonomiese veiligheid van Amerikaners.. Roosevelt se nuwe ooreenkoms met die ondertekening van die wet op sosiale sekerheid van 1935 op 14 Augustus 1935. 2 watter van die volgende het algemeen geword na die 1933? Die ssb het geen personeel, geen fasiliteite en geen begroting gehad nie. Die administrasie van sosiale sekerheid, die groot depressie van die dertigerjare, het 'n toenemende behoefte aan inkomstesteun in die Verenigde State vererger, wat nie deur die beperkte hulpbronne van state, plaaslike gemeenskappe of private liefdadigheidsorganisasies voorsien kon word nie. Die wet op sosiale sekerheid (ook 1935) het pensioene aan sommige ouer Amerikaners gewaarborg, 'n stelsel van werkloosheidsversekering opgestel en bepaal dat die federale regering sal help met die versorging van afhanklikes.

3 watter van die volgende bepleit townsend die sosiale sekerheidswet van 1935 en sluit dit dit in? Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem. Die wet op sosiale sekerheid, onderteken deur president franklin d. Gedurende die dertigerjare het 'n groot politieke beweging ontwikkel om 'n vorm van sosiale versekering te bied teen bedreigings vir die ekonomiese veiligheid van Amerikaners. 2 watter van die volgende het ná die 1933 algemeen geword?

Waukegan Office for Social Security - 1930 N Lewis Ave van cdn-0.socialsecurityofficenear.me Oorsig van maatskaplike beleidsontwikkelings vanaf die elizabethaanse arm wette tot die verloop van die wet op sosiale sekerheid van 1935. Dit is geskep as deel van president franklin d. Toe die sosiale sekerheid in die dertigerjare die eerste keer ingestel is, het baie mans en vroue hulle vinnig aangesluit om by hierdie innoverende pensioeninkomste -versekeringsprogram aan te meld. President roosevelt onderteken wet op sosiale sekerheid, 14 Augustus 1935. Die SSB is geskep nadat president Roosevelt die wet op sosiale sekerheid op 14 Augustus 1935 om 15:30 onderteken het. Die projek vir sosiale sekerheid het ibm van 'n middelgrote korporasie na die wêreldleier in inligtingstegnologie gehaas. Bron vir inligting oor sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie: 1 watter van die volgende het toesig gehou oor die federale projek in die dertigerjare van die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie?

Die projek vir sosiale sekerheid het ibm van 'n middelgrote korporasie na die wêreldleier in inligtingstegnologie gehaas.

Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem. 4 wat het die federale nommer een gedoen? 'N Boekie wat in 1937 deur die raad vir maatskaplike sekerheid uitgegee is om die rede vir die nuwe program vir sosiale sekerheid te verduidelik. Saamgestelde riviere bring hidro -elektriese krag na sewe state. Ondanks hierdie opposisie het die wet op sosiale sekerheid wet geword. Die lewensverwagting by geboorte in 1930 was inderdaad slegs 58 vir mans en 62 vir vroue, en die aftree -ouderdom was 65. Die SSB is geskep nadat president Roosevelt die wet op sosiale sekerheid op 14 Augustus 1935 om 15:30 onderteken het. Gee ouer Amerikaners pensioen en bied ander sosiale ondersteuning. Die projek vir sosiale sekerheid het ibm van 'n middelgrote korporasie na die wêreldleier in inligtingstegnologie gehaas. Gedurende die eerste 150 jaar van die bestaan ​​van die land was die meeste van die burgers boere. Teen die 1930's was die Verenigde State die enigste moderne industriële land sonder 'n nasionale stelsel van sosiale sekerheid. Leer woordeskat, terme en meer met flitskaarte, speletjies en ander studiehulpmiddels. Roosevelt het in 1935 sosiale sekerheid geskep, 'n federale veiligheidsnet vir bejaardes, werkloses en benadeelde Amerikaners.

Saamgestelde riviere bring hidro -elektriese krag na sewe state. Op 21 Julie 1930 is die veterane -administrasie op 'n uitvoerende bevel tot stand gebring. Gee ouer Amerikaners pensioen en bied ander sosiale ondersteuning. Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem. Die projek het 'n geweldige impak op ibm.

Social Security for Dummies - Leer hoe om vir sosiale voordele in aanmerking te kom uit die boekie cdn.aarp.net wat in 1937 deur die raad vir maatskaplike sekerheid uitgegee is om die rede vir die nuwe program vir sosiale sekerheid te verduidelik. Die wet op sosiale sekerheid, onderteken deur president franklin d. Titel i van die wet op maatskaplike sekerheid van 1935 het 'n program genaamd ouderdomshulp (oaa) geskep, wat kontantbetalings aan arm bejaardes sou gee, ongeag hul werksrekord. Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem. Gedurende die dertigerjare het 'n groot politieke beweging ontwikkel om 'n vorm van sosiale versekering te bied teen bedreigings vir die ekonomiese veiligheid van Amerikaners. Die wet op sosiale sekerheid het 'n raad vir sosiale sekerheid (ssb) geskep om toesig te hou oor die administrasie van die nuwe program. 3 watter van die volgende bepleit townsend die sosiale sekerheidswet van 1935 en sluit dit dit in? Die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie (ssa) is van stapel gestuur as die sosiale sekerheidsraad (ssb).

1930 n Lewis Ave Waukegan, Illinois 60087.

Op 21 Julie 1930 is die veterane -administrasie op 'n uitvoerende bevel tot stand gebring. Een van die belangrike gebeurtenisse tydens sy presidentskap was die wet op maatskaplike welsyn van 1935 wat aangeneem is as deel van die nuwe ooreenkomsprogramme van FDR wat sy strategieë vir verligting, herstel en hervorming omvat om die probleme en gevolge daarvan te bekamp. 1930 het die sensus 6 634 000 mense (5,4% van die bevolking) bo 65 gerapporteer. Roosevelt het in 1935 sosiale sekerheid geskep, 'n federale veiligheidsnet vir bejaardes, werkloses en benadeelde Amerikaners. 1 watter van die volgende het toesig gehou oor die federale projek in die dertigerjare van die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie? 'N Dokumentêre geskiedenis deur larry w. In reaksie hierop het president franklin d. Telefoonnommer van die sosiale sekerheidskantoor. Gedurende die eerste 150 jaar van die bestaan ​​van die land was die meeste van die burgers boere. Die lewensverwagting by geboorte in 1930 was inderdaad slegs 58 vir mans en 62 vir vroue, en die aftree -ouderdom was 65. Gee ouer Amerikaners pensioen en bied ander sosiale ondersteuning. Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem. U het die nommer verskaf toe u aansoek gedoen het, geld is by u sosiale sekerheidsrekening gevoeg, en dit was dit.

Aangesien dit splinternuut was, het mense by geboorte nie 'n sosiale sekerheidsnommer gekry soos nou nie. Ons aanvaar steeds pos- en aanlyn -aansoeke. President roosevelt onderteken wet op sosiale sekerheid, 14 Augustus 1935. Gee ouer Amerikaners pensioen en bied ander sosiale ondersteuning. Roosevelt het in die wet opgegaan.

Die tydlyn van die Groot Depressie en New Deal | Tydsaanduidings vanaf s3.amazonaws.com Teen die dertigerjare was die Verenigde State die enigste moderne industriële land sonder 'n nasionale stelsel van sosiale sekerheid. Roosevelt het in die wet opgegaan. Maar Abraham Epstein, die man wat erkenning kry vir die bekendstelling. Die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie (ssa) is van stapel gestuur as die sosiale sekerheidsraad (ssb). Op 21 Julie 1930 is die veterane -administrasie op 'n uitvoerende bevel tot stand gebring. Hulle moes aansoek doen vir die program. 1930 het die sensus 6 634 000 mense (5,4% van die bevolking) bo 65 gerapporteer. Aangesien dit splinternuut was, het mense by geboorte nie 'n sosiale sekerheidsnommer gekry nie, soos tans.

Roosevelt se nuwe ooreenkoms met die ondertekening van die wet op sosiale sekerheid van 1935 op 14 Augustus 1935.

Die direksie het bestaan ​​uit drie presidente wat aangestel is en het begin sonder 'n begroting, geen personeel en geen meubels nie. Saamgestelde riviere bring hidro -elektriese krag na sewe state. Ondanks hierdie opposisie het die wet op sosiale sekerheid wet geword. Bron vir inligting oor sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie: U het die nommer verskaf toe u aansoek gedoen het, geld is by u sosiale sekerheidsrekening gevoeg, en dit was dit. Toe Franklin Roosevelt die wet op sosiale sekerheid in die dertigerjare onderteken, was baie Amerikaners nie oortuig dat die program 'n goeie beleid was nie. Teen die 1930's was die Verenigde State die enigste moderne industriële land sonder 'n nasionale stelsel van sosiale sekerheid. Die SSB is geskep nadat president Roosevelt die wet op sosiale sekerheid op 14 Augustus 1935 om 15:30 onderteken het. 1930 n lewis ave waukegan, Illinois 60087. Alhoewel sosiale sekerheid eers in 1935 in Amerika aangekom het, was daar 'n belangrike voorloper wat iets wat ons as 'n sosiale sekerheidsprogram kon herken, aan 'n spesiale deel van die Amerikaanse bevolking gebied het. Die wet op sosiale sekerheid het 'n raad vir sosiale sekerheid (ssb) geskep om toesig te hou oor die administrasie van die nuwe program. Die ssb het geen personeel, geen fasiliteite en geen begroting gehad nie. Een van die belangrike gebeurtenisse tydens sy presidentskap was die wet op maatskaplike welsyn van 1935 wat aangeneem is as deel van die nuwe ooreenkomsprogramme van FDR wat sy strategieë vir verligting, herstel en hervorming omvat om die probleme en gevolge daarvan te bekamp.

1930 het die sensus 6 634 000 mense (5,4% van die bevolking) bo 65 gerapporteer. Aan die begin van die dertigerjare was ekonomiese veiligheid die term wat gebruik word deur die oorspronklike outeurs van die wetgewing en deur president Roosevelt. In reaksie hierop het president franklin d. Die projek vir sosiale sekerheid het ibm van 'n middelgrote korporasie na die wêreldleier in inligtingstegnologie gehaas. 1 watter van die volgende het toesig gehou oor die federale projek in die dertigerjare van die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie?

Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem. Toe die sosiale sekerheid in die dertigerjare die eerste keer ingestel is, het baie mans en vroue hulle vinnig aangesluit om by hierdie innoverende pensioeninkomste -versekeringsprogram aan te meld. Aan die begin van die dertigerjare was ekonomiese veiligheid die term wat gebruik word deur die oorspronklike outeurs van die wetgewing en deur president Roosevelt. Oorsig van die ontwikkelings van die sosiale beleid, van die elizabethaanse armwette tot die verloop van die wet op sosiale sekerheid van 1935. Die innemende memoir van Eliot roep die politieke en sosiale atmosfeer van die hoofstad op in die nuwe ooreenkoms, en beskryf Eliot se eie rol as hoofskrywer van die wet op sosiale sekerheid.

Teen die laat dertigerjare was ibm een ​​van die warmste ondernemings van die moeilike era. Ten spyte van hierdie opposisie het die wet op sosiale sekerheid wet geword. Hulle moes aansoek doen vir die program. Op 21 Julie 1930 is die veterane -administrasie op 'n uitvoerende bevel tot stand gebring. Sosiale sekerheid is gestig gedurende die dertigerjare, aangesien die lewensverwagting van die tipiese Amerikaner begin toeneem.

Gedurende die eerste 150 jaar van die land se bestaan ​​was die meeste van die burgers boere. 3 watter van die volgende bepleit townsend die sosiale sekerheidswet van 1935 en sluit dit dit in? Die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie was die gevolg. Die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie (ssa) is van stapel gestuur as die sosiale sekerheidsraad (ssb). Dit is geskep as deel van president franklin d.

1930 het die sensus 6 634 000 mense (5,4% van die bevolking) bo 65 gerapporteer. President roosevelt onderteken wet op sosiale sekerheid, 14 Augustus 1935. Maar die lewensverwagting by geboorte in die vroeë dekades van die 20ste eeu was laag, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van hoë kindersterftes, en iemand wat as kind gesterf het, sou nooit in die sosiale sekerheid gewerk en betaal het nie. Die projek het 'n geweldige impak op ibm. Begin om die depressie van die 1930's te bestudeer (v.s.

Oorsig van maatskaplike beleidsontwikkelinge vanaf die elizabethaanse armwette tot die verloop van die wet op maatskaplike sekerheid van 1935. 1930 het die sensus 6 634 000 mense (5,4% van die bevolking) oor 65 gerapporteer. Bron vir inligting oor die administrasie van sosiale sekerheid: Een van die belangrike gebeurtenisse tydens sy presidentskap was die wet op maatskaplike welsyn van 1935 wat aangeneem is as deel van die nuwe ooreenkomsprogramme van FDR wat sy strategieë vir verligting, herstel en hervorming omvat om die probleme en gevolge daarvan te bekamp. Roosevelt het in die wet opgegaan.

Dit is geskep as deel van president franklin d. Teen die 1930's was die Verenigde State die enigste moderne industriële land sonder 'n nasionale stelsel van sosiale sekerheid. 1930 n lewis ave waukegan, Illinois 60087. Ten spyte van hierdie opposisie het die wet op sosiale sekerheid wet geword. Roosevelt het in 1935 sosiale sekerheid geskep, 'n federale veiligheidsnet vir bejaardes, werkloses en benadeelde Amerikaners.

Die lewensverwagting by geboorte in 1930 was inderdaad slegs 58 vir mans en 62 vir vroue, en die aftree -ouderdom was 65. In reaksie op die beweging het roosevelt 'n komitee georganiseer onder leiding van die sekretaris van arbeid, frances perkins, om 'n groot maatskaplike ontwikkeling te ontwikkel. Roosevelt het in 1935 sosiale sekerheid geskep, 'n federale veiligheidsnet vir bejaardes, werkloses en benadeelde Amerikaners. Bestudeer die depressie van die 1930's (Amerikaanse oorsig van sosiale beleidsontwikkelings, van die elizabethaanse arm wette tot die verloop van die wet op sosiale sekerheid van 1935.

Bron: s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com

Die direksie het bestaan ​​uit drie presidente wat aangestel is en het begin sonder 'n begroting, geen personeel en geen meubels nie. Begin om die depressie van die 1930's te bestudeer (ons Toe sosiale sekerheid vir die eerste keer in die dertigerjare ingestel is, het baie mans en vroue hulle vinnig aangemoedig om aan te meld by hierdie innoverende pensioeninkomste -versekeringsprogram. Roosevelt het in die wet opgekom. Abe bortz, die eerste historikus van die sosiale sekerheid administrasie.

Roosevelt het in 1935 sosiale sekerheid geskep, 'n federale veiligheidsnet vir bejaardes, werkloses en benadeelde Amerikaners.

In reaksie hierop het president franklin d.

Die sosiale sekerheidsadministrasie was die gevolg.

Die ssb het geen personeel, geen fasiliteite en geen begroting gehad nie.

Bron: image.slidesharecdn.com

Die ssb het geen personeel, geen fasiliteite en geen begroting gehad nie.

Oorsig van maatskaplike beleidsontwikkelinge van die elizabethaanse armwette tot die verloop van die wet op sosiale sekerheid van 1935.

Ons aanvaar steeds pos- en aanlyn -aansoeke.

/> Bron: specials-images.forbesimg.com

Toe die program in die 1930's begin, was dit 'n belasting van 2%.

Teen die 1930's was die Verenigde State die enigste moderne industriële land sonder 'n nasionale stelsel van sosiale sekerheid.

Bron: squaredawayblog.bc.edu

Saamgestelde riviere bring hidro -elektriese krag na sewe state.

Toe die program in die 1930's begin, was dit 'n belasting van 2%.

Die administrasie van sosiale sekerheid, die groot depressie van die dertigerjare, het 'n toenemende behoefte aan inkomstesteun in die Verenigde State vererger, wat nie deur die beperkte hulpbronne van state, plaaslike gemeenskappe of private liefdadigheidsorganisasies voorsien kon word nie.

Gedurende die dertigerjare het 'n groot politieke beweging ontwikkel om 'n vorm van sosiale versekering te bied teen bedreigings vir die ekonomiese veiligheid van Amerikaners.

Ons aanvaar steeds pos- en aanlyn -aansoeke.

Gedurende die eerste 150 jaar van die bestaan ​​van die land was die meeste van die burgers boere.

Toe die program in die 1930's begin, was dit 'n belasting van 2%.

'N Boekie wat in 1937 deur die raad vir maatskaplike sekerheid uitgegee is om die rede vir die nuwe program vir sosiale sekerheid te verduidelik.

1930 het die sensus 6 634 000 mense (5,4% van die bevolking) bo 65 gerapporteer.

Aangesien dit splinternuut was, het mense by geboorte nie 'n sosiale sekerheidsnommer uitgereik soos tans nie.

Die SSB is geskep nadat president Roosevelt die wet op sosiale sekerheid op 14 Augustus 1935 om 15:30 onderteken het.

Ons aanvaar steeds pos- en aanlyn -aansoeke.

Die wet op sosiale sekerheid, onderteken deur president franklin d.

Bron: image.slidesharecdn.com

By the 1930s, the united states was the only modern industrial country without any national system of social security.

1930 n lewis ave waukegan, illinois 60087.


Ben Shahn’s New Deal Murals: Jewish Identity in the American Scene

In 1906, when Ben Shahn and his family arrived at Ellis Island, the United States was still a nation welcoming masses of immigrants to its shores. Shahn was eight years old at the time, and embraced his identity as an American. He soon discovered, however, that this was by no means a straightforward task. As Shahn reached adulthood, the United States stopped being so welcoming. Nativist politicians clamped down on immigration with the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924, anti-Semitic fascists rose to power in Europe, and Jews in America became more visible, political, and vulnerable. Immigrant artists such as Shahn made careful choices about how to define and represent their communities, identities, and ideologies while creating public art during the New Deal era.

In Ben Shahn’s New Deal Murals: Jewish Identity in the American Scene, Diana Linden analyzes four mural projects in which Shahn articulated the strands of American and Jewish experience and intellectual life that he chose to celebrate and critique. Aided by extensive archival documentation, Linden’s work sheds new light not only on Shahn’s particular self-definition, but also on the external forces that shaped his options. In some cases, Shahn made accommodations for the sake of politics, while in other cases, he refused. By focusing on the artist’s agency in moments of negotiation, Linden helps us see him on his own terms, and the American scene in its full mix of glory and horror. Numerous glossy color illustrations—including historic and modern views of Shahn’s mural projects, details, photographs, archival sources, preparatory studies, and comparative works—beautifully enrich the telling of these stories by Linden. Wayne State University Press should be commended for producing such a beautiful book.

In a 1998 essay published on Shahn’s murals and Jewish identity, Linden surveyed earlier scholarly debates about the artist and announced that in contrast to other academics, she was not going to debate “’how Jewish’ Shahn was” but instead “demonstrate how his murals speak about secular Jewish immigrant experiences in America during the early twentieth century.” 1 Nearly twenty years later, Linden’s approach has evolved. She now situates Shahn’s experiences within the larger lens of American racism, through which waves of newcomers were viewed and evaluated against enduring and evolving prejudices and power structures. Within this schema, Linden views immigrant American Jews in Shahn’s era as peripheral “in-between peoples.” (5) Clearly, she has been reading up on critical race theory, to the benefit of her project. Her achievement in balancing Shahn’s idiosyncratic particulars within the framework of this larger structure offers a model for all of us who write monographic studies.

Linden begins her account of Shahn with an overview of the persistent, terrifying, and violent anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe that caused Jews to flee to America. After their arrival from Lithuania, the Shahn family settled in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, which must have felt somewhat like home given its high percentage of Jewish residents Shahn’s identification with this community was unshakeable.

As a young artist, Shahn quickly fell in with activists within the American Scene movement, joining organizations such as the Artists Union, and working for New Deal arts programs including the Resettlement Administration/Farm Security Administration (RA/FSA) photography program. Although Linden does a fine job providing an early biography of Shahn, the bulk of her book is focused on the years between 1933 and 1943. In the first chapter, “Ben Shahn’s New York and the Great Depression,” she provides a brief but effective introduction to a “Multiracial City” in the throes of economic distress. Accounts of Fiorella LaGuardia, the Jewish Daily Forward, anti- and pro-Nazi demonstrations, Shahn’s first wife Tillie Goldstein, Diego Rivera, and a variety of left-leaning artists’ organizations concisely set the stage for the mural projects Linden describes in following chapters.

Shahn’s relationship with Diego Rivera is particularly important. The famed Mexican muralist introduced his young apprentice to “authentic fresco painting,” as well as his future (second) wife, Bernarda Bryson. Equally consequential was Nelson Rockefeller’s decision to destroy Rivera’s mural commissioned for his new Rockefeller Center, Man at the Crossroads Looking with Hope and High Vision to the Choosing of a New and Better Future in 1934. The incident proved to be a formative experience for Shahn in protesting against art censorship. As Linden summarizes, the two artists were united in “their shared commitment to creating political art in order to stir the masses into revolutionary action.” (28–31) This aim did not always please the government administrators and corporate capitalists who paid the bills.

In the second chapter, “Zion in the Garden State: Ben Shahn’s Mural for Jersey Homesteads,” Linden discusses Shahn’s artistic contribution, from 1936 to 1938, to a newly-built “Jewish agro-industrial community” in which farming and garment production were undertaken communally. (36) The business side of things failed both miserably and rapidly, but the homes survived, and Shahn and his new wife Bernarda Bryson moved in. The couple spent their lives in the good company of one of Shahn’s most cohesive and uplifting works.

The portrait Linden paints of the Jersey Homesteads, and Shahn’s mural there, illustrates Jewish Left intellectual life in the 1930s as both aspirational, and desperately anxious. Although the mural overall conveys pride and an optimistic outlook on the future, dark figures loom as well. In the upper left corner, Shahn painted the dead bodies of the Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti, who were tried and condemned to death via a sham trial tainted by nationalist xenophobia. A Nazi soldier stands behind their coffins, sporting a sign that declares (in German): “Germans! Defend Yourselves! Don’t shop from Jews!” (54) Shahn and his circle were activists as much as artists, and they were keenly attentive to an exploding landscape of both national and international threats.

In Linden’s next chapter, “Whitman, Workers, and Censorship: Ben Shahn’s Murals for the Bronx Central Post Office,” we get to see what happened when Shahn faced the cultural headwinds of his time. It was one thing to extol the labor movement and immigration in a mural for a socialist utopia populated almost completely by Jews. It was quite another thing to paint from that perspective in a federal post office, under the direction of Washington bureaucrats.

Linden begins her discussion of Shahn’s Bronx murals, painted from 1938 to 1939, by carefully relating them to her theme. Although the subject matter in the Bronx was not overtly Jewish, Shahn’s ethnic identity was important in shaping his ensuing struggles. As World War II loomed, the contradictions within the city were brutally evident. From Shahn’s studio in the Yorkville section of Manhattan, he could watch parades of German Americans dressed in Nazi military regalia. Uptown in the Bronx, where his new commission was located, American Jews had moved en masse into newly-built cooperative housing, once again expressing their communal affiliation and leftist political bent.

In his enormous, thirteen-panel mural series for their neighborhood post office, Shahn depicted Resources of America—views of (mostly male) factory and agricultural laborers. Linden points out that Shahn did not attempt to include Jews in the downtown garment industry, or African American domestic workers who waited for employment in the so-called “Bronx Slave Market” in his panels. (71) More could be said here about this exclusion. Shahn’s declared intention to introduce Bronx residents to workers outside the city is not wholly convincing. Is it possible that he did not conceptualize these New York laborers as fully American rather than alien “resources,” based on his own feelings of alienation? Did New York itself seem somehow less than fully American? Or, was Shahn unwilling to risk those conversations with administrators?

Another small point here is that Linden could take better advantage of some excellent scholarship on Shahn’s photography. During the years he was painting the murals Linden so beautifully analyzes, Shahn also took thousands of photographs for the Historical Section of the RA/FSA. Laura Katzman has surveyed Shahn’s extensive files of source materials, including pictures cut from newspapers and magazines, as well as his own photographs, as evidence of an artist for whom photography and politics were “inextricably linked.” 3

What really animates and distinguishes Linden’s take on Resources of America is her patient untangling of the battle Shahn fought and lost regarding censorship. Although his mammoth workers were not at all controversial, Shahn included a portrait of Walt Whitman accompanied by his poem “I Hear America Singing,” which included the lines: “Brain of the New World, what a task is thine, / To formulate the Modern—out of the peerless grandeur of the modern, / Out of thyself, comprising science, to recast poems, churches, art.” (86–87) In the imagination of conservative Catholics, Whitman was the intellectual father of godless Communists, and this quote was a patent example of the poet’s virulent agnosticism. Linden carefully relates the public controversy and administrative pressure directed at Shahn that followed. Once again, what emerges is a full display of the toxic mix of competing and conflating prejudices and radical ideologies in public debate during these years. In the end, Shahn caved, and chose a less controversial Whitman poem to include. As Linden summarizes, the artist’s “desire to secure and advance the project was greater than his desire to do battle for the verboten. ” (91) In moments such as this, character is tested, under force. But character is not made in a day, and Shahn determined more than ever to make the First Amendment his cause in the future.

In the last mural projects Linden describes in chapter four, “Painting for Freedom and the Freedom to Paint,” Shahn’s stiffened resolve to defend First Amendment rights is entirely evident. Linden first discusses Shahn’s proposed mural designs drafted for the main branch of the St. Louis post office in Missouri in 1939. The rejection of Shahn’s proposal is little surprise. The guidelines called for an historical account of “the transportation of the mails in the area of St. Louis,” but Shahn proposed panels including “Freedom of Religion,” “Freedom of Speech,” “Freedom of the Press,” and two views of “Immigration” expressing “his outrage at the mounting refugee crisis.” (108) Once again in this chapter, Linden masterfully frames close readings of Shahn’s subject matter and formal choices within rich context, including here the Jewish Labor Committee, the 1938 pogrom Nazis euphemistically called Kristallnacht, the shameful refusal of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to welcome Jewish refugees, the polemics of Father Charles Coughlin, the rise of the House Un-American Activities Committee, and the tragedy of the MS St. Louis. Shahn’s subsequent commission for the Woodhaven branch post office in Queens, New York, in contrast, went smoothly, and he completed a glorious celebration of The First Amendment there in 1941, with the Statue of Liberty at center. In St. Louis, as well as in Queens, he did not give any ground. In the heightened terrors of 1939 to 1941, it must have felt like compromise no longer was an ethical option.

Linden concludes her book with a return to ruminations on the meaning of the term “Jewish artist.” She relates Shahn grappling with this label, and in comparison, the scholarly “packaging” of Mark Rothko. Serving as moderator, Linden introduces a scholarly dialogue across generations, including Harold Rosenberg, Samantha Baskind, Larry Silver, Sander Gilman, and Susan Glenn. Her greatest contribution here is her consideration of Shahn on the larger American stage. Ultimately, what made Shahn’s experience so deeply American was his enduring identity as an immigrant. His view from the periphery brought a heightened awareness of the political opportunities and liberties afforded here as compared with Europe. As an immigrant American and a New Yorker, he idolized the possibilities of this nation, whose welcoming embrace was written into the First Amendment and visualized by a glorious evocation of Liberty at the nation’s metaphorical front door.

In her analysis of Shahn’s New Deal murals, Linden shows us just how important this voice from the periphery is, with its heightened capacity to critique and call out the contradictions between our rhetoric and reality. It is sad to think how clearly Ben Shahn would recognize the forces at play in our present moment. If it is any consolation, his example certainly is a guide to what many will do in the face of longstanding and persistent tyrannies: organize, protest, and make art with energy and passion that loudly calls on this nation to once again be welcoming and free.

  1. Diana L. Linden, “Ben Shahn’s New Deal Murals: Jewish Identity in the American Scene,” in Susan Chevlowe, ed. Common Man, Mythic Vision: The Paintings of Ben Shahn, exh. kat. (New York: The Jewish Museum in association with Princeton University Press, 1998): 37. Susan Noyes Platt also has written about the Jersey Homestead murals, summarizing in 1995 that they represent a “conflation of personal memory, personal experience, and received history,” stylistically influenced by Diego Rivera, Thomas Hart Benton, as well as his own photography. Platt briefly mentions the shift in Shahn’s plan for the murals, following WPA insistence, from an emphasis on distinctive Jewish characteristics among settled Americans, to a scene that showed Jews “blending into the American scene.” See Susan Noyes Platt, “The Jersey Homestead Murals: Ben Shahn, Bernarda Bryson, and History Painting of the 1930s” in Patricia M. Burnham and Lucretia Hoover Giese, eds., Redefining American History Painting (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995): 302–3. ↵
  2. Frances K. Pohl, Ben Shahn: New Deal Artist in a Cold War Climate (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989). ↵
  3. Laura Katzman, “The Politics of Media: Painting and Photography in the Art of Ben Shahn,” in Deborah Martin Kao, Laura Katzman, and Jenna Webster, Ben Shahn’s New York: The Photography of Modern Times, eks. kat. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000): 106. See also Laura Katzman, “Source Matters: Ben Shahn and the Archive” Archives of American Art Journal 54, no. 2 (Fall, 2015): 4-33. In future projects, Linden may also wish to consider some broader commentary on aesthetic strategies evident in other Jewish muralists painting in the 1930s, such as Philip Evergood and Joseph Hirsch. In a new book published in 2015, Matthew Baigell briefly discusses, for example, Philip Evergood’s The Story of Richmond Hill, 1936–37, painted for the Richmond Hill Branch Library in Queens, and Joseph Hirsch’s murals for the Philadelphia Joint Board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America installed in the Sidney Hillman Apartments in Philadelphia in 1936. Matthew Baigell, Social Concern and Left Politics in Jewish American Art, 1880–1940 (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2015): 173–80. ↵

About the Author(s): Amy Werbel is Associate Professor of the History of Art at the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York.


Ben Shahn Artworks

This is the only easel painting out of Ben Shahn's series of twenty-three gouaches depicting elements of the trial and subsequent execution of the two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti who were accused of murder during a robbery in Massachusetts. At the time and still today, controversy surrounds the guilty verdict, with many believing that the men were condemned because they were anarchists and because of the overt anti-immigrant sentiments of the era. In this painting, the three members of the Lowell Committee who denied the defendants' appeal hold lilies as they stand over open coffins containing the bodies of Sacco and Vanzetti. Judge Thayer can be seen in the background staring out the courthouse window onto the scene.

Shahn submitted this easel painting to an exhibition organized by Lincoln Kirstein at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The museum's Board of Trustees objected to Shahn's depiction of the Lowell Committee members who were friends to many of the museum's trustees. Despite the Board's demand that Shahn's works along with the equally objectionable works by Hugo Gellert and William Gropper not be shown, the many other artists in the exhibition and the curator Kirstein refused to participate if the three artists were banned. The show eventually moved forward including Shahn's work with many of the trustees resigning in anger.

The painting's topic provides an early example of Shahn's use of his art against social injustice. This work helped to establish him as one of the great Social Realist painters. Also in the development of this artwork, Shahn had begun to think sequentially about narration through art, a process which ultimately led him to paint his complex public murals. Rather than painting for himself as other modernists did, Shahn painted for the public and for the cause of Sacco and Vanzetti, while simultaneously drawing upon the cubistic forms of Picasso in his figures. Shahn successfully melds together the formal with the political in this work.

Tempera on canvas - Collection of Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York

Untitled: Jersey Homesteads Mural

Ben Shahn's 45 foot long x 12 feet high Jersey Homesteads Mural recounts the grand narrative of the Jewish exodus to the United States (1880- 1924), the Jews' quest for a decent livelihood in the punishing sweat shops of the unregulated garment trade, and the importance of Jewish labor unions. The left panel begins in 1930s Germany where a Nazi soldier holds a sign warning Germans not to buy anything from Jews this threatening image by Shahn was the only reference to Nazi Germany in any New Deal mural. Two women seen mourning at open caskets which contain Sacco and Vanzetti are positioned above a depiction of the registry hall at Ellis Island where the Statute of Liberty is visible through an open doorway. A group of immigrants walking off a ship include representations of Shahn's mother, artist Raphael Soyer, and Albert Einstein who leads the group and who was on the board of Jersey Homesteads. The center panel depicts Jews and other immigrants working in a non-union, unsafe sweatshop. Shahn, a champion of unions, next painted an image which closely resembled President of the CIO John J. Lewis but is nie to be taken literally as a portrait. The labor organizer presents a speech and quotes one by Lewis: "One of the great principles for which labor and America must stand in the future is the right of every man and woman to have a job, to earn their living if they are willing to work." Shahn concludes the narrative with the right panel with a happier life in Jersey Homesteads housing development. References to the importance of unions, is made by a sign on the development's entrance reading "ILGWU," standing for the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union. In the final scene, a group portrait of the Jewish garment union leaders, along with New York Senator Robert F. Wagner who was instrumental in the creation of labor-reform laws, look over the blueprints for Jersey Homesteads.

Shahn received this mural commission from the United States Resettlement Administration's new 200 home development Jersey Homesteads project that was created to provide housing, work, and farming opportunities for Jewish garment workers wanting to relocate from New York City and Philadelphia many had lost their jobs due to the devastation of the Great Depression. This expansive and detailed mural reveals Shahn's commitment to improving the human condition through narrative storytelling, and his great skill at creating complex compositions.

Fresco - Collection of Roosevelt Public School, Roosevelt, New Jersey

Resources of America

Resources of America (1938-39) is a commissioned mural Ben Shahn completed for the Bronx Central Post Office in New York City. His companion Bernarda Bryson served as his assistant on the project. The New Deal Program's Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture, whose purpose was to oversee the commission of the best art possible for new federal buildings, selected Shahn's as the winning design. For example, one of the thirteen panels portrays both an agricultural and an industrial worker, displaying one man stooping down low to pick cotton, and a woman working at spindles in a mill. The central panel which is placed on a higher plane than the other panel depicts American poet Walt Whitman speaking to an assembled group of workers and pointing to a text-filled blackboard. His long, white beard makes the poet resemble a combination of Moses and Karl Marx.

Although not intending to be controversial, the Bronx mural did indeed elicit harsh criticism due to Shahn's inclusion of a quote by Whitman who was then on the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books. Originally Shahn planned to include text from Whitman's poem "Thou Mother with Thy Equal Blood" but when preliminary sketches of the mural were displayed at the Bronx Post Office, a local priest took notice. Shortly after, Reverend Ignatius W. Cox, an ethics professor at Fordham University, publicly denounced the mural in front of thousands gathered in a church as being a government statement against religion. Cox urged parishioners to join him in demanding the text be changed, and began a letter-writing campaign which garnered much press coverage. As, Shahn had agreed when taking the job to make changes if there were any objections, he switched the text to lines from Whitman's poem "As I Walk These Broad Majestic Days." Despite the successful reception to the altered mural, the experience made clear to the artist the weight of censorship and the power that even a few members of the public could exert over an artist's work.

Egg tempera applied to plaster - Collection of Bronx Central Post Office, Bronx, New York

This is Nazi Brutality

In the early 1940s, Ben Shahn created paintings which became the basis of anti-war posters sponsored by the United States government. Shahn's This is Nazi Brutality is one of the most famous posters he designed during his position at the Office of War Information (OWI). In response to the Nazis total destruction of the town of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, and its inhabitants, Shahn's powerful image features a male figure whose head is covered by a hood and whose fisted hands, positioned firmly at his sides, are shackled. He stands beneath a dark and ominous sky and is backed both from behind and on his left side by a red brick wall. The title of the work as well as its theme are stated in bold red letters in front of the figure below which, the news of the event, as it was translated from a radio broadcast. The text reads: RADIO BERLIN.--IT IS OFFICIALLY ANNOUNCED: -ALL MEN OF LIDICE - CZECHOSLOVAKIA - HAVE BEEN SHOT: THE WOMEN DEPORTED TO A CONCENTRATION CAMP: THE CHILDREN SENT TO APPROPRIATE CENTERS--THE NAME OF THE VILLAGE WAS IMMEDIATELY ABOLISHED. 6/11/42/115P. Astonishingly, the OWI officials rejected Shahn's designs as too "violent" and "not appealing enough." Fed up with such disagreements, Shahn resigned after one year. Shahn's confrontational posture towards officials conveys a great strength of conviction in his topics.

Through the means of bold, graphic design, using an economy of words, coupled with an image freed from the types of details that typify Shahn's figural words, the reaction to this haunting work is powerful and viscerally felt.

Offset lithograph - Collection of Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

The Red Stairway

Ben Shahn's The Red Stairway is a powerful statement on destruction, hope, and the prevailing human spirit. An elderly man, wearing a black coat and hat, reliant on crutches, ascends a red staircase that winds up and then down the side of a ravaged building. In the right foreground, another man in a white shirt with arms raised is depicted buried up to his waist in debris.

As with many artists of his era, the horrors of World War II had a profound effect on Shahn and his work beginning in the early to mid-1940s. In this and other paintings Shahn, he chose to depict the devastation of the war symbolically, rather than as realistically or in a documentary vein. Here the man's journey up the stairs seems overwhelmingly arduous and seemingly leading nowhere. This lack of hope echoes the oppressive weight of the effects of war and yet, Shahn is careful to also imbue the work with a sense of hope in the fact that the man attempts the journey at all. The other figure's arms raised despite being stuck in rubble symbolizes an effort to climb out of the destruction and metaphorically echoes the efforts of people to rebuild after the damages of the war. Even the blue cloud-filled sky is a bit lighter above this figure symbolizing the promised gift of another day that comes with each new dawn.

This painting is a key example of a major shift in Shahn's work in the postwar period. Prior to the war much of his focus had been on creating works of Social Realism but the war led Shahn to move his art towards the direction of a more "personal realism" resulting in works which offered the artist's own subjective response and feelings to the world around him. While his works became more emotional, unlike many artists of the period, as this work exemplifies, Shahn still maintained a highly narrative and figurative style.

Tempera on Masonite - Collection of The Saint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, Missouri

We Want Peace, Register to Vote

Throughout his career, Ben Shahn created numerous political posters this work is an excellent example of the artist's graphic style. A powerfully stark image, the work depicts a gaunt young boy wearing dark pants, suspenders, and a red shirt with his right hand outstretched into the foreground in a pose of begging. His hollow, dark eyes look slightly downward preventing the viewer from a direct connection to his image. The purpose of the poster is made clear in the simple text which states: "We want Peace" and "REGISTER VOTE."

Shahn first joined the Congress of Industrial Organizations' Political Action Committee in order to reelect President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. After FDR's 1944 victory, Shahn became the CIO-PAC's director of the Graphic Arts Division. During this time he designed many posters to encourage Americans to get out the vote and to support the Democratic Party. Shahn's mastery in communicating his message is achieved by capturing emotions and the human spirit on the canvas as is the case with this work such as the child's haunting eyes as he begs for a better tomorrow that can be achieved through the power of voting.

Shahn had a productive career as a commercial artist and illustrator, and felt there was an importance to being what he called a "communicative artist" and saw the power that reproducible works such as posters have in reaching a much larger and more diverse audience than that of a painting. Artist Andy Warhol is one who spoke of the great influence Shahn's illustrations had upon his own work.

Color lithograph poster - Collection of de Young | Legion of Honor, San Francisco, California

Allegory

Ben Shahn's painting Allegory features a red beast with both wolf and lion characteristics and flaming mane standing over a pile of four dead children's bodies. Neither the beast nor the bodies are anchored to anything rather they seem to float in a void of blue, red, and purple colors. In the left corner, a subtle hint of yellow seems to struggle through, echoing that of a sun behind clouds and in the lower left corner of the canvas, Shahn depicts a group of bare red trees against a small patch of green background.

Shahn maintained that the inspiration for the painting was the story of a Chicago man, John Hickman who after his four children died in a tenement fire, killed the building's landlord who he believed was responsible for its start and received two years' probation after a manslaughter conviction. Shahn was commissioned to illustrate an article about the case for a Harper's magazine article in 1948. After the job ended and still thinking about the story, Shahn chose to explore the theme further on canvas. When the painting was first exhibited in 1948 it received some negative criticism including from The New York Sun's critic Henry McBride who maintained that the painting conveyed an anti-American sentiment and was paying homage to the Soviet Union. To McBride, the work was clearly communist since the beast was painted red. Shahn denied McBride's interpretation and maintained that the critic was erroneously misreading the painting.

As with many of his works from the mid-1940s on, Shahn also included many personal references such as the fire which dates back to his childhood. As a youth in Lithuania, Shahn watched his Grandfather's village burn to the ground, and later repeated the experience in Brooklyn, when his father rescued him and his siblings from a house fire which destroyed all their possessions, lost their financial stability, and ended up injuring his father. Wolves also had a personal association as his mother had told him stories of her being pursued by wolves while living in Russia. Highly symbolic, the work typifies Shahn's use of mythology and allegory to create his visual narratives.

Working in a more contemporary, expressive style, Shahn proves that both personal events, as well as tragic emotions, remain pertinent to modern art. While always exploring new forms and designs, Shahn always united these pictorial elements with deep narrative expressions.

Tempera on panel - Collection of Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas

Miners' Wives

Ben Shahn was a union member, and remained committed to telling the stories, and the hardships of workers and laborers throughout his lengthy career. Shahn imbues Miners' Wives with a haunting sense of sadness. The artist depicted three figures in front of a red brick wall. The main focus, however, is the woman at right in the foreground, wrapped in a thin shawl, standing with arms clasped in front of her. Behind her another woman sits with a small child in her lap while above her a man's jacket and pants hang on a hook on the wall. In the background, visible through a rectangular doorway in the wall, two male figures in black coats and hats stand facing a building some distance behind them. The theme of the painting appears to be waiting for news of their husbands', miners, fates.

Shahn often drew inspiration for paintings from illustrations he had made for articles. The idea for this and five other paintings on this topic came from illustrations he was commissioned to create for a Harper's magazine article about the Centralia, Illinois mine disaster that killed 111 miners. The article was published in March 1948, and titled "The Blast in Centralia No. 5: A Mine Disaster No One Stopped." Long after its publication, the fate of the miners and their families stayed with Shahn he felt compelled to use his art to further their story. In this painting, Shahn concentrates on the wives' agony as they wait endless hours for their husbands to return home, and then, depicts the harsh reality of their lives as widows. The two men in the distance, while ambiguous, perhaps represent the messengers of this tragic news.

The topic of mines was familiar to Shahn as he himself had gone into mines earlier and his second wife grew up in a mining area. Further, Shahn was a lifelong supporter of laborers and unions, such as the United Mine Workers Union. Possessing a personal connection to the subject, this painting demonstrates Shahn's expertise as a figurative, realist artist, mastery at creating works that emotionally connected with viewers and his ability to capture the stories of important current events.

Egg tempera on board - Collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

We Did Not Know What Happened to Us

This is one of a series of works by Ben Shahn collectively known as the Lucky Dragon skilderye. The series includes some of the most profound and darkest imagery that Shahn ever created. At the top center of the canvas, a beastly face with mouth open and teeth bared is looking out towards the viewer with multiple clawed arms and feet barely visible in a tangled swirl of white cloud-like lines amongst a sea of black. Below the creature, two figures are visible from the waist up, arms outstretched as the figure on the left tries to cover his mouth with one arm.

Shahn's prolific career as an illustrator often provided inspiration for his paintings as was the case with this work. In 1957, Shahn was commissioned to illustrate a series of articles for Harper's magazine about the crew of the Japanese fishing boat the Lucky Dragon who were trapped in a shower of radioactive debris on March 1, 1954 - after America tested a hydrogen bomb in the Pacific Ocean. All twenty-three members of the crew suffered the effects of radiation poisoning with one member dying after a long period of suffering.

Shahn was very troubled by the story and its grave injustice. The artist was a strong peace advocate who denounced nuclear weapons. Wanting to make a strong statement opposing nuclear weapons, the series of paintings he created consisted of eleven works depicting the tragic event and the aftermath. This particular painting focuses on the nuclear blast itself which is portrayed as a violent creature amidst clouds of lethal poison. Well received when exhibited and even reproduced as a book, the Lucky Dragon series demonstrates that while Shahn had a versatile and rich career, he never strayed far from his political ideals and his strong sense of ethics. Created late in his life, the work was part of the last series of Shahn's career. Rather than overt agitprop art, or loud social protest art, Shahn softens his style and message in order to let the tragedy speak directly to viewers. His is a quiet emotionalism not always conveyed through contemporary art.


Kyk die video: Ben Shahn: Passion for Justice (Junie 2022).