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Riaz Dean

Riaz Dean


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Die kartering van die groot spel: ontdekkingsreisigers, spioene en kaarte in die 19de-eeuse Asië

In die 19de eeu was die Britse en Russiese ryke besig met bitter wedywering vir die verkryging van Suid -Asië. Alhoewel Indië die uiteindelike prys was, het die grootste deel van die intrige en aksie langs die noordelike grens in Afghanistan, Turkestan en Tibet plaasgevind. Om die streek in kaart te bring en kennis van die vyand te verkry, was van deurslaggewende belang vir die belange van beide kante.

Die Great Trigonometrical Survey of India het in die 18de eeu begin met die doel om 'n gedetailleerde kaart van die subkontinent te skep. Onder leiding van George Everest - wie se naam later aan die hoogste berg ter wêreld toegeken is - het dit die Groot Boog in kaart gebring wat van die suidpunt van die land tot by die Himalajas loop. Baie van die werk is gedoen deur Indiese ontdekkingsreisigers, bekend as Pundits. Hulle was die eerstes wat die raaisels van die verbode stad Lhasa onthul het en die ware verloop van die magtige Tsangpo -rivier van Tibet ontdek het.

Hierdie ontdekkingsreisigers het belangrike inligting vir die Britse Ryk versamel en groot gedeeltes van die kaart van Asië ingevul. Hulle avontuurlustige optrede word lewendig weergegee Die kartering van die groot spel.


Brittanje was bang dat Rusland Indië sou binnedring

Die bestendige uitbreiding van grondgebied deur Rusland, aangesien dit groot gedeeltes van Sentraal -Asië ingesluk het, was vir Brittanje diep ontstellend en dreigend.

Londen het trouens geglo dat die uiteindelike bedoeling van die tsaar was om uiteindelik beheer oor Indië te neem - die 'juweel' in die kroon van Brittanje. Maar agterna dink baie historici dat die Britte die bedreiging valslik opgeblaas het. Trouens, militêre houding om Rusland te kontroleer, was selfvernietigend, aangesien dit waarskynlik die teenstander van Brittanje nog verder gekantel het. Soos dikwels die geval is, het agterdog slegs agterdog ontstaan.

Die Eerste Afghaanse Oorlog van 1842 was 'n absolute ramp vir die Britse leër. Byna die hele kontingent wat Kaboel beset het, is vermoor — meer as 16 000, insluitend vroue en kinders en Indiese kampvolgers.

Tydens die aanloop tot die Tweede Afghaanse Oorlog van 1878 het Brittanje hom teruggedwing na Kaboel om Russiese invloed op hierdie bufferstaat te voorkom. Die destydse onderkoning van Indië, lord Lytton, het gejeuk na 'n beslissende konfrontasie met die Russe in Sentraal -Asië en het na Londen tuisgegaan:

'Die vooruitsig op oorlog met Rusland is baie opgewonde, maar wat Indië betref, maak dit my glad nie ontsteld nie. As dit wil wees - nou beter as later. Ons is twee keer so sterk as Rusland in hierdie deel van die wêreld en het baie beter basisse vir aanval en verdediging. ”

Die minister van buitelandse sake vir Indië het hom gewaarsku toe hy op hierdie aggressiewe manier voortgegaan het: "Ek dink jy luister te veel na soldate ... as jy die soldate glo, is niks veilig nie."

Hierdie sentiment word herhaal deur die historikus Gerald Morgan, wat sy studie van die Groot Spel beëindig het met twee van ons vier bevindinge wat myte ontwrig:

'Die eerste daarvan is dat Rusland nooit die wil of die vermoë gehad het om Indië binne te val nie. Wat ook al die warmkoppe van albei kante kan dreig of verwag, dit was altyd die staatsmanne wat 'n oorlog verhinder het.


Resensie

''. absorberende, goedgeskrewe verhaal van die kartering van Indië gedurende die dae van die Raj. ''-"Indian Military Historical Society Journal"

'' Oor die algemeen is die boek goed nagevors en boeiend gelees. Ek beveel hierdie boek ten sterkste aan vir algemene lesers sowel as vir almal met 'n deurlopende belangstelling in die kartering in die algemeen of in die Great Game. ''- "ANZMaps"

'' Die skrywer vertel 'n boeiende verhaal, stel die toneel voor en bring die tyd tot lewe. Die skrywer maak hierdie werk lewendig vir mense wat nog nooit werk van hierdie aard gedoen het nie. Oor die algemeen is die boek goed nagevors en boeiend lees. Ek sal hierdie boek sterk aanbeveel vir algemene lesers sowel as vir almal met 'n deurlopende belangstelling in die kartering in die algemeen of in die Great Game. ''- "The Globe"

'' Binne hierdie groot prentjie is dit Dean se instink vir vertel en koesterbare besonderhede wat hierdie wonderlike boek werklik onderskei. ''- 'Geografies'

"Hierdie boek sal veral van belang wees vir historiese entoesiaste wat belangstel in kartering, reisverhale en spioenasie. 'N goeie voorbeeld van populêre geskiedenis en 'n waardige toevoeging tot die literatuur oor die groot spel."- "Journal of Military History"

"Die skrywer vertel 'n boeiende verhaal, stel die toneel voor en maak die tyd lewendig."- "Australian and New Zealand Map Society"

'' 'N Opwindende verhaal van spioenasie en kartografie teen die agtergrond van imperiale ambisies van twee moondhede, Brittanje en Rusland. merkwaardig om soveel besonderhede tussen die voorblaaie in te pak .''-- "The Hindu"

'' Die boek bied ons 'n blik op uiters eksentrieke persoonlikhede wie se lewens daaraan gewy is om die groot rykdom van Indië te beheer. erken die pogings van die verskillende Indiane. wat altyd diegene was wat die toerusting hanteer en in baie gevalle die grootste risiko's loop. Dit is die verhale van hierdie mense wat misgekyk word, wat die boek die leesbaarste maak. ''- "National Herald India"


Inhoud

James Byron Dean is gebore op 8 Februarie 1931 in die Seven Gables -woonstel op die hoek van 4th Street en McClure Street in Marion, Indiana, [4] die enigste kind van Mildred Marie (Wilson) en Winton Dean. Hy het ook beweer dat sy ma gedeeltelik inheems was en dat sy vader aan 'n "reeks oorspronklike setlaars behoort, wat teruggevoer kan word na die Mayflower". [5] Ses jaar nadat sy pa die boerdery verlaat het om 'n tandheelkundige tegnikus te word, het Dean saam met sy gesin na Santa Monica, Kalifornië, verhuis. daarna na die McKinley Elementary School. [6] Die gesin het etlike jare daar deurgebring, en Dean was in alle opsigte baie na aan sy ma. Volgens Michael DeAngelis was sy "die enigste persoon wat hom kon verstaan". [7] In 1938 word sy skielik met akute maagpyn getref en begin vinnig gewig verloor. Sy sterf aan baarmoederkanker toe Dean nege jaar oud was. [6] Dean se pa kon hom nie by sy tante versorg nie en het by sy tante oom, Ortense en Marcus Winslow, op hul plaas in Fairmount, Indiana, [8] waar hy in hul Quaker -huishouding grootgemaak is. [9] Dean se pa het in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien en later weer getroud.

In sy tienerjare het Dean die raad en vriendskap van die plaaslike metodiste -pastoor, ds James DeWeerd, gesoek, wat blykbaar 'n formatiewe invloed op Dean gehad het, veral op sy toekomstige belange in stiergeveg, motorwedrenne en teater. [10] Volgens Billy J. Harbin het Dean ''n intieme verhouding met sy predikant gehad, wat in sy hoërskool op die hoërskool begin het en baie jare geduur het'. [11] [12] Hulle beweerde seksuele verhouding is voorgestel in Paul Alexander se boek uit 1994 Boulevard of Broken Dreams: The Life, Times, and Legend of James Dean. [13] In 2011 is berig dat Dean een keer aan Elizabeth Taylor vertrou het dat hy ongeveer twee jaar na sy ma se dood seksueel misbruik is deur 'n minister. [14] Ander berigte oor Dean se lewe dui ook daarop dat hy óf as kind seksueel mishandel is deur DeWeerd óf as 'n laat tiener 'n seksuele verhouding met hom gehad het. [12] [13]

Dean se algehele prestasie op skool was besonders en hy was 'n gewilde student. Hy het op die bofbal- en varsity -basketbalspanne gespeel, drama bestudeer en in die openbaar gepraat deur die Indiana High School Forensic Association. Nadat hy in Mei 1949 aan die Fairmount High School gestudeer het, [15], verhuis hy terug na Kalifornië met sy hond, Max, om by sy pa en stiefma te woon. Hy het ingeskryf by die Santa Monica College (SMC) en het 'n hoofvak in die voorregte gehad. Hy het vir een semester [16] na UCLA oorgegaan en sy hoofvak in drama verander [17], wat gelei het tot vervreemding van sy vader. Hy het die Sigma Nu -broederskap belowe, maar is nooit begin nie. [18] Terwyl hy by UCLA was, is Dean uit 'n groep van 350 akteurs gekies om Malcolm in te vertolk Macbeth. [19] Destyds het hy ook begin optree in die werkswinkel van James Whitmore. In Januarie 1951 staak hy by UCLA om 'n voltydse loopbaan as akteur te volg. [20] [21]

Vroee loopbaan

Dean se eerste televisie -verskyning was in 'n Pepsi Cola -advertensie. [22] [23] [24] Hy het opgehou om voltyds op te tree en het in sy eerste spreekbeurt deelgeneem, soos Johannes die geliefde dissipel in Heuwel nommer een, 'n spesiale Paasfees -televisie wat die opstanding van Jesus dramatiseer. Dean het tydens die produksie van die program by die wydverfilmde Iverson Movie Ranch in die Chatsworth -omgewing van Los Angeles gewerk, waarvoor 'n replika van die graf van Jesus op die plaas op die plaas gebou is. Daarna het Dean drie rolprente in rolprente gekry: as soldaat in Vaste bajonette! (1951), 'n bokshoekman in Matroos Pasop (1952), [25] en 'n jeug in Het iemand my ma gesien? (1952). [26]

Terwyl hy sukkel om rolle in Hollywood te beklee, werk Dean ook as parkeerterrein by CBS Studios, waartydens hy Rogers Brackett ontmoet, [27] 'n radiodirekteur vir 'n reklamebureau, wat hom professionele hulp en leiding in sy gekose loopbaan bied. , asook 'n blyplek. [28] [29] Brackett het deure vir Dean oopgemaak en hom gehelp om sy eerste hoofrol op Broadway te kry Sien die Jaguar. [30]

In Julie 1951 verskyn Dean op Alias ​​Jane Doe, wat deur Brackett vervaardig is. [31] [29] In Oktober 1951, na die aanmoediging van die akteur James Whitmore en die advies van sy mentor Rogers Brackett, verhuis Dean na New York. Daar het hy as 'n stunt -toetser vir die speletjie gewerk Klop die klok, maar is daarna ontslaan omdat hy na bewering die take te vinnig uitgevoer het. [32] Hy verskyn ook in episodes van verskeie CBS -televisiereekse Die web, Studio One, en Lux Videoteater, voordat hy toelating tot die Actors Studio verkry het om metodes waar te neem onder Lee Strasberg. [33] In 1952 het hy 'n nie -sprekende rol as persman in die film gehad Sperdatum - V.S.A., met Humphrey Bogart in die hoofrol. [34] [35]

Trots op hierdie prestasies het Dean in 'n brief aan sy familie in 1952 na die Actors Studio verwys as "die grootste skool van die teater. Dit huisves wonderlike mense soos Marlon Brando, Julie Harris, Arthur Kennedy, Mildred Dunnock, Eli Wallach. Baie min kry Dit is die beste ding wat met 'n akteur kan gebeur. Ek is een van die jongstes wat behoort. " [28] Daar was hy klasmaats en goeie vriende met Carroll Baker, saam met wie hy uiteindelik sou speel Reuse (1956).

Dean se loopbaan het toegeneem en hy het in verdere episodes van sulke vroeë 1950's televisieprogramme opgetree as Kraft Television Theatre, Robert Montgomery bied aan, Die Amerikaanse staaluur, Gevaar, en Algemene elektriese teater. Een vroeë rol vir die CBS -reeks Omnibus in die episode "Glory in the Flower", sien Dean die tipe ontevrede jeug waarin hy later sou uitbeeld Rebelleer sonder oorsaak (1955). Hierdie program in die somer van 1953 bevat die liedjie "Crazy Man, Crazy", een van die eerste dramatiese TV -programme met rock en roll. Positiewe resensies oor Dean se teaterrol uit 1954 as Bachir, 'n deurdringende Noord -Afrikaanse huisseun, in 'n verwerking van André Gide se boek Die immoralis (1902), het gelei tot oproepe uit Hollywood. [36]

Oos van Eden

In 1953 was die regisseur Elia Kazan op soek na 'n substantiewe akteur om die emosioneel komplekse rol van 'Cal Trask' te speel, vir die draaiboekskrywer Paul Osborn se verwerking van John Steinbeck se roman uit 1952 Oos van Eden. Hierdie boek handel oor die verhaal van die Trask- en Hamilton-gesinne in die loop van drie generasies, en fokus veral op die lewens van die laaste twee geslagte in Salinas Valley, Kalifornië, vanaf die middel van die 19de eeu tot die 1910's.

In teenstelling met die boek, fokus die filmskrif op die laaste gedeelte van die verhaal, hoofsaaklik met die karakter van Cal. Alhoewel hy aanvanklik meer afsydig en emosioneel ontsteld lyk as sy tweelingbroer Aron, word Cal binnekort meer wêrelds, ondernemend en selfs sagter as hul vrome en voortdurend afkeurende vader (gespeel deur Raymond Massey), wat 'n groentekoeling wil uitvind proses. Cal word gepla deur die raaisel van hul sogenaamde dooie ma en ontdek dat sy nog lewe en 'n mevrou wat 'n bordel hou, die rol word gespeel deur die aktrise Jo Van Fleet. [37]

Voordat hy Cal vertolk het, het Elia Kazan gesê dat hy ''n Brando' 'vir die rol wil hê en Osborn stel Dean voor, 'n relatief onbekende jong akteur. Dean ontmoet Steinbeck, wat persoonlik nie van die humeurige, komplekse jong man hou nie, maar dink dat hy perfek is vir die rol. Dean is in die rol gespeel en op 8 April 1954 het hy New York verlaat en na Los Angeles gegaan om te begin skiet. [38] [39] [40]

Baie van Dean se optrede in die film was ongeskryf, insluitend sy dans in die boontjieveld en sy fetale houding terwyl hy bo-op 'n treinwa ry (nadat hy sy ma in die nabygeleë Monterey opgesoek het). Die bekendste geïmproviseerde volgorde van die film vind plaas wanneer Cal se pa sy geskenk van $ 5,000, geld wat Cal verdien het, verwerp het deur te spekuleer in boontjies voordat die VSA by die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betrokke geraak het. draai na Massey en in 'n gebaar van uiterste emosie, spring hy vorentoe en gryp hom in 'n volle omhelsing, huilend. Kazan het dit en Massey se geskokte reaksie in die film behou.

Dean se optrede in die film het sy rol as Jim Stark in die vooruitsig gestel Rebelleer sonder oorsaak. Beide karakters is angstige protagoniste en verkeerd verstaande uitgeworpenes, wat desperaat smag na goedkeuring van hul vaders. [42]

Ter erkenning van sy prestasie in Oos van Eden, Is Dean postuum benoem vir die 1956 Oscar -toekennings as beste akteur in 'n leidende rol van 1955, die eerste amptelike postuum waarnemende benoeming in die geskiedenis van die Oscar -toekennings. [43] (Jeanne Eagels is in 1929 aangewys as beste aktrise, [44] toe die reëls vir die keuse van die wenner anders was.) Oos van Eden was die enigste film met Dean wat hy in sy leeftyd sou sien verskyn. [45] [46]

Rebelleer sonder oorsaak, Reuse en beplande rolle

Dean het vinnig sy rol in Eden met 'n hoofrol as Jim Stark in Rebelleer sonder oorsaak (1955), 'n film wat baie gewild sou wees onder tieners. Die film word genoem as 'n akkurate weergawe van tiener angs. [47] [48] Volgende Oos van Eden en Rebelleer sonder oorsaak, Wou Dean vermy dat hy as 'n opstandige tiener soos Cal Trask of Jim Stark getipeer word, en het dus die rol aangeneem van Jett Rink, 'n Texaanse boerdery wat olie slaan en ryk word, in Reuse, 'n postuum vrygestelde film uit 1956. Die film vertolk 'n aantal dekades in die lewens van Bick Benedict, 'n boer in Texas, gespeel deur Rock Hudson, sy vrou, Leslie, gespeel deur Elizabeth Taylor en Rink. [49] Om 'n ouer weergawe van sy karakter uit te beeld in die latere tonele van die film, het Dean sy hare grys gekleur en 'n deel daarvan afgeskeer om 'n afneembare haarlyn te gee.

Reuse sou blykbaar Dean se laaste film wees. Aan die einde van die film was Dean veronderstel om 'n dronk toespraak te hou tydens 'n banket met die bynaam 'Laaste Avondmaal', want dit was die laaste toneel voor sy skielike dood. Vanweë sy begeerte om die toneel meer realisties te maak deur eintlik in die dronk te wees vir die opname, mompel Dean so baie dat regisseur George Stevens besluit het dat die toneel moet oorgedubbel word deur Nick Adams, wat 'n klein rol in die film speel, omdat Dean oorlede is voordat die film geredigeer is.

Dean het sy tweede postume nominasie vir die beste akteur vir die beste akteur ontvang vir sy rol in Reuse by die 29ste Academy Awards in 1957 vir films wat in 1956 vrygestel is. [2]

Nadat ek klaar was ReuseDean sou as Rocky Graziano speel in 'n dramafilm, Iemand daar bo hou van my (1956), en volgens Nicholas Ray self, sou hy 'n storie met die naam noem Heldhaftige liefde met die regisseur. [50] Dean se dood het enige betrokkenheid by die projekte beëindig, maar Iemand daar bo hou van my het steeds kommersiële en kritiese sukses behaal, twee Oscars gewen en $ 3,360,000 verdien, terwyl Paul Newman die rol van Graziano gespeel het.

Verhoudings

Die draaiboekskrywer William Bast was een van Dean se naaste vriende, 'n feit wat erken word deur Dean se familie. [51] Volgens Bast was hy Dean se kamermaat by UCLA en later in New York, en ken hy Dean gedurende die laaste vyf jaar van sy lewe. [52] Bast, wat ook Dean se eerste biograaf was, [53] [54] het eenkeer gesê dat hy en Dean seksueel 'geëksperimenteer' het, maar sonder om verder te verduidelik. [52] [55] [56] In 'n latere boek, Oorleef James Dean, Het Bast die moeilike omstandighede van hul betrokkenheid beskryf. [57] Terwyl hy aan UCLA was, het Dean ook uitgegaan van Beverly Wills, 'n aktrise by CBS, en Jeanette Lewis, 'n klasmaat. Bast en Dean het gereeld 'n dubbele afspraak met hulle gehad. Wills het alleen met Dean begin uitgaan en later vir Bast gesê: "Bill, daar is iets wat ons jou moet vertel. Dit is Jimmy en ek. Ek bedoel, ons is verlief." [58]: 71 Hulle is uitmekaar nadat Dean 'ontplof' het toe 'n ander man haar gevra het om te dans terwyl hulle by 'n funksie was. [58]: 74

Terwyl hy in New York woon, word Dean deur sy vriend Martin Landau aan die aktrise Barbara Glenn voorgestel. [59] Hulle het twee jaar lank gereeld uitgegaan totdat Dean in 1954 na Hollywood vertrek het. [59] In 2011 is hul liefdesbriewe op 'n veiling vir $ 36 000 verkoop. [60]

Vroeg in Dean se loopbaan, nadat Dean sy kontrak met Warner Brothers onderteken het, het die departement van openbare betrekkinge in die ateljee verhale begin genereer oor Dean se skakels met 'n verskeidenheid jong aktrises wat meestal afkomstig was van die kliënte van Dean se Hollywood -agent, Dick Clayton. Persverklarings in die ateljee het Dean ook saam met twee ander akteurs, Rock Hudson en Tab Hunter, gegroepeer, wat elkeen van die mans identifiseer as 'n 'geskikte bachelor' wat nog nie die tyd gevind het om hom aan 'n enkele vrou te verbind nie: 'Hulle sê dat hul filmoefeninge in stryd met hul huweliksoefeninge. ” [61]

Dean se beste herinnering was met die jong Italiaanse aktrise Pier Angeli. Hy het Angeli ontmoet terwyl sy skiet Die silwer kelk (1954) [62] op 'n aangrensende Warner -erf, en met wie hy juweliersware as liefdesbriewe verruil het. [63] Angeli, tydens 'n onderhoud veertien jaar nadat hul verhouding geëindig het, beskryf hul tye saam:

Ons was gereeld saam na die kus van Kalifornië en het daar in die geheim in 'n kothuis op 'n strand ver van nuuskierige oë gebly. Ons sou baie van ons tyd op die strand deurbring, daar sit of dwaas wees, net soos universiteitskinders. Ons sou praat oor onsself en ons probleme, oor die films en toneelspel, oor die lewe en die lewe na die dood. Ons het 'n volledige begrip van mekaar gehad. Ons was soos Romeo en Juliet, saam en onafskeidbaar. Soms was ons op die strand so lief vir mekaar dat ons net saam in die see wou stap, want ons het geweet dat ons altyd saam sou wees. [58]: 196

Dean het oor Angeli gesê: 'Alles oor Pier is pragtig, veral haar siel. Sy hoef nie opgejaag te word nie. Sy hoef niks te doen of te sê nie. Sy is net wonderlik soos sy is. Sy het 'n seldsame insig in die lewe. "[64]

Diegene wat geglo het dat Dean en Angeli diep verlief was, het beweer dat 'n aantal magte hulle uitmekaar gelei het. Angeli se ma keur Dean se toevallige rok en wat ten minste vir haar onaanvaarbare gedragskenmerke was: sy T-hempskleed, laat afsprake, vinnige motors, drinkgoed en die feit dat hy nie 'n Katoliek was nie, af. Haar ma het gesê dat sulke gedrag in Italië nie aanvaarbaar is nie. Boonop het Warner Bros., waar hy gewerk het, probeer om hom uit die huwelik te laat praat, en hy het self vir Angeli gesê dat hy nie wil trou nie. [58]: 197 Richard Davalos, Dean's Oos van Eden mede-ster, beweer dat Dean trouens met Angeli wou trou en bereid was om toe te laat dat hul kinders Katoliek grootgemaak word. [65] In sy outobiografie het Elia Kazan, die regisseur van Oos van Eden, verwerp die idee dat Dean moontlik enige sukses met vroue kon behaal het, hoewel hy onthou het dat hy Dean en Angeli hard hoor liefhet in Dean se kleedkamer. [66] Kazan word deur die skrywer Paul Donnelley aangehaal oor Dean: "Hy het altyd onseker betrekkinge met vriendinne gehad." [67]

Nadat hy sy rol vir Oos van Eden, het hy 'n kort reis na New York geneem in Oktober 1954. [58]: 197 Terwyl hy weg was, het Angeli onverwags haar verlowing aan die Italiaans-Amerikaanse sanger Vic Damone aangekondig. Die pers was geskok en Dean het sy irritasie uitgespreek. [68] Angeli trou die volgende maand met Damone. Gossip -rubriekskrywers het berig dat Dean die troue oorkant die pad met sy motorfiets dopgehou het, terwyl hy selfs die enjin tydens die seremonie aangeskakel het, hoewel Dean later ontken het dat hy iets so "dom" gedoen het. [58]

Sommige kommentators, soos William Bast en Paul Alexander, meen die verhouding was bloot 'n publisiteitsstunt. [69] [70] Pier Angeli het slegs een keer oor die verhouding in haar latere lewe in 'n onderhoud gepraat en lewendige beskrywings gegee van romantiese ontmoetings op die strand. Dekaan -biograaf John Howlett het gesê dat dit soos wenslike fantasieë lees [71] soos Bast beweer dat dit is. [28] Joe Hyams, in sy biografie van Dean uit 1992, James Dean: Little Boy Lost, beweer dat hy Dean besoek het net toe Angeli, toe getroud met Damone, sy huis verlaat het. Dean het gehuil en na bewering aan Hyams gesê sy is swanger, en Hyams het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat Dean glo dat die kind syne kan wees. Angeli, wat van Damone geskei het en toe haar tweede man, die Italiaanse filmkomponis Armando Trovajoli, het in die laaste jare van haar lewe deur vriende gesê dat Dean die liefde van haar lewe is. Sy sterf aan 'n oordosis barbiturate in 1971, op 39 -jarige ouderdom. [72]

In 1996 het die aktrise Liz Sheridan in 1952 haar verhouding met Dean in New York uiteengesit en gesê dat dit "net 'n soort magie was. [73] Dit was die eerste liefde vir ons albei." [74] Sheridan het haar memoires gepubliseer, Dizzy & Jimmy: My Life with James Dean A Love Story, in 2000.

Dean het ook met die Switserse aktrise Ursula Andress uitgegaan. [75] "Sy is gesien hoe sy op Hollywood agter op James se motorfiets ry," skryf biograaf Darwin Porter. Sy was ook saam met Dean in sy sportmotors te siene, en was saam met hom op die dag toe hy die motor waarin hy gesterf het, gekoop het. [76] Destyds was Andress ook besig met Marlon Brando.

Die Spaanse aktrise Sara Montiel het in haar outobiografie geskryf dat sy die laaste vrou was wat gefotografeer is en romanties betrokke was by Dean dae voor sy dood Memorias: Vivir is un placer. [77]

Auto racing stokperdjie

In 1954 stel Dean daarin belang om 'n loopbaan in motorsport te ontwikkel. Hy het verskeie voertuie gekoop nadat hy vir die opnames verfilm het Oos van Eden afgesluit het, insluitend 'n Triumph Tiger T110 en 'n Porsche 356. [78] [79] Net voordat die verfilming begin Rebelleer sonder oorsaak, hy neem deel aan sy eerste professionele byeenkoms by die Palm Springs Road Races, wat op 26–27 Maart 1955 in Palm Springs, Kalifornië, gehou is. Dean behaal 'n eerste plek in die beginnerklas en 'n tweede plek by die hoofbyeenkoms. Sy wedrenne het 'n maand later in Bakersfield voortgegaan, waar hy eerste in sy klas en derde algeheel geëindig het. [80] Dean het gehoop om aan die Indianapolis 500 deel te neem, maar sy besige program het dit onmoontlik gemaak. [81]

Dean se laaste wedloop het plaasgevind in Santa Barbara op Memorial Day, 30 Mei 1955. Hy kon nie die kompetisie voltooi nie weens 'n geblaasde suier. [80] [82] Sy kort loopbaan is opgehou toe Warner Brothers hom van alle wedrenne belet het tydens die produksie van Reuse. [83] Dean het sy tonele klaar geskiet en die film was in 'n na-produksie toe hy besluit het om weer te jaag.

Ongeluk en nadraai

Verlang om terug te keer na die "bevrydende vooruitsigte" van motorsport, het Dean sy Speedster verruil vir 'n nuwe, kragtiger en vinniger 1955 Porsche 550 Spyder en het hy deelgeneem aan die komende Salinas Road Race -byeenkoms wat op 1–2 Oktober 1955 geskeduleer was. [84] Die stuntkoördineerder, Bill Hickman, was op 30 September saam met die akteur op pad na die baan. Collier's fotograaf Sanford Roth, en Rolf Wütherich, die Duitse werktuigkundige van die Porsche -fabriek wat Dean's Spyder, "Little Bastard" -motor onderhou het. [85] [86] Wütherich, wat Dean aangemoedig het om met die motor van Los Angeles na Salinas te ry om dit in te breek, het Dean in die Porsche vergesel. Om 15:30 het Dean 'n kaartjie gekry vir spoed, net soos Hickman wat in 'n ander motor agtervolg het. [87]

Toe die groep omstreeks 17:45 weswaarts ry op die Amerikaanse roete 466 (tans SR 46) naby Cholame, Kalifornië, [88], het 'n Ford Tudor uit 1950, bestuur deur die 23-jarige Cal Poly-student Donald Turnupseed, gereis oos. Turnupseed het links gedraai op snelweg 41 noordwaarts, in die rigting van Fresno [89], voor die aankomende Porsche. [85] [90] [91]

Dean, wat nie betyds kon stop nie, het in die passasierskant van die Ford gestamp, wat daartoe gelei het dat Dean se motor oor die sypaadjie op die kant van die snelweg gestamp het. Dean se passasier, Wütherich, is uit die Porsche geslinger, terwyl Dean in die motor vasgekeer was en talle noodlottige beserings opgedoen het, waaronder 'n gebreekte nek. [92] Turnupseed verlaat sy beskadigde voertuig met ligte beserings.

'N Aantal verbygangers het die ongeluk gesien wat gestop het om te help. 'N Vrou met verpleegervaring het na Dean gekyk en 'n swak polsslag bespeur, maar' die dood blyk onmiddellik te wees '. [92] Dean is by aankoms dood verklaar kort nadat hy om 18:20 per ambulans by die Paso Robles War Memorial Hospital aangekom het. [93]

Alhoewel dit aanvanklik traag was om koerante in die Oos -Verenigde State te bereik, het besonderhede oor Dean se dood vinnig versprei via radio en televisie. Teen 2 Oktober het sy dood beduidende dekking ontvang van plaaslike en buitelandse media. [94] [95] Dean se begrafnis is op 8 Oktober 1955 in die Fairmount Friends Church in Fairmount, Indiana, gehou. Die kis bly toe om sy ernstige beserings te verberg. Na raming was 600 rouklaers bygewoon, terwyl nog 2 400 aanhangers tydens die optog buite die gebou vergader het. [94] Hy word begrawe op die Park Cemetery in Fairmount, tweede pad regs van die hoofingang af, en teen die heuwel aan die regterkant, met die gesig staar op die rit. [96]

Drie dae later het 'n geregtelike doodsondersoek plaasgevind by die raadsale in San Luis Obispo, [97], waar die jurie van die balju-uitspraak 'n uitspraak gelewer het dat hy heeltemal skuldig was aan spoed, en dat Turnupseed onskuldig was aan enige kriminele daad. [98] [99] Volgens 'n artikel in die Los Angeles Times Op 1 Oktober 2005 weerspreek 'n voormalige offisier van die California Highway Patrol wat na die toneel ontbied is, Ron Nelson [100] die berigte dat Dean teen 90 km / h gery het, wat die wrak en die posisie van Dean se liggaam aandui dat hy vinnig was ten tyde van die ongeluk was dit meer as 55 km / h. [101] 'n "James Dean Monument" is op Shandon langs snelweg 46 geplaas en staan ​​tot vandag toe.

Bioskoop en televisie

Amerikaanse tieners van die middel van die vyftigerjare, toe Dean se belangrikste films die eerste keer vrygestel is, identifiseer met Dean en die rolle wat hy vertolk het, veral dié van Jim Stark in Rebelleer sonder oorsaak. Die film beeld die dilemma uit van 'n tipiese tiener van die tyd, wat voel dat niemand, nie eens sy maats, hom kan verstaan ​​nie. Humphrey Bogart het ná Dean se dood kommentaar gelewer oor sy openbare beeld en nalatenskap: "Dean het op die regte tyd gesterf. Hy het 'n legende agtergelaat. As hy geleef het, sou hy nooit sy publisiteit kon nakom nie." [102]

Joe Hyams sê dat Dean "een van die seldsame sterre was, soos Rock Hudson en Montgomery Clift, wat mans en vroue sexy vind". [103] Volgens Marjorie Garber is hierdie eienskap "die ondefinieerbare ekstra iets wat 'n ster maak". [104] Die ikoniese aantrekkingskrag van Dean word toegeskryf aan die behoefte van die publiek dat iemand moet opstaan ​​vir die jongmense van die era, [105] en die lug van androgynie wat hy op die skerm voorspel het. [106]

Dean was 'n toetssteen vir baie televisieprogramme, films, boeke en toneelstukke. Die rolprent 30 September 1955 (1977) beeld die maniere uit waarop verskillende karakters in 'n klein suidelike dorpie in die VSA reageer op Dean se dood. [107] Die toneelstuk Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean, geskryf deur Ed Graczyk, beeld 'n reünie van Dean -aanhangers uit op die 20ste herdenking van sy dood. Dit is in 1982 deur die regisseur Robert Altman opgevoer, maar is na slegs 52 optredes swak ontvang en gesluit. Terwyl die stuk nog op Broadway speel, het Altman 'n filmverwerking geskiet wat in November 1982 deur Cinecom Pictures vrygestel is. [108]

Op 20 April 2010 het 'n lang "verlore" lewendige episode van die Algemene elektriese teater genaamd "The Dark, Dark Hours" met Dean in 'n optrede met Ronald Reagan, is ontdek deur die NBC -skrywer Wayne Federman terwyl hy aan 'n terugblik op televisie van Ronald Reagan werk. [109] Die episode, wat oorspronklik op 12 Desember 1954 uitgesaai is, [110] het internasionale aandag getrek en hoogtepunte is op talle nasionale media verskyn, waaronder: CBS Aandnuus, NBC Nightly News, en Goeie môre Amerika. Dit is later onthul dat 'n paar beeldmateriaal uit die episode die eerste keer verskyn in die dokumentêr van 2005, James Dean: Forever Young. [111]

James Dean se boedel verdien steeds ongeveer $ 5,000,000 per jaar, volgens Forbes tydskrif. [112] Op 6 November 2019 is aangekondig dat Dean se gelykenis, via CGI, gebruik sal word vir 'n Viëtnam -oorlogfilm genaamd Vind Jack, gebaseer op die Gareth Crocker -roman. Die fliek word geregisseer deur Anton Ernst en Tati Golykh en 'n ander akteur sal Dean se rol uitspreek. [113] Hoewel die direkteure die regte verkry het om Dean se beeld uit sy familie te gebruik, het mense in die bedryf die spot met die aankondiging gemaak. [113] [114]

Leonardo DiCaprio noem Dean as een van sy gunsteling akteurs en as die sterkste invloede. [115] Hy onthou in 'n onderhoud: 'Ek onthou dat ek ongelooflik ontroer is deur Jimmy Dean, in East of Eden (film). Daar was iets so rou en kragtig aan die prestasie. Sy kwesbaarheid ... sy verwarring oor sy hele geskiedenis, sy identiteit, sy desperaatheid om liefgehê te word. Daardie optrede het my hart net gebreek. ”[116]

Jeugkultuur en musiek

Talle kommentators het beweer dat Dean 'n unieke invloed op die ontwikkeling van rock en roll -musiek het. Volgens David R. Shumway, 'n navorser in die Amerikaanse kultuur en kultuurteorie aan die Carnegie Mellon-universiteit, was Dean die eerste ikoniese figuur van jeugdige rebellie en ''n voorbode van jeug-identiteitspolitiek'. Die persona wat Dean veral in sy films vertoon het Rebelleer sonder oorsaak, beïnvloed Elvis Presley [117] en vele ander musikante wat gevolg het, [118] waaronder die Amerikaanse rockers Eddie Cochran en Gene Vincent.

In hul boek, Live Fast, Die Young: The Wild Ride of Making Rebel Without a Cause, Het Lawrence Frascella en Al Weisel geskryf, "Maar ironies genoeg Rebelleer as daar geen rockmusiek op die klankbaan was nie, sou die film se gevoeligheid - en veral die uitdagende houding en die moeitelose koelte van James Dean - 'n groot impak op rock hê. Die musiekmedia sou Dean en rock dikwels as onlosmaaklik verbind [. ] Die tydskrif vir die bedryf Musiekverbinding het selfs sover gegaan om Dean 'die eerste rockster' te noem. "[119]

Aangesien rock and roll 'n revolusionêre mag geword het wat die kultuur van lande regoor die wêreld beïnvloed het, het Dean 'n mitiese status verkry wat sy plek as 'n rock and roll -ikoon bevestig het. [121] Dean luister self na musiek wat wissel van Afrikaanse stammusiek [122] tot die moderne klassieke musiek van Stravinsky [123] en Bartók, [124] sowel as kontemporêre sangers soos Frank Sinatra. [123] While the magnetism and charisma manifested by Dean onscreen appealed to people of all ages and sexuality, [125] his persona of youthful rebellion provided a template for succeeding generations of youth to model themselves on. [126] [127]

In sy boek, The Origins of Cool in Postwar America, Joel Dinerstein describes how Dean and Marlon Brando eroticized the rebel archetype in film, [128] and how Elvis Presley, following their lead, did the same in music. Dinerstein details the dynamics of this eroticization and its effect on teenage girls with few sexual outlets. [129] Presley said in a 1956 interview with Lloyd Shearer for Parade magazine, "I've made a study of Marlon Brando. And I've made a study of poor Jimmy Dean. I've made a study of myself, and I know why girls, at least the young 'uns, go for us. We're sullen, we're broodin', we're something of a menace. I don't understand it exactly, but that's what the girls like in men. I don't know anything about Hollywood, but I know you can't be sexy if you smile. You can't be a rebel if you grin." [130]

Dean and Presley have often been represented in academic literature and journalism as embodying the frustration felt by young white Americans with the values of their parents, [131] [132] and depicted as avatars of the youthful unrest endemic to rock and roll style and attitude. The rock historian Greil Marcus characterized them as symbols of tribal teenage identity which provided an image that young people in the 1950s could relate to and imitate. [133] [134] In the book Lonely Places, Dangerous Ground: Nicholas Ray in American Cinema, Paul Anthony Johnson wrote that Dean's acting in Rebel Without a Cause provided a "performance model for Presley, Buddy Holly, and Bob Dylan, all of whom borrowed elements of Dean's performance in their own carefully constructed star personas". [135] Frascella and Weisel wrote, "As rock music became the defining expression of youth in the 1960s, the influence of Rebel was conveyed to a new generation." [119]

Rock musicians as diverse as Buddy Holly, [136] Bob Dylan, and David Bowie regarded Dean as a formative influence. [137] The playwright and actor Sam Shepard interviewed Dylan in 1986 and wrote a play based on their conversation, in which Dylan discusses the early influence of Dean on him personally. [138] A young Bob Dylan, still in his folk music period, consciously evoked Dean visually on the cover of his album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (1963), [139] and later on Hoofweg 61 herbesoek (1965), [140] cultivating an image that his biographer Bob Spitz called "James Dean with a guitar". [141] Dean has long been invoked in the lyrics of rock songs, famously in songs such as "A Young Man Is Gone" by the Beach Boys (1963), [142] [143] "James Dean" by the Eagles (1974), [144] [145] and "James Dean" by the Goo Goo Dolls (1989). [146] [147] Musician Taylor Swift referenced him in "Style" (2014). [148]

Seksualiteit

Today, Dean is often considered an icon because of his perceived experimental take on life, which included his ambivalent sexuality. [149] The Gay Times Readers' Awards cited him as the greatest male gay icon of all time. [149] When questioned about his sexual orientation, Dean is reported to have said, "No, I am not a homosexual. But I'm also not going to go through life with one hand tied behind my back." [150]

Journalist Joe Hyams suggests that any gay activity Dean might have been involved in appears to have been strictly "for trade", as a means of advancing his career. Some point to Dean’s involvement with Rogers Brackett as evidence of this. William Bast referred to Dean as Brackett’s “kept boy” and once found a grotesque depiction of a lizard with the head of Brackett in a sketchbook belonging to Dean. [151] Brackett was quoted saying about their relationship, “I loved him and Jimmy loved me. If it was a father-son relationship, it was also somewhat incestuous.” [30] James Bellah, the son of James Warner Bellah who was a friend of Dean's at UCLA, stated "Dean was a user. I don't think he was homosexual. But if he could get something by performing an act. Once. at an agent's office, Dean told me that he had spent the summer as a 'professional house guest' on Fire Island." [152] However, the "trade only" notion is contradicted by several Dean biographers. [153] Aside from Bast's account of his own relationship with Dean, Dean's fellow motorcyclist and "Night Watch" member, John Gilmore, claimed that he and Dean "experimented" with gay sex on multiple occasions in New York, describing their sexual encounters as "Bad boys playing bad boys while opening up the bisexual sides of ourselves." [154] Gilmore later stated that he believed Dean was more so gay than bisexual. [155]

On the subject of Dean’s sexuality, Rebel director Nicholas Ray is on record saying, “Some—most—will say he was heterosexual, and there's some proof for that, apart from the usual dating of actresses his age. Others will say no, he was gay, and there's some proof for that too, keeping in mind that it's always tougher to get that kind of proof. But Jimmy himself said more than once that he swung both ways, so why all the mystery or confusion?" [156] Martin Landau stated, "A lot of people say Jimmy was hell-bent on killing himself. Nie waar nie. A lot of gay guys make him out to be gay. Nie waar nie. When Jimmy and I were together we'd talk about girls. Actors and girls. We were kids in our early 20s. That was what we aspired to." [157] Mark Rydell also stated, "I don't think he was essentially homosexual. I think that he had very big appetites, and I think he exercised them." [158] Elizabeth Taylor, with whom Dean had become friends with while working together on Reuse, referred to Dean as gay during a speech at the GLAAD Media Awards in 2001. [159] When questioned about Dean’s sexuality by author Kevin Sessums for POZ Magazine, Taylor responded, “He hadn't made up his mind. He was only 24 when he died. But he was certainly fascinated by women. He flirted around. He and I … twinkled.” [160]


Inhoud

Prior to its merger with Morgan Stanley, Dean Witter Reynolds was a diversified financial services organization that provided a broad range of investment and consumer credit and investment products and services. Dean Witter operated in two lines of business: securities (including investment banking) and credit services and its operations were primarily focused on the U.S. [1]

The following is a summary of the financial results of Dean Witter prior to its merger with Morgan Stanley:

Financial data in $ millions [1]
Jaar 1996 1995 1994
Inkomste $1,132 $1,338 $998
Operating Income $506 $788 $658
Net Income $951 $856 $741
Total assets $17,344 $15,507 -
Shareholder's equity $5,164 $4,834 -

Securities business Edit

Dean Witter's traditional business was as a full-service securities brokerage. The company maintained a network of over 9,000 account executives. DWR was among the largest members of the New York Stock Exchange and was a member of other major securities, futures, and options exchanges. Dean Witter offered a broad range of securities and savings products that were supported by the firm's underwriting and research activities as well as order execution. Closely related to its securities business, Dean Witter provided investment consulting services to individual investors. The firm managed approximately $10.4 billion of assets in its consulting business as of the end of 1996. [1] Within its securities business, Dean Witter focused on three segments:

    - Dean Witter provided order execution, stock trading and equity research services primarily to individual investors but also to institutional clients. In many equity securities, Dean Witter acted as a market maker and as a specialist on various exchanges. Dean Witter's research department provided economic analysis and commentary, market and quantitative research, as well as making recommendations with regard to broad individual companies and industry sectors. [1] - Dean Witter provided trading and order execution services for a broad range of fixed income securities, including U.S. Treasury bonds, mortgage-backed securities, corporate bonds, municipal bonds and certificates of deposit. The Company was a primary dealer in U.S. Treasury bonds. The firm largely eschewed proprietary trading focusing its trading activity on establishing and maintaining an inventory of various securities. [1] - Dean Witter also provided order execution and clearing services for the trading of futures contracts. [1]

Investment banking Edit

Dean Witter also operated as an investment banking firm, even before its merger with Morgan Stanley. Like many of its peers, Dean Witter provides a range of advisory services to corporate clients including mergers and acquisitions, divestitures, leveraged buyouts, restructurings and recapitalizations. The Company generally does not commit capital to merchant banking transactions. [1]

However, the firm always maintained a strong connection between its investment banking business and its core business focused on individual investors. As a result, the investment banking division was involved in the research, development, and origination of investment products focused on individual investors including limited partnerships and other retail-oriented products. [1]

The Company's InterCapital subsidiary, with $90.0 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 1996, was one of the largest investment management businesses in the U.S. [1]

Credit cards (Discover Card and Novus) Edit

Dean Witter was also active in the issuance of credit cards through its Discover Card business. Discover Card, which today operates is the Company's most widely held proprietary general-purpose credit card and generated a majority of Credit Services' revenues and net income in 1996. Prior to its merger, Dean Witter's credit cards business accounted for 52% and 47% of the company's net income in 1995 and 1996, respectively. [1]

In addition to the Discover Card, the company operated the NOVUS Network. In the mid-1990s, the NOVUS Network was the third-largest domestic credit card network and consisted of merchant and cash locations that accept card brands that carry the NOVUS logo. In addition to the Discover Card, this the NOVUS network included Private Issue Card, the BRAVO Card and the National Alliance For Species Survival SM Card. [1]

Dean Witter Reynolds traced its origins to two firms: Dean Witter & Co. founded in 1924 and Reynolds & Co. (later Reynolds Securities) founded in 1931.

Dean Witter & Co. (1924-1978) Edit

Dean Witter & Company was founded by Dean G. Witter (together with his brother Guy Witter and cousin Jean Witter) as a retail brokerage firm in 1924. [2] [10] With its original offices at 45 Montgomery Street in San Francisco, California, Dean Witter would be among the largest brokerages on the West Coast. Among Witter's original partners were his brother Guy and their cousins Jean C. Witter and Ed Witter as well as Fritz Janney. Prior to founding his own firm, Witter partnered with Charles R. Blyth to found Blyth, Witter & Co., another San Francisco based brokerage in 1914. After Witter's departure, Blyth would continue on his own (ultimately acquired by Paine Webber in 1979) and the two firms would remain competitors for decades. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Witter's family had moved to Northern California from Wausau, Wisconsin, settling in San Carlos, California in 1891. Before founding his own firms, Dean Witter had worked as a salesman for Louis Sloss & Company from his graduation from the University of California, Berkeley in 1909 until 1914. [11] Dean Witter would lead his company until his death in 1969.

In its early years, Dean Witter focused on dealing with municipal and corporate bonds. The company was highly successful in its first five years, purchasing a seat on the San Francisco Stock Exchange in 1928 and then opening an office in New York and purchasing a seat on the New York Stock Exchange in 1929. Although a relatively young company, Dean Witter survived Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, posting profits every year during the 1930s and into the 1940s.

The company grew rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, establishing itself as a major U.S. brokerage house and developing a reputation for innovation in the securities industry. In 1938, Dean Witter established its national research department, and in 1945, became the first retail securities firm to offer formal training for account executives. In 1953, the firm entered into an agreement to merge with Harris, Hall & Co., a Chicago investment banking and securities firm spun out of Harris Bank after the passage of the Glass Steagall Act. In the early 1950s, Harris, Hall was one of the 17 U.S. investment banking and securities firms named in the Justice Department's antitrust investigation of Wall Street commonly known as the Investment bankers case. [12] In 1962, Dean Witter became the first firm to use electronic data processing — a feat that paved the way for securities handling on Wall Street.

Following Witter's death in 1969, and the retirement of Guy Witter the following year, Jean Witter's son, William M. Witter, became CEO of Dean Witter & Co. After numerous brokerage firm acquisitions, Dean Witter went public in 1972. Dean Witter's initial public offering (shortly after the IPO of Reynolds Securities) was part of a rush of Wall Street firms to sell an interest in their privately-held businesses to public investors, following Merrill Lynch's initial public offering in early 1971. [13]

Reynolds Securities (1931-1978) Edit

Reynolds & Co. was founded in 1931 in New York City by Richard S. Reynolds Jr., a 22-year-old tobacco heir, together with Charles H. Babcock and Thomas F. Staley. [14] [15] [16] In particular, Thomas F. Staley was Reynolds’ cousin (the grandson of Major D. Reynolds, an older brother of R.J. Reynolds). In 1951, another senior partner, John D. Baker, joined the company. [17] [18] Reynolds' father Richard S. Reynolds Sr. founded U.S. Foil Company, later Reynolds Metals (Reynolds wrap), and his great uncle was the founder of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR).

Like Dean Witter, the company survived the Depression, generating a profit each year. In 1934, Reynolds acquired F.A. Willard & Co. [19] With the acquisition, Reynolds tripled its sales and shifted its emphasis toward underwritings. [20]

In 1958, Reynolds passed its leadership to the next generation with Thomas F. Staley departing and naming Robert M. Gardiner to head the firm. Under Gardiner, Reynolds embarks on a major expansion, acquiring 26 offices from A.M. Kidder & Co. Reynolds acquired another three offices and opened nine firms in new regions in the U.S. in the early 1960s. [20]

Reynolds was incorporated in 1971 as Reynolds Securities in advance of an initial public offering. By early 1971, there was speculation that Merrill Lynch would sell shares to the public. Reynolds initial public offering (and shortly thereafter Dean Witter's IPO) was part of a rush of Wall Street firms to sell an interest in their privately-held businesses to public investors, following Merrill Lynch's initial public offering. [13] In 1976, Reynolds implements REYCOM, the most sophisticated high-speed wire system in the industry. Meanwhile, the firm was continuing its expansion, acquiring its first international offices in Lugano and Lausanne, Switzerland. [20] A year later, Reynolds acquired Baker Weeks & Co. whose strength was securities research. [21]

At the time of its merger with Dean Witter in 1978, Reynolds Securities had over 3,100 employees in 72 offices producing gross revenues of nearly $120 million. [20]

The Dean Witter Reynolds merger and the Sears acquisition (1978-1993) Edit

In 1978 Dean Witter and Reynolds merged to form Dean Witter Reynolds Organization Inc. (DWRO) in what was then the largest securities-industry merger in U.S. history. The resultant company, Dean Witter Reynolds, was the fifth-largest broker in the U.S. One year later Dean Witter Reynolds became the first securities firm to have offices in all 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. After completion of the merger, Dean Witter Reynolds generated revenue of more than $520 million. [20] [22]

In 1981, Dean Witter Reynolds was acquired by Sears, Roebuck and Company in a $600 million transaction. Sears' core retail business was facing several challenges, and the company decided to diversify into new businesses, including financial services. Sears, which was already in the financial services business through its ownership of the Allstate Insurance Company announced a major acquisition initiative in financial services. In addition to the acquisition of Dean Witter, Sears also acquired Coldwell Banker, the real estate brokerage company in 1981. [23] Sears intended for Dean Witter to form the foundation for a larger Sears Financial Services Network that would be available to customers through the company's retail stores. [24] [25]

Sears named Philip J. Purcell, a strategic planner at the Sears Chicago headquarters and former McKinsey & Co. consultant, to head Dean Witter. [26] [27] [28] Purcell moved to New York to run the operation from Dean Witter's office. At the time of the Sears acquisition, Dean Witter Reynolds had a retail broker force of over 4,500 account executives in over 300 locations with over 11,500 employees in total. For the year ended 1980, Dean Witter Reynolds generated over $700 million of revenue. [20] [29] [30] [31]

Under Sears ownership, in 1986, the firm launched the Discover Card, a new brand of credit card outside the well established Visa, MasterCard and American Express networks. Unlike other attempts at creating a credit card to rival MasterCard and VISA, such as Citibank's Choice card, the Discover Card quickly gained a large national consumer base. It carried no annual fee, which was uncommon at the time, and offered a typically higher credit limit than similar cards. Cardholders could earn a "Cashback Bonus," in which a percentage of the amount spent would be refunded to the account (originally 2%, now as high as 5%), depending on how much the card was used. Discover offered merchant fees significantly lower than those of other widely accepted credit cards. Eventually, Discover grew to become one of the largest credit card issuers in the U.S.

Dean Witter Discover (1993-1997) Edit

Sears' financial services initiative proved highly successful as Discover grew through the late 1980s and early 1990s. Furthermore, the substantial investment in the Discover business also began to pay off, with the business becoming highly profitable. The early 1990s were also a period of rapid growth for Dean Witter Reynolds as its strategy of focusing on the distribution of proprietary mutual funds through its extensive retail brokerage network began to bear fruit.

Dean Witter's core securities business and its Discover business generated combined revenue of $59 billion in 1992 and Sears announced that it would seek to monetize its investment. [32] In February and March 1993, Sears sold 20% of the company in an initial public offering, and the company was subsequently renamed Dean Witter, Discover & Co., with two primary operating subsidiaries: Dean Witter Reynolds and Discover Card. Later that year, the remaining 80% of shares were distributed to Sears' shareholders, giving Dean Witter complete independence from Sears. [33]

Dean Witter's corporate headquarters were located in New York City's 2 World Trade Center (i.e. South Tower), where the firm had occupied over 864,000 square feet (80,300 m 2 ) since 1985. Dean Witter was one of many tenants whose offices were evacuated as a result of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, which took place during the firm's spinoff from Sears. Following, the firm's merger with Morgan Stanley, the firm's headquarters would be moved to 1585 Broadway on the edge of New York's Time Square. Morgan Stanley Dean Witter would still have a large presence at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

Dean Witter was the first big brokerage company to get into the online trading business when it bought a small San Francisco-based outfit called Lombard Brokerage in 1996. [34]

Merger with Morgan Stanley (1997-2009) Edit

In 1997, Morgan Stanley Group, Inc. and Dean Witter Discover merged to form one of the largest global financial services firms: Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Discover Co.. [6] The combined firm later dropped the "Discover Co." name in 1998 and further the "Dean Witter" name in 2001. [7] [8] [35] [36]

Although Morgan Stanley was the more prominent partner, Dean Witter's focus on retail investors, mutual funds and credit cards which were seen by the stock market as generating more stable cash flows than Morgan Stanley's investment banking business had by the time of the merger made it the more valuable partner in terms of market capitalization. Dean Witter's CEO, Philip Purcell, the main architect of the merger, became chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the merged group. [37] The merger marked the pairing of a storied investment banking firm with a retail brokerage (that had been owned by a retailer) that was often termed "white shoes and white socks". [38] In order to avoid tension during the integration of the two firms, Purcell and Morgan Stanley's CEO John Mack decided not to choose between the two brand names. Instead, they combined the names of the two firms and put the Morgan Stanley Dean Witter brand on almost all of its operations. [34]

Eventually, to foster brand recognition and marketing, the Dean Witter name was dropped from the retail services division in 2001, leaving the current name Morgan Stanley. [34] In 2009, the Dean Witter retail operations were transferred to Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, a joint venture with Citigroup.

Acquisition history Edit

The following is an illustration of the company's major mergers and acquisitions and historical predecessors:


Department of History

The Faculty Spotlight is a chance for us to highlight our faculty and the work they do. Our department is made great by the individuals in our community who actively carry out NYU's values of education, service, and critical thinking. Our faculty exemplify the same thoughtfulness and action they seek to instill in their students every day.

Congratulations to Karl Appuhn, recipient of a 2020 Golden Dozen Teaching Award.

Congratulations to Hasia Diner, whose book Julius Rosenwald: Repairing the World won the Axiom Business Books gold medal in the History category.

Congratulations to Susanah Shaw Romney, who was named a Distinguished Fellow for Spring 2020 at CUNY Grad School's Advanced Research Consortium.

Congratulations to Tatiana Linkhoeva, who was awarded Scholar Research Support by the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace.

NYU Shanghai Dean of Arts and Sciences and Associate Professor of History Maria Montoya has been named President Elect of the WHA.


Tales of derring-do from the great survey of India: Review of ‘Mapping the Great Game: Explorers, Spies & Maps in Nineteenth Century Asia’ by Riaz Dean

In the 19th century, when the rivalry between Imperial Russia and Great Britain was at its peak, both powers tried to survey, explore and expand regions under their rule, particularly the Indian subcontinent and its neighbours. Several writers including Peter Hopkirk (The Great Game) and John Keay (The Great Arc: The Dramatic Tale of how India was Mapped and Everest was Named) recounted this rivalry as also the story of the two men who undertook the measurement of the Himalayas and the mapping of the Indian subcontinent. Riaz Dean’s Mapping the Great Game is a thrilling story of espionage and cartography played out against the backdrop of imperial ambitions of powerful players.

Ground report

Dean travelled much of the area described in the book, including the two halves of Turkestan (western or Russian Turkestan and eastern or Chinese Turkestan), and to the roof of the world. Set in four parts and arranged chronologically, with five informative maps, the first part deals with political intrigues and the roles played by some adventurous young people like William Moorcroft, a veterinary surgeon, in securing details of regions considered strategically important. Appointed Superintendent of the Stud for the East India Company’s large horse-breeding farm in Patna in 1808, Moorcroft soon realised he would need to travel beyond the subcontinent’s borders in the north and west to get better breeding stock, and that is how his exploration began.

With more twists and turns in the political system of Europe, and Napoleon’s defeat, Britain was worried about the Tsar’s intentions. The author introduces important players in this game like Arthur Conolly, the British intelligence officer sent to get more information. Among the others sent to explore and spy was Lieutenant Alexander Burnes, an enthusiastic young officer and a brilliant linguist. The ultimate prize of this Great Game was India the target was the northern neighbours as they offered the gateway.

A name for Everest

In the second part, Dean describes the survey work in detail, undertaken by William Lambton and his cartographers. Lambton laid the baseline, which stretched across 12 km between St. Thomas Mount in Madras and another hillock and measured the length of a degree of latitude along a longitude in peninsular India. This alone took 42 days to measure, indicating the hard task ahead. By 1810, Lambton could produce a map of the southern peninsula. The entire team looked upon him as a father figure of the survey and when he died near Nagpur on January 20, 1823, George Everest took over the job of measuring the length of the subcontinent, from peninsular India to the Himalayas. For his hard work, Everest was known as ‘Neverest’ but he was recalled before he could finish the task due to failing health. In 1844, he recorded all his findings in two volumes.

‘Pundits’ at work

When the highest peak was measured and found to be 29,030 feet (8,848 metres) above sea level, the surveyors knew it by its various local names, prompting the surveyor-general Andrew Waugh to call it Mount Everest, after his predecessor George Everest.

Part three is dedicated to the Pundits, “an obscure group of natives,” who were the pillars of the Great Trigonometrical Survey and its exploration and mapping programme. They travelled entirely on foot and with meagre resources. Captain Thomas George Montgomerie, who followed Waugh, used the Pundits to the best of their abilities. He produced the first accurate map of the Jammu and Kashmir region. The fourth part deals with Tibet, and Russia and Britain’s tussle over this important location and its consequences. The book is remarkable for packing in so many details between its covers.

Mapping the Great Game: Explorers, Spies & Maps in Nineteenth Century Asia Riaz Dean Viking/ Penguin ₹599.


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Career Center & Center for Community Engagement and Social Change

Mike O'Connor, Riaz Waraich Dean for the Career Center & Center for Community Engagement and Social Change

Career Center
Ty Collins, Assistant Director, Career Center – Communications, Journalism and Written Arts & Government, Law & International Affairs
Lori Fares, Career Center Coordinator
Jacklyn Fischer, Assistant Director, Career Center – Health Professions
Grace Kutney, Associate Director, Career Center – Career Advising & Technology
Teri Mueller, Assistant Director, Career Center – Visual & Performing Arts, and Education & Community Engagement
Mandy Netzel, Assistant Director, Career Center – Employer and Alumni Relations

Community Engagement and Social Change (CCE)
Garrett Singer, Director of the Center for Community Engagement and Social Change
Michelle Buchinger, Coordinator for Career Center & Center for Community Engagement and Social Change


Kyk die video: Крис Ри - Taм, где ходит она (Junie 2022).