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Masedonië se ekonomie - Geskiedenis

Masedonië se ekonomie - Geskiedenis


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Masedonië is 'n klein ekonomie met 'n bruto binnelandse produk (BBP) van $ 4,6 miljard, wat ongeveer 0,01% van die totale wêreldproduksie verteenwoordig. Dit is ook 'n oop ekonomie, hoogs geïntegreer in internasionale handel, met 'n totale handel-tot-BBP-verhouding van 79,5%. Landbou en nywerheid was die twee belangrikste sektore van die ekonomie, maar die dienstesektor het die afgelope paar jaar sterk gestyg. Al drie sektore bied 'n beperkte aantal eindprodukte van hoë gehalte. Soos met die meeste oorgangsekonomieë, bestaan ​​probleme, selfs al is Masedonië stappe in die rigting van hervorming. 'N Grootliks verouderde industriële infrastruktuur het tydens die oorgangstyd nie veel belê nie. Onderwys en vaardighede in die arbeidsmag is mededingend, maar sonder voldoende werk soek baie met die beste vaardighede werk in die buiteland. 'N Lae lewenstandaard en hoë werkloosheidsyfers veroorsaak soms sosiale onrus.

Vyf jaar van voortdurende ekonomiese uitbreiding in Masedonië is onderbreek deur die konflik in 2001, wat in 2001 tot 'n inkrimping van 4,5% gelei het, ondanks die feit dat die regering inflasie op 'n stabiele gemiddelde 5,3% kon hou. In 2002 het die ekonomie gesukkel om te herstel, met slegs 0,7% groei. Die groei het in 2003 begin toeneem, met 'n reële BBP van 3,1%. Die buitelandse skuld-tot-BBP-verhouding was in 2003 38,4%. Die ekonomie kon nog nie ten volle herstel tot sy vlak van krisis voor 2001 nie. In 2004 word die werklike groei na verwagting 4% bereik met 'n inflasie van tot 2,8%. Die Verenigde State ondersteun Masedonië se oorgang na 'n demokratiese, veilige, markgerigte samelewing met aansienlike bedrae hulp.

Agtergrond
Na die verbrokkeling van Joego -Slawië in 1991, het Masedonië, die armste republiek van die voormalige Joego -Slawië, te kampe gehad met formidabele ekonomiese uitdagings wat die oorgang na 'n markekonomie en 'n moeilike streeksituasie inhou. Die ontbinding het Masedonië van belangrike beskermde markte en groot oordragbetalings van die sentrale Joegoslaviese regering ontneem. Die oorlog in die nabygeleë Bosnië, internasionale sanksies teen Serwië en die naburige Kosovo-krisis in 1999 het opeenvolgende skokke vir die handelsafhanklike ekonomie van Masedonië gelewer. Die pynlike maar noodsaaklike strukturele hervormings en die makro -ekonomiese stabiliseringsprogram van die regering het addisionele ekonomiese ontwrigting tot gevolg gehad. Masedonië is veral seergemaak deur die Griekse handelsembargo wat in Februarie 1994 ingestel is in 'n geskil oor die land se naam, vlag en grondwet, en deur internasionale handelssanksies teen Serwië wat eers 'n maand ná die sluiting van die Dayton -ooreenkoms opgeskort is. As gevolg van hierdie twee grenssluitings het die BBP van 1995 gedaal tot 41% van die 1989 -vlak.

Gelyktydig met hierdie probleme, het die land 'n ambisieuse stabiliserings- en hervormingsprogram gevolg na onafhanklikheid. Ondanks eksterne faktore het die program deur 1998 positiewe resultate gelewer en lof van die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds (IMF) en die Wêreldbank gewen. 'N Robuuste finansiële besparingsprogram het die Masedoniese denar gestabiliseer en die fiskale tekort verminder. Inflasie het etlike jare laag gebly en was gemiddeld effens negatief in 1998 en 1999. Hoewel die ekonomiese groei in die land se eerste 5 jaar van onafhanklikheid gely het, was daar 'n beskeie herstel-met 3,4% groei vir 1998-tot die Kosovo-krisis .

Masedonië was die ekonomies kwesbaarste van streeksbure weens die uitvloeisels van die Kosovo -konflik in 1999. Op die hoogtepunt van die krisis het Masedonië meer as 350 000 Kosovo -vlugtelinge beskut, wat fiskale rekeninge gespanne en sosiale druk toeneem. Direkte buitelandse belegging per capita (FDI), wat reeds die laagste in die streek is, het versleg namate beleggers vertroue verloor het. Met werkloosheid van ongeveer 33%, het die krisis die ekonomiese ontbering vererger. Voor die Kosovo-krisis was tot 70% van die land se ekonomie afhanklik van insette van, uitvoer na of vervoer deur die destydse Federale Republiek Joego-Slawië (FRY). Op die hoogtepunt van die krisis het die totale uitvoer gedaal tot ongeveer 75% van die 1998 -vlak. Uitvoer na die FRY het met ongeveer 80%gedaal. Uitvoer wat voorheen deur die FRJ gegaan het (die helfte van die totale uitvoer) is seergemaak, aangesien alternatiewe vervoerroetes deur Bulgarye, Roemenië en Griekeland die vervoerkoste en afleweringstye verhoog het, wat Masedoniese produkte minder mededingend gemaak het. Uitvoerverwerkingskontrakte met ander lande is gekanselleer weens kommer oor afleweringsrisiko's.

Ondanks die uitwerking van die Kosovo-krisis op die ekonomie van Masedonië, is bemarkingspogings heroriënteer, nuwe markte geïdentifiseer en uitgebuit, en die Kosovo-mark heropen in die middel van die somer 1999. 'n Internasionale skenkerskonferensie in Mei 1999 het 'n inkrimping van die ekonomie van Masedonië met ongeveer 5%voorspel- -'n swaai van 10 persentasiepunte vanaf voorspellings voor die konflik van 5% groei. Hierdie vooruitskattings het egter aanvaar dat die Kosovo -konflik tot die einde van die jaar sou voortduur. Die vroeë beëindiging van die konflik in Junie het gelei tot 'n ekonomiese herstel en groei van ongeveer 2,7% in reële terme vir 1999.

Masedonië het sy Paris Club -skuld in 1995, en weer vroeg in 1999, herskeduleer, insluitend $ 93 miljoen se skuld, rente en agterstallige skuld aan die Verenigde State. Die Kosovo -krisis het daartoe gelei dat 'n beroep op skuld verwerp of uitgestel word. 'N Paris Club -ooreenkoms om Macedoniese skulddiens uit te stel, het in April 2000 verstryk. Paris Club se skuldeisers het ooreengekom dat terugbetalingsvoorwaardes vir bedrae wat tydens die Kosovo -krisis uitgestel is, op 5 jaar vasgestel sal word, met 1 jaar as genade.

Aan die begin van 2001 blyk dit dat die ekonomiese situasie van Masedonië verbeter, met sigbare tekens van verhoogde aktiwiteit en dinamika, maar met die aanvang van die etniese Albanese opstand in Masedonië het die land se stewige makro -ekonomiese prestasie in 2000 en begin 2001 afgeneem en bly beduidend depressief in 2001. Die reële BBP het in 2001 met 4,5% gedaal, aangesien die uitset in die meeste sektore verswak het. Inflasie was gemiddeld 5,5% in plaas van die aanvanklik geprojekteerde 2,2%. Die tekort op die lopende rekening in die betalingsbalans was ongeveer 10,1%van die BBP, vergeleke met 'n verwagte oorskot van 1%, terwyl die begrotingstekort van die sentrale regering 5,8%bereik het. Van Januarie tot September 2001 het die land ongeveer $ 200 miljoen van sy buitelandse valutareserwes verloor en die doelwit van die denar teen die Duitse mark verdedig. Direkte buitelandse beleggings, krediete, toelaes en skenkings het afgeneem toe die opstand begin het, en die IMF-program van Masedonië het begin werk. Die IMF en die regering van Masedonië het ingestem tot 'n program van ses maande wat deur personeel gemonitor is, wat begin op 1 Januarie 2002, maar besluite van die regering om deposante van 'n mislukte piramideskema van 1997 en 'n algemene loonrekeningverhoging in die openbare administrasie te vergoed, word as 'n bedreiging beskou 'n lewensvatbare begrotingsuitgawebeleid, wat 'n belemmering is vir die voortsetting van die personeelmoniteringsprogram en onderhandelinge oor 'n bystandsreëling. Gesprekke tussen die IMF en die nuwe regering oor 'n nuwe ooreenkoms is in November 2002 hervat, en 'n nuwe bystandreëling is in Februarie 2003 onderteken en 30 April 2003 goedgekeur.

Die impak van die krisis in 2001, 'n laer internasionale vraag na Masedoniese produkte, gekanselleerde kontrakte in die tekstiel- en yster- en staalbedryf, sowel as die droogte in 2001 het die groeivooruitsigte en die buitelandse handel van Masedonië in 2002 beïnvloed. Die Internasionale Ontwikkelingsvereniging (IDA) se finansiering in 2001 het die Wêreldbank $ 15 miljoen aan ekonomiese hulp verleen om kritieke invoer vir die private sektor te finansier. Die reële BBP in 2002 het met 0,3% op 'n jaargrondslag gegroei, ondanks gedempte inflasie. Die verbruikersprysindeks-gebaseerde inflasie in 2002 was 1,8%. Afnemende nywerheidsproduksie het 'n negatiewe uitwerking op die buitelandse handel gehad, met uitvoer wat met 3,7% gedaal het en invoere met 16,3%, wat 'n handelstekort van 23% van die BBP tot gevolg gehad het. Die tekort op die lopende rekening in 2002 was 8,8% van die BBP. 'N Internasionale skenkerskonferensie, georganiseer deur die Wêreldbank en die Europese Kommissie, is op 12 Maart 2002 in Brussel gehou, waarby donateurs $ 275 miljoen belowe het om die geraamde begrotingsgaping te bedek, hervormings van die raamooreenkoms te implementeer en die Masedoniese ekonomie. Skenkers belowe ook 'n bykomende $ 244 miljoen vir algemene ekonomiese ontwikkeling in 2002, buite die pandkategorieë wat deur die Wêreldbank en die Europese Kommissie gedefinieer is.

Die meeste skenkergeld het in 2003 gekom, wat die gedissiplineerde fiskale beleid en stabiele monetêre beleid beloon het. Die IMF het 'n stand-by-ooreenkoms (SBA) met die Masedoniese regering ter waarde van $ 27 miljoen onderteken. In 2003 het die reële BBP met 3,1%gegroei, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die heropening van 'n paar verliesmakers en sterk uitvoere, gegewe gunstige pryse op wêreldmarkte. Die verbruikersprysindeks (VPI) -gebaseerde inflasie bly baie laag op 1,2%. Die amptelike werkloosheidsyfer het in 2003 tot 36,7% gestyg. 'N Beperkende fiskale beleid ingevolge die IMF -program het die begrotingstekort tot 1,1% van die BBP verlaag, wat ruimte bied vir 'n verslapping van die monetêre beleid, wat gelei het tot laer rentekoerse. Alhoewel uitvoere vinniger gegroei het as die invoer in vergelyking met 2002, het die handelstekort in 2003 groot gebly op 20,3% van die BBP, terwyl die tekort op die lopende rekening op 6% van die BBP gestabiliseer het. Die buitelandse skuld was 38,4% van die BBP.

Masedonië is daartoe verbind om lidmaatskap van Europese en globale ekonomiese strukture na te streef. Dit is amptelik aanvaar as 'n lid van die Wêreldhandelsorganisasie (WHO) op 15 Oktober 2002. Die parlement het die ooreenkoms in Januarie 2003 bekragtig en die weg gebaan vir Masedonië om in Maart 2003 'n volwaardige lid te word. Na 'n samewerkingsooreenkoms van 1997 met die Die Europese Unie (EU), Masedonië het in April 2001 'n stabiliserings- en assosiasieooreenkoms met die EU onderteken om Masedonië belastingvrye toegang tot Europese markte te gee. Na bekragtiging in die parlemente van alle EU -lidlande, het die ooreenkoms op 2 April 2004 in werking getree.

Tans onderneem Macedonië aansienlike hervormings in sy ekonomiese en politieke stelsels, met die doel om ekonomiese groei te bevorder en groter vlakke van buitelandse beleggings te lok. Masedonië het onlangs 'n progressiewe wet op handelsondernemings goedgekeur, wat belemmerings vir buitelandse beleggings, asook belasting- en beleggingsaansporings, moet verlig. Alhoewel die kommer uit die konflik in 2001 voortduur, word die internasionaal gemedieerde raamwerkooreenkoms geïmplementeer, en die politieke en veiligheidsituasie van Masedonië het gestabiliseer, wat die regering in staat stel om energie weer op binnelandse hervormings te vestig. 'N Styging in die industriële produksie, fiskale konsolidasie, lae inflasie en 'n daling in rentekoerse dui op 'n geleidelike herstel van die ekonomie. Politieke en veiligheidsnormalisering, makro -ekonomiese stabiliteit en fiskale dissipline bied die grondslag vir hoër groeikoerse. Die reële BBP -groei word in 2004 op 4% beraam. Die belangrikste doelwitte van die ekonomiese beleid van die Masedoniese regering is steeds om buitelandse beleggings aan te trek, werk te verhoog en armoede te verminder. Hy het belowe om maatreëls te tref om fiskale dissipline te handhaaf en rentekoerse nog verder te verlaag. Die ontwikkeling van die klein en mediumgrootte onderneming (KMO) en die verskerping van strukturele hervormings is ook hoog op die prioriteitslys van die regering.

Handel
Die buitelandse handelsbalans van Masedonië is sedert 1994 tekort en bereik $ 936,7 miljoen in 2003. Die totale handel in 2003 was $ 3,66 miljard, oftewel 79,5% van die BBP-invoer plus uitvoer van goedere en dienste. Masedonië se belangrikste handelsvennote is Serwië en Montenegro, Duitsland en Griekeland. Die Verenigde State is die sewende grootste handelsvennoot van Masedonië. In 2003 beloop die goedere tussen die VSA en Masedonië $ 129,1 miljoen. Volgens Masedoniese handelsdata was Amerikaanse uitvoer 2,4% van die totale invoer van Masedonië. Amerikaanse vleis, veral pluimvee, en elektriese masjinerie was veral aantreklik vir Masedoniese invoerders. Die belangrikste uitvoer van Masedonië na die Verenigde State is tabak, klere, skoene en yster en staal.

Masedonië het vryhandelsooreenkomste met Albanië, Bosnië en Herzegowina, Serwië en Montenegro, Bulgarye, Kroasië, Oekraïne, Slowenië, Turkye en die lande van die Europese Vryhandelsvereniging onderteken.


Masedonië se ekonomie - Geskiedenis

Ekonomie - oorsig:
Sedert sy onafhanklikheid in 1991 het Masedonië vordering gemaak met die liberalisering van sy ekonomie en die verbetering van sy sake -omgewing. Sy lae belastingkoerse en gratis ekonomiese gebiede het gehelp om buitelandse beleggings te lok, wat nog steeds laag is in vergelyking met die res van Europa. Korrupsie en swak regstaat bly belangrike probleme. Sommige besighede kla oor ondeursigtige regulasies en ongelyke handhawing van die wet.

Die ekonomie van Masedonië is nou gekoppel aan Europa as kliënt vir uitvoer en beleggingsbron, en het gely as gevolg van langdurige swakheid in die eurosone. Werkloosheid bly konstant hoog op ongeveer 23%, maar dit kan oorbeklemtoon word op grond van die bestaan ​​van 'n uitgebreide grys mark, wat na raming tussen 20% en 45% van die BBP is, wat nie deur amptelike statistieke bepaal word nie.

Masedonië werk daaraan om 'n landswye aardgaspypleiding en verspreidingsnetwerk te bou. Tans ontvang Masedonië sy klein aardgasvoorrade uit Rusland via Bulgarye. In 2016 het Masedonië 'n memorandum van verstandhouding met Griekeland onderteken om 'n onderlinge verbinding te bou wat kan aansluit by die Trans Adriatiese pyplyn wat die streek sal voltooi sodra dit voltooi is, of na 'n LNG -invoerterminale in Griekeland.

Masedonië handhaaf makro -ekonomiese stabiliteit deur die wêreldwye finansiële krisis deur versigtige monetêre beleid te voer, wat die binnelandse geldeenheid aan die euro gekoppel hou, en inflasie op 'n lae vlak. Die afgelope twee jaar het die interne politieke krisis egter die ekonomiese prestasie belemmer, met 'n afname in die BBP -groei in 2016 en 2017, en binnelandse private en openbare beleggings het afgeneem. Die fiskale beleid was slap, met onproduktiewe openbare uitgawes, insluitend subsidies en pensioenverhogings, en stygende waarborge vir die skuld van staatsondernemings, en fiskale doelwitte word deurgaans misgeloop. In 2017 het die staatskuld gestabiliseer op ongeveer 47% van die BBP, steeds relatief laag in vergelyking met sy bure in die Wes -Balkan en die res van Europa.

BBP (koopkragpariteit):
$ 31,03 miljard (geraamde 2017)
$ 31,02 miljard (geraamde 2016)
$ 30,15 miljard (geraamde 2015)

Landbou - produkte:
druiwe, tabak, groente, vrugte melk, eiers

Nywerhede:
voedselverwerking, drank, tekstiele, chemikalieë, yster, staal, sement, energie, farmaseutiese produkte, motoronderdele


Onlangse toevoegings

  • Griekeland uitbrei na die nuwe gebiede: 'n Britse uitsig [skakel na PDF-lêer] deur Sir Michael Llewellyn-Smith. Lesing aangebied op 5 November 2012 by die inhuldiging van die periodieke uitstalling in die Museum vir die Masedoniese stryd in Thessaloniki getiteld “The British Presence in Thessaloniki and the Macedonian Hinterland”
  • Ons bied graag 'n oorspronklike bydrae van Eleni Michalopoulou aan met die titel "Die oorsprong van Alexander die Grote en die Masedoniërs: dokumentasie volgens antieke Griekse literêre tekste" [skakel na PDF -lêer]
  • Ons is verheug om die aanbieding van dr. Evangelos Kofos, getiteld & quotProspects for resolution the name issue & quot, tydens die NAVO-parlementêre vergadering se Rose-Roth-seminaar in Skopje op 20 Oktober 2010 aan te bied.
  • In & ldquoThe Current Macedonian Issue between Athens and Skopje: Is there an Option for a Breakthrough? FYROM). Die artikel is oorspronklik aanlyn gepubliseer deur ELIAMEP [skakel].
  • & ldquo2.300 jaar later, en Alexander-manie en rsquo gryp Masedonië en rdquo deur Robert Marquand, Chirstian Science Monitor, 20 Maart 2009. (Oorspronklike artikel-URL: http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/0321/p01s01-wogn.html, word in 'n nuwe venster oopgemaak). In die artikel gee die skrywer 'n gebalanseerde weergawe van die oplewing van Alexander die Groot-verwante aktiwiteite van die regering van die Voormalige Joegoslaviese Republiek Masedonië. Uittreksels uit die artikel word verskaf.
  • Ons het ons spesiale funksie van Mount Athos opgedateer en uitgebrei met splinternuwe foto's met 'n hoër resolusie, soekvermoë en 'n nuwe voorkoms.
  • Ons het die baie interessante kommentaar deur Evangelos Kofos bygevoeg tot die ICG -verslag oor die FYROM -naamkwessie, naamlik & ldquoMacedonia & rsquos Name: Breaking the Deadlock & rdquo by ons afdeling Bydraes. Die artikel is oorspronklik aanlyn gepubliseer deur ELIAMEP [link], waar die belangstellende leser ook kommentaar kan lewer.
  • In ons aanbieding van die & lsquoΜακεδονία (Masedonië): A Greek Term in Modern Usage & rsquo -publikasie, kan u nou die volledige inhoud (teks+beelde) van alle hoofstukke van die boek in pdf -vorm vind.
  • Ons het 'n nuwe wetenskaplike artikel bygevoeg deur Eleni Gavra en Vlasis Vlasidis na ons afdeling Bydraes getiteld & lsquoMilitary Cemetery of the First World War in Macedonia Region: Routes of Reading History in Search the Common Cultural Heritage & rsquo, wat verskyn in Nina Avramidou (red.), 1st Specialty International Conference on Monumental Cemetery. Knowledge, Conservation, Restyling and Innovation, (Μodena, 3-5 Mei, 2006), Roma, 2007, ISBN 978 88 54801147-8, vol. 1, pp.179-189.
  • U vind ook 'n nuwe meningsartikel deur Stavros Lygeros in ons Griekse mening oor die Balkan -ontwikkelingsafdeling getiteld & lsquoThe dual name trap & rsquo (& ldquoKathimerini & rdquo, Engelse uitgawe, 21 Februarie 2008)
    deur Evangelos Kofos (geredigeerde weergawe van op. ed. gepubliseer in die dagblad van Athene & ldquoKathimerini & rdquo, 3 Februarie 2007)

Onlangse ekonomiese ontwikkelinge

Die groei het in 2020 met 4,5 persent gedaal, minder as wat vroeër voorspel is, aangesien die resessie in die vierde kwartaal van die jaar skerp versag het. Privaat verbruik, die belangrikste dryfveer vir groei in die verlede, het 'n skerp daling van 5,6 % op 'n jaargrondslag beleef as gevolg van die beperkingsmaatreëls. Belegging het ook met meer as 10 persent gedaal, alhoewel dit in die derde kwartaal kortliks herstel het. Staatsverbruik wat met meer as 10 persent toegeneem het, het gedeeltelik die dalende binnelandse vraag verlig. Eksterne vraag het ook gedaal, wat weerspieël word in 'n daling van 10,9 persent op 'n jaargrondslag in uitvoere. Die gepaardgaande afname in invoer verlig die druk op die tekort op die lopende rekening, wat na verwagting grootliks onveranderd sal bly in vergelyking met 2019.

Aan produksiekant was landbou, inligting- en kommunikasietegnologie en eiendomsbedrywighede die enigste sektore wat in 2020 gegroei het. Ondersteuning deur die regering het gehelp om die krisis se impak op die arbeidsmark te demp deur meer as 130 000 werksgeleenthede met loonsubsidies in April te ondersteun, tot 60 000 teen die einde van die jaar, terwyl die ekonomie stadig herstel het. Die werkloosheidsyfer het grootliks onveranderd gebly, maar dit was deels die gevolg van mense wat uit die arbeidsmark val. Die aktiwiteitskoers het met 0,8 persentasiepunte gedaal tot 56,4 persent, die laagste vlak sedert 2008.

Die likiditeitsverhouding van die banksektor van meer as 23 persent in die derde kwartaal van 2020 bly voldoende, gehelp deur sentrale bankmaatreëls. Krediet het aan die einde van 2020 met 4,7 persent gegroei ten opsigte van huishoudelike en vaste krediete, ondersteun deur sterk deposito-groei en krisisondersteuningsprogramme. Nie -presterende lenings het tot 3,3 persent gedaal, gegewe die toegelate opskorting van kredietherklassifikasievereistes tot Desember. 'N Opwaartse regstelling word egter verwag in 2021 namate hierdie maatreël eindig.

Die kapitaaltoereikendheidsverhouding was in die derde kwartaal van 2020 op 16,9 persent, dubbel die verpligte vlak. Inflasie bly laag op 1,2 persent jjj, wat weerspieël gedempte produksie ten spyte van stygende voedselpryse in die tweede helfte van die jaar.

Die fiskale tekort het verdriedubbel tot 8,9 persent van die BBP in 2020. Die daling in die belasting op toegevoegde waarde en die inkomste op aksyns beloop 0,9 persent van die BBP en is effens gedemp deur 'n toename in maatskaplike bydraes. Die besteding het met 4,4 persent van die BBP toegeneem namate gesondheidsuitgawes en subsidieskemas, wat daarop gemik is om werk te behou, toegeneem het. Die besteding aan lone en pensioene het ook toegeneem as gevolg van vorige beleidsveranderinge, terwyl kapitaalbesteding afgeneem het. Openbare en in die openbaar gewaarborgde skuld het gestyg tot 60,2 persent van die BBP namate die regering lenings aangewend het om die stygende tekort te finansier en verouderingsverpligtinge terug te betaal.


Masedonië se ekonomie - Geskiedenis

Kort geskiedenis van Masedonië

Alhoewel Masedonië 'n jong staat is wat in 1991 onafhanklik geword het, loop die wortels diep in die geskiedenis. Die naam "Macedonië" is in werklikheid die oudste naam van 'n land op die vasteland van Europa. Argeologiese bewyse toon dat die ou Europese beskawing tussen 7000 en 3500 vC in Masedonië floreer het. Masedonië is geleë in die middel van die Suid -Balkan, noord van antieke Griekeland, oos van Illyria en wes van Thracië. Die ou Masedoniërs was 'n aparte nasie, etnies, taalkundig en kultureel anders as hul bure. Die oorsprong van die Masedoniërs is in die ou Brygiese substraat wat die hele Masedoniese gebied beset het en in die Indo-Europese superstratum, wat aan die einde van die tweede millennium hier gevestig het.

Die geskiedenis van die ou Masedoniese koninkryk begin met Caranus, wat die eerste bekende koning was (808-778 vC). Die Masedoniese dinastie Argeadae is afkomstig van Argos Orestikon, 'n stad in die suidwestelike Masedonië -streek Orestis (App., Syr., 63Diod., VII, 15 G. Sync., I, 373). Alexander I "Philhellene" (498-454 vC) het die koninkryk uitgebrei en teen die 5de eeu vC het die Masedoniërs 'n verenigde koninkryk gesmee. Alexander was 'n Persiese bondgenoot in die Grieks-Persiese oorloë. Terwyl Masedonië op die internasionale toneel verskyn, word die eerste munte met die naam van die koning gemaak. Rondom die jaar 460 vertoef Herodotus in Masedonië en gee 'n interpretasie macedonica van die Grieks-Persiese oorloë (Her.5.17-22, 9.44-45).

Alexander se seun Perdiccas II (453 - 413 v.C.) het gewerk aan die begin van 'n oorlog tussen die maritieme mag van Athene en Sparta wat die Peloponnesiese liga (Thucydides. Pel.I.57) gelei het en die aanvang van 'n Olynthiese liga uit die Griekse kolonies begin het. naburige Masedonië op Chalcidice, vir 'n oorlog teen Athene (Thucyd.I.58). Tydens die Peloponnesiese oorlog is Perdiccas die een oomblik aan die kant van Athene en die volgende aan die kant van Sparta, afhangende van die beste belang van Masedonië, en wil nie dat een van hulle te sterk word nie, terwyl die soewereiniteit van sy land behoue ​​bly koste van die Griekse twis.

Dit was Archelaus (413-399 vC) wat Masedonië 'n beduidende ekonomiese mag gemaak het. Archelaus maak reguit paaie, bou vestings en reorganiseer die Masedoniese leër (Thucyd.II.100). Hy het die Masedoniese hoofstad Aigae na Pella verskuif en die Masedoniese Olimpiese Spele in Dion gestig (die heilige stad van die Masedoniërs), onder meer ook omdat die Griekse Olimpiese Spele verbied was vir die barbare, insluitend ook die Masedoniërs (haar .V.22). In die jaar 406 het die Masedoniese digter Adaius 'n grafskrif geskryf vir die grafsteen van Euripides (Anth. Pal. 7,5,1 A. Gellius, Noct. Att, XV, 20, 10) wat in die Masedoniese paleis van Archelaus gebly het . Euripides skryf, behalwe die apologetiese werk, "Archelaus" ook die bekende toneelstuk "Bachae" geïnspireer deur die Masedoniese kultus vir die God Dionysus. Die Masedoniese raad het geweier om die lyk van Euripides aan sy geboorteplek Athene te gee (Gell.Noct.Att.XV.20). Gedurende die jare 407/6 het Archelaus uit Athene die titels proxenos en euergetes ontvang.

Amyntas III regeer 393-370/369 vC en lei 'n beleid van uitputting en verswakking van die Griekse stadstate. Sy twee van sy seuns, Alexander II en Perdiccas III, het later net kort regeer. Alexander II het egter 'n ekspansionistiese beleid gehad en het Noord -Griekeland binnegeval. In Thessalië het hy Masedoniese garnisoene in die stede verlaat en geweier om dit te ontruim. Die Thebane wat destyds die magtigste militêr was, het ingegryp en dwing om die garnisoene te verwyder. Alexander II se jongste broer Philip is as gyselaar vir Thebe geneem. Na die dood van Alexander II neem sy ander broer Perdiccas III die troon op. Maar Perdiccas III is saam met 4 000 van sy Masedoniese soldate dood in 'n geveg met die Illyriërs, en Amyntas se derde seun, Filips II, word nou die volgende Masedoniese koning.

Philip II (359-336 vC), die grootste mens wat Europa ooit gegee het (Theop.F.GR.H. F, 27) het Masedonië bevry en verenig en dit in die eerste Europese mag in die moderne sin van die woord verander - 'n gewapende nasie met 'n gemeenskaplike nasionale ideaal. Hy onderwerp al die bure van Masedonië (Illyriërs, Thraciërs en Grieke) en maak Masedonië die magtigste koninkryk op die Balkan. Hy was veral wreed teenoor die Griekse stede aan die rand van Masedonië. Hy het hulle almal platgeslaan, insluitend die belangrikste Griekse sentrum van Olynthus, en Stageira, geboorteplek van Aristoteles, en die inwoners aan slawerny verkoop. In 338 het die Grieke verenig om te verhoed dat Philip die suide van Griekeland binnedring, maar die Masedoniërs verslaan die Grieke tydens die geveg by Chaeronea. Philip het 'n hegemon aan die Grieke wat geen ander keuse gehad het as om sy vredesooreenkoms te bekragtig nie koine eirene. Die Grieke moes sweer dat hulle die voorwaardes sou nakom en dat hulle nie net in opstand sal kom teen Filip nie, maar ook teen sy opvolgers. Die vier Masedoniese stratigiese garnisoene in Korinte, die Theban Cadmeia, Chalcis op Euboea en Ambracia, was 'n waarborg vir die Masedoniese besit van Griekeland. Hierdie wedersydse vrede - koine eirene deur die veroweraar voorgeskryf, was glad nie 'n liga nie (dit het nie die woord symachia gehad nie), maar 'n fiksie wat Masedoniese oorheersing in Griekeland sou verdoesel, 'n tydelike instelling om die Griekse polis baie makliker in die monargie op te neem. Maar die veroweraar van Griekeland is vermoor voordat hy die Masedoniërs kon lei tydens die verowering van die Persiese Ryk tydens die huweliksvieringe van sy dogter Cleopatra.

Sy seun Alexander III die Grote (356-323 v.C.) volg sy pa op 20-jarige ouderdom op en het dadelik die opstand van die Thraciërs, Illyriërs en Grieke neergelê, wat in opstand gekom het toe hulle gehoor het van Filippus se dood. In Griekeland het hy die belangrikste sentrum van Thebe met 'n slagting van 6 000 mense platgeslaan en die 30 000 inwoners aan slawerny verkoop, as 'n waarskuwing aan die Griek wat sou gebeur as hulle weer in opstand sou kom. Daarna het hy Persië binnegeval aan die hoof van Masedoniese en geallieerde Griekse, Illyriese en Thraciese troepe. Die Griekse soldate het nie aan enige van die gevegte deelgeneem nie omdat hulle gyselaars was vir vrede en 'n waarborg vir die veiligheid van die Masedoniese besettingsmagte in Griekeland. Hulle het nie net 'n belangrike rol in enige van die veldslae gespeel nie, maar daar was ook geen Griekse bevelvoerders sedert die Masedoniërs hul geledere gehad het nie. Alexander se oorwinnings in Granicus, Issus en Gaugamela maak 'n einde aan die Persiese Ryk, wat daarna vervang word deur die Masedoniese Ryk wat tussen Europa, Egipte en Indië strek. Vanaf hierdie tyd tot by die aankoms van Rome, sal die Masedoniërs die gebeure in hierdie uitgestrekte ruimte byna drie eeue lank vorm gee.

Die dood van Alexander het die Masedoniese leidende generaals in 'n verskriklike konflik oor die heerskappy van die Ryk gebring. Maar eers is die opstand van die Grieke neergelê met die slagtings van die 23 000 Griekse huursoldate in Asië (Diodorus, 18.7.3-9), en die bloedige einde van die Lamiese (Helleense) Oorlog waarin die verenigde Grieke nie kon wen nie weer vryheid (Diodorus, 18.10.1-3, 11, 12, 15, 17.5). Teen 300 vC is die Masedoniese Ryk opgekap tussen die dinastieë Antigonus I & quotOne-Eye & quot (Masedonië en Griekeland), Ptolemeus I (Egipte) en Seleucus I (Asië). Onder Antigonus II Gonatas (276-239), die kleinseun van Antigonus I, Masedonië, het 'n stabiele monargie verkry en sy besetting van Griekeland versterk. Sy kleinseun Philip V (222-179 vC), het in botsing gekom met Rome wat nou ooswaarts uitgebrei het, en die twee "Masedoniese oorloë" teen die Romeine geveg. Nadat die Romeinse leër Philip in Thessalië verslaan het, het Masedonië die hele Griekeland verloor en tot sy oorspronklike grense teruggebring. In die derde & quot Masedoniese Oorlog & quot, het Rome uiteindelik die Masedoniese leër verslaan onder die laaste koning, die seun van Filippus, Perseus (179-168 v.C.) en tydens die Slag van Pydna sterf 20 000 Masedoniese soldate terwyl hulle hul land verdedig. Perseus sterf as gevangene in Italië, die Masedoniese koninkryk hou op om te bestaan, en teen 146 word Masedonië 'n Romeinse provinsie.

Teen 65 vC verower Rome die Seleucidiese Masedoniese koninkryk in Asië onder sy laaste koning Antiochus VII. Uiteindelik het die nederlaag van Cleopatra VII in 30 vC 'n einde gebring aan die laaste van die Masedoniese afstammelinge in Egipte, en daarmee het die laaste oorblyfsels van die Masedoniese Ryk wat eens die magtigste ter wêreld was, van die aarde af verdwyn .

In 51 nC vir die eerste keer op Europese bodem, in die Masedoniese dorpe Philippi, Thessalonika en Beroea, preek die apostel Paulus die Christendom (Acta apos., XVI, id. XVII). In 52 en 53 stuur hy sendbriewe aan die mense van Thessalonika (Epist. Thess) in 57 kom hy weer na Masedonië, en in 63 stuur hy sendbriewe aan die mense van Philippi (Epist. Philipp). Gedurende die 3de en 4de eeu, as gevolg van die Gotiese aanvalle, het die Masedoniese dorpe vestings rondom hulle gebou, Masedonië is verdeel in twee provinsies, Masedonië Prima en Masedonië Salutarus.

Sedert die oos-wes-skeuring van die Romeinse Ryk in 395 nC, is Masedonië beheer deur die Oos-Romeinse Ryk (Bisantynse Ryk). Dit is interessant om op te let dat die keiser Justinianus in Skopje, Masedonië, gebore is. In die 5de eeu is Masedonië weer verdeel in Masedonië Prima en Masedonië Secunda. In die sesde eeu het 'n aardbewing Scupi (deesdae Skopje) en Slawiërs sowel as Masedonië as Griekeland gesloop en gemeng met die ou Masedoniërs en Grieke. So is die grondslag gelê vir die moderne Masedoniese en Griekse nasies. In die 7de eeu het die Turko-Mongoolse Bulgars die Balkan-skiereiland binnegekom en Thracië bevolk. Mettertyd het hulle gemeng met die Slawiërs en antieke Thraciërs wat reeds daar gewoon het en die fondamente gelê van die moderne Bulgaarse nasie.

In die 9de eeu, terwyl die Bisantynse Ryk beheer was deur die Masedoniese keisers van die Masedoniese dinastie, het die Masedoniese broers Cyril en Methodius uit die grootste Masedoniese stad Salonica die eerste Slawiese alfabet geskep, die Slawiese geletterdheid gestig en die Christendom bevorder onder die Slawiese volke. Hulle dissipels Kliment en Naum van Ohrid het die eerste Slawiese Universiteit, die Ohrid Literary School, gestig. 3 500 onderwysers, geestelikes, skrywers en ander letterkundiges kom uit hierdie Ohrid Literary School. Hulle aktiwiteite is bekroon met die grondlegging van 'n Slawiese kulturele, opvoedkundige en kerklike organisasie, waar die Slawiese alfabet gebruik is en die Oud -Slawiese taal in godsdiensdienste ingevoer is. Die totstandkoming van die eerste Slawiese bisdom, later 'n Ohrid -aartsbiskop tydens die bewind van Samuel, was die begin van die Masedoniese Ortodokse Kerk.

Basil II die Masedoniër Tsaar Samuel

In the first half of the 10 th century, the Bogomil teaching appeared in Macedonia. Bogomilism had grown into a large-scale popular movement and it spread through the Balkans and Europe. The 10 th century also marked the beginning of the first Macedonian Slavic State, the Kingdom of Tsar Samuel (976-1014). Towards the end of the 10th century, with the weakening of the Eastern Roman Empire, and with the first Bulgarian Empire apart, Tsar Samuel created a strong Macedonian medieval kingdom with its center at Ohrid. Soon he conquered parts of Greece, Epirus, a large part of Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Dalmacia. This was not a Bulgarian state, but an independent Macedonian State with a capital in Ohrid, Macedonia, not in Preslav, Bulgaria where the Bulgarian kings ruled. Samuel was defeated in 1014 by Basil II the Macedonian when the Byzantine army won the battle on Mount Belasica capturing 15,000 of his soldiers. All were blinded, except one in every one hundred, who were left with one eye to lead the rest back to Samuel who escaped death at Belasica. At the site Samuel suffered a stroke and died two days later on October 6, 1014.

For four centuries after the fall of the kingdom, rebellions and frequent changes of rule disrupted Macedonia's development. In the 11 th century, there were two major uprisings against Byzantine rule, one led by Petar Deljan in 1040, Samuel's grandson, and the other by Gjorgji Vojteh in 1072. The 12 th century saw the rise of the Macedonian feudal lords Dobromir Hrs in 1201, and Strez in 1211.

Despite the rebellions, and the short-lived Serbian and Bulgarian occupations in the 13 th and 14 th centuries, Macedonia remained a Byzantine territory until the Ottoman Turks conquered it in 1389. The Turks firmly established themselves not only in Macedonia, but in all of the Southern Balkans. Ottoman rule will last for five centuries. The first significant resistance movements against the Turkish occupation were the Mariovo-Prilep Rebellion (1564 - 1565), and the Karposh Uprising in 1689.In the 18th century, under the pressure of the Greek Patriarch in Istanbul, the Turks abolished the Ohrid Archbishopric, which had been keeping alive the spiritual soul of the Macedonians for centuries since the times of Tsar Samuel.

In the 19th century, Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria freed themselves from the Turkish rule and actively become conspiring against the Macedonians displaying territorial aspirations on their land. These indigenous states all became in different ways stalking horses for the aspirations of the European Great Powers. The so-called "Macedonian Question" appeared which is nothing else but a competition for a new conquest of Macedonia by their neighbors. The Greeks, Bulgarians, and Serbs employed many weapons in this conflict. They included the opening of schools in an attempt to inculcate a particular linguistic and confessional identity, the control of ecclesiastical office, influence over the course of railway building, diplomatic attempts to secure the ear of the Turkish Sultan. The Greeks and the Bulgarians begun sending guerrilla bands into Macedonia to and use terror to "convince" the population of its "true identity". But the Macedonians strove to develop their own national consciousness and begun organizing themselves for fight against the Turks at the same time, a process that their neighbors tried everything to interrupt. Thus, the nineteenth century is a period of growing national awareness among the Macedonian people and their quest for free and independent Macedonia.

The Independence Movement

Literacy and education flourished and the foundations of modern Macedonian literature were laid. The leading activists were Kiril Pejchinovich, Joakim Krchovski, Partenija Zografski, Georgija Puleski, Jordan Hadzi Konstantinov - Dzinot, Dimitar and Konstantin Miladinov, Grigor Prlicev, and Kuzman Sapkarev. The second half of the nineteenth century was marked by the beginning of the national revolutionary struggle for the liberation of Macedonia. The Razlovtsi and Kresna Uprisings , in 1876 and 1878 respectively, had a strong influence on the growth of Macedonian national awareness. Bishop Theodosius of Skopje started a campaign for an independent Macedonian Orthodox Church and tried to restore the Ohrid Archbishopric, which had been abolished in 1767. The Bulgarians effectively destroyed the idea. In 1893, the Macedonian revolutionary organization known as VMRO (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization) was founded in the greatest Macedonian city of Salonica, with Gotse Delchev as its leader. Its objectives were national freedom and the establishment of an autonomous Macedonian state with the slogan "Macedonia for the Macedonians". Delchev's famous words were " I understand the world as a field for cultural competition among the nations " and " Those who believe that answer of our national liberation lies in Bulgaria, Serbia or Greece might consider themselves a good Bulgarian, good Serb or a good Greek, but not a good Macedonian ." In 1903 a group of Macedonian revolutionaries known as "Gemidzii" carried out a series of attacks on a number of buildings in Salonica in order to draw the attention of the European public towards the situation of the Macedonian people. Later on August 2, 1903, VMRO launched the Ilinden Uprising against the Turks and declared Macedonian independence. The revolutionaries liberated the town of Krushevo, and established the Republic of Krushevo with its own government. The uprising was brutally crushed by the Turks, but the Macedonian Question thereafter aroused intense international concern. The Great Powers made several attempts to impose reform on the Porte, including the sending of their own officers to supervise the gendarmerie - in effect, the first international peacekeeping force. And although the revolt was suppressed, Macedonians remember the brief victory as a key date in the country's history and the event is enshrined in Macedonia's constitution. In the same year, 1903, Krste Misirkov from Pella (Postol), one of the most outstanding names in the history of Macedonian culture, and the founder of the modern Macedonian literary language and orthography, published his "On Macedonian Matters", in which he projected the principles for standardization of the Macedonian literary language.

The Partition of Macedonia and World War I

In 1908 the Young Turk revolution. The Young Turk movement, lead by the Young Turk Committee, had the aim of reforming the Turkish country and making social and political reforms in Macedonia. The Macedonian revolutionary organization, through Jane Sandanski and the newly formed national federal party, actively took part in the Young Turk movement for achieving autonomy for Macedonia.

In 1912, Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria joined forces and defeated the Turkish army in Macedonia. 100,000 Macedonians also participated and helped in the Turkish evacuation but the victors did not reward them. The Treaty of London (May 1913), which concluded the First Balkan War, left Bulgaria dissatisfied with the partition of Macedonia among the allies which resulted after the war. Bulgaria's attempt to enforce a new partition in a Second Balkan War failed, and the Treaty of Bucharest (August 1913) confirmed a pattern of boundaries that (with small variations) has remained in force ever since.

Macedonia within Turkey before 1912 and its partition in 1913 among Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Albania

Having failed to achieve independence in 1903, the Macedonians, now divided, were left to their new masters. Greece tookthe biggest, southern half of Macedonia (Aegean Macedonia) and renamed it to "Northern Greece" Bulgaria annexed the Pirin region and abolished the Macedonian name, and Serbia took over the Vardar region and renamed it to "Southern Serbia". N. Pasich of Serbia and E. Venizelos of Greece agreed on the newly formed Greek-Serbian border, so that there would be "only Serbs to the North and only Greeks to the South", and no "Macedonians" on either side. Thus the politics of assimilation had begun, as Macedonia's geographic, natural and ethnic unity was distroyed by its own neighbors. An intensive campaigning took place in all three parts of Macedonia to impose foreign identities upon the population that suited the interests of the controlling states. In Vardar Macedonia, the Serbs labeled the Macedonians with the name "South Serbs" in Aegean Macedonia, the Greeks labeled them as "Slavophone Greeks", "MakedoSlavs", and other insulting names while in Pirin Macedonia, the Macedonians were simply called Bulgarians.

In 1914, World War I erupted. Bulgaria sided with the Central powers and by 1915 it occupied the Serbian held part of Macedonia. But the defeat of the Central powers and the end of World War I in 1918 saw the partition of 1913 reconfirmed and Macedonia was left divided. At the Paris Peace conference the demands of the Macedonians for independent and united Macedonia were ignored. Vardar Macedonia was re-incorporated with the rest of Serbia and into the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes which was later renamed Yugoslavia.

World War II and Liberation

Since 1913, official Greece has been trying to banish native Macedonian names of villages, towns, cities, rivers, and lakes in Aegean Macedonia. For example, the little stream which issues from Mount Olympus and flows into the Aegean Sea is labeled Mavroneri("black water") on the maps made by Greek cartographers after 1913. However, the same river appears as Crna Reka, a native Macedonian name meaning "black river" on the maps made before 1913. Kutlesh had been dropped for Vergina, and Kukush for Kilkis, together with at least 300 other places all over Aegean Macedonia. The Macedonians were also forced to renounce their native family names and use only new "Greek-sounding" names. In 1995, Human Rights Watch - Helsinki was a witness that even today the Macedonians are forbidden to carry their first and last Macedonian names. During the dictatorship of General Metaxis, the Macedonians were exposed to brutal oppression. The Macedonian language was forbidden, despite the fact under the supervision of the League of Nations Greece had recognized its existence as distinct language when it published the primer "Abecedar" for the needs of the Macedonian children in 1924. In the 1930's the Macedonians in Greece were punished for speaking of their native language by drinking of castor oil and were persecuted for expressing of their national identity. Yet despite the triple persecution the Macedonians never abandoned their nationality.

The period between the two world wars was also filled with constant endeavors to change the situation of Macedonia and annul the division of the country and its people. In 1925 VMRO (United) was founded in Vienna under the leadership of Dimitar Vlahov, Pavel Satev, Georgi Zankov, Rizo Rizov, Vladimir Pop Timov and Hristo Jankov. Their main objective was to free Macedonia within its geographical and economical borders and create an independent political unit that will become an equal member of the future Balkan Federation. In 1935, MANAPO (Macedonian National Movement) was founded in the Vardar part of Macedonia. In 1938The first collection of poems "Fire" ("Ogin") from Venko Markovski was published in Macedonian. In 1939 publication of "White Dawns" ("Beli Mugri"), a collection of poems in Macedonian from the first modern Macedonian poet Koco Racin. In 1940, the democratic groups in Macedonia defined the political program for the national and social liberation of the country.

With the World War II burning throughout Europe, Yugoslavia was invaded by the German army in April of 1941. Bulgaria, now fascist, again occupied almost all of Macedonia (both Vardar and Aegean) and collaborated with the Nazis for the departure of the Jews of Salonica to their deaths. On October 11, 1941, the Macedonians launched a war for the liberation of Macedonia from the Bulgarian occupation. By 1943, the anti-fascist sentiment lent support for the growing communist movement and soon thereafter, the Communist Party of Macedonia was established. In the same year, the first unit of the Army of Macedonia was founded. Bodies of government, such as national liberation councils, were formed over the whole territory of Macedonia. The Headquarters of the National Liberation Army (NOV) published the manifesto of the goals of the war of liberation. The first session of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM) was held in the monastery of St. Prohor Pchinski on 2 August 1944 on the 41 st anniversary of the Ilinden uprising. Representatives from all parts of Macedonia, including the Pirin and the Aegean parts of the country, gathered for the occasion and decided on the constitution of a modern Macedonian state as a member of the new Yugoslav federation under the name of Peoples Republic of Macedonia. The ASNOM presidium was formed with Metodija Andonov Cento was its first President and decision was reached to constitute a modern Macedonian country that will become part of the new Federal Yugoslavia. On April 1945 the first Macedonian government was founded with Lazar Kolisevski as its first President. The Ohrid Archbishopric was restored in 1958, and its autocephaly was declared in 1967. The Macedonians were finally free in one of the three parts of Macedonia.

The Greek Civil War and the Macedonians in Greece (Aegean Macedonia)

In Greece, after the Varkisa agreement (December 1945), the use of the Macedonian name and the Macedonian language were once again prohibited in the Aegean part of Macedonia and the Greek authorities started applying terror against the Macedonians. In the period of 1945-46 alone, according to statistics: 400 murders were registered 440 women and girls were raped 13,529 interned on the Greek islands 8,145 imprisoned in the Greek prisons 4,209 indicted 3,215 sentenced to prison 13 driven mad by the torture in the prisons 45 villages abandoned 80 villages pillaged 1,605 families plundered and 1,943 families evicted.

Therefore, during the Greek Civil War that followed World War II (1946-1949), the Macedonians of Aegean Macedonia fought on the side of the Greek Communist Party (KKE) simply because it promised them their rights after the war.Out of the 35,000 soldiers of DAG, about half were Macedonians. The liberated territory, covering mainly the territory of Aegean Macedonia. 87 Macedonian schools were opened for 100,000 pupils, the newspapers in Macedonian were published ("Nepokoren", "Zora", "Edinstvo", "Borec"), and cultural and artistic associations were created. But after two years of KKE's success in the civil war, the United States decided to side up against them, afraid that Greece would become another communist country. With the military support that came from the United States and Great Britain, the communists lost the war, and the Macedonians once again were stripped of their human rights.

The defeat of DAG resulted in terrible consequences for the Macedonians. 28,000 Aegean Macedonian children, known as 'child refugees', were separated from their families and settled in eastern Europe and Soviet Union in an attempt to save them from the terror that followed. Thousands of Macedonians lost their lives for the liberty of their people and a great number of the Macedonian villages were burned to the ground jut like the Greek army burned Kukush and the surrounding villages in the Balkan Wars.

In the late 1950's the inhabitants of several villages in the districts of Florina (Lerin), Kastoria (Kostur), and Edessa (Voden) were forced to take oaths in which they swore never again to speak "the local Slavic idiom," but to speak only Greek instead. Yet, the policy on denationalization continued to meet resistance among the Macedonians. The Macedonian language continued to be spoken in everyday communication and folklore as an expression of the Macedonian national affiliation. "The Macedonian Movement for Balkan Prosperity" withits main office in Salonica was founded, and "Rainbow" and some other organizations have been asking the international factors and the Greek government for legalization of the national and political rights of the Macedonians in Greece .

The Macedonians in Bulgaria (Pirin Macedonia)

The political changes after the capitulation of fascist Bulgaria and the coup d'etat of September 9, 1944 positively influenced the historical status of the Macedonians from the Pirin part of Macedonia . The Communist Party of Bulgaria, under the leadership of Geogi Dimitrov on August 9, 1946 officially recognized the Macedonian nation and the right of the Pirin part of Macedonia to be attached to the People s Republic of Macedonia. The Macedonians in Bulgaria exist as separate nationality on all Bulgarian censuses after the end of World War II. The demography data from 1946 revealed that the majority of the population in the Pirin part of Macedonia declared itself as Macedonian in a free census. A period of cultural autonomy and affirmation of the Macedonian national and cultural values had begun. The Macedonian literary language and the national history have been introduced into the educational process. Almost 32,000 pupils were included into the teaching of Macedonian. In 1947 in Gorna Djumaja (Blagoevgrad nowadays) the first Macedonian bookstore and reading room were opened, as well as the Regional Macedonian National Theater. The newspapers in Macedonian such as "Pirinsko delo", "Nova Makedonija", "Mlad borec" etc. were also published. Literary circles and cultural and artistic associations were founded contributing to the spreading of the Macedonian culture. In the Bulgarian census of 1956, 63,7% of the population in Pirin declared itself as Macedonian. However, since 1956 Bulgaria has altered her attitude, negating again the existence of the Macedonian nation and forbidding the expression of Macedonian nationality and language. The idea for enforced and as result, in the census of 1965, the number of Macedonians dropped to only 8,750 and in the district of Blagoevgrad which previously had the highest percentage of Macedonians, it was less than 1%. But the fact that the Macedonians exist in Bulgaria can not be denied. The Times Atlas of World History acknowledges in its map that Pirin Macedonia is entirely populated by Macedonians . The recent archeological discovery in Aegean Macedonia in Greece confirmed that the Bulgarians had engaged in falsification of the history of Macedonia ever since the 19 th century . And finally, the Macedonians in Bulgaria began organizing themselves. In 1989 the United Macedonian Organization - Ilinden (OMO Ilinden) was formed, demanding cultural and national autonomy for the Macedonians in Pirin.

Republic of Macedonia

As federal Yugoslavia was disintegrating at the beginning of 1990's, on September 8, 1991 in a referendum, 95% of eligible voters approved the independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Macedonia. Kiro Gligorov was elected the first president of independent Macedonia. The new constitution determined the Republic of Macedonia a sovereign, independent, civil, and democratic state, and it recognized the complete equality of the Macedonians and the ethnic minorities. It read " Macedonia is constituted as a national country of the Macedonian people which guarantees complete civil equality and permanent mutual living of the Macedonian people with the Albanians, Turks, Vlachs, Roma and the other nationalities living in the Republic of Macedonia."

Flag of the Republic of Macedonia 1991

Although the European Community acknowledged that Macedonia had fulfilled the requirements for official recognition, due to the opposition of Greece, which was already a member of the community, the EC decided to postpone the recognition. Greece, afraid that Macedonia might put forward a historical, cultural, and linguistic, claim over Aegean Macedonia, insisted that the new nation has no right to use of the name "Macedonia" and use the emblem of ancient Macedonia on its flag. In July of 1992 there were demonstrations by 100,000 Macedonians in the capital Skopje over the failure to receive recognition. But despite Greek objections, Macedonia was admitted to the United Nations under the temporary reference (not an official name) "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" in 1993. Full diplomatic relations with a number of EC nations followed, while Russia, China, Turkey, Bulgaria and most nations, ignored Greece's objections and recognized Macedonia under its constitutional name "Republic of Macedonia".

Greece slapped a trade embargo on Macedonia on February 1994 because of the refusal of the Macedonian President Gligorov to rename the country, nation, and language, and change the Constitution because Article 47 specifies that "the Republic of Macedonia cares for the statue and rights of those persons belonging to the Macedonian people in neighboring countries, as well as Macedonian ex-parties, assists their cultural development and promotes links with them." Ironically, Greece also has a similar article in her Constitution, as any other country in the world, to care for her minorities in the neighboring countries. But the embargo had devastating impact on Macedonia's economy as the country was cut-off from the port of Salonica and became landlocked because of the UN embargo on Yugoslavia to the north, and the Greek embargo to the south. Greece would remove the embargo only if Macedonia satisfies her demands and despite international criticism it did not lift the embargo. At the same time, Greece withdrew from the Greek - Macedonian talks, monitored by the UN as a mediator, and blocked any acceptance of Macedonia in the international institutions by using its power to veto new members. Faced with economic collapse, and left without any support from the international community, Macedonia was practically forced to change its flag and constitution, upon which Greece lifted the embargo. Ironically, in 1995 the Human Rights Watch - Helsinki, condemned Greece for the oppression of its ethnic Macedonian minority , which Greece denies it exists. Both Amnesty International and the European Parliament had also urged Greece to recognize the existence of the Macedonian language and stop the oppression of the ethnic Macedonians.

Tensions in North-Western Macedonia

In 1994, Kiro Gligorov was re-elected president but he was seriously injured in 1995 in a car bombing. He was able to resume his duties in 1996. Tensions with the Albanian minority continued as some Albanian politicians begun criticizing the Macedonian government on international scene. The Albanians were very small minority in Macedonia after World War II. Since then, they emigrated in greater numbers from Albania into Macedonia looking for a better life and Macedonia opened its doors to them. By 1953, they composed 12.5% of Macedonia's population, and by encouraging large families they became faster growing element then the Macedonians and any of the other smaller minorities.

Today, the Albanians claim that their human rights are not fulfilled in Macedonia, that their statistical numbers are much higher then the recorded 23% in the censuses of the 1990's , and they demand a "cultural autonomy" in north-western Macedonia where they live in greater numbers among the Macedonians. This, despite the fact that Macedonia had always provided its Albanian minority with a freedom of having TV, radio, newspapers, elementary and high schools in their own language, and even ministers in the government, and despite the fact that international observers monitored the censuses of 1991 and 1994 and verified the results as accurate . Clearly a sharp contrasts and complete opposite to the plight of ethnic Macedonians in Greece, Bulgaria, and Albania, whose minimal human rights are not respected at all.

One final observation regarding the Albanians has to be made. The Albanians claim that they are descendants of the ancient Illyrians (the western neighbors of the ancient Macedonians) and some Albanians have gone as far as claiming part of Macedonia (as well as parts of Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece) as "Greater Albania". It should be stressed that the Albanians are not direct descendants of the ancient Illyrians . In fact, their original home has never been modern Albania, since in ancient times Albania was located in Asia on the Caucasus. The ancient Greek and Roman historians clearly mention the Albanians fighting on the side of the Persians against the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great and Plutarch wrote that they fought the Roman army under Ptolemy in Asia as well. The ancient geographers Ptolemy of Alexandria (2 nd century A.D.) and Strabo made clear maps of Albania in Asia (as well as of Macedonia separate from Greece, Illyria, and Thrace). The Albanians came to Europe and settled present day Albania many centuries later, becoming the latest arrivals on the Balkans, as there are being mentioned for first time in Europe many centuries after the arrival of the Slavs and Bulgars. By the time of their arrival, the modern Macedonian, Greek, and Bulgarian nations were already in the process of formation from the roots of the ancient Macedonian, Greek, and Thracian peoples, but the ancient Illyrians were far more assimilated and their name disappears from history. If the Albanians are therefore recognized as descendants of the Illyrians (although their link to any ancient Balkan nation is the weakest out of all modern nations due to the enormous time span), then it must be recognized that today's Macedonians are more then justified descendants of the ancient Macedonians (with Slav admixture from the 6 th century). Similarly the modern Greeks are descendants of the ancient Greeks (with Slav and Turkish admixture), and the modern Bulgarians are descendants of the ancient Thracians (with Bulgar and Slav admixture), a fact that these three nations are quite aware of in their own historiographies. In addition, the fact that the Albanians have retained their original Albanian name and not the Illyrian, unlike the Macedonians and the Greeks who still carry their ancient names, furthermore supports the fact that they are direct descendants of the Asian Albanians and not of the ancient European Illyrians.

1. Ancient Greek and Roman historians : Arrian, Plutarch, Diodorus, Justin, Herodotus, Polybius, Curtius, Thracymachus, Livius, Demosthenes, Isocrates, Thucydides, Pseudo-Herod, Medeios of Larisa, Pseudo-Calisthanes, Pausanius, Ephoros, Pseudo-Skylax, Dionysius son of Kaliphon, Dionisyus Periegetes, Ptolemy of Alexandria (Geography) and Strabo.

2. In the Shadow of Olympus (1990) and Makedonika (1995) - Eugene N. Borza

4. Alexander of Macedon 356-323 B.C.: A Historical Biography by Peter Green , 1991

5. Philip and Alexander of Macedon - David G. Hogarth , 1897

6. Krste Misirkov - About Macedonian Matters 1903

7. St. Petersburg periodical (Macedonian Voice ) 1913-1914

8. Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870-1990 - Anastasia N. Karakasidou, 1997

9. The Macedonian Conflict - Loring M. Danforth, 1995

10. Denying Ethnic Identity: The Macedonians of Greece by Human Rights Watch Helsinki, 1995

11. Encyclopaedia Britannica Coutrywatch

12. The censuses of the Republic of Macedonia

13. Macedonia and Greece: the Struggle to Define a new Balkan Nation - John Shea, 1997


Economy of Macedonia

The reign of Augustus began a long period of peace, prosperity and wealth for Macedonia, although its importance in the economic standing of the Roman world diminished when compared to its neighbor, Asia Minor.

The economy was greatly stimulated by the construction of the Via Egnatia, the installation of Roman merchants in the cities, and the founding of Roman colonies. The Imperial government brought, along with its roads and administrative system, an economic boom, which benefited both the Roman ruling class and the lower classes. With vast arable and rich pastures, the great ruling families amassed huge fortunes in the society based on slave labor.

The improvement of the living conditions of the productive classes brought about an increase in the number artisans and craftspeople to the region. Stone-masons, miners, blacksmiths, etc. were employed in every kind of commercial activity and craft. Greek people were also widely employed as tutors, educators and doctors throughout the Roman world.

The export economy was based essentially on agriculture and livestock, while iron, copper, and gold along with such products as timber, resin, pitch, hemp, flax and fish were also exported. Another source of wealth was the country's ports, such as Dion, Pella, Thessalonika, Kassandreia, and Neapolis.


Macedonia - Country history and economic development

1912-13. Serbia occupies and annexes what is now Macedonian territory, then part of the Ottoman Empire.

1913-41. The Slav majority in Macedonia, considered ethnic Bulgarian by themselves and by the international community prior to 1913, is regarded by the Serb government as "southern Serbs" and is subjected to brutal pressure to assimilate. The economy remains agricultural and underdeveloped.

1943. Yugoslav Communist leader Josip Broz Tito's Anti-Fascist Council for People's Liberation of Yugoslavia recognizes what is now Macedonia as a distinct ethnic and political entity.

1945. A standard grammar of the new Macedonian language is compiled upon instructions by the Yugoslav government. Belgrade actively promotes Macedonian nationalism.

1946. The People's Republic (later Socialist Republic) of Macedonia is included in the Federal People's Republic (later Socialist Federal Republic) of Yugoslavia and participates in socialist economic development.

1991. Yugoslavia breaks up and Macedonians vote for independence. Serbia does not interfere and Bulgaria recognizes the new republic, but Greece refuses to acknowledge it, claiming that its name, symbol, and constitution imply territorial claims to the neighboring Greek province of Macedonia. Greece imposes a trade embargo that damages the country's economy.

1993. Macedonia is admitted to the United Nations as the ȯormer Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," until a further settlement with Greece is reached. The U.N. sends 1,000 troops (including 500 U.S. soldiers) to Macedonia to prevent the Bosnian conflict from spreading.

1995. Macedonia and Greece sign an interim accord, confirming the border and establishing diplomatic relations. Greece lifts the embargo, Macedonia agrees to remove the symbol and the articles of the constitution to which Greece objects. Negotiations continue regarding the country's name. Macedonia becomes a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and NATO's Partnership for Peace program.

1999. NATO begins air strikes against neighboring Serbia as Serb assaults on Kosovo force ethnic Albanians to flee to Macedonia. An international peacekeeping force is dispatched to Kosovo to help ensure the safe return of Albanian refugees from Macedonia.

2000. The EU opens its market to industrial and some agricultural goods from Macedonia, as recognition of its record in the Kosovo crisis.


Four Facts about Poverty in Macedonia


The small landlocked European country of Macedonia, located north of Greece, has only been officially declared an independent nation since 1991 after winning independence from Yugoslavia. During this short time, the population of Macedonia has struggled with the spread of poverty and remains among the ten poorest countries in Europe. Here are four facts about poverty in Macedonia:

  1. Nearly one-third of Macedonian citizens are poor. A calculated 30.4 percent of people in Macedonia live below the poverty line. Macedonia’s national population is just over two million people, which means a shocking 600,000 individuals are currently living below the poverty line. This is more than double the rate of poverty in the U.S., which measured at 13.5 percent in 2015.
  2. Political and ethnic tensions are contributing factors to the widespread poverty. Suspected government corruption in elections and ongoing prejudice between the Albanian and Macedonian populations prevent the stability necessary for economic improvement. As one Western diplomat claimed while choosing to remain anonymous, “When people have no money, they try to find someone to blame. In Macedonia’s case, ethnic groups blame each other for their misfortunes.”
  3. Unemployment is a major cause of poverty in Macedonia. The rate of unemployment in Macedonia was 23.4 percent in 2016, rendering one in four people unable to find work. The shift from a Yugoslavian command economy, in which the central government mandated many aspects of the market such as prices, incomes and investments, to the modern democratic economy, subject to volatile influences such as supply and demand, has left many citizens without job opportunities.
  4. Children may suffer the effects of poverty in Macedonia more than the adults. Even as progress is made to reduce the national poverty level, families with young children have far higher rates of poverty compared to the national average. According to a comprehensive study by UNICEF, the rates of poverty in Macedonia among households with children increased from 49.3 percent in 2002 to 66.6 percent in 2007. This is especially true among small-scale farmers in rural areas, who comprise 40 percent of the poor in Macedonia.

Future efforts to improve the economic standing of Macedonia will depend largely on expanding the job market and improving local infrastructure. Foreign investors may be able to solve both problems, especially from the United Kingdom and from Germany, as Macedonia continues to stabilize its new governmental structure and appeal to other European countries for support.


25 remarkable things you did not know about North Macedonia

Lake Ohrid, Macedonia's sole Unesco World Heritage site Credit: Fotolia/AP

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N orth Macedonia qualified for the European Championships - the country's first time making it this far in a major tournment in history. The team lost 3-1 to Austria in their first match 2-1 to Ukraine in their second game and will play against the Netherlands on June 21. To mark the occasion, here are 25 things you did not know about the Balkan country.

1. That’s 'North Macedonia' to you

The country has had some controversy around its name, with Greece also laying claim to the title of Macedonia for one of its northern regions, much of which fell within the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. The dispute was a hot potato, which is why Macedonia was officially known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – or FYROM for short. All this has been resolved now with the addition of 'North' to the country's name.

2. It’s high

There are more than 50 lakes and 34 mountains higher than 2,000 metres. It has the fifth highest average elevation of any country in Europe (741m), behind Andorra (highest), Switzerland, Austria and Turkey.

3. And old

Without being drawn on where Greece begins and North Macedonia ends, the ancient kingdom of Macedon dates back to 808BC and was ruled mostly by the founding dynasty of the Argeads, though modern-day North Macedonia most closely relates to the ancient kingdom of Paeonia, north of the kingdom of Macedonia. Skopje, the capital, is said to be seven thousand years old.

4. So old in fact, that.

There are said to be parts of the cross on which Jesus was crucified in the foundations of three monasteries in the country – St Bogodorica Prechista in Kichevo and St Jovan Bigorski and St Georgij Pobedonosec in Debar. Across the country there are nearly 1,000 churches and monasteries, while the city of Ohrid was once notable for having 365 churches, one for each day of the year. It has been accordingly nicknamed the Jerusalem of the Balkans.

5. But it has just one Unesco site

Ohrid is the country’s only Unesco World Heritage site. The city and its lake (Lake Ohrid) are counted as both cultural and natural inclusions, one of only 28 sites around the world to be marked as both.

6. NASA is a fan

Kokino, to the north of the country, is one of the world’s oldest observatories, as recognised by NASA and dating back to the 19 th century BC. It is inscribed on a Unesco “tentative” list of protection.

7. It has a saintly daughter.

Mother Teresa of Calcutta, recently made a saint by Pope Francis, was born in Skopje in 1910, though she was Albanian by ethnicity at the time of her birth. Today, there is both a statue of her and museum dedicated to her life.

8. . and a great son

Alexander the Great, the once-king of the Kingdom of Macedonia was the world’s first conqueror, who extended an empire across Greece and Persia to India and Egypt. On an awkward note, his legacy is also claimed by Greece, which is why…

9. This giant statue is slightly mysterious

The hugely controversial statue in Skopje's central square is officially named 'Warrior on a Horse' though most observers believe it is meant to depict Alexander the Great. Whatever it is called, it is monumental at 28 metres (92-foot) high, weighing 30 tons and costing an estimated €9.4 million. And it is hard not to feel its size is disproportionate.

10. It has its own St Tropez

“Trpejca, a small sleepy town on the banks of Lake Ohrid, is known as the St Tropez of Macedonia,” writes Telegraph Travel’s Adrian Bridge, who visited two years ago. “God knows why, but it is very pretty.”

11. And prides itself on its peacocks

At the southern tip of Lake Ohrid, the St Naum Monastery visited by Adrian on his trip, which dates back to 910AD, also had the unexpected bonus of a pride of peacocks roaming the grounds.

12. It has a country within

“The village of Vevčani high in the hills to the north of Lake Ohrid is famous for its springs, its appeal to artists - and for the fact that briefly following the break-up of Yugoslavia it declared itself the independent Republic of Vevčani,” writes Adrian. “The village - population 2,500 - still likes to think of itself as a separate entity, with its own passports and currency. And if you drink enough Vevčani wine, you can become an honorary citizen.”

13. Macedonia Two Flags

That’s what the other European states call it in the playground. The country’s current flag has been in use since 1995 and displays a golden yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges, but in 1992-1995 a smaller sun occupied only the centre of the fabric. It will be of little surprise to learn that the flag change came about due to the usage of a symbol, the Vergina Sun, that annoyed the Greeks, as they claimed it was historically Greek.

14. It kept the peace

FYR Macedonia was one of the only countries during the break-up of Yugoslavia to remain at peace throughout.

15. No need for a visa

British passport holders do not need a visa to visit (for up to three months). The Foreign Office says that most visits to the country are trouble-free.

16. Its capital has been shaken up

Capital Skopje has been hit by at least two devastating earthquakes in its history, the most recent of which was in 1963. The magnitude 6.1 quake destroyed 80 per cent of the city and killed more than 1,070 people.

17. It boasts cave behemoths

Cave Peshna is said to have one of the biggest entries in the Balkan region and resemble Helm's Deep from Lord of the Rings.



Kommentaar:

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  5. Taumuro

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  6. Tygogore

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